package Perl::Critic::Policy::InputOutput::RequireBriefOpen;

use 5.006001;
use strict;
use warnings;

use Readonly;

use List::MoreUtils qw(any);

use Perl::Critic::Utils qw{ :severities :classification :booleans
    hashify parse_arg_list
use base 'Perl::Critic::Policy';

our $VERSION = '1.140';


Readonly::Scalar my $DESC => q<Close filehandles as soon as possible after opening them..>;
Readonly::Scalar my $EXPL => [209];

Readonly::Scalar my $SCALAR_SIGIL => q<$>;
Readonly::Scalar my $GLOB_SIGIL   => q<*>;

# Identify the builtins that are equivalent to 'open' and 'close'. Note that
# 'return' is considered equivalent to 'close'.
Readonly::Hash my %CLOSE_BUILTIN => hashify( qw{
} );
Readonly::Hash my %OPEN_BUILTIN => hashify( qw{
} );

# Possible values for $is_lexical
Readonly::Scalar my $NOT_LEXICAL => 0;  # Guaranteed only false value
Readonly::Scalar my $LOCAL_LEXICAL => 1;
Readonly::Scalar my $NON_LOCAL_LEXICAL => 2;

Readonly::Scalar my $LAST_ELEMENT => -1;


sub supported_parameters {
    return (
            name            => 'lines',
            description     => 'The maximum number of lines between an open() and a close().',
            default_string  => '9',
            behavior        => 'integer',
            integer_minimum => 1,

sub default_severity     { return $SEVERITY_HIGH             }
sub default_themes       { return qw< core pbp maintenance > }
sub applies_to           { return 'PPI::Token::Word'         }


sub violates {
    my ( $self, $elem, undef ) = @_;

    # Is it a call to open?
    $OPEN_BUILTIN{$elem->content()} or return;
    return if ! is_function_call($elem);
    my @open_args = parse_arg_list($elem);
    return if 2 > @open_args; # not a valid call to open()

    my ($is_lexical, $fh) = _get_opened_fh($open_args[0]);
    return if not $fh;
    return if $fh =~ m< \A [*]? STD (?: IN|OUT|ERR ) \z >xms;

    for my $close_token ( $self->_find_close_invocations_or_return(
            $elem, $is_lexical ) ) {
        # The $close_token might be a close() or a return()
        #  It doesn't matter which -- both satisfy this policy
        if (is_function_call($close_token)) {
            my @close_args = parse_arg_list($close_token);

            my $close_parameter = $close_args[0];
            if ('ARRAY' eq ref $close_parameter) {
                $close_parameter = ${$close_parameter}[0];
            if ( $close_parameter ) {
                $close_parameter = "$close_parameter";
                return if $fh eq $close_parameter;

                if ( any { m< \A [*] >xms } ($fh, $close_parameter) ) {
                    (my $stripped_fh = $fh) =~ s< \A [*] ><>xms;
                    (my $stripped_parameter = $close_parameter) =~
                        s< \A [*] ><>xms;

                    return if $stripped_fh eq $stripped_parameter;
        elsif ($is_lexical && is_method_call($close_token)) {
            my $tok = $close_token->sprevious_sibling->sprevious_sibling;
            return if $fh eq $tok;

    return $self->violation( $DESC, $EXPL, $elem );

sub _find_close_invocations_or_return {
    my ($self, $elem, $is_lexical) = @_;

    my $parent = $self->_get_scope( $elem, $is_lexical );
    return if !$parent; # I can't think of a scenario where this would happen

    my $open_loc = $elem->location;
    # we don't actually allow _lines to be zero or undef, but maybe we will
    my $end_line = $self->{_lines} ? $open_loc->[0] + $self->{_lines} : undef;

    my $closes = $parent->find(sub {
        ##no critic (ProhibitExplicitReturnUndef)
        my ($parent, $candidate) = @_;  ## no critic(Variables::ProhibitReusedNames)
        return undef if $candidate->isa('PPI::Statement::Sub');
        my $candidate_loc = $candidate->location;
        return undef if !defined $candidate_loc->[0];
        return 0 if $candidate_loc->[0] < $open_loc->[0];
        return 0 if $candidate_loc->[0] == $open_loc->[0] && $candidate_loc->[1] <= $open_loc->[1];
        return undef if defined $end_line && $candidate_loc->[0] > $end_line;
        return 0 if !$candidate->isa('PPI::Token::Word');
        return $CLOSE_BUILTIN{ $candidate->content() } || 0;
    return @{$closes || []};

sub _get_scope {
    my ( $self, $elem, $is_lexical ) = @_;

    my $open_loc = $elem->location;
    my $end_line = ( $self->{_lines} && defined $open_loc->[0] ) ?
        $open_loc->[0] + $self->{_lines} :

    while ( my $dad = $elem->parent) {
        $elem = $dad;
        next if not $elem->scope;

        # If we are analyzing something like 'open my $fh ...', the
        # most-local scope suffices. RT #64437
        return $elem if $LOCAL_LEXICAL == $is_lexical;
        next if not defined $end_line;  # Presume search everywhere

