package Perinci::CmdLine::Manual; # just to make podweaver happy


# ABSTRACT: Perinci::CmdLine manual



=encoding UTF-8

=head1 NAME

Perinci::CmdLine::Manual - Perinci::CmdLine manual

=head1 VERSION

This document describes version 1.811.0 of Perinci::CmdLine::Manual (from Perl distribution Perinci-CmdLine), released on 2018-03-17.


Perinci::CmdLine is a command-line application framework. It parses command-line
options and dispatches to one of your specified Perl functions, passing the
command-line options and arguments to the function. It accesses functions via
L<Riap> protocol (using the L<Perinci::Access> Riap client library) so you can
use remote functions transparently. Features:

=over 4

=item * Command-line options parsing

Non-scalar arguments (array, hash, other nested) can also be passed as JSON or
YAML. For example, if the C<tags> argument is defined as 'array', then all of
below are equivalent:

 % mycmd --tags-yaml '[foo, bar, baz]'
 % mycmd --tags-json '["foo","bar","baz"]'
 % mycmd --tags foo --tags bar --tags baz

=item * Help message (utilizing information from metadata, supports translation)

 % mycmd --help
 % mycmd -h
 % mycmd -?

=item * Tab completion for various shells (including completion from remote code)

Example for bash:

 % complete -C mycmd mycmd
 % mycmd --he<tab> ; # --help
 % mycmd s<tab>    ; # sub1, sub2, sub3 (if those are the specified subcommands)
 % mycmd sub1 -<tab> ; # list the options available for sub1 subcommand

=item * Undo/redo/history

If the function supports transaction (see L<Rinci::Transaction>,
L<Riap::Transaction>) the framework will setup transaction and provide command
to do undo (--undo) and redo (--redo) as well as seeing the undo/transaction
list (--history) and clearing the list (--clear-history).

=item * Version (--version, -v)

=item * List available subcommands (--subcommands)

=item * Configurable output format (--format, --format-options)

By default C<yaml>, C<json>, C<text>, C<text-simple>, C<text-pretty> are



Perinci::CmdLine is very function-oriented (and very not object-oriented, on
purpose). You write your "business logic" in a function (of course, you are free
to subdivide or delegate to other functions, but there must be one main function
for a single-subcommand CLI application, or one function for each subcommand in
a multiple-subcommand CLI application.

 sub cliapp {

You annotate the function with L<Rinci> metadata, where you describe what
arguments (and command-line aliases, if any) the function (program) accepts, the
summary and description of those arguments, and several other aspects as

 $SPEC{cliapp} = {
     v => 1.1,
     summary => 'A program to do blah blah',
     args => {
         foo => {
             summary => 'foo argument',
             req => 1,
             pos => 0,
             cmdline_aliases => {f=>{}},
         bar => { ... },
 sub cliapp {

Finally, you "run" your function:

 use Perinci::CmdLine::Any;
 Perinci::CmdLine::Any->new(url => '/main/cliapp')->run;

For a multi-subcommand application:

     url => '/main/cliapp',
     subcommands => {
         sc1 => { url => '/main/do_sc1' },
         sc2 => { url => '/main/do_sc2' },

That's it. Command-line option parsing, help message, as well as tab completion
will work without extra effort.

To run a remote function, you can simply specify a remote URL, e.g.
C<>. All the features like options parsing,
help/usage, as well as tab completion will work with remote functions as well.


Below is the description of how the framework determines what action and which
function to call.


=head1 LOGGING

Logging is done with L<Log::ger> (for producing). For displaying logs,
L<Log::ger::App> is used.

Initializing logging adds a bit to startup overhead time, so the framework
defaults to no logging. To turn on logging from the code, set the C<log>
attribute to true when constructing Perinci::CmdLine object. Or, use something

 % PERL5OPT=-MLog::ger::App TRACE=1

=head1 [Classic] UTF8 OUTPUT

By default, C<< binmode(STDOUT, ":utf8") >> is issued if utf8 output is desired.
This is determined by, in order:


=item * Use setting from environment UTF8, if defined.

This allows you to force-disable or force-enable utf8 output.

=item * Use setting from action metadata, if defined.

Some actions like L<help>, L<list>, and L<version> output translated text, so
they have their C<use_utf8> metadata set to 1.

=item * Use setting from subcommand, if defined.

=item * Use setting from C<use_utf8> attribute.

This attribute comes from L<SHARYANTO::Role::TermAttrs>, its default is
determined from L<UTF8> environment as well as terminal's capabilities.


=head1 [Classic] COLOR THEMES

By default colors are used, but if terminal is detected as not having color
support, they are turned off. You can also turn off colors by setting COLOR=0 or
using PERINCI_CMDLINE_COLOR_THEME=Default::no_color.


This section describes how Perinci::CmdLine parses command-line
options/arguments into function arguments. Command-line option parsing is
implemented by L<Perinci::Sub::GetArgs::Argv>.

For boolean function arguments, use C<--arg> to set C<arg> to true (1), and
C<--noarg> to set C<arg> to false (0). A flag argument (C<< [bool => {is=>1}]
>>) only recognizes C<--arg> and not C<--noarg>. For single letter arguments,
only C<-X> is recognized, not C<--X> nor C<--noX>.

For string and number function arguments, use C<--arg VALUE> or C<--arg=VALUE>
(or C<-X VALUE> for single letter arguments) to set argument value. Other scalar
arguments use the same way, except that some parsing will be done (e.g. for date
type, --arg 1343920342 or --arg '2012-07-31' can be used to set a date value,
which will be a DateTime object.) (Note that date parsing will be done by
L<Data::Sah> and currently not implemented yet.)

