Net::Server - Extensible, general Perl server engine

        #!/usr/bin/perl -w -T
        package MyPackage;

        use base qw(Net::Server);

        sub process_request {
            my $self = shift;
            while (<STDIN>) {
                print "You said '$_'\015\012"; # basic echo
                last if /quit/i;

        MyPackage->run(port => 160, ipv => '*');

        # one liner to get going quickly
        perl -e 'use base qw(Net::Server); main->run(port => 20208)'

        NOTE: beginning in Net::Server 2.005, the default value for
              ipv is IPv* meaning that if no host is passed, or
              a hostname is past, any available IPv4 and IPv6 sockets will be
              bound.  You can force IPv4 only by adding an ipv => 4
              configuration in any of the half dozen ways we let you
              specify it.

        * Full IPv6 support
        * Working SSL sockets and https (both with and without IO::Socket::SSL)
        * Single Server Mode
        * Inetd Server Mode
        * Preforking Simple Mode (PreForkSimple)
        * Preforking Managed Mode (PreFork)
        * Forking Mode
        * Multiplexing Mode using a single process
        * Multi port accepts on Single, Preforking, and Forking modes
        * Basic HTTP Daemon (supports IPv6, SSL, full apache style logs)
        * Basic PSGI Daemon
        * Simultaneous accept/recv on tcp/udp/unix, ssl/tcp, and IPv4/IPv6 sockets
        * Safe signal handling in Fork/PreFork avoids perl signal trouble
        * User customizable hooks
        * Chroot ability after bind
        * Change of user and group after bind
        * Basic allow/deny access control
        * Pluggable logging (Sys::Syslog, Log::Log4perl, log_file, STDERR, or your own)
        * HUP able server (clean restarts via sig HUP)
        * Graceful shutdowns (via sig QUIT)
        * Hot deploy in Fork and PreFork modes (via sig TTIN and TTOU)
        * Dequeue ability in all Fork and PreFork modes.
        * Taint clean
        * Written in Perl
        * Protection against buffer overflow
        * Clean process flow
        * Extensibility

    "Net::Server" is an extensible, generic Perl server engine.

    "Net::Server" attempts to be a generic server as in "Net::Daemon" and
    "NetServer::Generic". It includes with it the ability to run as an inetd
    process ("Net::Server::INET"), a single connection server ("Net::Server"
    or "Net::Server::Single"), a forking server ("Net::Server::Fork"), a
    preforking server which maintains a constant number of preforked
    children ("Net::Server::PreForkSimple"), or as a managed preforking
    server which maintains the number of children based on server load
    ("Net::Server::PreFork"). In all but the inetd type, the server provides
    the ability to connect to one or to multiple server ports.

    The additional server types are made possible via "personalities" or sub
    classes of the "Net::Server". By moving the multiple types of servers
    out of the main "Net::Server" class, the "Net::Server" concept is easily
    extended to other types (in the near future, we would like to add a
    "Thread" personality).

    "Net::Server" borrows several concepts from the Apache Webserver.
    "Net::Server" uses "hooks" to allow custom servers such as SMTP, HTTP,
    POP3, etc. to be layered over the base "Net::Server" class. In addition
    the "Net::Server::PreFork" class borrows concepts of min_start_servers,
    max_servers, and min_waiting servers. "Net::Server::PreFork" also uses
    the concept of an flock serialized accept when accepting on multiple
    ports (PreFork can choose between flock, IPC::Semaphore, and pipe to
    control serialization).

    "Net::Server" is built around a common class (Net::Server) and is
    extended using sub classes, or "personalities". Each personality
    inherits, overrides, or enhances the base methods of the base class.

    Included with the Net::Server package are several basic personalities,
    each of which has their own use.

        Found in the module Net/Server/ (see Net::Server::Fork). This
        server binds to one or more ports and then waits for a connection.
        When a client request is received, the parent forks a child, which
        then handles the client and exits. This is good for moderately hit

        Found in the module Net/Server/ (see Net::Server::INET). This
        server is designed to be used with inetd. The "pre_bind", "bind",
        "accept", and "post_accept" are all overridden as these services are
        taken care of by the INET daemon.

        Found in the module Net/Server/ (see
        Net::Server::MultiType). This server has no server functionality of
        its own. It is designed for servers which need a simple way to
        easily switch between different personalities. Multiple
        "server_type" parameters may be given and Net::Server::MultiType
        will cycle through until it finds a class that it can use.

        Found in the module Net/Server/ (see
        Net::Server::Multiplex). This server binds to one or more ports. It
        uses IO::Multiplex to multiplex between waiting for new connections
        and waiting for input on currently established connections. This
        personality is designed to run as one process without forking. The
        "process_request" method is never used but the "mux_input" callback
        is used instead (see also IO::Multiplex). See examples/
        for an example using most of the features of Net::Server::Multiplex.

        Found in the module Net/Server/ (see
        Net::Server::PreFork). This server binds to one or more ports and
        then forks "max_servers" child process. The server will make sure
        that at any given time there are always "max_servers" available to
        receive a client request. Each of these children will process up to
        "max_requests" client connections. This type is good for a heavily
        hit site that can dedicate max_server processes no matter what the
        load. It should scale well for most applications. Multi port accept
        is accomplished using either flock, IPC::Semaphore, or pipe to
        serialize the children. Serialization may also be switched on for
        single port in order to get around an OS that does not allow
        multiple children to accept at the same time. For a further
        discussion of serialization see Net::Server::PreFork.

        Found in the module Net/Server/ (see
        Net::Server::PreFork). This server binds to one or more ports and
        then forks "min_servers" child process. The server will make sure
        that at any given time there are at least "min_spare_servers" but
        not more than "max_spare_servers" available to receive a client
        request, up to "max_servers". Each of these children will process up
        to "max_requests" client connections. This type is good for a
        heavily hit site, and should scale well for most applications. Multi
        port accept is accomplished using either flock, IPC::Semaphore, or
        pipe to serialize the children. Serialization may also be switched
        on for single port in order to get around an OS that does not allow
        multiple children to accept at the same time. For a further
        discussion of serialization see Net::Server::PreFork.

        All methods fall back to Net::Server. This personality is provided
        only as parallelism for Net::Server::MultiType.

        Not a distinct personality. Provides a basic HTTP daemon. This can
        be combined with the SSL or SSLEAY proto to provide an HTTPS Daemon.
        See Net::Server::HTTP.

    "Net::Server" was partially written to make it easy to add new
    personalities. Using separate modules built upon an open architecture
    allows for easy addition of new features, a separate development
    process, and reduced code bloat in the core module.