        # If we are analyzing something like 'open $fh ...', 'open FH
        # ...', or 'open *FH ...' we need to use a scope that includes
        # the end of the legal range. We just give up and return the
        # current scope if we can not determine any of the locations
        # involved. RT #64437
        return $elem if not $open_loc;
        my $elem_loc = $elem->location
            or return $elem;
        my $last_kid = $elem->child( $LAST_ELEMENT )
            or return $elem;    # What? no children?
        my $last_kid_loc = $last_kid->location
            or return $elem;
        # At this point, the scope we have, even if it is not the
        # correct scope for the file handle, is big enough that if the
        # corresponding close() is outside it, it must be a violation.
        # RT #64437
        return $elem if $last_kid_loc->[0] > $end_line;
    return $elem;   # Whatever the top-level PPI::Node was.

sub _get_opened_fh {
    my ($tokens) = shift;

    my $is_lexical;
    my $fh;

    if ( 2 == @{$tokens} ) {
        if ('my' eq $tokens->[0] &&
            $tokens->[1]->isa('PPI::Token::Symbol') &&
            $SCALAR_SIGIL eq $tokens->[1]->raw_type) {

            $is_lexical = $LOCAL_LEXICAL;
            $fh = $tokens->[1];
    elsif (1 == @{$tokens}) {
        my $argument = _unwrap_block( $tokens->[0] );
        if ( $argument->isa('PPI::Token::Symbol') ) {
            my $sigil = $argument->raw_type();
            if ($SCALAR_SIGIL eq $sigil) {
                $is_lexical = $NON_LOCAL_LEXICAL;   # We need to
                                            # distinguish between
                                            # 'open my $fh ...' and
                                            # 'open $fh ...'. RT #64437
                $fh = $argument;
            elsif ($GLOB_SIGIL eq $sigil) {
                $is_lexical = $NOT_LEXICAL;
                $fh = $argument;
        elsif ($argument->isa('PPI::Token::Word') && $argument eq uc $argument) {
            $is_lexical = $NOT_LEXICAL;
            $fh = $argument;

    return ($is_lexical, $fh);

sub _unwrap_block {
    my ($element) = @_;

    return $element if not $element->isa('PPI::Structure::Block');

    my @children = $element->schildren();
    return $element if 1 != @children;
    my $child = $children[0];

    return $child if not $child->isa('PPI::Statement');

    my @grandchildren = $child->schildren();
    return $element if 1 != @grandchildren;

    return $grandchildren[0];





=for stopwords redeclared

=head1 NAME

Perl::Critic::Policy::InputOutput::RequireBriefOpen - Close filehandles as soon as possible after opening them.


This Policy is part of the core L<Perl::Critic|Perl::Critic>


One way that production systems fail unexpectedly is by running out of
filehandles.  Filehandles are a finite resource on every operating
system that I'm aware of, and running out of them is virtually
impossible to recover from.  The solution is to not run out in the
first place.  What causes programs to run out of filehandles?
Usually, it's leaks: you open a filehandle and forget to close it, or
just wait a really long time before closing it.

This problem is rarely exposed by test systems, because the tests
rarely run long enough or have enough load to hit the filehandle
limit.  So, the best way to avoid the problem is 1) always close all
filehandles that you open and 2) close them as soon as is practical.

This policy takes note of calls to C<open()> where there is no
matching C<close()> call within C<N> lines of code.  If you really
need to do a lot of processing on an open filehandle, then you can
move that processing to another method like this:

    sub process_data_file {
        my ($self, $filename) = @_;
        open my $fh, '<', $filename
            or croak 'Failed to read datafile ' .  $filename . '; ' . $OS_ERROR;
        close $fh;
    sub _parse_input_data {
        my ($self, $fh) = @_;
        while (my $line = <$fh>) {

As a special case, this policy also allows code to return the
filehandle after the C<open> instead of closing it.  Just like the
close, however, that C<return> has to be within the right number of
lines.  From there, you're on your own to figure out whether the code
is promptly closing the filehandle.

The STDIN, STDOUT, and STDERR handles are exempt from this policy.


This policy allows C<close()> invocations to be up to C<N> lines after
their corresponding C<open()> calls, where C<N> defaults to 9.  You
can override this to set it to a different number with the C<lines>
setting.  To do this, put entries in a F<.perlcriticrc> file like

  lines = 5

=head1 CAVEATS

=head2 C<IO::File-E<gt>new>

This policy only looks for explicit C<open> calls.  It does not detect
calls to C<CORE::open> or C<IO::File-E<gt>new> or the like.

=head2 Is it the right lexical?

We don't currently check for redeclared filehandles.  So the following
code is false negative, for example, because the outer scoped
filehandle is not closed:

    open my $fh, '<', $file1 or croak;
    if (open my $fh, '<', $file2) {
        print <$fh>;
        close $fh;

This is a contrived example, but it isn't uncommon for people to use
C<$fh> for the name of the filehandle every time.  Perhaps it's time
to think of better variable names...

=head1 CREDITS

Initial development of this policy was supported by a grant from the
Perl Foundation.

=head1 AUTHOR

Chris Dolan <>


Copyright (c) 2007-2011 Chris Dolan.  Many rights reserved.

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the same terms as Perl itself.  The full text of this license
can be found in the LICENSE file included with this module


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