NAME

Perinci::CmdLine::Manual::Examples - Collection of examples

VERSION

This document describes version 1.811.0 of Perinci::CmdLine::Manual::Examples (from Perl distribution Perinci-CmdLine), released on 2018-03-17.

DESCRIPTION

In the examples, Perinci::CmdLine::Any is used to show examples that are applicable to either Perinci::CmdLine::Classic or Perinci::CmdLine::Lite. For examples that are more appropriate or only applicable to specific implementation, the specific module will be used.

Perinci::CmdLine::Classic is hereby referred to as PC::Classic, while Perinci::CmdLine as PC::Lite.

BASICS

Simplest application

Since Perinci::CmdLine is function- and metadata-based, you need to create at least one function and add some metadata for it. And you'll need to return the result as an enveloped response. The simplest is something like:

 #!perl
 use strict;
 use warnings;
 use Perinci::CmdLine::Any;

 our %SPEC;
 $SPEC{hello} = {
     v => 1.1,
     summary => 'Say hello',
 };
 sub hello {
     [200, "OK", "Hello, world!"];
 }

 Perinci::CmdLine::Any->new(url => '/main/hello')->run;

The url attribute specifies the location of the function in URL format (see Riap for more details on the syntax of URL). It is basically a fully-qualified function name, with :: replaced with /. With this URL-based syntax, it is possible to use a remote and/or non-Perl function for the CLI application.

The hash in $SPEC{hello} is called a Rinci metadata. The keys are called properties. There are two properties: v (which is always required with the value of 1.1 to specify version) and summary (which is actually optional, to describe the function).

In this example, the function and its metadata is put inside the same script. You can of course put them in a separate Perl module, and use them with e.g. url => '/Your/Module/func'. It is also worth mentioning that if you use the Perinci::CmdLine framework, your functions can also be used directly by other Perl modules/code since they are just regular Perl functions.

The function returns a 3-element array containing HTTP-like status code, a status message, and the actual result.

If you save the above script as hello run it on the command-line:

 % ./hello
 Hello, world!

Yup, not very interesting. You get help message for free:

 % ./hello --help
 % ./hello -h

As well as some common options like --format to return the result in a different format:

 % ./hello --json
 [200,"OK","Hello, world!"]

 % ./hello --format perl; # only in PC::Classic, not available in PC::Lite
 [200, "OK", "Hello, world!"]

FUNCTION ARGUMENTS AND COMMAND-LINE OPTIONS

Basics

Function arguments map to command-line options. Example:

 #!perl
 use strict;
 use warnings;
 use Perinci::CmdLine::Any;

 our %SPEC;
 $SPEC{hello} = {
     v => 1.1,
     summary => 'Say hello',
     args => {
         name => {
             summary => 'Name to say hello to',
         },
     },
 };
 sub hello {
     my %args = @_;
     [200, "OK", "Hello, $args{name}!"];
 }

 Perinci::CmdLine::Any->new(url => '/main/hello')->run;

When you run this:

 % ./hello --name Jimmy
 Hello, Jimmy!

If you run ./hello --help, the option is now mentioned as well in the help message.

Unknown arguments will result in an error:

 % ./hello --gender m
 ERROR 400: Unknown option '--gender'

To specify that an argument is required, add req property to the argument specification with a true value:

     args => {
         name => {
             summary => 'Name to say hello to',
             req => 1,
         },
     },

So when you run the app:

 % ./hello
 ERROR 400: Missing required argument 'name'

To specify that an argument can also be specified via positional command-line argument instead of just command-line option, add pos property to the argument specification:

     args => {
         name => {
             summary => 'Name to say hello to',
             req => 1,
             pos => 0,
         },
     },

So when you run the app you can specify:

 % ./hello --name Jimmy
 Hello, Jimmy!

as well as:

 % ./hello Jimmy
 Hello, Jimmy!

Extra arguments will also result in an error:

 % ./hello Jimmy Gideon
 ERROR 400: Extra argument 'Gideon'

Argument schema (and more on text output formats)

Following up from the previous example, here's another example with more arguments. Also note that I use PC::Classic since PC::Lite doesn't do schema validation.