    Once started, the Net::Server will take care of binding to port and
    waiting for connections. Once a connection is received, the Net::Server
    will accept on the socket and will store the result (the client
    connection) in $self->{server}->{client}. This property is a Socket
    blessed into the the IO::Socket classes. UDP servers are slightly
    different in that they will perform a recv instead of an accept.

    To make programming easier, during the post_accept phase, STDIN and
    STDOUT are opened to the client connection. This allows for programs to
    be written using <STDIN> and print "out\n" to print to the client
    connection. UDP will require using a ->send call.

    The following is a very simple server. The main functionality occurs in
    the process_request method call as shown below. Notice the use of
    timeouts to prevent Denial of Service while reading. (Other examples of
    using "Net::Server" can, or will, be included with this distribution).

        #!/usr/bin/perl -w -T

        package MyPackage;

        use strict;
        use base qw(Net::Server::PreFork); # any personality will do


        # over-ride the default echo handler

        sub process_request {
            my $self = shift;
            eval {

                local $SIG{'ALRM'} = sub { die "Timed Out!\n" };
                my $timeout = 30; # give the user 30 seconds to type some lines

                my $previous_alarm = alarm($timeout);
                while (<STDIN>) {
                    print "You said '$_'\r\n";


            if ($@ =~ /timed out/i) {
                print STDOUT "Timed Out.\r\n";



    Playing this file from the command line will invoke a Net::Server using
    the PreFork personality. When building a server layer over the
    Net::Server, it is important to use features such as timeouts to prevent
    Denial Of Service attacks.

    Net::Server comes with a built in echo server by default. You can test
    it out by simply running the following from the commandline:


    If you wanted to try another flavor you could try

        net-server PreFork

    If you wanted to try out a basic HTTP server you could use

        net-server HTTP

    Or if you wanted to test out a CGI you are writing you could use

        net-server HTTP --app ../../mycgi.cgi

    There are at least five possible ways to pass arguments to Net::Server.
    They are *passing to the new method*, *passing on command line*,
    *passing parameters to run*, *using a conf file*, *returning values in
    the default_values method*, or *configuring the values in

    The "options" method is used to determine which arguments the server
    will search for and can be used to extend the parsed parameters. Any
    arguments found from the command line, parameters passed to run, and
    arguments found in the conf_file will be matched against the keys of the
    options template. Any commandline parameters that do not match will be
    left in place and can be further processed by the server in the various
    hooks (by looking at @ARGV). Arguments passed to new will automatically
    win over any other options (this can be used if you would like to
    disallow a user passing in other arguments).

    Arguments consist of key value pairs. On the commandline these pairs
    follow the POSIX fashion of "--key value" or "--key=value", and also
    "key=value". In the conf file the parameter passing can best be shown by
    the following regular expression: ($key,$val)=~/^(\w+)\s+(\S+?)\s+$/.
    Passing arguments to the run method is done as follows:
    "<Net::Server->run(key1 =" 'val1')>>. Passing arguments via a prebuilt
    object can best be shown in the following code:

        #!/usr/bin/perl -w -T

        package MyPackage;
        use strict;
        use base qw(Net::Server);

        my $server = MyPackage->new({
            key1 => 'val1',


    All five methods for passing arguments may be used at the same time.
    Once an argument has been set, it is not over written if another method
    passes the same argument. "Net::Server" will look for arguments in the
    following order:

        1) Arguments passed to the C<new> method.
        2) Arguments passed on command line.
        3) Arguments passed to the C<run> method.
        4) Arguments passed via a conf file.
        5) Arguments set in the C<default_values> method.

    Additionally the following hooks are available:

        1) Arguments set in the configure_hook (occurs after new
           but before any of the other areas are checked).
        2) Arguments set and validated in the post_configure_hook
           (occurs after all of the other areas are checked).

    Each of these levels will override parameters of the same name specified
    in subsequent levels. For example, specifying --setsid=0 on the command
    line will override a value of "setsid 1" in the conf file.

    Note that the configure_hook method doesn't return values to set, but is
    there to allow for setting up configured values before the configure
    method is called.

    Key/value pairs used by the server are removed by the configuration
    process so that server layers on top of "Net::Server" can pass and read
    their own parameters.

    It is possible to add in your own custom parameters to those parsed by
    Net::Server. The following code shows how this is done:

        sub options {
            my $self     = shift;
            my $prop     = $self->{'server'};
            my $template = shift;

            # setup options in the parent classes

            # add a single value option
            $prop->{'my_option'} ||= undef;
            $template->{'my_option'} = \ $prop->{'my_option'};

            # add a multi value option
            $prop->{'an_arrayref_item'} ||= [];
            $template->{'an_arrayref_item'} = $prop->{'an_arrayref_item'};

    Overriding the "options" method allows for adding your own custom
    fields. A template hashref is passed in, that should then be modified to
    contain an of your custom fields. Fields which are intended to receive a
    single scalar value should have a reference to the destination scalar
    given. Fields which are intended to receive multiple values should
    reference the corresponding destination arrayref.

    You are responsible for validating your custom options once they have
    been parsed. The post_configure_hook is a good place to do your

    Some emails have asked why we use this "template" method. The idea is
    that you are creating the the data structure to store the values in, and
    you are also creating a way to get the values into the data structure.
    The template is the way to get the values to the servers data structure.
    One of the possibilities (that probably isn't used that much) is that by
    letting you specify the mapping, you could build a nested data structure
    - even though the passed in arguments are flat. It also allows you to
    setup aliases to your names.

    For example, a basic structure might look like this:

       $prop = $self->{'server'}

       $prop->{'my_custom_option'} ||= undef;
       $prop->{'my_custom_array'}  ||= [];

       $template = {
           my_custom_option => \ $prop->{'my_custom_option'},
           mco              => \ $prop->{'my_custom_option'}, # alias
           my_custom_array  => $prop->{'my_custom_array'},
           mca              => $prop->{'my_custom_array'}, # an alias

       $template->{'mco2'} = $template->{'mco'}; # another way to alias

    But you could also have more complex data:

       $prop = $self->{'server'};

       $prop->{'one_layer'} = {
           two_layer => [

       $template = {
           param1 => \ $prop->{'one_layer'}->{'two_layer'}->[0],
           param2 => \ $prop->{'one_layer'}->{'two_layer'}->[1],

    This is of course a contrived example - but it does show that you can
    get the data from the flat passed in arguments to whatever type of
    structure you need - with only a little bit of effort.

    The following arguments are available in the default "Net::Server" or
    "Net::Server::Single" modules. (Other personalities may use additional
    parameters and may optionally not use parameters from the base class.)

