package Mojo::Exception;
use Mojo::Base -base;
use overload bool => sub {1}, '""' => sub { shift->to_string }, fallback => 1;

use Carp qw(croak);
use Exporter qw(import);
use Mojo::Util qw(decode);
use Scalar::Util qw(blessed);

has [qw(frames line lines_after lines_before)] => sub { [] };
has message                                    => 'Exception!';
has verbose                                    => sub { $ENV{MOJO_EXCEPTION_VERBOSE} };

our @EXPORT_OK = qw(check raise);

sub check {
  my ($err, $spec) = @_;
  return undef unless $err;

  croak "Array reference of pattern/handler pairs required to dispatch exceptions"
    if ref $spec ne 'ARRAY' || @$spec % 2;

  my ($default, $handler);
  my ($is_obj,  $str) = (!!blessed($err), "$err");
CHECK: for (my $i = 0; $i < @$spec; $i += 2) {
    my ($checks, $cb) = @{$spec}[$i, $i + 1];

    ($default = $cb) and next if $checks eq 'default';

    for my $c (ref $checks eq 'ARRAY' ? @$checks : $checks) {
      my $is_re = !!ref $c;
      ($handler = $cb) and last CHECK if $is_obj && !$is_re && $err->isa($c);
      ($handler = $cb) and last CHECK if $is_re  && $str =~ $c;
    }
  }

  # Rethrow if no handler could be found
  die $err unless $handler ||= $default;
  $handler->($_) for $err;

  return 1;
}

sub inspect {
  my ($self, @sources) = @_;

  return $self if @{$self->line};

  # Extract file and line from message
  my @files;
  my $msg = $self->message;
  unshift @files, [$1, $2] while $msg =~ /at\s+(.+?)\s+line\s+(\d+)/g;

  # Extract file and line from stack trace
  if (my $zero = $self->frames->[0]) { push @files, [$zero->[1], $zero->[2]] }

  # Search for context in files
  for my $file (@files) {
    next unless -r $file->[0] && open my $handle, '<', $file->[0];
    $self->_context($file->[1], [[<$handle>]]);
    return $self;
  }

  # Search for context in sources
  $self->_context($files[-1][1], [map { [split /\n/] } @sources]) if @sources;

  return $self;
}

sub new { defined $_[1] ? shift->SUPER::new(message => shift) : shift->SUPER::new }

sub raise {
  my ($class, $err) = @_ > 1 ? (@_) : (__PACKAGE__, shift);

  if    (!$class->can('new'))       { die $@ unless eval "package $class; use Mojo::Base 'Mojo::Exception'; 1" }
  elsif (!$class->isa(__PACKAGE__)) { die "$class is not a Mojo::Exception subclass" }

  CORE::die $class->new($err)->trace;
}

sub to_string {
  my $self = shift;

  my $str = $self->message;

  my $frames = $self->frames;
  if ($str !~ /\n$/) {
    $str .= @$frames ? " at $frames->[0][1] line $frames->[0][2].\n" : "\n";
  }
  return $str unless $self->verbose;

  my $line = $self->line;
  if (@$line) {
    $str .= "Context:\n";
    $str .= "  $_->[0]: $_->[1]\n" for @{$self->lines_before};
    $str .= "  $line->[0]: $line->[1]\n";
    $str .= "  $_->[0]: $_->[1]\n" for @{$self->lines_after};
  }

  if (my $max = @$frames) {
    $str .= "Traceback (most recent call first):\n";
    $str .= qq{  File "$_->[1]", line $_->[2], in "$_->[0]"\n} for @$frames;
  }

  return $str;
}

sub throw { CORE::die shift->new(shift)->trace }

sub trace {
  my ($self, $start) = (shift, shift // 1);
  my @frames;
  while (my @trace = caller($start++)) { push @frames, \@trace }
  return $self->frames(\@frames);
}

sub _append {
  my ($stack, $line) = @_;
  $line = decode('UTF-8', $line) // $line;
  chomp $line;
  push @$stack, $line;
}

sub _context {
  my ($self, $num, $sources) = @_;

  # Line
  return unless defined $sources->[0][$num - 1];
  $self->line([$num]);
  _append($self->line, $_->[$num - 1]) for @$sources;

  # Before
  for my $i (2 .. 6) {
    last if ((my $previous = $num - $i) < 0);
    unshift @{$self->lines_before}, [$previous + 1];
    _append($self->lines_before->[0], $_->[$previous]) for @$sources;
  }

  # After
  for my $i (0 .. 4) {
    next if ((my $next = $num + $i) < 0);
    next unless defined $sources->[0][$next];
    push @{$self->lines_after}, [$next + 1];
    _append($self->lines_after->[-1], $_->[$next]) for @$sources;
  }
}

1;

=encoding utf8

=head1 NAME

Mojo::Exception - Exception base class

=head1 SYNOPSIS

  # Create exception classes
  package MyApp::X::Foo {
    use Mojo::Base 'Mojo::Exception';
  }
  package MyApp::X::Bar {
    use Mojo::Base 'Mojo::Exception';
  }

  # Throw exceptions and handle them gracefully
  use Mojo::Exception qw(check);
  eval {
    MyApp::X::Foo->throw('Something went wrong!');
  };
  check $@ => [
    'MyApp::X::Foo' => sub { say "Foo: $_" },
    'MyApp::X::Bar' => sub { say "Bar: $_" }
  ];

  # Generate exception classes on demand
  use Mojo::Exception qw(check raise);
  eval {
    raise 'MyApp::X::Name', 'The name Minion is already taken';
  };
  check $@ => [
    'MyApp::X::Name' => sub { say "Name error: $_" },
    default          => sub { say "Error: $_" }
  ];

=head1 DESCRIPTION

L<Mojo::Exception> is a container for exceptions with context information.