 #!perl
 use 5.010;
 use strict;
 use warnings;
 use Perinci::CmdLine;

 our %SPEC;
 $SPEC{hello} = {
     v => 1.1,
     summary => 'Say hello',
     args => {
         name => {
             summary => 'Name(s) to say hello to',
             schema  => [array => {of => 'str', min_len=>1}],
             req     => 1,
             pos     => 0,
             greedy  => 1,
         },
         gender => {
             summary => 'The gender of the name(s)',
             schema  => [str => {in => ['m','f']}],
         },
     },
 };
 sub hello {
     my %args = @_;
     my $g = $args{gender};
     my @res;
     for my $name (@{ $args{name} // [] }) {
         push @res, join("",
             "Hello, ",
             (!$g ? "" : $g eq 'm' ? "Mr. " : "Mrs. "),
             $name, '!',
         );
     }
     [200, "OK", \@res];
 }
 Perinci::CmdLine->new(url => '/main/hello')->run;

If you run this program:

 % ./hello Jimmy Sion Habil
 % ./hello --name Jimmy --name Sion --name Habil
 Hello, Jimmy!
 Hello, Sion!
 Hello, Habil!

 % ./hello --name-json '["Jimmy","Sion","Habil"]' --gender m
 Hello, Mr. Jimmy!
 Hello, Mr. Sion!
 Hello, Mr. Habil!

Some things you might notice. First, there is a schema property for each argument. name is specified as having a type of array of strings. To set this argument from the CLI, you can either specify multiple times (e.g. --name NAME1 --name NAME2 ...) or specify using JSON (i.e. --name-json JSONSTR).

Second, the name argument specifies the greedy property. This is used in conjunction with the pos property. It declares that the argument will gobble up command-line arguments from pos to the end. So you can also specify the values of the name argument with ARG1 ARG2 ....

Third, if you specify value that does not validate, an error will be produced.

 % ./hello --name-json '[]'
 ERROR 400: Invalid value for argument 'name': Length must be at least 1

 % ./hello --name Jimmy --name Sion --name Habil --gender x
 ERROR 400: Invalid value for argument 'gender': Must be one of ["m","f"]

See Data::Sah for more about the schema syntax.

Fourth, you return the result as a data structure (an array) instead of directly printing the result using print() or say(). This is done to make your function more reusable outside the context of CLI. PC::Classic will format your data structure nicely using Data::Format::Pretty. Your array will be printed as a multicolumn ANSI table by default, on interactive mode. If you pipe the output of your program, you will by default get a simpler text output. This can be chosen explicitly using the --format common option.

 % ./hello Jimmy Sion Habil --format text; # will output pretty or simple depending on whether interactive
 % ./hello Jimmy Sion Habil --format text-simple; # will still output simple table even when interactive
 % ./hello Jimmy Sion Habil --format text-pretty; # will still output pretty table even when piped

Short option aliases

To add short options, you can use the cmdline_aliases property in the argument specification:

         name => {
             ...
             cmdline_aliases => { n => {} },
         },
         gender => {
             ...
             cmdline_aliases => { g => {} },
         },

Now instead of:

 % ./hello --name Jimmy --name Sion --name Habil --gender m

you can also use:

 % ./hello -n Jimmy -n Sion -n Habil -g m

More on command-line option aliases

You are not limited to one alias, or one letter:

         gender => {
             ...
             cmdline_aliases => { g => {}, sex => {} },
         },

Now all these are equivalent:

 % ./hello ... --gender m
 % ./hello ... -g m
 % ./hello ... --sex m

Suppose you want to create an alias -m to mean --gender m and -f to mean --gender f instead:

         gender => {
             ...
             cmdline_aliases => {
                 m => { schema=>'bool', code => sub {my $args=shift; $args->{gender} = 'm' } },
                 f => { schema=>'bool', code => sub {my $args=shift; $args->{gender} = 'f' } },
             },
         },

Now you can say:

 % ./hello Jimmy Sion -m
 Hello, Mr. Jimmy!
 Hello, Mr. Sion!

 % ./hello Nunung Misye -f
 Hello, Mrs. Nunung!
 Hello, Mrs. Misye!

My function has some cmdline_aliases or cmdline_src defined but I want to change it!