        Key               Value                    Default
        conf_file         "filename"               undef

        log_level         0-4                      2
        log_file          (filename|Sys::Syslog
                           |Log::Log4perl)         undef

        port              \d+                      20203
        host              "host"                   "*"
        ipv               (4|6|*)                  *
        proto             (tcp|udp|unix)           "tcp"
        listen            \d+                      SOMAXCONN

        ## syslog parameters (if log_file eq Sys::Syslog)
        syslog_logsock    (native|unix|inet|udp
                           |tcp|stream|console)    unix (on Sys::Syslog < 0.15)
        syslog_ident      "identity"               "net_server"
        syslog_logopt     (cons|ndelay|nowait|pid) pid
        syslog_facility   \w+                      daemon

        reverse_lookups   1                        undef
        allow             /regex/                  none
        deny              /regex/                  none
        cidr_allow        CIDR                     none
        cidr_deny         CIDR                     none

        ## daemonization parameters
        pid_file          "filename"               undef
        chroot            "directory"              undef
        user              (uid|username)           "nobody"
        group             (gid|group)              "nobody"
        background        1                        undef
        setsid            1                        undef

        no_close_by_child (1|undef)                undef

        ## See Net::Server::Proto::(TCP|UDP|UNIX|SSL|SSLeay|etc)
        ## for more sample parameters.

        Filename from which to read additional key value pair arguments for
        starting the server. Default is undef.

        There are two ways that you can specify a default location for a
        conf_file. The first is to pass the default value to the run method
        as in:

               conf_file => '/etc/my_server.conf',

        If the end user passes in --conf_file=/etc/their_server.conf then
        the value will be overridden.

        The second way to do this was added in the 0.96 version. It uses the
        default_values method as in:

            sub default_values {
                return {
                    conf_file => '/etc/my_server.conf',

        This method has the advantage of also being able to be overridden in
        the run method.

        If you do not want the user to be able to specify a conf_file at
        all, you can pass conf_file to the new method when creating your

               conf_file => '/etc/my_server.conf',

        If passed this way, the value passed to new will "win" over any of
        the other passed in values.

        Ranges from 0 to 4 in level. Specifies what level of error will be
        logged. "O" means logging is off. "4" means very verbose. These
        levels should be able to correlate to syslog levels. Default is 2.
        These levels correlate to syslog levels as defined by the following
        key/value pairs: 0=>'err', 1=>'warning', 2=>'notice', 3=>'info',

        Name of log file or log subsystem to be written to. If no name is
        given and the write_to_log_hook is not overridden, log goes to
        STDERR. Default is undef.

        The log_file may also be the name of a Net::Server pluggable logging
        class. Net::Server is packaged with Sys::Syslog and Log::Log4perl.
        If the log_file looks like a module name, it will have
        "Net::Server::Log::" added to the front and it will then be
        required. The package should provide an "initialize" class method
        that returns a single function which will be used for logging. This
        returned function will be passed log_level, and message.

        If the magic name "Sys::Syslog" is used, all logging will take place
        via the Net::Server::Log::Sys::Syslog module. If syslog is used the
        parameters "syslog_logsock", "syslog_ident", and "syslog_logopt",and
        "syslog_facility" may also be defined. See

        If the magic name "Log::Log4perl" is used, all logging will be
        directed to the Log4perl system. If used, the "log4perl_conf",
        "log4perl_poll", "log4perl_logger" may also be defined. See

        If a "log_file" is given or if "setsid" is set, STDIN and STDOUT
        will automatically be opened to /dev/null and STDERR will be opened
        to STDOUT. This will prevent any output from ending up at the

        Filename to store pid of parent process. Generally applies only to
        forking servers. Default is none (undef).

        See Net::Server::Proto for further examples of configuration.

        Local port/socket on which to bind. If it is a low port, the process
        must start as root. If multiple ports are given, all will be bound
        at server startup. May be of the form "host:port/proto",
        "host:port/proto/ipv", "host:port", "port/proto", or "port", where
        *host* represents a hostname residing on the local box, where *port*
        represents either the number of the port (eg. "80") or the service
        designation (eg. "http"), where *ipv* represents the IP protocol
        version (IPv4 or IPv6 or IPv*) and where *proto* represents the
        protocol to be used. See Net::Server::Proto. The following are some
        valid port strings:

            20203                            # port only
            localhost:20203                  # host and port
            localhost:http                   # localhost bound to port 80
            localhost:20203/tcp              # host, port, protocol
            localhost:20203/tcp/IPv*         # host, port, protocol and family
            localhost, 20203, tcp, IPv*      # same
            localhost | 20203 | tcp | IPv*   # same
            localhost:20203/IPv*             # bind any configured interfaces for IPv4 or 6 (default)
            localhost:20203/IPv4/IPv6        # bind localhost on IPv4 and 6 (fails if it cannot do both)

            *:20203                          # bind all local interfaces

        Additionally, when passed in the code (non-commandline, and
        non-config), the port may be passed as a hashref or array hashrefs
        of information:

            port => {
                host  => 'localhost',
                port  => '20203',
                ipv   => 6,     # IPv6 only
                proto => 'udp', # UDP protocol

            port => [{
                host  => '*',
                port  => '20203',
                ipv   => 4,     # IPv4 only
                proto => 'tcp', # (default)
            }, {
                host  => 'localhost',
                port  => '20204',
                ipv   => '*',      # default - all IPv4 and IPv6 interfaces tied to localhost
                proto => 'ssleay', # or ssl - Using SSL

        An explicit *host* given in a port specification overrides a default
        binding address (a "host" setting, see below). The *host* part may
        be enclosed in square brackets, but when it is a numerical IPv6
        address it should be enclosed in square brackets to avoid ambiguity
        in parsing a port number, e.g.: "[::1]:80". However you could also
        use pipes, white space, or commas to separate these. Note that host
        and port number must come first.

        If the protocol is not specified, *proto* will default to the
        "proto" specified in the arguments. If "proto" is not specified
        there it will default to "tcp". If *host* is not specified, *host*
        will default to "host" specified in the arguments. If "host" is not
        specified there it will default to "*". Default port is 20203.
        Configuration passed to new or run may be either a scalar containing
        a single port number or an arrayref of ports. If "ipv" is not
        specified it will default to "*" (Any resolved addresses under IPv4
        or IPv6).

        If you are working with unix sockets, you may also specify
        "socket_file|unix" or "socket_file|type|unix" where type is

        On systems that support it, a port value of 0 may be used to ask the
        OS to auto-assign a port. The value of the auto-assigned port will
        be stored in the NS_port property of the Net::Server::Proto::TCP
        object and is also available in the sockport method. When the server
        is processing a request, the $self->{server}->{sockport} property
        contains the port that was connected through.