=head1 FUNCTIONS

L<Mojo::Exception> implements the following functions, which can be imported individually.

=head2 check

  my $bool = check $err => ['MyApp::X::Foo' => sub {...}];

Process exceptions by dispatching them to handlers with one or more matching conditions. Exceptions that could not be
handled will be rethrown automatically. Note that this function is B<EXPERIMENTAL> and might change without warning!

  # Handle various types of exceptions
  eval {
    dangerous_code();
  };
  check $@ => [
    'MyApp::X::Foo'     => sub { say "Foo: $_" },
    qr/^Could not open/ => sub { say "Open error: $_" },
    default             => sub { say "Something went wrong: $_" }
  ];

Matching conditions can be class names for ISA checks on exception objects, or regular expressions to match string
exceptions and stringified exception objects. The matching exception will be the first argument passed to the callback,
and is also available as C<$_>.

  # Catch MyApp::X::Foo object or a specific string exception
  eval {
    dangerous_code();
  };
  check $@ => [
    'MyApp::X::Foo'     => sub { say "Foo: $_" },
    qr/^Could not open/ => sub { say "Open error: $_" }
  ];

An array reference can be used to share the same handler with multiple conditions, of which only one needs to match.
And since exception handlers are just callbacks, they can also throw their own exceptions.

  # Handle MyApp::X::Foo and MyApp::X::Bar the same
  eval {
    dangerous_code();
  };
  check $@ => [
    ['MyApp::X::Foo', 'MyApp::X::Bar'] => sub { die "Foo/Bar: $_" }
  ];

There is currently only one keywords you can use to set special handlers. The C<default> handler is used when no other
handler matched.

  # Use "default" to catch everything
  eval {
    dangerous_code();
  };
  check $@ => [
    default => sub { say "Error: $_" }
  ];

=head2 raise

  raise 'Something went wrong!';
  raise 'MyApp::X::Foo', 'Something went wrong!';

Raise a L<Mojo::Exception>, if the class does not exist yet (classes are checked for a C<new> method), one is created
as a L<Mojo::Exception> subclass on demand. Note that this function is B<EXPERIMENTAL> and might change without
warning!

=head1 ATTRIBUTES

L<Mojo::Exception> implements the following attributes.

=head2 frames

  my $frames = $e->frames;
  $e         = $e->frames([$frame1, $frame2]);

Stack trace if available.

  # Extract information from the last frame
  my ($package, $filename, $line, $subroutine, $hasargs, $wantarray, $evaltext,
      $is_require, $hints, $bitmask, $hinthash) = @{$e->frames->[-1]};

=head2 line

  my $line = $e->line;
  $e       = $e->line([3, 'die;']);

The line where the exception occurred if available.

=head2 lines_after

  my $lines = $e->lines_after;
  $e        = $e->lines_after([[4, 'say $foo;'], [5, 'say $bar;']]);

Lines after the line where the exception occurred if available.

=head2 lines_before

  my $lines = $e->lines_before;
  $e        = $e->lines_before([[1, 'my $foo = 23;'], [2, 'my $bar = 24;']]);

Lines before the line where the exception occurred if available.

=head2 message

  my $msg = $e->message;
  $e      = $e->message('Died at test.pl line 3.');

Exception message, defaults to C<Exception!>.

=head2 verbose

  my $bool = $e->verbose;
  $e       = $e->verbose($bool);

Show more information with L</"to_string">, such as L</"frames">, defaults to the value of the
C<MOJO_EXCEPTION_VERBOSE> environment variable.

=head1 METHODS

L<Mojo::Exception> inherits all methods from L<Mojo::Base> and implements the following new ones.

=head2 inspect

  $e = $e->inspect;
  $e = $e->inspect($source1, $source2);

Inspect L</"message">, L</"frames"> and optional additional sources to fill L</"lines_before">, L</"line"> and
L</"lines_after"> with context information.

=head2 new

  my $e = Mojo::Exception->new;
  my $e = Mojo::Exception->new('Died at test.pl line 3.');

Construct a new L<Mojo::Exception> object and assign L</"message"> if necessary.

=head2 to_string

  my $str = $e->to_string;

Render exception. Note that the output format may change as more features are added, only the error message at the
beginning is guaranteed not to be modified to allow regex matching.

=head2 throw

  Mojo::Exception->throw('Something went wrong!');

Throw exception from the current execution context.

  # Longer version
  die Mojo::Exception->new('Something went wrong!')->trace;

=head2 trace

  $e = $e->trace;
  $e = $e->trace($skip);

Generate stack trace and store all L</"frames">, defaults to skipping C<1> call frame.

  # Skip 3 call frames
  $e->trace(3);

  # Skip no call frames
  $e->trace(0);

=head1 OPERATORS

L<Mojo::Exception> overloads the following operators.

=head2 bool

  my $bool = !!$e;

Always true.

=head2 stringify

  my $str = "$e";

Alias for L</"to_string">.

=head1 SEE ALSO

L<Mojolicious>, L<Mojolicious::Guides>, L<https://mojolicious.org>.

=cut