# ABSTRACT: Riap over HTTP
# PODNAME: Riap::HTTP

__END__

=pod

=encoding UTF-8

=head1 NAME

Riap::HTTP - Riap over HTTP

=head1 VERSION

This document describes version 1.2.4 of Riap::HTTP (from Perl distribution Riap), released on 2015-09-04.

=head1 SYNOPSIS

This document specifies using HTTP/HTTPS as the transport layer for L<Riap>, or
Riap::HTTP for short.

=head1 DESCRIPTION

Riap::HTTP is designed to be implemented by API service providers. It allows
features like custom URL layout, multiple serialization format, and logging;
while depends on HTTP for other features like authentication, encryption
(HTTPS), etc. For a more lightweight alternative, look at L<Riap::Simple>.

Server listens to HTTP requests, parses them into Riap requests, executes the
Riap requests, and sends the results to clients.

=head2 Additional Riap request keys

=over 4

=item * fmt => STR

Specify output serialization format to use. The format names are decided by the
implementation, but server MUST support C<json> as the fallback. If unspecified,
default in most cases should also be C<json>, but server can default to other
format, like say L<HTML> or L<text>, for viewing convenience of certain clients
like GUI browser. Server should detect appropriate default output format from
C<Accept> HTTP request header.

To find out what serializations are supported, client can perform an C<srvinfo>
action.

Server should fallback to C<json> if requested result format is not supported.

=back

=head2 Additional actions

=head3 Action: B<srvinfo>

Just like C<info> action, but get information about the server instead. Server
MUST at least return the following keys in the result hash.

 {
  // server's absolute URL
  "srvurl": "http://localhost:5000/",

  // supported formats
  "fmt": ["Console","HTML","JSON","PHPSerialization","YAML","json"],
 }

=head2 Parsing Riap request from HTTP request

Server can provide defaults for some/all Riap request keys, so client does not
need to explicitly set a Riap request key. But server MUST provide a way for
client to set any Riap request key.

First, server MUST parse Riap request keys from HTTP C<X-Riap-*> request
headers, e.g. C<X-Riap-Action> header for setting the C<action> request key. In
addition, the server MUST parse the C<X-Riap-*-j-> headers for JSON-encoded
value (notice the ending C<->), e.g.

 X-Riap-Args-j-: {"arg1":"val1","arg2":[1,2,3],"arg3:base64":"AAAA"}

This allows the server to have its own URL scheme, while allowing a way for a
common access mechanism.

If HTTP header C<Content-Range> presents (partial content upload) then the Riap
request keys C<arg_len>, C<arg_part_start>, and C<arg_part_len> will be
accordingly set. Partial argument value will then be retrieved from HTTP body.
For example this HTTP request:

 PUT /api/?filename=myvideo.mp4 HTTP/1.1
 Host: example.com
 X-Riap-uri: /MyApp/upload_file
 Content-Type: application/octet_stream
 Content-Length: 124496
 Content-Range: bytes 409-124904/124905

when function metadata at /MyApp/upload_file is:

 {
     "v":1.1,
     "args":{
         "filename":{"schema":"str*", "req":1},
         "data":{"schema":"buf*", "req":1, "partial":1}
     }
 }

will send these arguments to function:

 {
     "filename":"myvideo.mp4",
     "data":"...data from upload...",
     "-arg_len":124905,
     "-arg_part_start":409,
     "-arg_part_len":124496
 }

Or, if HTTP request header C<Transfer-Encoding: chunked> is present, then server
will assume streaming input. Function eill

Otherwise, if there is no partial content upload, the server MUST also accept
C<args> from HTTP request body. The server MUST accept at least body of type
C<application/json>, but it can accept other types. The server MUST not
interpret C<application/x-www-form-urlencoded> for this purpose (and interpret
it as a normal web form). Server MUST return response 400 if document type is
not recognized.