        Local host or addr upon which to bind port. If a value of '*' is
        given, the server will bind that port on all available addresses on
        the box. The "host" argument provides a default local host address
        if the "port" argument omits a host specification. See
        Net::Server::Proto. See IO::Socket. Configuration passed to new or
        run may be either a scalar containing a single host or an arrayref
        of hosts - if the hosts array is shorter than the ports array, the
        last host entry will be used to augment the hosts arrary to the size
        of the ports array.

        If an IPv4 address is passed, an IPv4 socket will be created. If an
        IPv6 address is passed, an IPv6 socket will be created. If a
        hostname is given, Net::Server will look at the value of ipv
        (default IPv4) to determine which type of socket to create.
        Optionally the ipv specification can be passed as part of the

            host => "",  # an IPv4 address

            host => "::1",        # an IPv6 address

            host => 'localhost',  # addresses matched by localhost (default any IPv4 and/or IPv6)

            host => 'localhost/IPv*',  # same

            ipv  => 6,
            host => 'localhost',  # addresses matched by localhost (IPv6)

            ipv  => 4,
            host => 'localhost',  # addresses matched by localhost (IPv4)

            ipv  => 'IPv4 IPv6',
            host => 'localhost',  # addresses matched by localhost (requires IPv6 and IPv4)

            host => '*',          # any local interfaces (any IPv6 or IPv4)

            host => '*/IPv*',     # same (any IPv6 or IPv4)

            ipv  => 4,
            host => '*',          # any local IPv4 interfaces interfaces

        See Net::Server::Proto. Protocol to use when binding ports. See
        IO::Socket. As of release 2.0, Net::Server supports tcp, udp, and
        unix, unixdgram, ssl, and ssleay. Other types will need to be added
        later (or custom modules extending the Net::Server::Proto class may
        be used). Configuration passed to new or run may be either a scalar
        containing a single proto or an arrayref of protos - if the protos
        array is shorter than the ports array, the last proto entry will be
        used to augment the protos arrary to the size of the ports array.

        Additionally the proto may also contain the ipv specification.

    ipv (IPv4 and IPv6)
        See Net::Server::Proto.

        IPv6 is now available under Net::Server. It will be used
        automatically if an IPv6 address is passed, or if the ipv is set
        explicitly to IPv6, or if ipv is left as the default value of IPv*.
        This is a significant change from version 2.004 and earlier where
        the default value was IPv4. However, the previous behavior led to
        confusion on IPv6 only hosts, and on hosts that only had IPv6
        entries for a local hostname. Trying to pass an IPv4 address when
        ipv is set to 6 (only 6 - not * or 4) will result in an error.

            localhost:20203 # will use IPv6 if there is a corresponding entry for localhost
                            # it will also use IPv4 if there is a corresponding v4 entry for localhost

            localhost:20203:IPv*  # same (default)

            localhost:20203:IPv6  # will use IPv6

            [::1]:20203           # will use IPv6 (IPv6 style address)

            localhost:20203:IPv4  # will use IPv4

         # will use IPv4 (IPv4 style address

            localhost:20203:IPv4:IPv6 # will bind to both v4 and v6 - fails otherwise

            # or as a hashref as
            port => {
                host => "localhost",
                ipv  => 6, # only binds IPv6

            port => {
                host => "localhost",
                ipv  => 4, # only binds IPv4

            port => {
                host => "::1",
                ipv  => "IPv6", # same as passing "6"

            port => {
                host => "localhost/IPv*",       # any IPv4 or IPv6

            port => {
                host => "localhost IPv4 IPv6",  # must create both

        In many proposed Net::Server solutions, IPv* was enabled by default.
        For versions 2.000 through 2.004, the previous default of IPv4 was
        used. We have attempted to make it easy to set IPv4, IPv6, or IPv*.
        If you do not want or need IPv6, simply set ipv to 4, pass IPv4
        along in the port specification, set $ENV{'IPV'}=4; before running
        the server, or uninstall IO::Socket::INET6.

        On my local box the following command results in the following

            perl -e 'use base qw(Net::Server); main->run(host => "localhost")'

            Resolved [localhost]:20203 to [::1]:20203, IPv6
            Resolved [localhost]:20203 to []:20203, IPv4
            Binding to TCP port 20203 on host ::1 with IPv6
            Binding to TCP port 20203 on host with IPv4

        My local box has IPv6 enabled and there are entries for localhost on
        both IPv6 ::1 and IPv4 I could also choose to explicitly
        bind ports rather than depending upon ipv => "*" to resolve them for
        me as in the following:

            perl -e 'use base qw(Net::Server); main->run(port => [20203,20203], host => "localhost", ipv => [4,6])'

            Binding to TCP port 20203 on host localhost with IPv4
            Binding to TCP port 20203 on host localhost with IPv6

        There is a special case of using host => "*" as well as ipv => "*".
        The Net::Server::Proto::_bindv6only method is used to check the
        system setting for "sysctl -n net.ipv6.bindv6only" (or
        net.inet6.ip6.v6only). If this setting is false, then an IPv6 socket
        will listen for the corresponding IPv4 address. For example the
        address [::] (IPv6 equivalent of INADDR_ANY) will also listen for The address ::FFFF: (IPv6) would also listen to (IPv4). In this case, only one socket will be created
        because it will handle both cases (an error is returned if an
        attempt is made to listen to both addresses when bindv6only is

        However, if net.ipv6.bindv6only (or equivalent) is true, then a
        hostname (such as *) resolving to both a IPv4 entry as well as an
        IPv6 will result in both an IPv4 socket as well as an IPv6 socket.

        On my linux box which defaults to net.ipv6.bindv6only=0, the
        following is output.

            perl -e 'use base qw(Net::Server); main->run(host => "*")'

            Resolved [*]:8080 to [::]:8080, IPv6
            Not including resolved host [] IPv4 because it will be handled by [::] IPv6
            Binding to TCP port 8080 on host :: with IPv6

        If I issue a "sudo /sbin/sysctl -w net.ipv6.bindv6only=1", the
        following is output.

            perl -e 'use base qw(Net::Server); main->run(host => "*")'

            Resolved [*]:8080 to []:8080, IPv4
            Resolved [*]:8080 to [::]:8080, IPv6
            Binding to TCP port 8080 on host with IPv4
            Binding to TCP port 8080 on host :: with IPv6

        BSD differs from linux and generally defaults to
        net.inet6.ip6.v6only=0. If it cannot be determined on your OS, it
        will default to false and the log message will change from "it will
        be handled" to "it should be handled" (if you have a non-resource
        intensive way to check on your platform, feel free to email me). Be
        sure to check the logs as you test your server to make sure you have
        bound the ports you desire. You can always pass in individual
        explicit IPv4 and IPv6 port specifications if you need. For example,
        if your system has both IPv4 and IPv6 interfaces but you'd only like
        to bind to IPv6 entries, then you should use a hostname of [::]
        instead of [*].

