DBD::LDAP - A DBI driver for LDAP databases.  LDAP stands for the 
    "Lightweight Directory Access Protocol".  For more information, 


     use DBI;
     $dbh = DBI->connect("DBI:LDAP:ldapdb",'user','password')  #USER LOGIN.
         or die "Cannot connect as user: " . $DBI::errstr;

     $dbh = DBI->connect("DBI:LDAP:ldapdb")  #ANONYMOUS LOGIN (Read-only).
         or die "Cannot connect as guest (readonly): " . $DBI::errstr;

     $sth = $dbh->prepare("select * from people where (cn like 'Smith%')")
         or die "Cannot prepare: " . $dbh->errstr();
     $sth->execute() or die "Cannot execute: " . $sth->errstr();
	 while ((@results) = $sth->fetchrow_array)
		 print "--------------------------------------------------------\n";
		 while (@results)
			 print "------>".join('|',split(/\0/, shift(@results)))."\n";


DBD::LDAP is a DBI extension module adding an SQL database interface to 
standard LDAP databases to Perl's database-independent database interface.  
You will need access to an existing LDAP database or set up your own using 
an LDAP server, ie. "OpenLDAP", see ( is included in this module as a separate file, and is required.

The main advantage of DBD::LDAP is the ability to query LDAP databases via 
standard SQL queries in leu of cryptic LDAP "filters".  LDAP is optimized for 
quick lookup of existing data, but DBD::LDAP does support entry inserts, 
updates, and deletes with commit/rollback via the standard SQL commands!  

LDAP databases are "heirarchical" in structure, whereas other DBD-supported 
databases are "relational" and there is no Ldap-equivalent to SQL "tables", so   
DBD::LDAP maps a "table" interface over the LDAP "tree" via a configuration 
file you must set up.  Each "table" is mapped to a common "base DN".  For 
example, consider a typical LDAP database of employees within different 
departments within a company.  You might have a "company" names "Acme" and 
the root "dn" of "dc=Acme, dc=com" (  Below the company level, are 
divisions, ie. "Widgets", and "Blivets".  Each division would have an entry 
with a "dn" of "ou=Widgets, dc=Acme, dc=com".  Employees within each division 
could have a "dn" of "cn=John Doe, ou=Widgets, dc=Acme, dc=com".  
With DBD::LDAP, we could create tables to access these different levels, 
ie. "top", which would have a "DN" of "dc=Acme, dc=com", "WidgetDivision" for 
"ou=Widgets, dc=Acme, dc=com".  Tables can also be constained by additional 
attribute specifications (filters), ie constraining by "objectclass", ie. 
"(objectclass=person)".  Then, doing a "select * from WidgetDivision" would 
display all "person"s with a "dn" containing ""ou=Widgets, dc=Acme, dc=com".


	Convert::ANS1   (required by Net::LDAP)
	- an LDAP database to connect to.


    Installing this module (and the prerequisites from above) is quite
    simple. You just fetch the archive, extract it with

        gzip -cd DBD-LDAP-####.tar.gz | tar xf -


		tar -xzvf DBD-LDAP-####.tar.gz

    (this is for Unix users, Windows users would prefer WinZip or something
    similar) and then enter the following:

        cd DBD-LDAP-#.###
        perl Makefile.PL
        make test

    If any tests fail, let me know. Otherwise go on with

        make install

    Note that you almost definitely need root or administrator permissions.
    If you don't have them, read the ExtUtils::MakeMaker man page for
    details on installing in your own directories. 

