#===============================================================================
#
# lib/Win32/SharedFileOpen.pm
#
# DESCRIPTION
#   Module providing functions to open a file for shared reading and/or writing.
#
# COPYRIGHT
#   Copyright (C) 2001-2008, 2013-2014 Steve Hay.  All rights reserved.
#
# LICENCE
#   This module is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
#   the same terms as Perl itself, i.e. under the terms of either the GNU
#   General Public License or the Artistic License, as specified in the LICENCE
#   file.
#
#===============================================================================

package Win32::SharedFileOpen;

use 5.008001;

use strict;
use warnings;

use Carp qw(croak);
use Config qw(%Config);
use Errno qw(EACCES EEXIST EINVAL EMFILE ENOENT);
use Exporter qw();
use Symbol qw(gensym qualify_to_ref);
use Time::HiRes qw(time);
use Win32::WinError qw(
    ERROR_ACCESS_DENIED
    ERROR_SHARING_VIOLATION
    ERROR_FILE_EXISTS
    ERROR_ENVVAR_NOT_FOUND
    ERROR_TOO_MANY_OPEN_FILES
    ERROR_FILE_NOT_FOUND
);
use XSLoader qw();

## no critic (Subroutines::ProhibitSubroutinePrototypes)

sub fsopen(*$$$);
sub sopen(*$$$;$);
sub new_fh();
sub _set_errno();

#===============================================================================
# MODULE INITIALIZATION
#===============================================================================

our(@ISA, @EXPORT, @EXPORT_OK, %EXPORT_TAGS, $VERSION);

BEGIN {
    @ISA = qw(Exporter);
    
    @EXPORT = qw(
        fsopen
        sopen
    );
    
    @EXPORT_OK = qw(
        $ErrStr
        $Trace
        gensym
        new_fh
    );

    my @oflags = qw(
            O_APPEND
            O_BINARY
            O_CREAT
            O_EXCL
            O_NOINHERIT
            O_RAW
            O_RDONLY
            O_RDWR
            O_TEXT
            O_TRUNC
            O_WRONLY
    );

    # Borland C++ (as of 5.5.1) doesn't support the following flags, so don't
    # try to export them.
    if ($Config{cc} !~ /bcc32/io) {
        push @oflags, qw(
            O_RANDOM
            O_SEQUENTIAL
            O_SHORT_LIVED
            O_TEMPORARY
        );
    }

    %EXPORT_TAGS = (
        oflags => [
            @oflags
        ],
    
        pmodes => [ qw(
            S_IREAD
            S_IWRITE
        ) ],
    
        shflags => [ qw(
            SH_DENYNO
            SH_DENYRD
            SH_DENYRW
            SH_DENYWR
        ) ],

        retry => [ qw(
            INFINITE
            $Max_Time
            $Max_Tries
            $Retry_Timeout
        ) ]
    );

    Exporter::export_tags(qw(oflags pmodes shflags));

    Exporter::export_ok_tags(qw(retry));
    
    $VERSION = '4.04';

    # Get the ERROR_SHARING_VIOLATION constant loaded now, otherwise loading it
    # later the first time that we test for an error can actually interfere with
    # the value of $! (which we might also want to test) because the constant is
    # autoloaded by Win32::WinError and the AUTOLOAD() subroutine in that module
    # resets $! in the versions included in libwin32-0.18 and earlier.
    # Likewise preload some other ERROR_* constants that our use()rs might need,
    # otherwise loading them later can similarly interfere with the value of $^E
    # in libwin32-0.191 and earlier with debug builds of perl.
    ERROR_ACCESS_DENIED;
    ERROR_SHARING_VIOLATION;
    ERROR_FILE_EXISTS;
    ERROR_ENVVAR_NOT_FOUND;
    ERROR_TOO_MANY_OPEN_FILES;
    ERROR_FILE_NOT_FOUND;

    XSLoader::load(__PACKAGE__, $VERSION);
}

# Last error message.
our $ErrStr = '';

# Boolean trace setting.
our $Trace = 0;

# Maximum time to try and retry opening a file.  (Retries are only attempted if
# the previous try failed due to a sharing violation.)
tie our $Max_Time, __PACKAGE__ . '::_NaturalNumber', undef, '$Max_Time';

# Maximum number of times to try opening a file.  (Retries are only attempted if
# the previous try failed due to a sharing violation.)
tie our $Max_Tries, __PACKAGE__ . '::_NaturalNumber', undef, '$Max_Tries';

# Time to wait between tries at opening a file.  (Milliseconds.)
tie our $Retry_Timeout, __PACKAGE__ . '::_NaturalNumber', 250, '$Retry_Timeout';

#===============================================================================
# PUBLIC API
#===============================================================================

# Autoload the O_*, S_* and SH_* flags from the constant() XS function.

sub AUTOLOAD {
    our $AUTOLOAD;

    # Get the name of the constant to generate a subroutine for.
    (my $constant = $AUTOLOAD) =~ s/^.*:://o;

    # Avoid deep recursion on AUTOLOAD() if constant() is not defined.
    croak('Unexpected error in AUTOLOAD(): constant() is not defined')
        if $constant eq 'constant';

    my($error, $value) = constant($constant);

    # Handle any error from looking up the constant.
    croak($error) if $error;

    # Generate an in-line subroutine returning the required value.
    {
    no strict 'refs'; ## no critic (TestingAndDebugging::ProhibitNoStrict)
    *$AUTOLOAD = sub { return $value };
    }

    # Switch to the subroutine that we have just generated.
    goto &$AUTOLOAD;
}

sub fsopen(*$$$) {
    my($fh, $file, $mode, $shflag) = @_;

    $ErrStr = '';

    croak("fsopen() can't use the undefined value as an indirect filehandle")
        unless defined $fh;

    # Make sure the "filehandle" argument supplied is fit for purpose.
    $fh = qualify_to_ref($fh, caller);

    my($start, $tries, $success);
    for ($start = time, $tries = 0; ; Win32::Sleep($Retry_Timeout)) {
        $success = _fsopen($fh, $file, $mode, $shflag);

        $tries++;

        last if $success
             or $^E != ERROR_SHARING_VIOLATION
             or (not defined $Max_Time and not defined $Max_Tries)
             or (defined $Max_Time and $Max_Time != 0 and
                 $Max_Time != INFINITE() and time - $start >= $Max_Time)
             or (defined $Max_Tries and $Max_Tries != 0 and
                 $Max_Tries != INFINITE() and $tries >= $Max_Tries);
    }

    if ($Trace) {
        my $time = time - $start;

        warn sprintf
            "_fsopen() on '$file' %s in $time %s after $tries %s: %s.\n",
            ($success ? 'succeeded' : 'failed'),
            ($time == 1 ? 'second' : 'seconds'),
            ($tries == 1 ? 'try' : 'tries'),
            ($success ? 'using file descriptor ' . fileno($fh) : "$! ($^E)");
    }

    if ($success) {
        return 1;
    }
    else {
        _set_errno();
        return;
    }
}

sub sopen(*$$$;$) {
    my($fh, $file, $oflag, $shflag, $pmode) = @_;

