# PODNAME: MooseX::Role::Parameterized::Tutorial
# ABSTRACT: why and how

__END__

=pod

=encoding UTF-8

=head1 NAME

MooseX::Role::Parameterized::Tutorial - why and how

=head1 VERSION

version 1.11

=head1 MOTIVATION

Roles are composable units of behavior. They are useful for factoring out
functionality common to many classes from any part of your class hierarchy. See
L<Moose::Cookbook::Roles::Comparable_CodeReuse> for an introduction to L<Moose::Role>.

While combining roles affords you a great deal of flexibility, individual roles
have very little in the way of configurability. Core Moose provides C<-alias>
for renaming methods and C<-excludes> for ignoring methods. These options are
primarily for resolving role conflicts. Depending on how much of a purist you are,
these options are I<solely> for resolving role conflicts. See
L<Moose::Cookbook::Roles::Restartable_AdvancedComposition> for more about C<-alias> and C<-excludes>.

Because roles serve many different masters, they usually provide only the least
common denominator of functionality. To empower roles further, more
configurability than C<-alias> and C<-excludes> is required. Perhaps your role
needs to know which method to call when it is done processing. Or what default
value to use for its C<url> attribute.

Parameterized roles offer a solution to these (and other) kinds of problems.

=head1 USAGE

=head2 C<with>

The syntax of a class consuming a parameterized role has not changed
from the standard C<with>. You pass in parameters just like you
pass in C<-alias> and C<-excludes> to ordinary roles (though your
custom parameters do not get hyphens, since these are not core Moose
composition parameters):

    with 'MyRole::InstrumentMethod' => {
        method_name => 'dbh_do',
        log_to      => 'query.log',
    };

You can still combine parameterized roles. You just need to specify parameters
immediately after the role they belong to:

    with (
        'My::Parameterized::Role' => {
            needs_better_example => 1,
        },
        'My::Other::Role',
    );

We, like Moose itself, use L<Data::OptList> to make sure that a list of role
names and associated parameters is handled correctly.

=head2 C<parameter>

Inside your parameterized role, you specify a set of parameters. This is
exactly like specifying the attributes of a class. Instead of L<Moose/has> you
use the keyword C<parameter>, but your parameters can use any options to
C<has>.

    parameter 'delegation' => (
        isa       => 'HashRef|ArrayRef|RegexpRef',
        predicate => 'has_delegation',
    );

You do have to declare what parameters you accept, just like you have to
declare what attributes you accept for regular Moose objects.

One departure from C<has> is that we create a reader accessor for you by
default. In other words, we assume C<< is => 'ro' >>. We create this reader for
convenience because generally the parameterized role is the only consumer of
the parameters object, so data hiding is not as important than in the general
case of L<Moose/has>. If you do not want an accessor, you can use
C<< is => 'bare' >>.

=head2 C<role>

C<role> takes a block of code that will be used to generate your role with its
parameters bound. Here is where you declare components that depend on
parameters. You can declare attributes, methods, modifiers, etc. The first
argument to the C<role> is an object containing the parameters specified by
C<with>. You can access the parameters just like regular attributes on that
object.

Each time you compose this parameterized role, the C<role {}> block will be
executed. It will receive a new parameter object and produce an entirely new
role. That's the whole point, after all.

Due to limitations inherent in Perl, you must declare methods with
C<< method name => sub { ... } >> instead of the usual C<sub name { ... }>.
Your methods may, of course, close over the parameter object. This means that
your methods may use parameters however they wish!

=head1 USES

Ideally these will become fully-explained examples in something resembling
L<Moose::Cookbook>. But for now, only a brain dump.

=over 4

=item Configure a role's attributes

You can rename methods with core Moose, but now you can rename attributes. You
can now also choose type, default value, whether it's required, B<traits>, etc.

    parameter traits => (
        isa     => 'ArrayRef',
        default => sub { [] },
    );

    parameter type => (
        isa     => 'Str',
        default => 'Any',
    );

    role {
        my $p = shift;

        has action => (
            traits => $p->traits,
            isa    => $p->type,
            ...
        );
    };

=item Inform a role of your class' attributes and methods

Core roles can only require methods with specific names chosen by the role. Now
your roles can demand that the class specifies a method name you wish the role to
instrument, or which attributes to dump to a file.

    parameter instrument_method => (
        isa      => 'Str',
        required => 1,
    );

    role {
        my $p = shift;
        around $p->instrument_method => sub { ... };
    };

=item Arbitrary execution choices

Your role may be able to provide configuration in how the role's methods
operate. For example, you can tell the role whether to save intermediate
states.

    parameter save_intermediate => (
        isa     => 'Bool',
        default => 0,
    );

    role {
        my $p = shift;
        method process => sub {
            ...
            if ($p->save_intermediate) { ... }
            ...
        };
    };

=item Deciding a backend

Your role may be able to freeze and thaw your instances using L<YAML>, L<JSON>,
L<Storable>. Which backend to use can be a parameter.

    parameter format => (
        isa     => (enum ['Storable', 'YAML', 'JSON']),
        default => 'Storable',
    );

    role {
        my $p = shift;
        if ($p->format eq 'Storable') {
            method freeze => \&Storable::freeze;
            method thaw   => \&Storable::thaw;
        }
        elsif ($p->format eq 'YAML') {
            method freeze => \&YAML::Dump;
            method thaw   => \&YAML::Load;
        }
        ...
    };

=item Additional validation

Ordinary roles can require that its consumers have a particular list of method
names. Since parameterized roles have direct access to its consumer, you can inspect it and throw errors if the consumer does not meet your needs.

    role {
        my $p    = shift;
        my %args = @_;
        my $consumer = $args{consumer};

        $consumer->find_attribute_by_name('stack')
            or confess "You must have a 'stack' attribute";

        my $push = $consumer->find_method_by_name('push')
            or confess "You must have a 'push' method";

        my $params = $push->parsed_signature->positional_params->params;
        @$params == 1
            or confess "Your push method must take a single parameter";

        $params->[0]->sigil eq '$'
            or confess "Your push parameter must be a scalar";

        ...
    };

=back

=head1 SUPPORT

Bugs may be submitted through L<the RT bug tracker|https://rt.cpan.org/Public/Dist/Display.html?Name=MooseX-Role-Parameterized>
(or L<bug-MooseX-Role-Parameterized@rt.cpan.org|mailto:bug-MooseX-Role-Parameterized@rt.cpan.org>).

There is also a mailing list available for users of this distribution, at
L<http://lists.perl.org/list/moose.html>.

There is also an irc channel available for users of this distribution, at
L<C<#moose> on C<irc.perl.org>|irc://irc.perl.org/#moose>.

=head1 AUTHOR

Shawn M Moore <code@sartak.org>

=head1 COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

This software is copyright (c) 2008 by Shawn M Moore.

This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.

=cut