package LWP::RobotUA;

use base qw(LWP::UserAgent);

our $VERSION = '6.57';

require WWW::RobotRules;
require HTTP::Request;
require HTTP::Response;

use Carp ();
use HTTP::Status ();
use HTTP::Date qw(time2str);
use strict;

# Additional attributes in addition to those found in LWP::UserAgent:
# $self->{'delay'}    Required delay between request to the same
#                     server in minutes.
# $self->{'rules'}     A WWW::RobotRules object

sub new
    my $class = shift;
    my %cnf;
    if (@_ < 4) {
	# legacy args
	@cnf{qw(agent from rules)} = @_;
    else {
	%cnf = @_;

    Carp::croak('LWP::RobotUA agent required') unless $cnf{agent};
    Carp::croak('LWP::RobotUA from address required')
	unless $cnf{from} && $cnf{from} =~ m/\@/;

    my $delay = delete $cnf{delay} || 1;
    my $use_sleep = delete $cnf{use_sleep};
    $use_sleep = 1 unless defined($use_sleep);
    my $rules = delete $cnf{rules};

    my $self = LWP::UserAgent->new(%cnf);
    $self = bless $self, $class;

    $self->{'delay'} = $delay;   # minutes
    $self->{'use_sleep'} = $use_sleep;

    if ($rules) {
	$self->{'rules'} = $rules;
    else {
	$self->{'rules'} = WWW::RobotRules->new($cnf{agent});


sub delay     { shift->_elem('delay',     @_); }
sub use_sleep { shift->_elem('use_sleep', @_); }

sub agent
    my $self = shift;
    my $old = $self->SUPER::agent(@_);
    if (@_) {
	# Changing our name means to start fresh

sub rules {
    my $self = shift;
    my $old = $self->_elem('rules', @_);
    $self->{'rules'}->agent($self->{'agent'}) if @_;

sub no_visits
    my($self, $netloc) = @_;
    $self->{'rules'}->no_visits($netloc) || 0;

*host_count = \&no_visits;  # backwards compatibility with LWP-5.02

sub host_wait
    my($self, $netloc) = @_;
    return undef unless defined $netloc;
    my $last = $self->{'rules'}->last_visit($netloc);
    if ($last) {
	my $wait = int($self->{'delay'} * 60 - (time - $last));
	$wait = 0 if $wait < 0;
	return $wait;
    return 0;

sub simple_request
    my($self, $request, $arg, $size) = @_;

    # Do we try to access a new server?
    my $allowed = $self->{'rules'}->allowed($request->uri);

    if ($allowed < 0) {
	# Host is not visited before, or robots.txt expired; fetch "robots.txt"
	my $robot_url = $request->uri->clone;

	# make access to robot.txt legal since this will be a recursive call
	$self->{'rules'}->parse($robot_url, "");

	my $robot_req = HTTP::Request->new('GET', $robot_url);
	my $parse_head = $self->parse_head(0);
	my $robot_res = $self->request($robot_req);
	my $fresh_until = $robot_res->fresh_until;
	my $content = "";
	if ($robot_res->is_success && $robot_res->content_is_text) {
	    $content = $robot_res->decoded_content;
	    $content = "" unless $content && $content =~ /^\s*Disallow\s*:/mi;
	$self->{'rules'}->parse($robot_url, $content, $fresh_until);

	# recalculate allowed...
	$allowed = $self->{'rules'}->allowed($request->uri);

    # Check rules
    unless ($allowed) {
	my $res = HTTP::Response->new(
	  HTTP::Status::RC_FORBIDDEN, 'Forbidden by robots.txt');
	$res->request( $request ); # bind it to that request
	return $res;

    my $netloc = eval { local $SIG{__DIE__}; $request->uri->host_port; };
    my $wait = $self->host_wait($netloc);

    if ($wait) {
	if ($self->{'use_sleep'}) {
	else {
	    my $res = HTTP::Response->new(
	      HTTP::Status::RC_SERVICE_UNAVAILABLE, 'Please, slow down');
	    $res->header('Retry-After', time2str(time + $wait));
	    $res->request( $request ); # bind it to that request
	    return $res;