    $ErrStr = '';

    croak("sopen() can't use the undefined value as an indirect filehandle")
        unless defined $fh;

    # Make sure the "filehandle" argument supplied is fit for purpose.
    $fh = qualify_to_ref($fh, caller);

    my($start, $tries, $success);
    for ($start = time, $tries = 0; ; Win32::Sleep($Retry_Timeout)) {
        if (@_ > 4) {
            $success = _sopen($fh, $file, $oflag, $shflag, $pmode);
        }
        else {
            $success = _sopen($fh, $file, $oflag, $shflag);
        }

        $tries++;

        last if $success
             or $^E != ERROR_SHARING_VIOLATION
             or (not defined $Max_Time and not defined $Max_Tries)
             or (defined $Max_Time and $Max_Time != 0 and
                 $Max_Time != INFINITE() and time - $start >= $Max_Time)
             or (defined $Max_Tries and $Max_Tries != 0 and
                 $Max_Tries != INFINITE() and $tries >= $Max_Tries);
    }

    if ($Trace) {
        my $time = time - $start;

        warn sprintf
            "_sopen() on '$file' %s in $time %s after $tries %s: %s.\n",
            ($success ? 'succeeded' : 'failed'),
            ($time == 1 ? 'second' : 'seconds'),
            ($tries == 1 ? 'try' : 'tries'),
            ($success ? 'using file descriptor ' . fileno($fh) : "$! ($^E)");
    }

    if ($success) {
        return 1;
    }
    else {
        _set_errno();
        return;
    }
}

sub new_fh() {
    no warnings 'once';
    return local *FH;
}

#===============================================================================
# PRIVATE API
#===============================================================================

sub _set_errno() {
    # Set $! (which used to be set by calls to the Microsoft C library functions
    # _fsopen() and _sopen()) from $^E (which is now what is set by a call to
    # the Win32 API function CreateFile()) for backwards compatibility with
    # version 3.xx.

    if ($^E == ERROR_ACCESS_DENIED) {
        $! = EACCES;
    }
    elsif ($^E == ERROR_ENVVAR_NOT_FOUND) {
        $! = EINVAL;
    }
    elsif ($^E == ERROR_FILE_EXISTS) {
        $! = EEXIST;
    }
    elsif ($^E == ERROR_FILE_NOT_FOUND) {
        $! = ENOENT;
    }
    elsif ($^E == ERROR_SHARING_VIOLATION) {
        $! = EACCES;
    }
    elsif ($^E == ERROR_TOO_MANY_OPEN_FILES) {
        $! = EMFILE;
    }
}

#===============================================================================
# PRIVATE CLASS
#===============================================================================

{

package Win32::SharedFileOpen::_NaturalNumber;

use Carp qw(croak);

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# PUBLIC API
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

sub TIESCALAR {
    my($class, $value, $name) = @_;

    croak("Usage: tie SCALAR, '$class', SCALARVALUE, SCALARNAME")
        unless @_ == 3;

    my $self = bless {
        _name  => $name,
        _value => undef,
        _init  => 0
    }, $class;

    # Use our own STORE() method to store the value to make sure it is valid.
    $self->STORE($value);

    $self->{_init} = 1;

    return $self;
}

sub FETCH {
    my $self = shift;
    return $self->{_value};
}

sub STORE {
    my($self, $value) = @_;

    if (not defined $value) {
        $self->{_value} = undef;
    }
    elsif ($value eq '' or $value =~ /\D/o) {
        croak("Invalid value for '$self->{_name}': '$value' is not a natural " .
              "number");
    }
    else {
        $self->{_value} = 0 + $value;
    }

    return $self->{_value};
}

}

1;

__END__

#===============================================================================
# DOCUMENTATION
#===============================================================================

=head1 NAME

Win32::SharedFileOpen - Open a file for shared reading and/or writing

=head1 SYNOPSIS

    # Open files a la C fopen()/Perl open(), but with mandatory file locking:
    use Win32::SharedFileOpen qw(:DEFAULT $ErrStr);
    fsopen(FH1, 'readme', 'r', SH_DENYWR) or
        die "Can't read 'readme' and take write-lock: $ErrStr\n";
    fsopen(FH2, 'writeme', 'w', SH_DENYRW) or
        die "Can't write 'writeme' and take read/write-lock: $ErrStr\n";

    # Open files a la C open()/Perl sysopen(), but with mandatory file locking:
    use Win32::SharedFileOpen qw(:DEFAULT $ErrStr);
    sopen(FH1, 'readme', O_RDONLY, SH_DENYWR) or
        die "Can't read 'readme' and take write-lock: $ErrStr\n";
    sopen(FH2, 'writeme', O_WRONLY | O_CREAT | O_TRUNC, SH_DENYRW, S_IWRITE) or
        die "Can't write 'writeme' and take read/write-lock: $ErrStr\n";

    # Retry opening the file if it fails due to a sharing violation:
    use Win32::SharedFileOpen qw(:DEFAULT :retry $ErrStr);
    $Max_Time      = 10;    # Try opening the file for up to 10 seconds
    $Retry_Timeout = 500;   # Wait 500 milliseconds between each try
    fsopen(FH, 'readme', 'r', SH_DENYNO) or
        die "Can't read 'readme' after retrying for $Max_Time secs: $ErrStr\n";

    # Use a lexical indirect filehandle that closes itself when destroyed:
    use Win32::SharedFileOpen qw(:DEFAULT new_fh $ErrStr);
    {
        my $fh = new_fh();
        fsopen($fh, 'readme', 'r', SH_DENYNO) or
            die "Can't read 'readme': $ErrStr\n";
        while (<$fh>) {
            # ... Do some stuff ...
        }
    }   # ... $fh is automatically closed here

=head1 DESCRIPTION

This module provides Perl emulations of the Microsoft C library functions
C<_fsopen()> and C<_sopen()>.  These functions are counterparts to the standard
C library functions C<fopen(3)> and C<open(2)> respectively (which are already
effectively available in Perl as C<open()> and C<sysopen()> respectively), but
are intended for use when opening a file for subsequent shared reading and/or
writing.

