NAME

Mojo::UserAgent::Mockable - A Mojo User-Agent that can record and play back requests without Internet connectivity, similar to LWP::UserAgent::Mockable

VERSION

version 1.58

SYNOPSIS

my $ua = Mojo::UserAgent::Mockable->new( mode => 'record', file => '/path/to/file' );
my $tx = $ua->get($url);

# Then later...
my $ua = Mojo::UserAgent::Mockable->new( mode => 'playback', file => '/path/to/file' );

my $tx = $ua->get($url); 
# This is the same content as above. The saved response is returned, and no HTTP request is
# sent to the remote host.
my $reconstituted_content = $tx->res->body;

ATTRIBUTES

mode

Mode to operate in. One of:

file

File to record to / play back from.

unrecognized

What to do on an unexpected request. One of:

ignore_headers

Request header names to ignore when comparing a request made with this class to a stored request in playback mode. Specify 'all' to remove any headers from consideration. By default, the 'Connection', 'Host', 'Content-Length', and 'User-Agent' headers are ignored.

ignore_body

Ignore the request body entirely when comparing a request made with this class to a stored request in playback mode.

ignore_userinfo

Ignore the userinfo portion of the request URL's when comparing a request to a potential counterpart in playback mode.

request_normalizer

Optional subref. This is for when the requests require a more nuanced comparison (although it will be used in conjunction with the previous attributes).

The subref takes two parameters: the current Mojo::Message::Request and the recorded one. The subref should modify these request objects in-place so that they match each other for the parts where your code doesn't care, e.g. set an id or timestamp to the same value in both requests.

The return value is ignored, so a typical subref to ignore differences in any numerical id parts of the query path could look like this

request_normalizer => sub {
    my ($req, $recorded_req) = @_;
    for ($req, $recorded_req) {
        $_->url->path( $_->url->path =~ s|/\d+\b|/123|gr );
    }
},

METHODS

save

In record mode, save the transaction cache to the file specified by "file" for later playback.

THEORY OF OPERATION

Recording mode

For the life of a given instance of this class, all transactions made using that instance will be serialized and stored in memory. When the instance goes out of scope, or at any time "save" is called, the transaction cache will be written to the file specfied by "file" in JSON format. Transactions are stored in the cache in the order they were made.

The file's contents are pretty-printed and canonicalized (ie hash keys are sorted) so that mocks are easy to read and diffs are minimized.

Playback mode

When this class is instantiated, the instance will read the transaction cache from the file specified by "file". When a request is first made using the instance, if the request matches that of the first transaction in the cache, the request URL will be rewritten to that of the local host, and the response from the first stored transaction will be returned to the caller. Each subsequent request will be handled similarly, and requests must be made in the same order as they were originally made, i.e. if orignally the request order was A, B, C, with responses A', B', C', requests in order A, C, B will NOT return responses A', C', B'. Request A will correctly return response A', but request C will trigger an error (behavior configurable by the "unrecognized" option).

Request matching

Before comparing the current request with the recorded one, the requests are normalized using the subref in the request_normalizer attribute. The default is no normalization. See above for how to use it.

Two requests are considered to be equivalent if they have the same URL (order of query parameters notwithstanding), the same body content, and the same headers.

You may also exclude headers from consideration by means of the "ignore_headers" attribute. Or, you may excluse the request body from consideration by means of the "ignore_body" attribute.

CAVEATS

Encryption

The playback file generated by this module is unencrypted JSON. Treat the playback file as if its contents were being transmitted over an unsecured channel.

Local application server

Using this module against a local app, e.g.:

my $app = Mojolicious->new;
...

my $ua = Mojo::UserAgent::Mockable->new;
$ua->server->app($app);

Doesn't work, because in playback mode, requests are served from an internal Mojolicious instance. So if you blow that away, the thing stops working, natch. You should instead instantiate Mojo::Server::Daemon and connect to the app via the server's URL, like so:

use Mojo::Server::Daemon;
use Mojo::IOLoop;

my $app = Mojolicious->new;
$app->routes->any( ... );

my $daemon = Mojo::Server::Daemon->new(
    app => $app, 
    ioloop => Mojo::IOLoop->singleton,
    silent => 1,
);

my $listen = q{http://127.0.0.1};
$daemon->listen( [$listen] )->start;
my $port = Mojo::IOLoop->acceptor( $daemon->acceptors->[0] )->port;
my $url  = Mojo::URL->new(qq{$listen:$port})->userinfo('joeblow:foobar');

my $output_file = qq{/path/to/file.json};

my $mock = Mojo::UserAgent::Mockable->new(ioloop => Mojo::IOLoop->singleton, mode => 'record', file => $output_file);
my $tx = $mock->get($url);