For example, your f1 function metadata might look like this:

 package Package::F1;
 our %SPEC;
 $SPEC{f1} = {
     v => 1.1,
     args => {
         foo => {
             cmdline_aliases => { f=> {} },
         },
         bar => { ... },
         fee => { ... },
     },
 };
 sub f1 { ... }
 1;

And your command-line script f1:

 #!perl
 use Perinci::CmdLine;
 Perinci::CmdLine->new(url => '/Package/F1/f1')->run;

Now you want to create a command-line script interface for this function, but with -f as an alias for --fee instead of --foo. This is best done by modifying the metadata and creating a wrapper function to do this, e.g. your command-line script f1 becomes:

 package main;
 use Perinci::CmdLine;
 use Package::F1;
 use Data::Clone;
 our %SPEC;
 $SPEC{f1} = clone $Package::F1::SPEC{f1};
 delete $SPEC{f1}{args}{foo}{cmdline_aliases};
 $SPEC{f1}{args}{fee}{cmdline_aliases} = {f=>{}};
 *f1 = \&Package::F1::f1;
 Perinci::CmdLine->new(url => '/main/f1')->run;

This also demonstrates the convenience of having the metadata as a data structure: you can manipulate it however you want. There is also a convenient helper function available in Perinci::Sub::Util when you want to create a modified subroutine based on another:

 package main;
 use Perinci::CmdLine;
 use Perinci::Sub::Util qw(gen_modified_sub);

 gen_modified_sub(
     output_name => 'f1',
     base_name   => 'Package::F1::f1',
     modify_args => {
         foo => sub { my $as = shift; delete $as->{cmdline_aliases}   },
         fee => sub { my $as = shift; $as->{cmdline_aliases} = {f=>{} },
     },
 );
 Perinci::CmdLine->new(url => '/main/f1')->run;

Overriding common option

Example: My function has argument named 'format', but it is blocked by common option '--format'!

To add/remove/rename common options, see the documentation on common_opts attribute. In this case, you want:

 delete $cmd->common_opts->{format};
 #delete $cmd->common_opts->{format_options}; # you might also want this

or perhaps rename it:

 $cmd->common_opts->{output_format} = $cmd->common_opts->{format};
 delete $cmd->common_opts->{format};

INPUT

Accepting input from STDIN (or files)

If you specify 'cmdline_src' to 'stdin' to a 'str' argument, the argument's value will be retrieved from standard input if not specified. Example:

 use Perinci::CmdLine;
 $SPEC{cmd} = {
     v => 1.1,
     args => {
         arg => {
             schema => 'str*',
             cmdline_src => 'stdin',
         },
     },
 };
 sub cmd {
     my %args = @_;
     [200, "OK", "arg is '$args{arg}'"];
 }
 Perinci::CmdLine->new(url=>'/main/cmd')->run;

When run from command line:

 % cat file.txt
 This is content of file.txt
 % cat file.txt | cmd
 arg is 'This is content of file.txt'

If your function argument is an array, array of lines will be provided to your function.

Note that this will glob the whole content of input into memory. If you want streaming, see the next section.

Accept streaming input

To accept streaming input, you specify one or more of your arguments as stream=>1. Also, these arguments need to specify their source either from file, STDIN, or STDIN/files, by setting cmdline_src => file|stdin|stdin_or_files, because otherwise, just receiving value from command-line option like --arg val is not very interesting :-). You will receive your function argument as a coderef which you can call repeatedly until input is exhausted (at the point of which the coderef will return undef).

 $SPEC{perl_wc} = {
     v => 1.1,
     args => {
         input => {
             schema => 'str*',
             stream => 1,
             cmdline_src => 'stdin_or_files',
         },
     },
 };
 sub perl_wc {
     my %args = @_;
     my $input = $args{input};

     my $chars = 0;
     my $words = 0;
     my $lines = 0;
     while (my $line = $input->()) {
         $lines++;
         $chars += length($line);
         chomp $line;
         my @w = split /[ \t]+/o, $line; $words += @w;
     }

     [200, "OK", {chars=>$chars, words=>$words, lines=>$lines}];
 }

When run:

 % ls -l | perl_wc
 +-------+-------+
 | key   | value |
 +-------+-------+
 | chars |  1995 |
 | lines |    42 |
 | words |    61 |
 +-------+-------+

Note: by default you will get string/text input line-by-line, and for binary (buf) per-64k. This will be configurable in the future.

If argument type is not simple (e.g. an array or hash), then JSON stream input will be assumed. This means, each line of input will be parsed as JSON.

OUTPUT

Default output format

TODO

Removing borders

By default, the text format produces bordered tables in interactive mode, e.g. if you have this program:

 $SPEC{foo} = {v=>1.1};
 sub foo {
     [200, "OK", [[1,2], [3,4], [5,6]]];
 }
 use Perinci::CmdLine::Any;
 Perinci::CmdLine::Any->new(url => '/main/foo')->run;

and you run it, you will have:

 % foo
 +---+---+
 | 1 | 2 |
 | 3 | 4 |
 | 5 | 6 |
 +---+---+

and if you use --format text-simple, only then it will become a tab-separated format:

 % foo --format text-simple
 1       2
 3       4
 5       6

But if you don't like this formatting and want to default to simpler formatting by default, you can add cmdline.default_format attribute to your function metadata:

 $SPEC{foo} = {v=>1.1, 'cmdline.default_format' => 'text-simple'};

Using this attribute, you can also default to JSON, and so on if you want.