The C<_fsopen()> function, like C<fopen(3)>, takes a file and a "mode string"
(e.g. C<'r'> and C<'w'>) as arguments and opens the file as a stream, returning
a pointer to a C<FILE> structure, while C<_sopen()>, like C<open(2)>, takes an
"oflag" (e.g. C<O_RDONLY> and C<O_WRONLY>) instead of the "mode string" and
returns an C<int> file descriptor (which the Microsoft documentation confusingly
refers to as a C runtime "file handle", not to be confused here with a Perl
"filehandle" (or indeed with the operating-system "file handle" returned by the
Win32 API function C<CreateFile()>!)).  The C<_sopen()> and C<open(2)> functions
also take another, optional, "pmode" argument (e.g. C<S_IREAD> and C<S_IWRITE>)
specifying the permission settings of the file if it has just been created.

The difference between the Microsoft-specific functions and their standard
counterparts is that the Microsoft-specific functions also take an extra
"shflag" argument (e.g. C<SH_DENYRD> and C<SH_DENYWR>) that specifies how to
prepare the file for subsequent shared reading and/or writing.  This flag can be
used to specify that either, both or neither of read access and write access
will be denied to other processes sharing the file.

This share access control is thus effectively a form a file-locking, which,
unlike C<flock(3)> and C<lockf(3)> and their corresponding Perl function
C<flock()>, is I<mandatory> rather than just I<advisory>.  This means that if,
for example, you "deny read access" for the file that you have opened then no
other process will be able to read that file while you still have it open,
whether or not they are playing the same ball game as you.  They cannot gain
read access to it simply by not honouring the same file opening/locking scheme
as you.

This module provides straightforward Perl "wrapper" functions, C<fsopen()> and
C<sopen()>, for both of these Microsoft C library functions (with the leading
"_" character removed from their names).  These Perl functions maintain the same
formal parameters as the original C functions, except for the addition of an
initial filehandle parameter like the Perl built-in C<open()> and C<sysopen()>
functions have.  This is used to make the Perl filehandle opened available to
the caller (rather than using the functions' return values, which are now simple
Booleans to indicate success or failure).

The value passed to the functions in this first parameter can be a
straightforward filehandle (C<FH>) or any of the following:

=over 4

=item *

a typeglob (either a named typeglob like C<*FH>, or an anonymous typeglob (e.g.
from C<gensym()> or C<new_fh()> in this module) in a scalar variable);

=item *

a reference to a typeglob (either a hard reference like C<\*FH>, or a name like
C<'FH'> to be used as a symbolic reference to a typeglob in the caller's
package);

=item *

a suitable IO object (e.g. an instance of IO::Handle, IO::File or FileHandle).

=back

These functions, however, do not have the ability of C<open()> and C<sysopen()>
to auto-vivify the undefined scalar value into something that can be used as a
filehandle, so calls like "C<fsopen(my $fh, ...)>" will C<croak()> with a
message to this effect.

The "oflags" and "shflags", as well as the "pmode" flags used by C<_sopen()>,
are all made available to Perl by this module, and are all exported by default.
This module will only build on "native" (i.e. non-Cygwin) Windows platforms, so
only the flags found on such systems are exported, rather than re-exporting all
of the C<O_*> and C<S_I*> flags from the Fcntl module like, for example,
IO::File does.  In any case, Fcntl does not know about the Microsoft-specific
C<_O_SHORT_LIVED> and C<SH_*> flags.  (The C<_O_SHORT_LIVED> flag is exported
(like the C<_fsopen()> and C<_sopen()> functions themselves) I<without> the
leading "_" character.)

Both functions can be made to automatically retry opening a file (indefinitely,
or up to a specified maximum time or number of times, and at a specified
frequency) if the file could not be opened due to a sharing violation, via the
L<"Variables"> $Max_Time, $Max_Tries and $Retry_Timeout and the C<INFINITE>
flag.

=head2 Functions

=over 4

=item C<fsopen($fh, $file, $mode, $shflag)>

Opens the file $file using the L<filehandle|"Filehandles"> (or
L<indirect filehandle|"Indirect Filehandles">) $fh in the access mode specified
by L<$mode|"Mode Strings"> and prepares the file for subsequent shared reading
and/or writing as specified by L<$shflag|"SH_* Flags">.

Returns a non-zero value if the file was successfully opened, or returns
C<undef> and sets $ErrStr if the file could not be opened.

=item C<sopen($fh, $file, $oflag, $shflag[, $pmode])>

Opens the file $file using the L<filehandle|"Filehandles"> (or
L<indirect filehandle|"Indirect Filehandles">) $fh in the access mode specified
by L<$oflag|"O_* Flags"> and prepares the file for subsequent shared reading
and/or writing as specified by L<$shflag|"SH_* Flags">.  The optional
L<$pmode|"S_I* Flags"> argument specifies the file's permission settings if the
file has just been created; it is required if (and only if) the access mode
includes C<O_CREAT>.

Returns a non-zero value if the file was successfully opened, or returns
C<undef> and sets $ErrStr if the file could not be opened.

=item C<gensym()>

Returns a new, anonymous, typeglob that can be used as an
L<indirect filehandle|"Indirect Filehandles"> in the first parameter of
C<fsopen()> and C<sopen()>.

This function is not actually implemented by this module itself: it is simply
imported from the L<Symbol|Symbol> module and then re-exported.  See
L<"Indirect Filehandles"> for more details.

=item C<new_fh()>

Returns a new, anonymous, typeglob that can be used as an
L<indirect filehandle|"Indirect Filehandles"> in the first parameter of
C<fsopen()> and C<sopen()>.

This function is an implementation of the "First-Class Filehandle Trick".  See
L<"The First-Class Filehandle Trick"> for more details.

=back

=head2 Mode Strings

The $mode argument in C<fsopen()> specifies the type of access requested for the
file, as follows:

=over 4

=item C<'r'>

Opens the file for reading only.  Fails if the file does not already exist.

=item C<'w'>

Opens the file for writing only.  Creates the file if it does not already exist;
destroys the contents of the file if it does already exist.

=item C<'a'>

Opens the file for appending only.  Creates the file if it does not already
exist.

=item C<'r+'>

Opens the file for both reading and writing.  Fails if the file does not already
exist.

=item C<'w+'>

Opens the file for both reading and writing.  Creates the file if it does not
already exist; destroys the contents of the file if it does already exist.

=item C<'a+'>

Opens the file for both reading and appending.  Creates the file if it does not
already exist.

=back

When the file is opened for appending the file pointer is always forced to the
end of the file before any write operation is performed.