        If bindv6only (or equivalent) is false, and you receive an IPv4
        connection on a bound IPv6 port, the textual representation of the
        peer's IPv4 address will typically be in a form of an IPv4-mapped
        IPv6 addresses, e.g. "::FFFF:" .

        The ipv parameter was chosen because it does not conflict with any
        other existing usage, it is very similar to ipv4 or ipv6, it allows
        for user code to not need to know about Socket::AF_INET or
        Socket6::AF_INET6 or Socket::AF_UNSPEC, and it is short.

        See IO::Socket. Not used with udp protocol (or UNIX SOCK_DGRAM).

        Specify whether to lookup the hostname of the connected IP.
        Information is cached in server object under "peerhost" property.
        Default is to not use reverse_lookups (undef).

        May be specified multiple times. Contains regex to compare to
        incoming peeraddr or peerhost (if reverse_lookups has been enabled).
        If allow or deny options are given, the incoming client must match
        an allow and not match a deny or the client connection will be
        closed. Defaults to empty array refs.

        May be specified multiple times. Contains a CIDR block to compare to
        incoming peeraddr. If cidr_allow or cidr_deny options are given, the
        incoming client must match a cidr_allow and not match a cidr_deny or
        the client connection will be closed. Defaults to empty array refs.

        Directory to chroot to after bind process has taken place and the
        server is still running as root. Defaults to undef.

        Userid or username to become after the bind process has occured.
        Defaults to "nobody." If you would like the server to run as root,
        you will have to specify "user" equal to "root".

        Groupid or groupname to become after the bind process has occured.
        Defaults to "nobody." If you would like the server to run as root,
        you will have to specify "group" equal to "root".

        Specifies whether or not the server should fork after the bind
        method to release itself from the command line. Defaults to undef.
        Process will also background if "setsid" is set.

        Specifies whether or not the server should fork after the bind
        method to release itself from the command line and then run the
        "POSIX::setsid()" command to truly daemonize. Defaults to undef. If
        a "log_file" is given or if "setsid" is set, STDIN and STDOUT will
        automatically be opened to /dev/null and STDERR will be opened to
        STDOUT. This will prevent any output from ending up at the terminal.

        Boolean. Specifies whether or not a forked child process has
        permission or not to shutdown the entire server process. If set to
        1, the child may NOT signal the parent to shutdown all children.
        Default is undef (not set).

        Boolean. Default undef (not set). Specifies that STDIN and STDOUT
        should not be opened on the client handle once a connection has been
        accepted. By default the Net::Server will open STDIN and STDOUT on
        the client socket making it easier for many types of scripts to read
        directly from and write directly to the socket using normal print
        and read methods. Disabling this is useful on clients that may be
        opening their own connections to STDIN and STDOUT.

        This option has no affect on STDIN and STDOUT which has a magic
        client property that is tied to the already open STDIN and STDOUT.

        Boolean. Default undef (not set). If set, the parent will not
        attempt to close child processes if the parent receives a SIG HUP.
        The parent will rebind the the open port and begin tracking a fresh
        set of children.

        Children of a Fork server will exit after their current request.
        Children of a Prefork type server will finish the current request
        and then exit.

        Note - the newly restarted parent will start up a fresh set of
        servers on fork servers. The new parent will attempt to keep track
        of the children from the former parent but custom communication
        channels (open pipes from the child to the old parent) will no
        longer be available to the old child processes. New child processes
        will still connect properly to the new parent.

        Default none. Allow for passing requested signals through to
        children. Takes a single signal name, a comma separated list of
        names, or an arrayref of signal names. It first sends the signals to
        the children before calling any currently registered signal by that

        Default undef. If set will use Net::Server::TiedHandle tied
        interface for STDIN and STDOUT. This interface allows SSL and SSLEAY
        to work. It also allows for intercepting read and write via the
        tied_stdin_callback and tied_stdout_callback.

        Default undef. Called during a read of STDIN data if
        tie_client_stdout has been set, or if the client handle's tie_stdout
        method returns true. It is passed the client connection, the name of
        the method that would be called, and the arguments that are being
        passed. The callback is then responsible for calling that method on
        the handle or for performing some other input operation.

        Default undef. Called during a write of data to STDOUT if
        tie_client_stdout has been set, or if the client handle's tie_stdout
        method returns true. It is passed the client connection, the name of
        the method that would be called, and the arguments that are being
        passed. The callback is then responsible for calling that method on
        the handle or for performing some other output operation.

    All of the "ARGUMENTS" listed above become properties of the server
    object under the same name. These properties, as well as other internal
    properties, are available during hooks and other method calls.

    The structure of a Net::Server object is shown below:

        $self = bless({
            server => {
                key1 => 'val1',
                # more key/vals
        }, 'Net::Server');

    This structure was chosen so that all server related properties are
    grouped under a single key of the object hashref. This is so that other
    objects could layer on top of the Net::Server object class and still
    have a fairly clean namespace in the hashref.

    You may get and set properties in two ways. The suggested way is to
    access properties directly via

        my $val = $self->{server}->{key1};

    Accessing the properties directly will speed the server process - though
    some would deem this as bad style. A second way has been provided for
    object oriented types who believe in methods. The second way consists of
    the following methods:

        my $val = $self->get_property( 'key1' );
        my $self->set_property( key1 => 'val1' );

    Properties are allowed to be changed at any time with caution (please do
    not undef the sock property or you will close the client connection).

    "Net::Server" allows for the use of a configuration file to read in
    server parameters. The format of this conf file is simple key value
    pairs. Comments and blank lines are ignored.

        #-------------- file test.conf --------------

        ### user and group to become
        user        somebody
        group       everybody

        # logging ?
        log_file    /var/log/server.log
        log_level   3
        pid_file    /tmp/

        # optional syslog directive
        # used in place of log_file above
        #log_file       Sys::Syslog
        #syslog_logsock unix
        #syslog_ident   myserver
        #syslog_logopt  pid|cons

        # access control
        allow       .+\.(net|com)
        allow       domain\.com
        deny        a.+

        # background the process?
        background  1

        # ports to bind (this should bind
        # on IPv6 and
        # localhost:20204 on IPv4)
        # See Net::Server::Proto
        ipv         IPv6
        port        localhost:20204/IPv4
        port        20205

        # reverse lookups ?
        # reverse_lookups on

      #-------------- file test.conf --------------

    The process flow is written in an open, easy to override, easy to hook,
    fashion. The basic flow is shown below. This is the flow of the
    "$self->run" method.