You can also do this on a per-result basis, by adding cmdline.default_format attribute in your result metadata, e.g.:

 sub foo {
     [200, "OK", [[1,2], [3,4], [5,6]], {'cmdline.default_format'=>'text-simple'}];
 }

Streaming output

To produce streaming output, set stream=>1 in result spec in function metadata. Then in your function, return a subroutine reference that will allow caller to read data from.

 $SPEC{nat} = {
     v => 1.1,
     summary => 'Generate an infinite sequence of natural numbers',
     args => {},
     result => {
         stream => 1,
         schema => 'str*',
     },
 };
 sub nat {
     my $n = 1;
     [200, "OK", sub { $n++ }];
 }

If result type is not simple (e.g. an array or hash), then each record will be encoded into JSON, to produce JSON stream.

If you want to return a file content as a stream (instead of slurping the whole content into memory):

 $SPEC{catfile} = {
     v => 1.1,
     summary => "Display file contents",
     args => { file => { schema => 'filename*', req=>1, pos=>0 } },
     result => { stream => 1, schema => 'str*' },
 };
 sub catfile {
     my %args = @_;
     my $file = $args{file};
     open my $fh, "<", $file or return [500, "Can't open file '$file': $!"];
     [200, "OK", sub { scalar(<$fh>) }];
 }

Adding support for new format

TODO

Pager

TODO

CONFIGURATION

Basics

In the function-centric world of Perinci::CmdLine, configuration is just another way to supply values to function arguments (before being potentially overridden by command-line arguments). Configuration files are written in IOD format, which is basically "INI with extra features". By default, configuration files are searched in /etc and then your home directory, with the name of program_name + .conf. So if you have:

 # ~/prog.conf
 foo=1
 bar=2

and:

 # prog
 #!perl
 use Perinci::CmdLine::Any;
 $SPEC{prog} = {
     v => 1.1,
     args => {
         foo => {},
         bar => {},
     },
 };
 sub prog {
     my %args = @_;
     [200, "OK", "foo is $args{foo}, while bar is $args{bar}"];
 }
 Perinci::CmdLine::Any->new(url=>'/main/prog')->run;

When you run:

 % prog

you'll get:

 foo is 1, while bar is 2

Multiple configuration files will be merged, so if you have:

 # /etc/prog.conf
 foo=1
 bar=2

 # ~/prog.conf
 foo=10

you'll get:

 foo is 10, while bar is 2

Configuration profiles

Configuration file can store more than one set of arguments, through specially named sections, called profiles:

 # ~/prog.conf
 foo=1
 bar=2

 [profile=p1]
 foo=21
 bar=22

 [profile=p2]
 foo=31
 bar=32

Running the program:

 % prog
 foo is 1, while bar is 2
 % prog --config-profile p1
 foo is 21, while bar is 22
 % prog --config-profile p2
 foo is 31, while bar is 32

Configuration with subcommands

TODO

Ignoring configuration files

If you don't want to use any configuration files, you can use:

 % prog --noconfig ...

DEBUGGING

TODO

REMOTE FUNCTION

SHELL COMPLETION

Custom completion

By default, Perinci::Sub::Complete's complete_arg_val() can employ some heuristics to complete argument values, e.g. from the in clause or max and min:

 $SPEC{set_ticket_status} = {
     v => 1.1,
     args => {
         ticket_id => { ... },
         status => {
             schema => ['str*', in => [qw/new open stalled resolved rejected/],
         },
     },
 }

But if you want to supply custom completion, the Rinci::function specification allows specifying a completion property for your argument, for example:

 use Complete::Util qw(complete_array_elem);
 $SPEC{del_user} = {
     v => 1.1,
     args => {
         username => {
             schema => 'str*',
             req => 1,
             pos => 0,
             completion => sub {
                 my %args = @_;

                 # get list of users from database or whatever
                 my @users = ...;
                 complete_array_elem(array=>\@users, word=>$args{word});
             },
         },
         ...
     },
 };

You can use completion in your command-line program:

 % del-user --username <tab>
 % del-user <tab> ; # since the 'username' argument has pos=0

My custom completion does not work, how do I debug it?