The following table shows the equivalent combination of L<"O_* Flags"> for each
mode string:

    +------+-------------------------------+
    | 'r'  | O_RDONLY                      |
    +------+-------------------------------+
    | 'w'  | O_WRONLY | O_CREAT | O_TRUNC  |
    +------+-------------------------------+
    | 'a'  | O_WRONLY | O_CREAT | O_APPEND |
    +------+-------------------------------+
    | 'r+' | O_RDWR                        |
    +------+-------------------------------+
    | 'w+' | O_RDWR | O_CREAT | O_TRUNC    |
    +------+-------------------------------+
    | 'a+' | O_RDWR | O_CREAT | O_APPEND   |
    +------+-------------------------------+

In addition, the following characters may be appended to the mode string (except
for perls built with the Borland C++ compiler):

=over 4

=item C<'R'>

Specifies the disk access will be primarily random.  (Equivalent to the
C<O_RANDOM> flag in the L<$oflag|"O_* Flags"> argument.)

=item C<'S'>

Specifies the disk access will be primarily sequential.  (Equivalent to the
C<O_SEQUENTIAL> flag in the L<$oflag|"O_* Flags"> argument.)

=item C<'T'>

Used with C<'w'> or C<'w+'>, creates the file such that, if possible, it does
not flush the file to disk.  (Equivalent to the C<O_SHORT_LIVED> flag in the
L<$oflag|"O_* Flags"> argument.)

=item C<'D'>

Used with C<'w'> or C<'w+'>, creates the file as temporary.  The file will be
deleted when the last file descriptor attached to it is closed.  (Equivalent to
the C<O_TEMPORARY> flag in the L<$oflag|"O_* Flags"> argument.)

=back

See also L<"Text and Binary Modes">.

=head2 O_* Flags

The $oflag argument in C<sopen()> specifies the type of access requested for the
file, as follows:

=over 4

=item C<O_RDONLY>

Opens the file for reading only.

=item C<O_WRONLY>

Opens the file for writing only.

=item C<O_RDWR>

Opens the file for both reading and writing.

=back

Exactly one of the above flags must be used to specify the file access mode:
there is no default value.  In addition, the following flags may also be used in
bitwise-OR combination:

=over 4

=item C<O_APPEND>

The file pointer is always forced to the end of the file before any write
operation is performed.

=item C<O_CREAT>

Creates the file if it does not already exist.  (Has no effect if the file does
already exist.)  The L<$pmode|"S_I* Flags"> argument is required if (and only
if) this flag is used.

=item C<O_EXCL>

Fails if the file already exists.  Only applies when used with C<O_CREAT>.

=item C<O_NOINHERIT>

Prevents creation of a shared file descriptor.

=item C<O_RANDOM>

Specifies the disk access will be primarily random.  (Not supported for perls
built with the Borland C++ compiler.)

=item C<O_SEQUENTIAL>

Specifies the disk access will be primarily sequential.  (Not supported for
perls built with the Borland C++ compiler.)

=item C<O_SHORT_LIVED>

Used with C<O_CREAT>, creates the file such that, if possible, it does not flush
the file to disk.  (Not supported for perls built with the Borland C++
compiler.)

=item C<O_TEMPORARY>

Used with C<O_CREAT>, creates the file as temporary.  The file will be deleted
when the last file descriptor attached to it is closed.  (Not supported for
perls built with the Borland C++ compiler.)

=item C<O_TRUNC>

Truncates the file to zero length, destroying the contents of the file, if it
already exists.  Cannot be specified with C<O_RDONLY>, and the file must have
write permission.

=back

See also L<"Text and Binary Modes">.

=head2 Text and Binary Modes

Both C<fsopen()> and C<sopen()> calls can specify whether the file should be
opened in text (translated) mode or binary (untranslated) mode.

If the file is opened in text mode then on input carriage return-linefeed
(CR-LF) pairs are translated to single linefeed (LF) characters and Ctrl+Z is
interpreted as end-of-file (EOF), while on output linefeed (LF) characters are
translated to carriage return-linefeed (CR-LF) pairs.

These translations are not performed if the file is opened in binary mode.

If neither mode is specified then text mode is assumed by default, as is usual
for Perl filehandles.  Binary mode can still be enabled after the file has been
opened (but only before any I/O has been performed on it) by calling
C<binmode()> in the usual way.

=over 4

=item C<'t'>

=item C<'b'>

Text/binary modes are specified for C<fsopen()> by appending a C<'t'> or a
C<'b'> respectively to the L<$mode|"Mode Strings"> string, for example:

    my $fh = fsopen($file, 'wt', SH_DENYNO);

=item C<O_TEXT>

=item C<O_BINARY>

=item C<O_RAW>

Text/binary modes are specified for C<sopen()> by using C<O_TEXT> or C<O_BINARY>
(or C<O_RAW>, which is an alias for C<O_BINARY>) respectively in bitwise-OR
combination with other C<O_*> flags in the L<$oflag|"O_* Flags"> argument, for
example:

    my $fh = sopen($file, O_WRONLY | O_CREAT | O_TRUNC | O_TEXT, SH_DENYNO,
                S_IWRITE);

=back

=head2 SH_* Flags

The $shflag argument in both C<fsopen()> and C<sopen()> specifies the type of
sharing access permitted for the file, as follows:

=over 4

=item C<SH_DENYNO>

Permits both read and write access to the file.

=item C<SH_DENYRD>

Denies read access to the file; write access is permitted.

=item C<SH_DENYWR>

Denies write access to the file; read access is permitted.

=item C<SH_DENYRW>

Denies both read and write access to the file.

=back

=head2 S_I* Flags

The $pmode argument in C<sopen()> is required if (and only if) the access mode,
$oflag, includes C<O_CREAT>.  If the file does not already exist then $pmode
specifies the file's permission settings, which are set the first time the file
is closed.  (It has no effect if the file already exists.)  The value is
specified as follows:

=over 4

=item C<S_IREAD>

Permits reading.

=item C<S_IWRITE>

Permits writing.

=back

Note that it is evidently not possible to deny read permission, so C<S_IWRITE>
and C<S_IREAD | S_IWRITE> are equivalent.

=head2 Other Flags

=over 4

=item C<INFINITE>

This flag can be assigned to $Max_Time and/or $Max_Tries (see below) in order to
have C<fsopen()> or C<sopen()> indefinitely retry opening a file until it is
either opened successfully or it cannot be opened for some reason other than a
sharing violation.

=back

=head2 Variables

=over 4

=item $ErrStr

Last error message.

If either function fails then a description of the last error will be set in
this variable for use in reporting the cause of the failure, much like the use
of the Perl Special Variables C<$!> and C<$^E> after failed system calls and
Win32 API calls.  Note that C<$!> and/or C<$^E> may also be set on failure, but
this is not always the case so it is better to check $ErrStr instead.  Any
relevant messages from C<$!> or C<$^E> will form part of the message in
$ErrStr anyway.  See L<"Error Values"> for a listing of the possible values of
$ErrStr.

