# Copyright 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2016, 2019, 2020 Kevin Ryde
# This file is part of Math-NumSeq.
#
# Math-NumSeq is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the
# Free Software Foundation; either version 3, or (at your option) any later
# version.
#
# Math-NumSeq is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
# WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY
# or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License
# for more details.
#
# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
# with Math-NumSeq. If not, see .
# ($value1,$value2) = $self->ith_pair($i);
# Return values for $i and $i+1, possibly undefs.
# Same as ($self->ith($i), $self->ith($i+1)) but some classes faster.
# SternDiatomic
# Fibonacci -- with ith() being sans last bit
# ith_pair_from_bits_hightolow()
# LucasNumbers -- F,L then last step L,L
# ith_FL_from_bits_hightolow()
# $value = $seq->value_floor($value)
# $value = $seq->value_ceil($value)
# $value = $seq->value_next($value)
# characteristic('distinct')
# characteristic('geometric') geometric progression constant multipler
# characteristic('arithmetic') arithmetic progression constant add
# characteristic('primitive') no term divisible by any other
# characteristic('mult_prev') each term multiple of previous
# $seq->i_end last i if finite, and if known ??
# characteristic('i_end')
# characteristic('i_finite') boolean
# ->add ->sub of sequence or constant
# ->mul
# ->mod($k) of constant
# overloads
# ->shift
# ->inverse some with known ways to calculate
# ->is_subset_of
# lo,hi i or value
# lo_value,hi_value
# Sequence::Array from arrayref
# Derived::Interleave
package Math::NumSeq;
use 5.004;
use strict;
use vars '$VERSION', '@ISA';
$VERSION = 75;
# uncomment this to run the ### lines
#use Smart::Comments;
BEGIN {
eval "\n#line ".(__LINE__+1)." \"".__FILE__."\"\n" . <<'HERE'
# print "attempt Locale::Messages for __\n";
use Locale::Messages ();
sub __ { Locale::Messages::dgettext('Math-NumSeq',$_[0]) }
1;
HERE
|| eval "\n#line ".(__LINE__+1)." \"".__FILE__."\"\n" . <<'HERE'
# print "fallback definition of __\n";
sub __ { $_[0] };
1;
HERE
|| die $@;
}
# sub name {
# my ($self) = @_;
# my $name = ref($self) || $self;
# $name =~ s/^Math::NumSeq:://;
# return $name;
# }
use constant description => undef;
sub oeis_anum {
my ($self) = @_;
return $self->{'oeis_anum'} || undef;
}
use constant default_i_start => 1;
sub i_start {
my ($self) = @_;
return (defined $self->{'i_start'}
? $self->{'i_start'}
: $self->default_i_start);
}
sub values_min {
my ($self) = @_;
return $self->{'values_min'};
}
sub values_max {
my ($self) = @_;
return $self->{'values_max'};
}
use constant parameter_info_array => [];
sub parameter_info_list {
return @{$_[0]->parameter_info_array};
}
# not documented yet
my %parameter_info_hash;
sub parameter_info_hash {
my ($class_or_self) = @_;
my $class = (ref $class_or_self || $class_or_self);
return ($parameter_info_hash{$class}
||= { map { $_->{'name'} => $_ }
$class_or_self->parameter_info_list });
}
# not documented yet
sub parameter_default {
my ($class_or_self, $name) = @_;
### Values parameter_default: @_
### info: $class_or_self->parameter_info_hash->{$name}
my $info;
return (($info = $class_or_self->parameter_info_hash->{$name})
&& $info->{'default'});
}
# pn1 values +1, -1, 0
# permutation
# delta
# boolean ?
sub characteristic {
my $self = shift;
my $type = shift;
if (ref $self
&& (my $href = $self->{'characteristic'})) {
if (exists $href->{$type}) {
return $href->{$type};
}
}
if (my $subr = $self->can("characteristic_${type}")) {
return $self->$subr (@_);
}
return undef;
}
# default i_start if "increasing"
sub characteristic_increasing_from_i {
my ($self) = @_;
return ($self->characteristic('increasing')
? $self->i_start
: undef);
}
# default from the stronger condition "increasing"
sub characteristic_non_decreasing {
my ($self) = @_;
return $self->characteristic('increasing');
}
sub characteristic_non_decreasing_from_i {
my ($self) = @_;
return ($self->characteristic('non_decreasing')
? $self->i_start
: undef);
}
# default "count" is integer
sub characteristic_integer {
my ($self) = @_;
return $self->characteristic_count;
}
use constant characteristic_count => undef; # don't know
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
sub new {
my ($class, %self) = @_;
### Sequence new(): $class
my $self = bless \%self, $class;
foreach my $pinfo ($self->parameter_info_list) {
my $pname = $pinfo->{'name'};
if (! defined $self->{$pname}) {
### default: $pname
$self->{$pname} = $pinfo->{'default'};
}
}
$self->rewind;
return $self;
}
sub tell_i {
my ($self) = @_;
return $self->{'i'};
}
sub ith_pair {
my ($self, $i) = @_;
return ($self->ith($i), $self->ith($i+1));
}
sub can {
my ($class, $method) = @_;
if ($method eq 'ith_pair' && ! return $class->can('ith')) {
return undef;
}
return $class->SUPER::can($method);
}
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# shared internals
# cf Data::Float, but it might not handle BigFloat
sub _is_infinite {
my ($x) = @_;
return ($x != $x # nan
|| ($x != 0 && $x == 2*$x)); # inf
}
# or maybe check for new enough for uv->mpz fix
use constant::defer _bigint => sub {
# no selection of back-end here, leave that to an application
require Math::BigInt;
return 'Math::BigInt';
};
sub _to_bigint {
my ($n) = @_;
# stringize to avoid UV->BigInt bug in Math::BigInt::GMP version 1.37
return _bigint()->new("$n");
}
1;
__END__
=for stopwords Ryde NumSeq Math-NumSeq Math-NumSeq-Alpha Math-Aronson Math-PlanePath oopery genericness Online OEIS ie arrayref hashref filename enum bigint NaNs nan radix non-radix repdigit
=head1 NAME
Math::NumSeq -- number sequences
=head1 SYNOPSIS
# only a base class, use one of the actual classes, such as
use Math::NumSeq::Squares;
my $seq = Math::NumSeq::Squares->new;
my ($i, $value) = $seq->next;
=head1 DESCRIPTION
This is a base class for some number sequences. Sequence objects can
iterate through values and some sequences have random access and/or a
predicate test.
