AnyEvent::DBI - asynchronous DBI access

       use AnyEvent::DBI;

       my $cv = AnyEvent->condvar;

       my $dbh = new AnyEvent::DBI "DBI:SQLite:dbname=test.db", "", "";

       $dbh->exec ("select * from test where num=?", 10, sub {
          my ($dbh, $rows, $rv) = @_;

          $#_ or die "failure: $@";

          print "@$_\n"
             for @$rows;


       # asynchronously do sth. else here


    This module is an AnyEvent user, you need to make sure that you use and
    run a supported event loop.

    This module implements asynchronous DBI access by forking or executing
    separate "DBI-Server" processes and sending them requests.

    It means that you can run DBI requests in parallel to other tasks.

    With DBD::mysql, the overhead for very simple statements ("select 0") is
    somewhere around 50% compared to an explicit
    prepare_cached/execute/fetchrow_arrayref/finish combination. With
    DBD::SQlite3, it's more like a factor of 8 for this trivial statement.

    This module defines a number of functions that accept a callback
    argument. All callbacks used by this module get their AnyEvent::DBI
    handle object passed as first argument.

    If the request was successful, then there will be more arguments,
    otherwise there will only be the $dbh argument and $@ contains an error

    A convenient way to check whether an error occurred is to check $#_ - if
    that is true, then the function was successful, otherwise there was an

    $dbh = new AnyEvent::DBI $database, $user, $pass, [key => value]...
        Returns a database handle for the given database. Each database
        handle has an associated server process that executes statements in
        order. If you want to run more than one statement in parallel, you
        need to create additional database handles.

        The advantage of this approach is that transactions work as state is


           $dbh = new AnyEvent::DBI
                     "DBI:mysql:test;mysql_read_default_file=/root/.my.cnf", "", "";

        Additional key-value pairs can be used to adjust behaviour:

        on_error => $callback->($dbh, $filename, $line, $fatal)
            When an error occurs, then this callback will be invoked. On
            entry, $@ is set to the error message. $filename and $line is
            where the original request was submitted.

            If the fatal argument is true then the database connection is
            shut down and your database handle became invalid. In addition
            to invoking the "on_error" callback, all of your queued request
            callbacks are called without only the $dbh argument.

            If omitted, then "die" will be called on any errors, fatal or

        on_connect => $callback->($dbh[, $success])
            If you supply an "on_connect" callback, then this callback will
            be invoked after the database connect attempt. If the connection
            succeeds, $success is true, otherwise it is missing and $@
            contains the $DBI::errstr.

            Regardless of whether "on_connect" is supplied, connect errors
            will result in "on_error" being called. However, if no
            "on_connect" callback is supplied, then connection errors are
            considered fatal. The client will "die" and the "on_error"
            callback will be called with $fatal true.

            When on_connect is supplied, connect error are not fatal and
            AnyEvent::DBI will not "die". You still cannot, however, use the
            $dbh object you received from "new" to make requests.

        fork_template => $AnyEvent::Fork-object
            "AnyEvent::DBI" uses "AnyEvent::Fork->new" to create the
            database slave, which in turn either "exec"'s a new process
            (similar to the old "exec_server" constructor argument) or uses
            a process forked early (see AnyEvent::Fork::Early).

            With this argument you can provide your own fork template. This
            can be useful if you create a lot of "AnyEvent::DBI" handles and
            want to save memory (And speed up startup) by not having to load
            "AnyEvent::DBI" again and again into your child processes:

               my $template = AnyEvent::Fork
                  ->new                               # create new template
                  ->require ("AnyEvent::DBI::Slave"); # preload AnyEvent::DBI::Slave module

               for (...) {
                  $dbh = new AnyEvent::DBI ...
                     fork_template => $template;

        timeout => seconds
            If you supply a timeout parameter (fractional values are
            supported), then a timer is started any time the DBI handle
            expects a response from the server. This includes connection
            setup as well as requests made to the backend. The timeout spans
            the duration from the moment the first data is written (or
            queued to be written) until all expected responses are returned,
            but is postponed for "timeout" seconds each time more data is
            returned from the server. If the timer ever goes off then a
            fatal error is generated. If you have an "on_error" handler
            installed, then it will be called, otherwise your program will

            When altering your databases with timeouts it is wise to use
            transactions. If you quit due to timeout while performing
            insert, update or schema-altering commands you can end up not
            knowing if the action was submitted to the database,
            complicating recovery.