Getting started:

	1) Create a "database", ie. "foo" by creating a text file "foo.ldb".  The 
	general format of this file is:

	<hostname>		represents the ldap server host name.
	<port>			represents the server's port, default is 389.
	<root-dn>			if specified, is appended to the end of each tablename's 
	<loginrule>	if specified, converts single word "usernames" to the 
				appropriate DN, ie:

			"cn=*,<ROOT>" would convert user name "foo" to "cn=foo, " and 
			append the "<root-dn>" onto that.  The asterisk is converted to 
			the user-name specified in the "connect" method.  If not specified, 
			the username specified in the "connect" method must be a full DN.
			If the "<root-dn>" is not specified, then the "<loginrule>" would 
			need to be a full DN.

	tablename	-	represents the name to be used in SQL statements for a given 
			set of entries which make up a virtual "table".
	basedn - if specified, is appended to the "<root-dn>" to make up the 
			common base DN for all entries in this table.  If "<root-dn>" is 
			not specified, then a full DN must be specified; otherwise, the 
			default is the root-dn.
	basefilter	- if specified, specifies a filter to be used if no "where"-
			clause is specified in SQL queries.  If a "where"-clause is 
			specified, the resulting filter is "and"-ed with this one.  The 
			default is "(objectclass=*)".
	dnattrs - specifies which attributes that values for which are to be 
			appended to the left of the basedn to create DNs for new entries 
			being inserted into the table.
	visableattrs - if specified, one or more attributes separated by commas 
			which will be sought when the SQL statement does not specify 
			attributes, ie. "select * from tablename".  If not specified, the 
			attributes of the first matching entry are returned and used for 
			all entries matching a given query.
	insertattrs - if specified, one or more attribute/value combinations to be 
			added to any new entry inserted into the table, usually needed for 
			objectclass values.  The attributes and values usually correspond 
			to those specivied in the "<basefilter>".  The general format is: 
			These attributes and values will be joined with any user-specified 
			values for these attributes.
	ldap_options - if specified, can be any one or more of the following:

		ldap_sizelimit - Limit the number of entries fetch by a query to this 
				number (0 = no limit) - default:  0.
		ldap_timelimit - Limit the search to this number of seconds per query. 
				(0 = no limit) - default:  0.
		ldap_scope - specify the "scope" of the search.  Values are:  "base", 
				"one", and "sub", see Net::LDAP docs.  Default is "one", 
				meaning the set of records one level below the basedn.  "base" 
				means search only the basedn, and "sub" means the union 
				of entries at the "base" level and "one" level below.
		ldap_inseparator - specify the separator character/string to be used 
				in queries to separate multiple values being specified for 
				a given attribute.  Default is "|".
		ldap_outseparator - specify the separator character/string to be used 
				in queryies to separate multiple values displayed as a result 
				of a query.  Default is "|".
		ldap_firstonly - only display the 1st value fetched for each attribute 
				per entry.  This makes "ldap_outseparator" unnecessary.

	2) write your script to use DBI, ie:
		use DBI;
		$dbh = DBI->connect('DBD:LDAP:mydb','me','mypassword') || 
				die "Could not connect (".$DBI->err.':'.$DBI->errstr.")!";
	3) get your application working.
Inserting, fetching and modifying data

	1st, we'll create a database called "ldapdb" with the tables previously 
	mentioned in the example in the DESCRIPTION section:
----------------- file "ldapdb.ldb" ----------------
ldapserver:dc=Acme, dc=com:cn=*,<ROOT>
WidgetDivision:ou=Widgets, :&(objectclass=top)(objectclass=person):cn:cn,sn,ou,title,telephonenumber,description,objectclass,dn:objectclass=top|person|organizationalPerson:ldap_outseparator => ":"

    The following examples insert some data in a table and fetch it back:
    First all data in the string:

	INSERT INTO top (ou, cn, objectclass)  
	VALUES ('Widgets', 'WidgetDivision', 'top|organizationalUnit')

    Next an example using parameters:

        $dbh->do("INSERT INTO WidgetDivision (cn,sn,title,telephonenumber) VALUES (?, ?, ?, ?)",
        'John Doe','DoeJ','Manager','123-1111');

	NOTE:  Unlike most other DBD modules which support transactions, changes 
		made do NOT show up until the "commit" function is called, unless 
		"AutoCommit" is set.  This is due to the fact that fetches are done 
		from the LDAP server and changes do not take effect there until the 
		Net::LDAP "update" function is called, which is called by "commit".