        ### routines inside a standard $self->loop
        # $self->accept;
        # $self->run_client_connection;
        # $self->done;



    The server then exits.

    During the client processing phase ("$self->run_client_connection"), the
    following represents the program flow:




        if ($self->allow_deny
            && $self->allow_deny_hook) {


        } else {






    The process then loops and waits for the next connection. For a more in
    depth discussion, please read the code.

    During the server shutdown phase ("$self->server_close"), the following
    represents the program flow:

        $self->close_children;  # if any


        if (Restarting server) {



        This method incorporates the main process flow. This flow is listed

        The method run may be called in any of the following ways.

             MyPackage->run(port => 20201);

             MyPackage->new({port => 20201})->run;

             my $obj = bless {server=>{port => 20201}}, 'MyPackage';

        The ->run method should typically be the last method called in a
        server start script (the server will exit at the end of the ->run

        This method attempts to read configurations from the commandline,
        from the run method call, or from a specified conf_file (the
        conf_file may be specified by passed in parameters, or in the
        default_values). All of the configured parameters are then stored in
        the {"server"} property of the Server object.

        The post_configure hook begins the startup of the server. During
        this method running server instances are checked for, pid_files are
        created, log_files are created, Sys::Syslog is initialized (as
        needed), process backgrounding occurs and the server closes STDIN
        and STDOUT (as needed).

        This method is used to initialize all of the socket objects used by
        the server.

        This method actually binds to the inialized sockets (or rebinds if
        the server has been HUPed).

        During this method priveleges are dropped. The INT, TERM, and QUIT
        signals are set to run server_close. Sig PIPE is set to IGNORE. Sig
        CHLD is set to sig_chld. And sig HUP is set to call sig_hup.

        Under the Fork, PreFork, and PreFork simple personalities, these
        signals are registered using Net::Server::SIG to allow for safe
        signal handling.

        During this phase, the server accepts incoming connections. The
        behavior of how the accepting occurs and if a child process handles
        the connection is controlled by what type of Net::Server personality
        the server is using.

        Net::Server and Net::Server single accept only one connection at a

        Net::Server::INET runs one connection and then exits (for use by
        inetd or xinetd daemons).

        Net::Server::MultiPlex allows for one process to simultaneously
        handle multiple connections (but requires rewriting the
        process_request code to operate in a more "packet-like" manner).

        Net::Server::Fork forks off a new child process for each incoming

        Net::Server::PreForkSimple starts up a fixed number of processes
        that all accept on incoming connections.

        Net::Server::PreFork starts up a base number of child processes
        which all accept on incoming connections. The server throttles the
        number of processes running depending upon the number of requests
        coming in (similar to concept to how Apache controls its child
        processes in a PreFork server).

        Read the documentation for each of the types for more information.

        This method is called once the server has been signaled to end, or
        signaled for the server to restart (via HUP), or the loop method has
        been exited.

        This method takes care of cleaning up any remaining child processes,
        setting appropriate flags on sockets (for HUPing), closing up
        logging, and then closing open sockets.

        Can optionally be passed an exit value that will be passed to the
        server_exit call.

        This method is called at the end of server_close. It calls exit, but
        may be overridden to do other items. At this point all services
        should be shut down.

        Can optionally be passed an exit value that will be passed to the
        exit call.

        This method is run after the server has accepted and received a
        client connection. The full process flow is listed above under
        PROCESS FLOWS. This method takes care of handling each client

        This method opens STDIN and STDOUT to the client socket. This allows
        any of the methods during the run_client_connection phase to print
        directly to and read directly from the client socket.

        This method looks up information about the client connection such as
        ip address, socket type, and hostname (as needed).

        This method uses the rules defined in the allow and deny
        configuration parameters to determine if the ip address should be

        This method is intended to handle all of the client communication.
        At this point STDIN and STDOUT are opened to the client, the ip
        address has been verified. The server can then interact with the
        client connection according to whatever API or protocol the server
        is implementing. Note that the stub implementation uses STDIN and
        STDOUT and will not work if the no_client_stdout flag is set.

        This is the main method to override.

        The default method implements a simple echo server that will repeat
        whatever is sent. It will quit the child if "quit" is sent, and will
        exit the server if "exit" is sent.

        As of version 2.000, the client handle is passed as an argument.

        This method is used to clean up the client connection and to handle
        any parent/child accounting for the forking servers.

    "Net::Server" provides a number of "hooks" allowing for servers layered
    on top of "Net::Server" to respond at different levels of execution
    without having to "SUPER" class the main built-in methods. The placement
    of the hooks can be seen in the PROCESS FLOW section.

    Almost all of the default hook methods do nothing. To use a hook you
    simply need to override the method in your subclass. For example to add
    your own post_configure_hook you could do something like the following:

        package MyServer;

        sub post_configure_hook {
            my $self = shift;
            my $prop = $self->{'server'};

            # do some validation here

    The following describes the hooks available in the plain Net::Server
    class (other flavors such as Fork or PreFork have additional hooks).

        This hook takes place immediately after the "->run()" method is
        called. This hook allows for setting up the object before any built
        in configuration takes place. This allows for custom

        This hook occurs just after the reading of configuration parameters
        and initiation of logging and pid_file creation. It also occurs
        before the "->pre_bind()" and "->bind()" methods are called. This
        hook allows for verifying configuration parameters.

        This hook occurs just after the bind process and just before any
        chrooting, change of user, or change of group occurs. At this point
        the process will still be running as the user who started the

        This hook occurs after chroot, change of user, and change of group
        has occured. It allows for preparation before looping begins.

        This hook occurs after a socket becomes readible on an
        accept_multi_port request (accept_multi_port is used if there are
        multiple bound ports to accept on, or if the "multi_port"
        configuration parameter is set to true). This hook is intended to
        allow for processing of arbitrary handles added to the IO::Select
        used for the accept_multi_port. These handles could be added during
        the post_bind_hook. No internal support is added for processing
        these handles or adding them to the IO::Socket. Care must be used in
        how much occurs during the can_read_hook as a long response time
        will result in the server being susceptible to DOS attacks. A return
        value of true indicates that the Server should not pass the readible
        handle on to the post_accept and process_request phases.

        It is generally suggested that other avenues be pursued for sending
        messages via sockets not created by the Net::Server.

        This hook occurs after a client has connected to the server. At this
        point STDIN and STDOUT are mapped to the client socket. This hook
        occurs before the processing of the request.