Completion works by the shell invoking our (the same) program with COMP_LINE and COMP_POINT environment variables. You can do something like this to see debugging information:

 % COMP_LINE='myprog --arg x' COMP_POINT=13 PERL5OPT=-MLog::ger::App TRACE=1 myprog --arg x

You can also use the testcomp utility (included in the App::CompleteUtils distribution) to help debug your custom completion:

 % testcomp myprog --arg x^

Place the ^ caret character to simulate the position of the cursor when tab-completion is attempted.

I18N

OTHERS

Modifying common options

Customizing help message

Dealing with binary data

(Client) (Server) Dealing with binary data

The choice as JSON as the network transport protocol for Riap (because it is the lowest common denominator across languages like JavaScript, PHP, Python, Ruby, Perl) makes dealing with binary data requires an extra step or two. The Perinci::CmdLine framework are equipped with some features to make this simpler and more convenient.

First, to make a function that accepts binary data (in its arguments), you need to specify the argument type as buf. To return binary data as result, you need to specify result's schema type as buf. Example:

 package MyLib;
 our %SPEC;
 $SPEC{gzip} = {
     v => 1.1,
     summary => 'Gzip some data',
     args => {
         data => {
             summary => 'Data to compress',
             schema => 'buf*',
             req => 1,
         },
     },
 };
 sub gzip {
     require IO::Compress::Gzip;

     my %args = @_;
     my $compressed;
     IO::Compress::Gzip::gzip($args{data} => $compressed)
         or return [500, "Compression failed"];
     [200, "OK", $compressed];
 }

If you use this function in Perinci::CmdLine, you will get the command-line option --data-base64 in addition to the usual --data. With --data-base64, you can specify binary data including NUL bytes from the command-line.

If you specify the argument as accepting data from stdin or files like this:

     args => {
         data => {
             summary => 'Data to compress',
             schema => 'buf*',
             req => 1,
             cmdline_src => 'stdin_or_files',
         },
     },

you can pass binary data, e.g.:

 % yourprog < /some/bindata

Perinci::CmdLine will take care of encoding this data to network server when you specify riap_version attribute to 1.2. So this process is transparent to you.

When outputting binary result, in the text output formats, Perinci::CmdLine will also print the binary result from server as-is without any newline added. So you can pipe binary data to files/processes unmodified.

SUBCOMMANDS

Default subcommand

A default subcommand can be defined. This subcommand is selected without user specifying it the first command-line argument. A real-world example of this is from File::Trash::Undoable. The trash-u command is by default selecting the trash subcommand:

 % trash-u file1 file2

is equivalent to:

 % trash-u --cmd trash file1 file2

To select another subcommand other than trash, an explicit option is needed:

 % trash-u --list-contents ; # select the list_contents subcommand
 % trash-u --cmd empty     ; # select the empty subcommand

This is done via something like:

 Perinci::CmdLine->new(
     subcommands => {
         trash => { url=>... },
         empty => { url=>... },
         list_contents => { url=>... },
     },
     default_subcommand => 'trash',
 )->run;

Default subcommand (override via first command-line argument)

There is also a choice to specify a default subcommand which is overrideable via first command-line argument. A real-world example of this is from App::GitUtils. If the gu command is specified without any argument:

 % gu

then it is equivalent to:

 % gu info

but user can specify other subcommands:

 % gu post-commit

This is accomplished by setting:

 Perinci::CmdLine::Any->new(
     subcommands => {
         info        => {...},
         run_hooks   => {...},
         post_commit => {...},
         ...
     },
     default_subcommand => 'info',
     get_subcommand_from_arg => 2,
 )->run;

Dynamic list of subcommands

TODO

HOMEPAGE

Please visit the project's homepage at https://metacpan.org/release/Perinci-CmdLine.

SOURCE

Source repository is at https://github.com/perlancar/perl-Perinci-CmdLine.

BUGS

Please report any bugs or feature requests on the bugtracker website https://rt.cpan.org/Public/Dist/Display.html?Name=Perinci-CmdLine

When submitting a bug or request, please include a test-file or a patch to an existing test-file that illustrates the bug or desired feature.

SEE ALSO

Perinci::CmdLine::Manual

Perinci::Examples

AUTHOR

perlancar <perlancar@cpan.org>

COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

This software is copyright (c) 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015 by perlancar@cpan.org.

This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.