If a function succeeds then this variable will be set to the null string.

=item $Trace

Trace mode setting.

Boolean value.

Setting this variable to a true value will cause trace information to be emitted
(via C<warn()>, so that it can be captured with a $SIG{__WARN__} handler if
required) showing a summary of what C<fsopen()> or C<sopen()> did just before it
returns.

The default value is 0, i.e. trace mode is "off".

=item $Max_Time

=item $Max_Tries

These variables specify respectively the maximum time for which to try, and the
maximum number of times to try, opening a file on a single call to C<fsopen()>
or C<sopen()> while the file cannot be opened due to a sharing violation
(specifically, while "C<$^E == ERROR_SHARING_VIOLATION>").

The $Max_Time variable is generally more useful than $Max_Tries because even
with a common value of $Retry_Timeout (see below) two processes may retry
opening a shared file at significantly different rates.  For example, if
$Retry_Timeout is 0 then a process that can access the file in question on a
local disk may retry thousands of times per second, while a process on another
machine trying to open the same file across a network connection may only retry
once or twice per second.  Clearly, specifying the maximum time that a process
is prepared to wait is preferable to specifying the maximum number of times to
try.

For this reason, if both variables are specified then only $Max_Time is used;
$Max_Tries is ignored in that case.  Use the undefined value to explicitly have
one or the other variable ignored.  No retries are attempted if both variables
are undefined. 

Otherwise, the values must be natural numbers (i.e. non-negative integers); an
exception is raised on any attempt to specify an invalid value.

The C<INFINITE> flag (see above) indicates that the retries should be continued
I<ad infinitum> if necessary.  The value zero has the same meaning for backwards
compatibility with previous versions of this module.

The default values are both C<undef>, i.e. no retries are attempted.

=item $Retry_Timeout

Specifies the time to wait (in milliseconds) between tries at opening a file
(see $Max_Time and $Max_Tries above).

The value must be a natural number (i.e. a non-negative integer); an exception
is raised on any attempt to specify an invalid value.

The default value is 250, i.e. wait for one quarter of a second between tries.

=back

=head1 DIAGNOSTICS

=head2 Warnings and Error Messages

This module may produce the following diagnostic messages.  They are classified
as follows (a la L<perldiag>):

    (W) A warning (optional).
    (F) A fatal error (trappable).
    (I) An internal error that you should never see (trappable).

=over 4

=item %s() can't use the undefined value as an indirect filehandle

(F) The specified function was passed the undefined value as the first argument.
That is not a filehandle, cannot be used as an indirect filehandle, and
(unlike the Perl built-in C<open()> and C<sysopen()> functions) the function is
unable to auto-vivify something that can be used as an indirect filehandle in
such a case.

=item Invalid mode '%s' for opening file '%s'

(F) An invalid mode string was passed to C<fsopen()> when trying to open the
specified file.

=item Invalid oflag '%s' for opening file '%s'

(F) An invalid C<O_*> flag was passed to C<sopen()> (or constructed from the
mode string passed to C<fsopen()> when trying to open the specified file.

=item Invalid shflag '%s' for opening file '%s'

(F) An invalid C<SH_*> flag was passed to C<fsopen()> or C<sopen()> when trying
to open the specified file.

=item Invalid value for '%s': '%s' is not a natural number

(F) You attempted to set the specified variable to something other than a
natural number (i.e. a non-negative integer).  This is not allowed.

=item %s is not a valid Win32::SharedFileOpen macro

(F) You attempted to lookup the value of the specified constant in the
Win32::SharedFileOpen module, but that constant is unknown to this module.

=item Unexpected error in AUTOLOAD(): constant() is not defined

(I) There was an unexpected error looking up the value of the specified
constant: the constant-lookup function itself is apparently not defined.

=item Unexpected return type %d while processing Win32::SharedFileOpen macro %s

(I) There was an unexpected error looking up the value of the specified
constant: the C component of the constant-lookup function returned an unknown
type.

=item Unknown IoTYPE '%s'

(I) The PerlIO stream's read/write type has been set to an unknown value.

=item Usage: tie SCALAR, '%s', SCALARVALUE, SCALARNAME

(I) The class used internally to C<tie()> the $Max_Time, $Max_Tries and
$Retry_Timeout variables to has been used incorrectly.

=item Your vendor has not defined Win32::SharedFileOpen macro %s

(I) You attempted to lookup the value of the specified constant in the
Win32::SharedFileOpen module, but that constant is apparently not defined.

=back

=head2 Error Values

Both functions set $ErrStr to a value indicating the cause of the error when
they fail.  The possible values are as follows:

=over 4

=item Can't get C file descriptor for C file object handle for file '%s': %s

A C file descriptor could not be obtained from the C file object handle for the
specified file.  The system error message corresponding to the standard C
library C<errno> variable is also given.

=item Can't get PerlIO file stream for C file descriptor for file '%s': %s

A PerlIO file stream could not be obtained from the C file descriptor for the
specified file.  The system error message corresponding to the standard C
library C<errno> variable may also be given.

=item Can't open C file object handle for file '%s': %s

A C file object handle could not be opened for the specified file.  The system
error message corresponding to the Win32 API last error code is also given.

=back

In some cases, the functions may also leave the Perl Special Variables C<$!>
and/or C<$^E> set to values indicating the cause of the error when they fail;
one or the other of these will be incorporated into the $ErrStr message in such
cases, as indicated above.  The possible values of each are as follows (C<$!>
shown first, C<$^E> underneath):

=over 4

=item C<EACCES> (Permission denied) [1]

=item C<ERROR_ACCESS_DENIED> (Access is denied)

The $file is a directory, or is a read-only file and an attempt was made to open
it for writing.

=item C<EACCES> (Permission denied) [2]

=item C<ERROR_SHARING_VIOLATION> (The process cannot access the file because it is
being used by another process.)

The $file cannot be opened because another process already has it open and is
denying the requested access mode.

This is, of course, the error that other processes will get when trying to open
a file in a certain access mode when we have already opened the same file with a
sharing mode that denies other processes that access mode.

=item C<EEXIST> (File exists)

=item C<ERROR_FILE_EXISTS> (The file exists)

[C<sopen()> only.]  The $oflag included C<O_CREAT | O_EXCL>, and the $file
already exists.

=item C<EINVAL> (Invalid argument)

=item C<ERROR_ENVVAR_NOT_FOUND> (The system could not find the environment option
that was entered)

The $oflag or $shflag argument was invalid.

=item C<EMFILE> (Too many open files)

=item C<ERROR_TOO_MANY_OPEN_FILES> (The system cannot open the file)

The maximum number of file descriptors has been reached.