	NOTE: The "dn" field is generated automatically from the base "dn" and the 
		dn component fields specified by "dnattrs", If you try to insert a 
		value directly into it, it will be ignored.  Also, if not specified, 
		any attribute/value combinations specified in the "insertattrs" 
		option will be added automatically.

    To retrieve data, you can use the following:

        my($query) = "SELECT * FROM WidgetDivision WHERE cn like 'John%' ORDER BY cn";
        my($sth) = $dbh->prepare($query);
        while (my $entry = $sth->fetchrow_hashref) {
            print("Found result record: cn = ", $entry->{'cn'},
                  ", phone = ", $row->{'telephonenumber'});

	The SQL "SELECT" statement above (combined with the table information 
	in the "ldapdb.ldb" database file would generate and execute the following 
	equivalent LDAP Search:

		base => 'ou=Widgets, dc=Acme, dc=com',
		filter => '(&(&(objectclass=top)(objectclass=person))(cn=John*))',
		scope => 'one',
		attrs => 'cn,sn,ou,title,telephonenumber,description,objectclass,dn'

    See the DBI(3) manpage for details on these methods. See the

    Data rows are modified with the UPDATE statement:

        $dbh->do("UPDATE WidgetDivision SET description = 'Outstanding Employee' WHERE cn = 'John Doe'");

	NOTE:  You can NOT change the "dn" field directly - direct changes will be 
		ignored.  You change the "rdn" component of the "dn" field by changing 
		the value of the other field(s) which are appended to the base "dn".
		Also, if not specified, any attribute/value combinations specified in 
		the "insertattrs" option will be added automatically.

    Likewise you use the DELETE statement for removing entries:

        $dbh->do("DELETE FROM WidgetDivision WHERE description = 'Outstanding Employee'");


    The following attributes are handled by DBI itself and not by DBD::LDAP,
    thus they should all work as expected.


    The following DBI attributes are handled by DBD::LDAP:


        Valid after `$sth->execute'

        Valid after `$sth->prepare'

        Valid after `$sth->execute'; undef for Non-Select statements.

        Not really working. Always returns an array ref of one's, as
        DBD::LDAP always allows NULL (handled as an empty string). 
        Valid after `$sth->execute'.

    		Should work

    		Should work

    These attributes and methods are not supported:


    In addition to the DBI attributes, you can use the following dbh
    attributes.  These attributes are read-only after "connect".

		Current database user.
		Environment variable specifying a path to search for LDAP 
		databases (*.sdb) files.

Driver private methods

        The `data_sources' method returns a list of "databases" (.ldb files) 
        found in the current directory and, if specified, the path in 
        the ldap_HOME environment variable.
        This method returns a list of table names specified in the current 

            my($dbh) = DBI->connect("DBI:LDAP:mydatabase",'me','mypswd');
            my(@list) = $dbh->func('tables');


	DBD::LDAP currently treats all data as strings and all fields as 

	Currently, you must define tables manually in the "<database>.ldb" file 
	using your favorite text editor.  Someday, if I have too much time on my 
	hands, I hope to add support for the SQL "Create Table", "Alter Table", 
	and "Drop Table" functions to handle this eventually (Patches welcome!)


	"Create Table", "Alter Table", and "Drop Table" SQL functions for 
	creating, altering, and deleting the tables defined in the 
	"<database>.ldb" file.

	Some kind of datatype support, ie. numeric (for sorting), CHAR for padding, 
	Long/Blob - for >255 chars per field, etc.


	none - (yet).

    This module is Copyright (C) 2000-2004 by

        Jim Turner


    All rights reserved.

    You may distribute this module under the terms of either the GNU General
    Public License or the Artistic License, as specified in the Perl README


    See Changes file.


	Net::LDAP(3), DBI(3), perl(1)
    For general information on DBI see