open-firefox-container - CLI to open URL in a new Firefox tab, in a specific multi-account container


This document describes version 0.015 of open-firefox-container (from Perl distribution App-FirefoxMultiAccountContainersUtils), released on 2022-10-04.


open-firefox-container [--debug|--log-level=level|--quiet|--trace|--verbose] [--format=name|--json] [--(no)naked-res] [--page-result[=program]|--view-result[=program]] [--profile=firefox::local_profile_name] [(--url=str)+|--urls-json=json] -- <container> [url] ...

See examples in the "EXAMPLES" section.


This utility opens a new firefox tab in a specific multi-account container. This requires the Firefox Multi-Account Containers add-on, as well as another add-on called "Open external links in a container",

The way it works, because add-ons currently do not have hooks to the CLI, is via a custom protocol handler. For example, if you want to open in a container called mycontainer, you ask Firefox to open this URL:




* marks required options.

Main options


Can also be specified as the 1st command-line argument.


Can also be specified as the 2nd command-line argument and onwards.

Can be specified multiple times.


See --url.

Can also be specified as the 2nd command-line argument and onwards.

Logging options


Shortcut for --log-level=debug.


Set log level.

By default, these log levels are available (in order of increasing level of importance, from least important to most): trace, debug, info, warn/warning, error, fatal. By default, the level is usually set to warn, which means that log statements with level info and less important levels will not be shown. To increase verbosity, choose info, debug, or trace.

For more details on log level and logging, as well as how new logging levels can be defined or existing ones modified, see Log::ger.


Shortcut for --log-level=error.


Shortcut for --log-level=trace.


Shortcut for --log-level=info.

Output options


Choose output format, e.g. json, text.

Default value:


Output can be displayed in multiple formats, and a suitable default format is chosen depending on the application and/or whether output destination is interactive terminal (i.e. whether output is piped). This option specifically chooses an output format.


Set output format to json.


When outputing as JSON, strip result envelope.

Default value:


By default, when outputing as JSON, the full enveloped result is returned, e.g.:


The reason is so you can get the status (1st element), status message (2nd element) as well as result metadata/extra result (4th element) instead of just the result (3rd element). However, sometimes you want just the result, e.g. when you want to pipe the result for more post-processing. In this case you can use --naked-res so you just get:


Filter output through a pager.

This option will pipe the output to a specified pager program. If pager program is not specified, a suitable default e.g. less is chosen.


View output using a viewer.

This option will first save the output to a temporary file, then open a viewer program to view the temporary file. If a viewer program is not chosen, a suitable default, e.g. the browser, is chosen.

Other options

--help, -h, -?

Display help message and exit.

--version, -v

Display program's version and exit.


This script has shell tab completion capability with support for several shells.


To activate bash completion for this script, put:

 complete -C open-firefox-container open-firefox-container

in your bash startup (e.g. ~/.bashrc). Your next shell session will then recognize tab completion for the command. Or, you can also directly execute the line above in your shell to activate immediately.

It is recommended, however, that you install modules using cpanm-shcompgen which can activate shell completion for scripts immediately.


To activate tcsh completion for this script, put:

 complete open-firefox-container 'p/*/`open-firefox-container`/'

in your tcsh startup (e.g. ~/.tcshrc). Your next shell session will then recognize tab completion for the command. Or, you can also directly execute the line above in your shell to activate immediately.

It is also recommended to install shcompgen (see above).

other shells

For fish and zsh, install shcompgen as described above.


Open two URLs in a container called "mycontainer"

 % open-firefox-container mycontainer

If URL is not specified, will open a blank tab

 % open-firefox-container mycontainer


Please visit the project's homepage at


Source repository is at




perlancar <>


To contribute, you can send patches by email/via RT, or send pull requests on GitHub.

Most of the time, you don't need to build the distribution yourself. You can simply modify the code, then test via:

 % prove -l

If you want to build the distribution (e.g. to try to install it locally on your system), you can install Dist::Zilla, Dist::Zilla::PluginBundle::Author::PERLANCAR, Pod::Weaver::PluginBundle::Author::PERLANCAR, and sometimes one or two other Dist::Zilla- and/or Pod::Weaver plugins. Any additional steps required beyond that are considered a bug and can be reported to me.


This software is copyright (c) 2022, 2020 by perlancar <>.

This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.


Please report any bugs or feature requests on the bugtracker website

When submitting a bug or request, please include a test-file or a patch to an existing test-file that illustrates the bug or desired feature.