    # Perform the request
    my $res = $self->SUPER::simple_request($request, $arg, $size);



sub as_string
    my $self = shift;
    my @s;
    push(@s, "Robot: $self->{'agent'} operated by $self->{'from'}  [$self]");
    push(@s, "    Minimum delay: " . int($self->{'delay'}*60) . "s");
    push(@s, "    Will sleep if too early") if $self->{'use_sleep'};
    push(@s, "    Rules = $self->{'rules'}");
    join("\n", @s, '');




=head1 NAME

LWP::RobotUA - a class for well-behaved Web robots


  use LWP::RobotUA;
  my $ua = LWP::RobotUA->new('my-robot/0.1', '');
  $ua->delay(10);  # be very nice -- max one hit every ten minutes!

  # Then just use it just like a normal LWP::UserAgent:
  my $response = $ua->get('');


This class implements a user agent that is suitable for robot
applications.  Robots should be nice to the servers they visit.  They
should consult the F</robots.txt> file to ensure that they are welcomed
and they should not make requests too frequently.

But before you consider writing a robot, take a look at

When you use an I<LWP::RobotUA> object as your user agent, then you do not
really have to think about these things yourself; C<robots.txt> files
are automatically consulted and obeyed, the server isn't queried
too rapidly, and so on.  Just send requests
as you do when you are using a normal I<LWP::UserAgent>
object (using C<< $ua->get(...) >>, C<< $ua->head(...) >>,
C<< $ua->request(...) >>, etc.), and this
special agent will make sure you are nice.

=head1 METHODS

The LWP::RobotUA is a sub-class of L<LWP::UserAgent> and implements the
same methods. In addition the following methods are provided:

=head2 new

    my $ua = LWP::RobotUA->new( %options )
    my $ua = LWP::RobotUA->new( $agent, $from )
    my $ua = LWP::RobotUA->new( $agent, $from, $rules )

The LWP::UserAgent options C<agent> and C<from> are mandatory.  The
options C<delay>, C<use_sleep> and C<rules> initialize attributes
private to the RobotUA.  If C<rules> are not provided, then
C<WWW::RobotRules> is instantiated providing an internal database of

It is also possible to just pass the value of C<agent>, C<from> and
optionally C<rules> as plain positional arguments.

=head2 delay

    my $delay = $ua->delay;
    $ua->delay( $minutes );

Get/set the minimum delay between requests to the same server, in
I<minutes>.  The default is C<1> minute.  Note that this number doesn't
have to be an integer; for example, this sets the delay to C<10> seconds:


=head2 use_sleep

    my $bool = $ua->use_sleep;
    $ua->use_sleep( $boolean );

Get/set a value indicating whether the UA should L<LWP::RobotUA/sleep> if
requests arrive too fast, defined as C<< $ua->delay >> minutes not passed since
last request to the given server.  The default is true.  If this value is
false then an internal C<SERVICE_UNAVAILABLE> response will be generated.
It will have a C<Retry-After> header that indicates when it is OK to
send another request to this server.

=head2 rules

    my $rules = $ua->rules;
    $ua->rules( $rules );

Set/get which I<WWW::RobotRules> object to use.

=head2 no_visits

    my $num = $ua->no_visits( $netloc )

Returns the number of documents fetched from this server host. Yeah I
know, this method should probably have been named C<num_visits> or
something like that. :-(

=head2 host_wait

    my $num = $ua->host_wait( $netloc )

Returns the number of I<seconds> (from now) you must wait before you can
make a new request to this host.

=head2 as_string

    my $string = $ua->as_string;

Returns a string that describes the state of the UA.
Mainly useful for debugging.

=head1 SEE ALSO

L<LWP::UserAgent>, L<WWW::RobotRules>


Copyright 1996-2004 Gisle Aas.

This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.