=item C<ENOENT> (No such file or directory)

=item C<ERROR_FILE_NOT_FOUND> (The system cannot find the file specified)

The filename or path in $file was not found.

=back

Other values may also be produced by various functions that are used within this
module whose possible error codes are not documented.

See L<C<$!>|perlvar/$!>, L<C<%!>|perlvar/%!>, L<C<$^E>|perlvar/$^E> and
L<Error Indicators|perlvar/"Error Indicators"> in L<perlvar>,
C<Win32::GetLastError()> and C<Win32::FormatMessage()> in L<Win32>, and L<Errno>
and L<Win32::WinError> for details on how to check these values.

=head1 EXAMPLES

=over 4

=item Open a file for reading, denying write access to other processes:

    fsopen(FH, $file, 'r', SH_DENYWR) or
        die "Can't read '$file' and take write-lock: $ErrStr\n";

This example could be used for sharing a file amongst several processes for
reading, but protecting the reads from interference by other processes trying to
write the file.

=item Open a file for reading, denying write access to other processes, with
automatic open-retrying:

    $Win32::SharedFileOpen::Max_Time = 10;

    fsopen(FH, $file, 'r', SH_DENYWR) or
        die "Can't read '$file' and take write-lock: $ErrStr\n";

This example could be used in the same scenario as above, but when we actually
I<expect> there to be other processes trying to write to the file, e.g. we are
reading a file that is being regularly updated.  In this situation we expect to
get sharing violation errors from time to time, so we use $Max_Time to
automatically have another go at reading the file (for up to 10 seconds at the
most) when that happens.

We may also want to increase $Win32::SharedFileOpen::Retry_Timeout from its
default value of 250 milliseconds if the file is fairly large and we expect the
writer updating the file to take very long to do so.

=item Open a file for "update", denying read and write access to other
processes:

    fsopen(FH, $file, 'r+', SH_DENYRW) or
        die "Can't update '$file' and take read/write-lock: $ErrStr\n";

This example could be used by a process to both read and write a file (e.g. a
simple database) and guard against other processes interfering with the reads or
being interfered with by the writes.

=item Open a file for writing if and only if it does not already exist, denying
write access to other processes:

    sopen(FH, $file, O_WRONLY | O_CREAT | O_EXCL, SH_DENYWR, S_IWRITE) or
        die "Can't create '$file' and take write-lock: $ErrStr\n";

This example could be used by a process wishing to take an "advisory lock" on
some non-file resource that cannot be explicitly locked itself by dropping a
"sentinel" file somewhere.  The test for the non-existence of the file and the
creation of the file is atomic to avoid a "race condition".  The file can be
written by the process taking the lock and can be read by other processes to
facilitate a "lock discovery" mechanism.

=item Open a temporary file for "update", denying read and write access to other
processes:

    sopen(FH, $file, O_RDWR | O_CREAT | O_TRUNC | O_TEMPORARY, SH_DENYRW,
            S_IWRITE) or
        die "Can't update '$file' and take write-lock: $ErrStr\n";

This example could be used by a process wishing to use a file as a temporary
"scratch space" for both reading and writing.  The space is protected from the
prying eyes of, and interference by, other processes, and is deleted when the
process that opened it exits, even when dying abnormally.

=back

=head1 BACKGROUND REFERENCE

This section gives some useful background reference on filehandles and indirect
filehandles.

=head2 Filehandles

The C<fsopen()> and C<sopen()> functions both expect either a filehandle or an
indirect filehandle as their first argument.

Using a filehandle:

    fsopen(FH, $file, 'r', SH_DENYWR) or
        die "Can't read '$file': $ErrStr\n";

is the simplest approach, but filehandles have a big drawback: they are global
in scope so they are always in danger of clobbering a filehandle of the same
name being used elsewhere.  For example, consider this:

    fsopen(FH, $file1, 'r', SH_DENYWR) or
        die "Can't read '$file1': $ErrStr\n";

    while (<FH>) {
        chomp($line = $_);
        my_sub($line);
    }

    ...

    close FH;

    sub my_sub($) {
        fsopen(FH, $file2, 'r', SH_DENYWR) or
            die "Can't read '$file2': $ErrStr\n";
        ...
        close FH;
    }

The problem here is that when you open a filehandle that is already open it is
closed first, so calling "C<fsopen(FH, ...)>" in C<my_sub()> causes the
filehandle C<FH> that is already open in the caller to be closed first so that
C<my_sub()> can use it.  When C<my_sub()> returns the caller will now find that
C<FH> is closed, causing the next read in the C<while { ... }> loop to fail.
(Or even worse, the caller would end up mistakenly reading from the wrong file
if C<my_sub()> had not closed C<FH> before returning!)

=head2 Localized Typeglobs and the C<*foo{THING}> Notation

One solution to this problem is to localize the typeglob of the filehandle in
question within C<my_sub()>:

    sub my_sub($) {
        local *FH;
        fsopen(FH, $file2, 'r', SH_DENYWR) or
            die "Can't read '$file2': $ErrStr\n";
        ...
        close FH;
    }

but this has the unfortunate side-effect of localizing all the other members of
that typeglob as well, so if the caller had global variables $FH, @FH or %FH, or
even a subroutine C<FH()>, that C<my_sub()> needed then it no longer has access
to them either.  (It does, on the other hand, have the rather nicer side-effect
that the filehandle is automatically closed when the localized typeglob goes out
of scope, so the "C<close FH;>" above is no longer necessary.)

This problem can also be addressed by using the so-called C<*foo{THING}> syntax.
C<*foo{THING}> returns a reference to the THING member of the C<*foo> typeglob.
For example, C<*foo{SCALAR}> is equivalent to C<\$foo>, and C<*foo{CODE}> is
equivalent to C<\&foo>.  C<*foo{IO}> (or the older, now out-of-fashion notation
C<*foo{FILEHANDLE}>) yields the actual internal IO::Handle object that the
C<*foo> typeglob contains, so with this we can localize just the IO object, not
the whole typeglob, so that we do not accidentally hide more than we meant to:

    sub my_sub($) {
        local *FH{IO};
        fsopen(FH, $file2, 'r', SH_DENYWR) or
            die "Can't read '$file2': $ErrStr\n";
        ...
        close FH;   # As in the example above, this is also not necessary
    }

However, this has a drawback as well: C<*FH{IO}> only works if C<FH> has already
been used as a filehandle (or some other IO handle), because C<*foo{THING}>
returns C<undef> if that particular THING has not been seen by the compiler yet
(with the exception of when THING is C<SCALAR>, which is treated differently).
This is fine in the example above, but would not necessarily have been if the
caller of C<my_sub()> had not used the filehandle C<FH> first, so this approach
would be no good if C<my_sub()> was to be put in a module to be used by other
callers too.