For arguments with type array of scalar, a series of C<--arg VALUE> is accepted,
a la L<Getopt::Long>:

 --tags tag1 --tags tag2 ; # will result in tags => ['tag1', 'tag2']

For other non-scalar arguments, also use C<--arg VALUE> or C<--arg=VALUE>, but
VALUE will be attempted to be parsed using JSON, and then YAML. This is
convenient for common cases:

 --aoa  '[[1],[2],[3]]'  # parsed as JSON
 --hash '{a: 1, b: 2}'   # parsed as YAML

For explicit JSON parsing, all arguments can also be set via --ARG-json. This
can be used to input undefined value in scalars, or setting array value without
using repetitive C<--arg VALUE>:

 --str-json 'null'    # set undef value
 --ary-json '[1,2,3]' # set array value without doing --ary 1 --ary 2 --ary 3
 --ary-json '[]'      # set empty array value

Likewise for explicit YAML parsing:

 --str-yaml '~'       # set undef value
 --ary-yaml '[a, b]'  # set array value without doing --ary a --ary b
 --ary-yaml '[]'      # set empty array value

B<Submetadata>. Arguments from submetadata will also be given respective
command-line options (and aliases) with prefixed names. For example this
function metadata:

     v => 1.1,
     args => {
         foo => {schema=>'str*'},
         bar => {
             schema => 'hash*',
             meta => {
                 v => 1.1,
                 args => {
                     baz => {schema=>'str*'},
                     qux => {
         quux => {
             schema => 'array*',
             element_meta => {
                 v => 1.1,
                 args => {
                     corge => {schema=>'str*', cmdline_aliases=>{C=>{}},
                     grault => {schema=>'str*'},

You can specify on the command-line:

 % prog --foo val \
     --bar-baz val --bar-qux val \
     --quux-corge 11 \
     --quux-corge 21 --quux-grault 22 \
     --quux-C 31

The resulting argument will be:

     foo => 'val',
     bar => {
         baz => 'val',
         qux => 'val',
     quux => [
         {corge=>21, grault=>22},

For more examples on argument submetadata, see L<Perinci::Examples::SubMeta>.


The framework can detect when C<COMP_LINE> and C<COMP_POINT> environment
variables (set by bash when completing using external command) are set and then
answer the completion. In bash, activating tab completion for your script is as
easy as (assuming your script is already in PATH):

 % complete -C yourscript yourscript

That is, your script can complete itself. The above command can be put in
C<~/.bashrc>. But it is recommended that you use L<shcompgen> instead (see

Tcsh uses C<COMMAND_LINE> instead. The framework can also detect that.

For other shells: some shells can emulate bash (like zsh) and for some other
(like fish) you need to generate a set of C<complete> commands for each
command-line option.

C<shcompgen> is a CLI tool that can detect all scripts in PATH if they are using
Perinci::CmdLine (as well as a few other frameworks) and generate shell
completion scripts for them. It supports several shells. Combined with
L<cpanm-shcompgen>, you can install modules and have the shell completion of
scripts activated immediately.


For functions that express that they do progress updating (by setting their
C<progress> feature to true), Perinci::CmdLine will setup an output, currently
either L<Progress::Any::Output::TermProgressBar> if program runs interactively.


Configuration files are read to preset the value of arguments, before
potentially overridden/merged with command-line options. Configuration files are
in L<IOD> format, which is basically C<INI> with some extra features.

By default, configuration files are searched in C</etc> and home directory, with
the name of I<program_name> + C<.conf>. If multiple files are found, the
contents are merged together.

If user wants to use a custom configuration file, she can issue C<--config-path>
command-line option.

If user does not want to read configuration file, she can issue C<--no-config>
command-line option.

INI files have the concept of "sections". In Perinci::CmdLine, you can use
sections to put settings that will only be applied to a certain subcommand, or a
certain "profile". "Config profiles" is a way to specify multiple
sets/cases/scenarios in a single configuration file.

Example 1 (without any profile or subcommand):

 ; prog.conf


When executing program (the comments will show what arguments are set):

 % prog; # {foo=>1, bar=>2}
 % prog --foo 10; # {foo=>10, bar=>2}

Example 2 (with profiles):

 ; prog.conf



When executing program:

 % prog; # {}
 % prog --config-profile profile1; # {foo=>1, bar=>2}
 % prog --config-profile profile2; # {foo=>10, bar=>20}

Example 3 (with subcommands):

 ; prog.conf



When executing program:

 % prog sc1; # {foo=>1, bar=>2}
 % prog sc2; # {baz=>3, qux=>4}

Example 4 (with subcommands and profiles):

 ; prog.conf
 [subcommand=sc1 profile=profile1]

 [profile=profile2 subcommand=sc1]

When executing program:

 % prog sc1 --config-profile profile1; # {foo=>1, bar=>2}
 % prog sc1 --config-profile profile2; # {foo=>10, bar=>20}


Please visit the project's homepage at L<>.

=head1 SOURCE

Source repository is at L<>.

=head1 BUGS

Please report any bugs or feature requests on the bugtracker website L<>

When submitting a bug or request, please include a test-file or a
patch to an existing test-file that illustrates the bug or desired

=head1 SEE ALSO



A list of tutorial posts on my blog, will eventually be moved to POD:

=head1 AUTHOR

perlancar <>


This software is copyright (c) 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015 by

This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.