        This hook allows for the checking of ip and host information beyond
        the "$self->allow_deny()" routine. If this hook returns 1, the
        client request will be processed, otherwise, the request will be
        denied processing.

        As of version 2.000, the client connection is passed as an argument.

        This hook occurs if either the "$self->allow_deny()" or
        "$self->allow_deny_hook()" have taken place.

        This hook occurs after the processing of the request, but before the
        client connection has been closed.

        This is one final hook that occurs at the very end of the
        run_client_connection method. At this point all other methods and
        hooks that will run during the run_client_connection have finished
        and the client connection has already been closed.

        item "$self->other_child_died_hook($pid)"

        Net::Server takes control of signal handling and child process
        cleanup; this makes it difficult to tell when a child process
        terminates if that child process was not started by Net::Server
        itself. If Net::Server notices another child process dying that it
        did not start, it will fire this hook with the PID of the terminated

        This hook occurs before the server begins shutting down.

        This hook handles writing to log files. The default hook is to write
        to STDERR, or to the filename contained in the parameter "log_file".
        The arguments passed are a log level of 0 to 4 (4 being very
        verbose), and a log line. If log_file is equal to "Sys::Syslog",
        then logging will go to Sys::Syslog and will bypass the

        This hook occurs when the server has encountered an unrecoverable
        error. Arguments passed are the error message, the package, file,
        and line number. The hook may close the server, but it is suggested
        that it simply return and use the built in shut down features.

        This hook occurs in the parent server process after all children
        have been shut down and just before the server either restarts or
        exits. It is intended for additional cleanup of information. At this
        point pid_files and lockfiles still exist.

        This hook occurs if a server has been HUPed (restarted via the HUP
        signal. It occurs just before reopening to the filenos of the
        sockets that were already opened.

        This hook occurs if a server has been HUPed (restarted via the HUP
        signal. It occurs just before restarting the server via exec.

        This hook is called during the forking servers. It is also called
        during run_dequeue. It runs just after the fork and after signals
        have been cleaned up. If it is a dequeue process, the string
        'dequeue' will be passed as an argument.

        If your child processes will be needing random numbers, this hook is
        a good location to initialize srand (forked processes maintain the
        same random seed unless changed).

            sub child_init_hook {
                # from perldoc -f srand
                srand(time ^ $$ ^ unpack "%L*", `ps axww | gzip -f`);

        Similar to the child_init_hook, but occurs just before the fork.

        Similar to the child_init_hook, but ran when the forked process is
        about to finish up.

        Allow for returning configuration values that will be used if no
        other value could be found.

        Should return a hashref.

            sub default_values {
                return {
                    port => 20201,

        Called when log_file is set to 'Sys::Syslog' and an error occurs
        while writing to the syslog. It is passed two arguments, the value
        of $@, and an arrayref containing the arguments that were passed to
        the log method when the error occured.

        Parameters are a log_level and a message.

        If log_level is set to 'Sys::Syslog', the parameters may alternately
        be a log_level, a format string, and format string parameters. (The
        second parameter is assumed to be a format string if additional
        arguments are passed along). Passing arbitrary format strings to
        Sys::Syslog will allow the server to be vulnerable to exploit. The
        server maintainer should make sure that any string treated as a
        format string is controlled.

            # assuming log_file = 'Sys::Syslog'

            $self->log(1, "My Message with %s in it");
            # sends "%s", "My Message with %s in it" to syslog

            $self->log(1, "My Message with %s in it", "Foo");
            # sends "My Message with %s in it", "Foo" to syslog

        If log_file is set to a file (other than Sys::Syslog), the message
        will be appended to the log file by calling the write_to_log_hook.

        If the log_file is Sys::Syslog and an error occurs during write, the
        handle_syslog_error method will be called and passed the error
        exception. The default option of handle_syslog_error is to die - but
        could easily be told to do nothing by using the following code in
        your subclassed server:

            sub handle_syslog_error {}

        It the log had been closed, you could attempt to reopen it in the
        error handler with the following code:

            sub handle_syslog_error {
                my $self = shift;

        As of Net::Server 0.91 there is finally a "new" method. This method
        takes a class name and an argument hashref as parameters. The
        argument hashref becomes the "server" property of the object.

            package MyPackage;
            use base qw(Net::Server);

            my $obj = MyPackage->new({port => 20201});

            # same as

            my $obj = bless {server => {port => 20201}}, 'MyPackage';

        Called during post_configure when the log_file option is set to
        'Sys::Syslog'. By default it use the parsed configuration options
        listed in this document. If more custom behavior is desired, the
        method could be overridden and Sys::Syslog::openlog should be called
        with the custom parameters.

        This method will close any remaining open sockets. This is called at
        the end of the server_close method.

    Each of the server personalities (except for INET), support restarting
    via a HUP signal (see "kill -l"). When a HUP is received, the server
    will close children (if any), make sure that sockets are left open, and
    re-exec using the same commandline parameters that initially started the
    server. (Note: for this reason it is important that @ARGV is not
    modified until "->run" is called).

    The Net::Server will attempt to find out the commandline used for
    starting the program. The attempt is made before any configuration files
    or other arguments are processed. The outcome of this attempt is stored
    using the method "->commandline". The stored commandline may also be
    retrieved using the same method name. The stored contents will
    undoubtedly contain Tainted items that will cause the server to die
    during a restart when using the -T flag (Taint mode). As it is
    impossible to arbitrarily decide what is taint safe and what is not, the
    individual program must clean up the tainted items before doing a

        sub configure_hook{
            my $self = shift;

            ### see the contents
            my $ref  = $self->commandline;
            use Data::Dumper;
            print Dumper $ref;

            ### arbitrary untainting - VERY dangerous
            my @untainted = map {/(.+)/;$1} @$ref;


    Each of the Fork and PreFork personalities support graceful shutdowns
    via the QUIT signal. When a QUIT is received, the parent will signal the
    children and then wait for them to exit.

    All server personalities support the normal TERM and INT signal

    Since version 2.000, the Fork and PreFork personalities have accepted
    the TTIN and TTOU signals. When a TTIN is received, the max_servers is
    increased by 1. If a TTOU signal is received the max_servers is
    decreased by 1. This allows for adjusting the number of handling
    processes without having to restart the server.

    If the log_level is set to at 3, then the new value is displayed in the

    The following files are installed as part of this distribution.


    Download and extract tarball before running these commands in its base

        perl Makefile.PL
        make test
        make install

    Paul Seamons <paul at>

    Thanks to Rob Brown (bbb at for help with miscellaneous
    concepts such as tracking down the serialized select via flock ala
    Apache and the reference to IO::Select making multiport servers
    possible. And for researching into allowing sockets to remain open upon
    exec (making HUP possible).