=head2 Indirect Filehandles

The answer to all of these problems is to use so-called indirect filehandles
instead of "normal" filehandles.  An indirect filehandle is anything other than
a symbol being used in a place where a filehandle is expected, i.e. an
expression that evaluates to something that can be used as a filehandle, namely:

=over 4

=item A string

A name like C<'FH'> to be used as a symbolic reference to the typeglob whose IO
member is to be used as the filehandle.

=item A typeglob

Either a named typeglob like C<*FH>, or an anonymous typeglob in a scalar
variable (e.g. from C<Symbol::gensym()>), whose IO member is to be used as the
filehandle.

=item A reference to a typeglob

Either a hard reference like C<\*FH>, or a symbolic reference as in the first
case above, to a typeglob whose IO member is to be used as the filehandle.

=item A suitable IO object

Either the IO member of a typeglob obtained via the C<*foo{IO}> syntax, or an
instance of IO::Handle, or of IO::File or FileHandle (which are both just
sub-classes of IO::Handle).

=back

Of course, typeglobs are global in scope just like filehandles are, so if a
named typeglob, a reference (hard or symbolic) to a named typeglob or the IO
member of a named typeglob is used then we run into the same scoping problems
that we saw above with filehandles.  The remainder of the above, however,
(namely, an anonymous typeglob in a scalar variable, or a suitable IO object)
finally give us the answer that we have been looking for.

Therefore, we can now write C<my_sub()> like this:

    sub my_sub($) {
        # Create "my $fh" here: see below
        fsopen($fh, $file2, 'r', SH_DENYWR) or
            die "Can't read '$file2': $ErrStr\n";
        ...
        close $fh;      # Not necessary again
    }

where any of the following may be used to create "C<my $fh>":

    use Symbol;
    my $fh = gensym();

    use IO::Handle;
    my $fh = IO::Handle->new();

    use IO::File;
    my $fh = IO::File->new();

    use FileHandle;
    my $fh = FileHandle->new();

As we have noted in the code segment above, the "C<close $fh;>" is once again
not necessary: the filehandle is closed automatically when the lexical variable
$fh is destroyed, i.e. when it goes out of scope (assuming there are no other
references to it).

However, there is still another point to bear in mind regarding the four
solutions shown above: they all load a good number of extra lines of code into
your script that might not otherwise be made use of.  Note that FileHandle is a
sub-class of IO::File, which is in turn a sub-class of IO::Handle, so using
either of those sub-classes is particularly wasteful in this respect unless the
methods provided by them are going to be put to use.  Even the IO::Handle class
still loads a number of other modules, including Symbol, so using the Symbol
module is certainly the best bet here if none of the IO::Handle methods are
required.

In our case, there is no additional overhead at all in loading the Symbol module
for this purpose because it is already loaded by this module itself anyway.  In
fact, C<Symbol::gensym()>, imported by this module, is made available for export
from this module, so one can write:

    use Win32::SharedFileOpen qw(:DEFAULT gensym);
    my $fh = gensym();

to create "C<my $fh>" above.

=head2 The First-Class Filehandle Trick

Finally, there is another way to get an anonymous typeglob in a scalar variable
that is even leaner and meaner than using C<Symbol::gensym()>: the "First-Class
Filehandle Trick".  It is described in an article by Mark-Jason Dominus called
"Seven Useful Uses of Local", which first appeared in The Perl Journal and can
also be found (at the time of writing) on his website at the URL
L<https://perl.plover.com/local.html>.  It consists simply of the following:

    my $fh = do { local *FH };

It works like this: the C<do { ... }> block simply executes the commands within
the block and returns the value of the last one.  Therefore, in this case, the
global C<*FH> typeglob is temporarily replaced with a new glob that is
C<local()> to the C<do { ... }> block.  The new, C<local()>, C<*FH> typeglob
then goes out of scope (i.e. is no longer accessible by that name) but is not
destroyed because it gets returned from the C<do { ... }> block.  It is this,
now anonymous, typeglob that gets assigned to "C<my $fh>", exactly as we wanted.

Note that it is important that the typeglob itself, not a reference to it, is
returned from the C<do { ... }> block.  This is because references to localized
typeglobs cannot be returned from their local scopes, one of the few places
in which typeglobs and references to typeglobs cannot be used interchangeably.
If we were to try to return a reference to the typeglob, as in:

    my $fh = do { \local *FH };

then $fh would actually be a reference to the original C<*FH> itself, not the
temporary, localized, copy of it that existed within the C<do { ... }> block.
This means that if we were to use that technique twice to obtain two typeglob
references to use as two indirect filehandles then we would end up with them
both being references to the same typeglob (namely, C<*FH>) so that the two
filehandles would then clash.

If this trick is used only once within a script running under "C<use warnings;>"
that does not mention C<*FH> or any of its members anywhere else then a warning
like the following will be produced:

    Name "main::FH" used only once: possible typo at ...

This can be easily avoided by turning off that warning within the C<do { ... }>
block:

    my $fh = do { no warnings 'once'; local *FH };

For convenience, this solution is implemented by this module itself in the
function C<new_fh()>, so that one can now simply write:

    use Win32::SharedFileOpen qw(:DEFAULT new_fh);
    my $fh = new_fh();

The only downside to this solution is that any subsequent error messages
involving this filehandle will refer to C<Win32::SharedFileOpen::FH>, the
IO member of the typeglob that a temporary, localized, copy of was used.  For
example, the script:

    use strict;
    use warnings;
    use Win32::SharedFileOpen qw(:DEFAULT new_fh);
    my $fh = new_fh();
    print $fh "Hello, world.\n";

outputs the warning:

    print() on unopened filehandle Win32::SharedFileOpen::FH at test.pl line 5.

If several filehandles are being used in this way then it can be confusing to
have them all referred to by the same name.  (Do not be alarmed by this, though:
they are completely different anonymous filehandles, which just happen to be
referred to by their original, but actually now out-of-scope, names.)  If this
is a problem then consider using C<Symbol::gensym()> instead (see above): that
function generates each anonymous typeglob from a different name (namely,
'GEN0', 'GEN1', 'GEN2', ...).