The server can also accept Riap request keys or function arguments using other
means. For example, L<Plack::Middleware::PeriAHS::ParseRequest>, from Perl
server implementation, allows parsing Riap request keys like C<uri> from URI
path, and C<args> keys (as well as other Riap request keys, using C<-riap-*>
syntax) from request variables. For example:

 http://HOST/api/PKG/SUBPKG/FUN?a1=1&a2:j=[1,%202]&a3:base64=AAAA

might result in the following Riap request (note that JSON does not support
binary data, but below a binary data "\0\0\0" is represented):

 {
  "uri": '/PKG/SUBPKG/FUN',
  "action": 'call',
  "args": {"a1":1, "a2":[1,2], "a3":"\0\0\0"}
 }

Another example:

 http://HOST/api/PKG/FUN?-riap-action=complete_arg_val&-riap-arg=a1&-riap-word=x

will result in the following Riap request:

 {
  "uri": '/PKG/FUN',
  "action": 'complete_arg_val',
  "arg": 'a1',
  "word": 'x',
 }

=head1 SPECIFICATION VERSION

 1.2

=head1 HTTP RESPONSE

HTTP response status MUST be 200 for success.

There are some HTTP response headers related to Riap::HTTP: C<X-Riap-V> is
REQUIRED and gives information on the Riap::HTTP protocol version supported by
the server. C<X-Riap-Logging> is optional and advertises loglevel server support
(see L</LOGGING>).

The response body is an enveloped result (as described in L<Rinci::function>)
encoded in JSON or other requested format.

=head1 LOGGING

Riap over HTTP also allows a mechanism to pass logging messages during function
calls by using HTTP chunked response.

Server can opt NOT to support this feature. Server supporting this feature MUST
advertise the fact by sending HTTP response header C<X-Riap-Logging> with a Perl
true value.

Additional Riap request key B<loglevel> is recognized for this, an integer
number with value either 0 (for none, the default), 1 (for sending fatal
messages), 2 (error), 3 (warn), 4 (info), 5 (debug), and 6 (trace). When a value
larger than 0 is specified, server supporting this feature must return chunked
HTTP response and each log message should be sent as a separate chunk. Each log
message must be prepended with "l" followed by number of bytes of content (e.g.
"20") followed by a single space character followed by the content (in this
example, exactly 20 bytes of it). Result is similarly prepended but with "r"
instead of "l".

=head1 OUTPUT STREAM

Rinci supports function returning output stream. This is marked by the result
being a filehandle or an object that has a getline()/getitem() method and result
metadata property C<stream> is set to true.

In Riap::HTTP, this is translated to chunked transfer. The first data chunk will
be something like (in JSON): C<< [200,"OK","stream",{"stream":1}] >> and the
next chunks will contain the data for the output stream. A Riap::HTTP client can
convert the "stream" part into an object that has a getline()/getitem() method
to retrieve data from these chunks.

=head1 EXAMPLES

Below are some examples of what is sent and received over the wire. For these
examples, the server has the following URL scheme http://example.org/api/<URI>.
Server also assume the default values for these Riap request keys so they do not
have to be specified by client: C<v> (1.1), C<action> (call).

Call a function, passing function arguments via query parameter, unsuccessfully
because of missing argument:

 --- Request ---
 GET /api/Math/multiply2?a=2&-riap-v=1.2 HTTP/1.0
 Accept: application/json

 --- Response ---
 HTTP/1.0 200 OK
 Date: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 06:02:40 GMT
 Server: PeriAHS/0.50
 X-Riap-V: 1.2.0
 Content-Type: application/json

 [400,"Missing required argument: b",null,{"riap.v":1.2}]

Call the same function, successfully this time (using Riap 1.1). As a variation
we pass function arguments through the X-Riap-Args HTTP header:

 --- Request ---
 GET /api/Math/multiply2 HTTP/1.0
 X-Riap-Args-j-: {"a":2,"b":3}
 Accept: application/json

 --- Response ---
 HTTP/1.0 200 OK
 Date: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 06:02:50 GMT
 Server: PeriAHS/0.50
 X-Riap-V: 1.1.24
 Content-Type: application/json

 [200,"OK",6]

Another example demonstrating C<loglevel>. Note that if server does not send
C<X-Riap-Logging> response header, it means the server does not support logging
and send 'unlogged' response.