Mojolicious::Lite

You will often see tests written using Mojolicious::Lite like so:

use Mojolicious::Lite;

get '/' => sub { ... };

post '/foo' => sub { ... };

And then, further down:

my $ua = Mojo::UserAgent->new;

is( $ua->get('/')->res->text, ..., 'Text OK' );

Or:

use Test::Mojo;
my $t = Test::Mojo->new;
$t->get_ok('/')->status_is(200)->text_is( ... );

And this is all fine. Where it stops being fine is when you have Mojo::UserAgent::Mockable on board:

use Mojolicious::Lite;

get '/' => sub { ... };

post '/foo' => sub { ... };

use Test::Mojo;
my $t = Test::Mojo->new;
my $mock = Mojo::UserAgent::Mockable->new( mode => 'playback', file => ... );
$t->get_ok('/')->status_is(200)->text_is( ... );

Mojolicious::Lite will replace the current UA's internal application server's application instance ("app" in Mojo::UserAgent::Server) with the Mojolicious::Lite application. This will break the playback functionality, as this depends on a custom Mojolicious application internal to the module. Instead, define your application in a separate package (not necessarily a separate file), like so:

package MyApp;
use Mojolicious::Lite;
get '/' => sub { ... };
post '/foo' => sub { ... };

# Actual test application
package main;

use Mojo::UserAgent::Mockable;
use Mojo::Server::Daemon;
use Mojo::IOLoop;
use Test::Mojo;

$app->routes->get('/' => sub { ... });
$app->routes->post('/foo' => sub { ... });

my $daemon = Mojo::Server::Daemon->new(
    app    => $app,
    ioloop => Mojo::IOLoop->singleton,
    silent => 1,
);

my $listen = q{http://127.0.0.1};
$daemon->listen( [$listen] )->start;
my $port = Mojo::IOLoop->acceptor( $daemon->acceptors->[0] )->port;
my $url  = Mojo::URL->new(qq{$listen:$port})->userinfo('joeblow:foobar');

my $mock = Mojo::UserAgent::Mockable->new(ioloop => Mojo::IOLoop::singleton, mode => playback, file => ... );
my $t = Test::Mojo->new;
$t->ua($mock);
$mock->get_ok($url->clone->path('/'))->status_is(200)->text_is( ... );

You can also do the following (as seen in t/030_basic_authentication.t):

use Mojolicious;
use Mojo::Server::Daemon;
use Mojo::IOLoop;

my $app = Mojolicious->new;
$app->routes->get('/' => sub { ... });
$app->routes->post('/foo' => sub { ... });

my $daemon = Mojo::Server::Daemon->new(
    app    => $app,
    ioloop => Mojo::IOLoop->singleton,
    silent => 1,
);

my $listen = q{http://127.0.0.1};
$daemon->listen( [$listen] )->start;
my $port = Mojo::IOLoop->acceptor( $daemon->acceptors->[0] )->port;
my $url  = Mojo::URL->new(qq{$listen:$port})->userinfo('joeblow:foobar');

my $mock = Mojo::UserAgent::Mockable->new(ioloop => Mojo::IOLoop::singleton, mode => playback, file => ... );
my $t = Test::Mojo->new;
$t->ua($mock);
$t->get_ok('/')->status_is(200)->content_is( ... );

Events

The following transaction level events will not be emitted during playback:

SEE ALSO

CONTRIBUTORS

Mike Eve https://github.com/ungrim97

Phineas J. Whoopee https://github.com/antoniel123

Marc Murray https://github.com/marcmurray

Steve Wagner <truroot at gmail.com>

Joel Berger <joel.a.berger at gmail.com>

Dan Book <grinnz at grinnz.com>

Stefan Adams <stefan@borgia.com>

Mohammad Anwar mohammad.anwar@yahoo.com

Johan Lindstrom johanl@cpan.org

David Cantrell david@cantrell.org.uk

Everyone on #mojo on irc.perl.org

AUTHOR

Kit Peters popefelix@gmail.com

COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

This software is copyright (c) 2021 by Kit Peters.

This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.