    Thanks to Jonathan J. Miner <miner at> for patching a
    blatant problem in the reverse lookups.

    Thanks to Bennett Todd <bet at> for pointing out a problem in
    Solaris 2.5.1 which does not allow multiple children to accept on the
    same port at the same time. Also for showing some sample code from
    Viktor Duchovni which now represents the semaphore option of the
    serialize argument in the PreFork server.

    Thanks to *traveler* and *merlyn* from for pointing
    me in the right direction for determining the protocol used on a socket

    Thanks to Jeremy Howard <j+daemonize at> for numerous
    suggestions and for work on Net::Server::Daemonize.

    Thanks to Vadim <vadim at> for patches to implement
    parent/child communication on

    Thanks to Carl Lewis for suggesting "-" in user names.

    Thanks to Slaven Rezic for suggesing Reuse => 1 in Proto::UDP.

    Thanks to Tim Watt for adding udp_broadcast to Proto::UDP.

    Thanks to Christopher A Bongaarts for pointing out problems with the
    Proto::SSL implementation that currently locks around the socket accept
    and the SSL negotiation. See Net::Server::Proto::SSL.

    Thanks to Alessandro Zummo for pointing out various bugs including some
    in configuration, commandline args, and cidr_allow.

    Thanks to various other people for bug fixes over the years. These and
    future thank-you's are available in the Changes file as well as CVS

    Thanks to Ben Cohen and tye (on Permonks) for finding and diagnosing
    more correct behavior for dealing with re-opening STDIN and STDOUT on
    the client handles.

    Thanks to Mark Martinec for trouble shooting other problems with STDIN
    and STDOUT (he proposed having a flag that is now the no_client_stdout

    Thanks to David (DSCHWEI) on cpan for asking for the nofatal option with

    Thanks to Andreas Kippnick and Peter Beckman for suggesting leaving open
    child connections open during a HUP (this is now available via the
    leave_children_open_on_hup flag).

    Thanks to LUPE on cpan for helping patch HUP with taint on.

    Thanks to Michael Virnstein for fixing a bug in the check_for_dead
    section of PreFork server.

    Thanks to Rob Mueller for patching PreForkSimple to only open lock_file
    once during parent call. This patch should be portable on systems
    supporting flock. Rob also suggested not closing STDIN/STDOUT but
    instead reopening them to /dev/null to prevent spurious warnings. Also
    suggested short circuit in post_accept if in UDP. Also for cleaning up
    some of the child managment code of PreFork.

    Thanks to Mark Martinec for suggesting additional log messages for
    failure during accept.

    Thanks to Bill Nesbitt and Carlos Velasco for pointing out double
    decrement bug in (rt #21271)

    Thanks to John W. Krahn for pointing out glaring precended with
    non-parened open and ||.

    Thanks to Ricardo Signes for pointing out setuid bug for perl 5.6.1 (rt

    Thanks to Carlos Velasco for updating the Syslog options (rt #21265).
    And for additional fixes later.

    Thanks to Steven Lembark for pointing out that no_client_stdout wasn't
    working with the Multiplex server.

    Thanks to Peter Beckman for suggesting allowing Sys::SysLog keyworks be
    passed through the ->log method and for suggesting we allow more types
    of characters through in syslog_ident. Also to Peter Beckman for
    pointing out that a poorly setup localhost will cause tests to hang.

    Thanks to Curtis Wilbar for pointing out that the Fork server called
    post_accept_hook twice. Changed to only let the child process call this,
    but added the pre_fork_hook method.

    And just a general Thanks You to everybody who is using Net::Server or
    who has contributed fixes over the years.

    Thanks to Paul Miller for some ->autoflush, FileHandle fixes.

    Thanks to Patrik Wallstrom for suggesting handling syslog errors better.

    Thanks again to Rob Mueller for more logic cleanup for child accounting
    in PreFork server.

    Thanks to David Schweikert for suggesting handling setlogsock a little
    better on newer versions of Sys::Syslog (>= 0.15).

    Thanks to Mihail Nasedkin for suggesting adding a hook that is now
    called post_client_connection_hook.

    Thanks to Graham Barr for adding the ability to set the check_for_spawn
    and min_child_ttl settings of the PreFork server.

    Thanks to Daniel Kahn Gillmor for adding the other_child_died_hook.

    Thanks to Dominic Humphries for helping not kill pid files on HUP.

    Thanks to Kristoffer Møllerhøj for fixing UDP on Multiplex.

    Thanks to mishikal for patches for helping identify un-cleaned up

    Thanks to rpkelly and tim@retout for pointing out error in header regex
    of HTTP.

    Thanks to dmcbride for some basic HTTP parsing fixes, as well as for
    some broken tied handle fixes.

    Thanks to Gareth for pointing out glaring bug issues with broken pipe
    and semaphore serialization.

    Thanks to CATONE for sending the idea for arbitrary signal passing to
    children. (See the sig_passthrough option)

    Thanks to intrigeri@boum for pointing out and giving code ideas for
    NS_port not functioning after a HUP.

    Thanks to Sergey Zasenko for adding sysread/syswrite support to SSLEAY
    as well as the base test.

    Thanks to mbarbon@users. for adding tally dequeue to prefork server.

    Thanks to stefanos@cpan for fixes to PreFork under Win32

    Thanks to Mark Martinec for much of the initial work towards getting
    IPv6 going.

    Thanks to the munin developers and Nicolai Langfeldt for hosting the
    development verion of Net::Server for so long and for fixes to the
    allow_deny checking for IPv6 addresses.

    Thanks to Tatsuhiko Miyagawa for feedback, and for suggesting adding
    graceful shutdowns and hot deploy (max_servers adjustment).

    Thanks to TONVOON@cpan for submitting a patch adding Log4perl

    Thanks to Miko O'Sullivan for fixes to HTTP to correct tainting issues
    and passing initial log fixes, and for patches to fix CLOSE on tied
    stdout and various other HTTP issues.

    Please see also Net::Server::Fork, Net::Server::INET,
    Net::Server::PreForkSimple, Net::Server::PreFork,
    Net::Server::MultiType, Net::Server::Single Net::Server::HTTP

    Improve test suite to fully cover code (using Devel::Cover). Anybody
    that wanted to send me patches to the t/*.t tests that improved coverage
    would earn a big thank you.


        Paul Seamons <paul at>

        Rob Brown <bbb at>

    This package may be distributed under the terms of either the

      GNU General Public License
        or the
      Perl Artistic License

    All rights reserved.