 --- Request ---
 GET /Perinci/Examples/call_randlog?-riap-loglevel=6&n=3 HTTP/1.1
 User-Agent: curl/7.30.0
 Host: localhost:5000
 Accept: */*

 --- Response ---
 HTTP/1.1 200 OK
 Server: Gepok/0.26
 Content-Type: text/plain
 Date: Thu, 23 Oct 2013 06:02:55 GMT
 Connection: Keep-Alive
 Transfer-Encoding: chunked
 X-Riap-V: 1.1.24
 X-Riap-Logging: 1

 l96 [critical][Sat Dec 21 13:18:13 2013] (1/3) This is random log message #1, level=1 (fatal): 2185
 l93 [trace][Sat Dec 21 13:18:13 2013] (2/3) This is random log message #2, level=6 (trace): 5845
 l93 [trace][Sat Dec 21 13:18:13 2013] (3/3) This is random log message #3, level=6 (trace): 3479

=head1 FAQ

=head2 Why not directly return status from enveloped result as HTTP response status?

Since enveloped result is modeled somewhat closely after HTTP message,
especially the status code, it might make sense to use the status code directly
as HTTP status. But this means losing the ability to differentiate between the
two. We want the client to be able to differentiate whether the 500 (Internal
server error) or 404 (Not found) code it is getting is from the HTTP
server/proxies/client or from the enveloped result.

=head2 Riap/Riap::HTTP vs REST? Which one to choose for my web service?

Riap maps code entities (packages and functions), while REST maps resources
(like business entities) to URI's. For example:

 # Riap
 /User/             # package
 /User/list_users   # function
 /User/create_user  # function

 # REST (verb + URI)
 GET /user          # list users
 GET /user/123      # get specific user
 POST /user         # create a new user
 PATCH /user/123    # modify user
 DELETE /user/123

Riap is more RPC style, and it is more straightforward if you want to export a
set of code modules and functions as API. But it also defines standard and
extensible "verbs" (actions). It also helps service discoverability and
self-description due to the C<list> action and the rich Rinci metadata.
Riap::HTTP can also use custom routing so if you want you can make it use REST
style, while still fulfilling request with Riap in the backend. For example, see
L<Serabi> in Perl.

=head2 How to do Rinci's partial input data on Riap::HTTP?

To send partial argument value, you can send HTTP headers C<Content-Range> which
will be translated to C<arg_part_start> and C<arg_part_len> Riap request keys,
which will then be passed to function as C<-arg_part_start> and
C<-arg_part_len>.

=head2 How to do Rinci's partial result on Riap::HTTP?

To request partial result, you can send HTTP headers C<Range> which will be
translated to C<res_part_start> and C<res_part_len> Riap request keys, which
will then be passed to function as C<-res_part_start> and C<-res_part_len>.

Normal HTTP response (without any C<Range> HTTP response headers) will be
returned. If function supports partial result, the enveloped response contained
in the HTTP response will be something like C<< [206, "Partial content",
"...partial data...", {"riap.v":1.2, "len":TL, "part_start":S, "part_len":L}] >>
where the numbers represented by S, L will correspond to the range requested.

=head2 How to do Rinci's streaming input on Riap::HTTP?

Client can send a chunked transfer. See L</"Parsing Riap request from HTTP
request"> for more details.

=head2 How to do Rinci's streaming output on Riap::HTTP?

Send can send a chunked transfer. See L</"OUTPUT STREAM"> for more details.

=head1 SEE ALSO

L<Riap::Simple>

=head1 HOMEPAGE

Please visit the project's homepage at L<https://metacpan.org/release/Riap>.

=head1 SOURCE

Source repository is at L<https://github.com/perlancar/perl-Riap>.

=head1 BUGS

Please report any bugs or feature requests on the bugtracker website L<https://rt.cpan.org/Public/Dist/Display.html?Name=Riap>

When submitting a bug or request, please include a test-file or a
patch to an existing test-file that illustrates the bug or desired
feature.

=head1 AUTHOR

perlancar <perlancar@cpan.org>

=head1 COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

This software is copyright (c) 2015 by perlancar@cpan.org.

This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.

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