=head2 Auto-Vivified Filehandles

Note that all of the above discussion of filehandles and indirect filehandles
applies equally to Perl's built-in C<open()> and C<sysopen()> functions.  It
should also be noted that those two functions both support the use of one other
value in the first argument that this module's C<fsopen()> and C<sopen()>
functions do not: the undefined value.  The calls

    open my $fh, $file;
    sysopen my $fh, $file, O_RDONLY;

each auto-vivify "C<my $fh>" into something that can be used as an indirect
filehandle.  (In fact, they currently [as of Perl 5.8.0] auto-vivify an entire
typeglob, but this may change in a future version of Perl to only auto-vivify
the IO member.)  Any attempt to do likewise with this module's functions:

    fsopen(my $fh, $file, 'r', SH_DENYNO);
    sopen(my $fh, $file, O_RDONLY, SH_DENYNO);

causes the functions to C<croak()>.

=head1 EXPORTS

The following symbols are, or can be, exported by this module:

=over 4

=item Default Exports

C<fsopen>,
C<sopen>;

C<O_APPEND>,
C<O_BINARY>,
C<O_CREAT>,
C<O_EXCL>,
C<O_NOINHERIT>,
C<O_RANDOM>,
C<O_RAW>,
C<O_RDONLY>,
C<O_RDWR>,
C<O_SEQUENTIAL>,
C<O_SHORT_LIVED>,
C<O_TEMPORARY>,
C<O_TEXT>,
C<O_TRUNC>,
C<O_WRONLY>;

C<S_IREAD>,
C<S_IWRITE>;

C<SH_DENYNO>,
C<SH_DENYRD>,
C<SH_DENYRW>,
C<SH_DENYWR>.

=item Optional Exports

C<gensym>,
C<new_fh>;

C<INFINITE>;

C<$ErrStr>,
C<$Max_Time>,
C<$Max_Tries>,
C<$Retry_Timeout>,
C<$Trace>.

=item Export Tags

=over 4

=item C<:oflags>

C<O_APPEND>,
C<O_BINARY>,
C<O_CREAT>,
C<O_EXCL>,
C<O_NOINHERIT>,
C<O_RANDOM>,
C<O_RAW>,
C<O_RDONLY>,
C<O_RDWR>,
C<O_SEQUENTIAL>,
C<O_SHORT_LIVED>,
C<O_TEMPORARY>,
C<O_TEXT>,
C<O_TRUNC>,
C<O_WRONLY>.

=item C<:pmodes>

C<S_IREAD>,
C<S_IWRITE>.

=item C<:shflags>

C<SH_DENYNO>,
C<SH_DENYRD>,
C<SH_DENYRW>,
C<SH_DENYWR>.

=item C<:retry>

C<INFINITE>,
C<$Max_Time>,
C<$Max_Tries>,
C<$Retry_Timeout>.

=back

=back

=head1 COMPATIBILITY

Before version 2.00 of this module, C<fsopen()> and C<sopen()> both created a
filehandle and returned it to the caller.  (C<undef> was returned instead on
failure.)

As of version 2.00 of this module, the arguments and return values of these two
functions now more closely resemble those of the Perl built-in C<open()> and
C<sysopen()> functions.  Specifically, they now both expect a
L<filehandle|"Filehandles"> or an L<indirect filehandle|"Indirect Filehandles">
as their first argument and they both return a Boolean value to indicate success
or failure.

B<THIS IS AN INCOMPATIBLE CHANGE.  EXISTING SOFTWARE THAT USES THESE FUNCTIONS
WILL NEED TO BE MODIFIED.>

=head1 KNOWN BUGS

I<None>.

=head1 FEEDBACK

Patches, bug reports, suggestions or any other feedback is welcome.

Patches can be sent as GitHub pull requests at
L<https://github.com/steve-m-hay/Win32-SharedFileOpen/pulls>.

Bug reports and suggestions can be made on the CPAN Request Tracker at
L<https://rt.cpan.org/Public/Bug/Report.html?Queue=Win32-SharedFileOpen>.

Currently active requests on the CPAN Request Tracker can be viewed at
L<https://rt.cpan.org/Public/Dist/Display.html?Status=Active;Queue=Win32-SharedFileOpen>.

Please test this distribution.  See CPAN Testers Reports at
L<https://www.cpantesters.org/> for details of how to get involved.

Previous test results on CPAN Testers Reports can be viewed at
L<https://www.cpantesters.org/distro/W/Win32-SharedFileOpen.html>.

Please rate this distribution on CPAN Ratings at
L<https://cpanratings.perl.org/rate/?distribution=Win32-SharedFileOpen>.

=head1 SEE ALSO

L<perlfunc/open>,
L<perlfunc/sysopen>,
L<perlopentut>;

L<Fcntl>,
L<FileHandle>,
L<IO::File>,
L<IO::Handle>,
L<Symbol>,
L<Win32API::File>.

In particular, the Win32API::File module (part of the "libwin32" distribution)
contains an interface to a (lower level) Win32 API function,
L<C<CreateFile()>|Win32API::File/CreateFile>, which provides similar (and more)
capabilities but using a completely different set of arguments that are
unfamiliar to unseasoned Microsoft developers.  A more Perl-friendly wrapper
function, L<C<createFile()>|Win32API::File/createFile>, is also provided but
does not entirely alleviate the pain.

=head1 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The C<Win32SharedFileOpen_StrWinError()> function used by the XS code is based
on the C<win32_str_os_error()> function in Perl (version 5.19.10).

Some of the XS code used in the re-write for version 3.00 is based on that in
the standard library module VMS::Stdio (version 2.3), written by Charles Bailey.

Thanks to Nick Ing-Simmons for help in getting this XS to build under different
flavours of Perl (e.g. both with and without PERL_IMPLICIT_CONTEXT and/or
PERL_IMPLICIT_SYS enabled), and for help in fixing a text mode/binary mode bug
in the fsopen() function.

=head1 AVAILABILITY

The latest version of this module is available from CPAN (see
L<perlmodlib/"CPAN"> for details) at

L<https://metacpan.org/release/Win32-SharedFileOpen> or

L<https://www.cpan.org/authors/id/S/SH/SHAY/> or

L<https://www.cpan.org/modules/by-module/Win32/>.

The latest source code is available from GitHub at
L<https://github.com/steve-m-hay/Win32-SharedFileOpen>.

=head1 INSTALLATION

See the F<INSTALL> file.

=head1 AUTHOR

Steve Hay E<lt>L<shay@cpan.org|mailto:shay@cpan.org>E<gt>.

=head1 COPYRIGHT

Copyright (C) 2001-2008, 2013-2015, 2018, 2020 Steve Hay.  All rights reserved.

=head1 LICENCE

This module is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the
same terms as Perl itself, i.e. under the terms of either the GNU General Public
License or the Artistic License, as specified in the F<LICENCE> file.

=head1 VERSION

Version 4.04

=head1 DATE

25 Nov 2020

=head1 HISTORY

See the F<Changes> file.

=cut

#===============================================================================