            Timeout errors are always fatal.

        Any additional key-value pairs will be rolled into a hash reference
        and passed as the final argument to the "DBI->connect (...)" call.
        For example, to suppress errors on STDERR and send them instead to
        an AnyEvent::Handle you could do:

           $dbh = new AnyEvent::DBI
                      "DBI:mysql:test;mysql_read_default_file=/root/.my.cnf", "", "",
                      PrintError => 0,
                      on_error   => sub {
                         $log_handle->push_write ("DBI Error: $@ at $_[1]:$_[2]\n");

    $dbh->on_error ($cb->($dbh, $filename, $line, $fatal))
        Sets (or clears, with "undef") the "on_error" handler.

    $dbh->timeout ($seconds)
        Sets (or clears, with "undef") the database timeout. Useful to
        extend the timeout when you are about to make a really long query.

    $dbh->attr ($attr_name[, $attr_value], $cb->($dbh, $new_value))
        An accessor for the database handle attributes, such as
        "AutoCommit", "RaiseError", "PrintError" and so on. If you provide
        an $attr_value (which might be "undef"), then the given attribute
        will be set to that value.

        The callback will be passed the database handle and the attribute's
        value if successful.

        If an error occurs and the "on_error" callback returns, then only
        $dbh will be passed and $@ contains the error message.

    $dbh->exec ("statement", @args, $cb->($dbh, \@rows, $rv))
        Executes the given SQL statement with placeholders replaced by
        @args. The statement will be prepared and cached on the server side,
        so using placeholders is extremely important.

        The callback will be called with a weakened AnyEvent::DBI object as
        the first argument and the result of "fetchall_arrayref" as (or
        "undef" if the statement wasn't a select statement) as the second

        Third argument is the return value from the "DBI->execute" method

        If an error occurs and the "on_error" callback returns, then only
        $dbh will be passed and $@ contains the error message.

    $dbh->stattr ($attr_name, $cb->($dbh, $value))
        An accessor for the statement attributes of the most recently
        executed statement, such as "NAME" or "TYPE".

        The callback will be passed the database handle and the attribute's
        value if successful.

        If an error occurs and the "on_error" callback returns, then only
        $dbh will be passed and $@ contains the error message.

    $dbh->begin_work ($cb->($dbh[, $rc]))
    $dbh->commit ($cb->($dbh[, $rc]))
    $dbh->rollback ($cb->($dbh[, $rc]))
        The begin_work, commit, and rollback methods expose the equivalent
        transaction control method of the DBI driver. On success, $rc is

        If an error occurs and the "on_error" callback returns, then only
        $dbh will be passed and $@ contains the error message.

    $dbh->func ('string_which_yields_args_when_evaled', $func_name,
    $cb->($dbh, $rc, $dbi_err, $dbi_errstr))
        This gives access to database driver private methods. Because they
        are not standard you cannot always depend on the value of $rc or
        $dbi_err. Check the documentation for your specific driver/function
        combination to see what it returns.

        Note that the first argument will be eval'ed to produce the argument
        list to the func() method. This must be done because the
        serialization protocol between the AnyEvent::DBI server process and
        your program does not support the passage of closures.

        Here's an example to extend the query language in SQLite so it
        supports an intstr() function:

            $cv = AnyEvent->condvar;
            $dbh->func (
                  instr => 2, sub {
                     my ($string, $search) = @_;
                     return index $string, $search;
               create_function => sub {
                  return $cv->send ($@)
                     unless $#_;
                  $cv->send (undef, @_[1,2,3]);

            my ($err,$rc,$errcode,$errstr) = $cv->recv;

            die $err if defined $err;
            die "EVAL failed: $errstr"
               if $errcode;

            # otherwise, we can ignore $rc and $errcode for this particular func

    AnyEvent, DBI, Coro::Mysql.

       Marc Lehmann <> (current maintainer)

       Adam Rosenstein <>