NAME
    Type::Tiny::Manual - an overview of Type::Tiny

SYNOPSIS
    Type::Tiny is a small Perl <http://www.perl.org/> class for writing type
    constraints, inspired by Moose's type constraint API and MooseX::Types. It
    has only one non-core dependency (and even that is simply a module that
    was previously distributed as part of Type::Tiny but has since been spun
    off), and can be used with Moose, Mouse, or Moo (or none of the above).

    Type::Tiny is used by over 800 Perl distributions on the CPAN
    (Comprehensive Perl Archive Network) and can be considered a stable and
    mature framework for efficiently and reliably enforcing data types.

    Type::Tiny is bundled with Type::Library a framework for organizing type
    constraints into collections. Also bundled is Types::Standard, a
    Moose-inspired library of useful type constraints. Type::Params is also
    provided, to allow very fast checking and coercion of function and method
    parameters.

    The following example gives you an idea of some of the features of these
    modules. If you don't understand it all, that's fine; that's what the rest
    of the manual is for. Although the example uses Moo, the `use Moo` could
    be changed to `use Moose` or `use Mouse` and it would still work.

     use v5.12;
     use strict;
     use warnings;
 
     package Horse {
       use Moo;
       use Types::Standard qw( Str Int Enum ArrayRef InstanceOf );
       use Type::Params qw( compile );
       use namespace::autoclean;
   
       has name => (
         is       => 'ro',
         isa      => Str,
         required => 1,
       );
       has gender => (
         is       => 'ro',
         isa      => Enum[qw( f m )],
       );
       has age => (
         is       => 'rw',
         isa      => Int->where( '$_ >= 0' ),
       );
       has children => (
         is       => 'ro',
         isa      => ArrayRef[ InstanceOf['Horse'] ],
         default  => sub { return [] },
       );
   
       sub add_child {
         # method signature
         state $check = compile( InstanceOf['Horse'], InstanceOf['Horse'] );
     
         my ($self, $child) = $check->(@_);   # unpack @_
         push @{ $self->children }, $child;
     
         return $self;
       }
     }
 
     package main;
 
     my $boldruler = Horse->new(
       name    => "Bold Ruler",
       gender  => 'm',
       age     => 16,
     );
 
     my $secretariat = Horse->new(
       name    => "Secretariat",
       gender  => 'm',
       age     => 0,
     );
 
     $boldruler->add_child( $secretariat );
 
     use Types::Standard qw( is_Object assert_Object );
 
     # is_Object will return a boolean
     #
     if ( is_Object($boldruler) ) {
       say $boldruler->name;
     }
 
     # assert_Object will return $secretariat or die
     #
     say assert_Object($secretariat)->name;

MANUAL
    Even if you are using Type::Tiny with other object-oriented programming
    toolkits (such as Moose or Mouse), you should start with the Moo sections
    of the manual. Most of the information is directly transferrable and the
    Moose and Mouse sections of the manual list the minor differences between
    using Type::Tiny with Moo and with them.

    In general, this manual assumes you use Perl 5.12 or above and may use
    examples that do not work on older versions of Perl. Type::Tiny does work
    on earlier versions of Perl, but not all the examples and features in the
    manual will run without adjustment. (For instance, you may need to replace
    `state` variables with lexical variables, avoid the `package NAME { BLOCK
    }` syntax, etc.)

    *   Type::Tiny::Manual::Installation

        How to install Type::Tiny. If Type::Tiny is already installed, you can
        skip this.

    *   Type::Tiny::Manual::UsingWithMoo

        Basic use of Type::Tiny with Moo, including attribute type
        constraints, parameterized type constraints, coercions, and method
        parameter checking.

    *   Type::Tiny::Manual::UsingWithMoo2

        Advanced use of Type::Tiny with Moo, including unions and
        intersections, `stringifies_to`, `numifies_to`,
        `with_attribute_values`, and `where`.

    *   Type::Tiny::Manual::UsingWithMoo3

        There's more than one way to do it! Alternative ways of using
        Type::Tiny, including type registries, exported functions, and
        `dwim_type`.

    *   Type::Tiny::Manual::Libraries

        Defining your own type libraries, including extending existing
        libraries, defining new types, adding coercions, defining
        parameterizable types, and the declarative style.

    *   Type::Tiny::Manual::UsingWithMoose

        How to use Type::Tiny with Moose, including the advantages of
        Type::Tiny over built-in type constraints, and Moose-specific
        features.

    *   Type::Tiny::Manual::UsingWithMouse

        How to use Type::Tiny with Mouse, including the advantages of
        Type::Tiny over built-in type constraints, and Mouse-specific
        features.

    *   Type::Tiny::Manual::UsingWithClassTiny

        Including how to Type::Tiny in your object's `BUILD` method, and
        third-party shims between Type::Tiny and Class::Tiny.

    *   Type::Tiny::Manual::UsingWithOther

        Using Type::Tiny with Class::InsideOut, Params::Check, and
        Object::Accessor.

    *   Type::Tiny::Manual::UsingWithTestMore

        Type::Tiny for test suites.

    *   Type::Tiny::Manual::Params

        Advanced information on Type::Params, and using Type::Tiny with other
        signature modules like Function::Parameters and Kavorka.

    *   Type::Tiny::Manual::NonOO

        Type::Tiny in non-object-oriented code.

    *   Type::Tiny::Manual::Optimization

        Squeeze the most out of your CPU.

    *   Type::Tiny::Manual::Coercions

        Advanced information on coercions.

    *   Type::Tiny::Manual::AllTypes

        An alphabetical list of all type constraints bundled with Type::Tiny.

    *   Type::Tiny::Manual::Policies

        Policies related to Type::Tiny development.

    *   Type::Tiny::Manual::Contributing

        Contributing to Type::Tiny development.

BUGS
    Please report any bugs to
    <https://github.com/tobyink/p5-type-tiny/issues>.

SEE ALSO
    The Type::Tiny homepage <https://typetiny.toby.ink/>.

AUTHOR
    Toby Inkster <tobyink@cpan.org>.

COPYRIGHT AND LICENCE
    This software is copyright (c) 2013-2014, 2017-2021 by Toby Inkster.

    This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the
    same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.

DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTIES
    THIS PACKAGE IS PROVIDED "AS IS" AND WITHOUT ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED
    WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
    MERCHANTIBILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.