The idea is to generate things like squares or primes in a generic way.
Some sequences, like squares, are so easy there's no need for a class except
for the genericness. Other sequences are trickier and an iterator is a good
way to go through values. The iterators generally try to be progressive, so
not calculating too far ahead, yet doing reasonable chunks for efficiency.
Sequence values have an integer index "i" starting either from i=0 or i=1 or
whatever best suits the sequence. The values can be anything, positive,
negative, fractional, etc.
The intention is that all modules C are sequence classes,
and that supporting things are deeper, such as under
C or C.
=head2 Number Types
The various methods try to support C and similar overloaded
number types. So for instance C might be applied to test a big
value, or C on a bigint to preserve precision from some rapidly
growing sequence. Infinities and NaNs give some kind of NaN or infinite
return (some unspecified kind as yet).
Some sequences automatically promote to C, usually when values
grows so fast that precision would soon be lost. An application can
pre-load C to select a back-end or other global options.
=head1 FUNCTIONS
In the following "Foo" is one of the subclass names.
=over
=item C<$seq = Math::NumSeq::Foo-Enew (key=Evalue,...)>
Create and return a new sequence object.
=back
=head2 Iterating
=over
=item C<($i, $value) = $seq-Enext()>
Return the next index and value in the sequence.
Most sequences are infinite and for them there's always a next value. But
if C<$seq> is finite then at the end the return is no values. So for
example
while (my ($i, $value) = $seq->next) {
print "$i $value\n";
}
=item C<$seq-Erewind()>
Rewind the sequence to its starting point. The next call to C will
be the initial C<$i,$value> again.
See L below for possible arbitrary "seeks".
=item C<$i = $seq-Etell_i()>
Return the current i position. This is the i which the next call to
C will return.
=back
=head2 Information
=over
=item C<$i = $seq-Ei_start()>
Return the first index C<$i> in the sequence. This is the position
C returns to.
=item C<$str = $seq-Edescription()>
Return a human-readable description of the sequence. This might be
translated into the locale language, though there's no message translations
yet.
=item C<$value = $seq-Evalues_min()>
=item C<$value = $seq-Evalues_max()>
Return the minimum or maximum value taken by values in the sequence, or
C if unknown or infinity.
=item C<$ret = $seq-Echaracteristic($key)>
Return something if the sequence has C<$key> (a string) characteristic, or
C if not. This is intended as a loose set of features or properties
a sequence can have to describe itself.
digits integer or undef, the radix if seq is digits
count boolean, true if values are counts of something
smaller boolean, true if value[i] < i generally
integer boolean, true if all values are integers
increasing boolean, true if value[i+1] > value[i] always
non_decreasing boolean, true if value[i+1] >= value[i] always
increasing_from_i integer, i for which value[i+1] > value[i]
non_decreasing_from_i integer, i for which value[i+1] >= value[i]
value_is_radix boolean, value is radix for i
C means each value is a radix applying to the i index. For
example C value is a radix for which i is a repdigit. These
values might also be 0 or 1 or -1 or some such non-radix to indicate no
radix.
=item C<$str = $seq-Eoeis_anum()>
Return the A-number (a string) for C<$seq> in Sloane's I, or return C if not in the OEIS or not known.
For example
my $seq = Math::NumSeq::Squares->new;
my $anum = $seq->oeis_anum;
# gives $anum = "A000290"
The web page for that is then
=over
L
=back
Sometimes the OEIS has duplicates, ie. two A-numbers which are the same
sequence. When that's accidental or historical C<$seq-Eoeis_anum()> is
whichever is reckoned the primary one.
=item C<$aref = Math::NumSeq::Foo-Eparameter_info_array()>
=item C<@list = Math::NumSeq::Foo-Eparameter_info_list()>
Return an arrayref or list describing the parameters taken by a given class.
This meant to help making widgets etc for user interaction in a GUI. Each
element is a hashref
{
name => parameter key arg for new()
share_key => string, or undef
description => human readable string
type => string "integer","boolean","enum" etc
default => value
minimum => number, or undef
maximum => number, or undef
width => integer, suggested display size
choices => for enum, an arrayref
choices_display => for enum, an arrayref
}
C is a string, one of
"integer"
"enum"
"boolean"
"string"
"filename"
"filename" is separate from "string" since it might require subtly different
handling to ensure it reaches Perl as a byte string, whereas a "string" type
might in principle take Perl wide chars.
For "enum" the C field is an arrayref of possible values, such as
{ name => "flavour",
type => "enum",
choices => ["strawberry","chocolate"],
}
C, if provided, is human-readable strings for those
choices, possibly translated into another language (though there's no
translations yet).
C and C are omitted (or C) if there's no hard limit
on the parameter.
C is designed to indicate when parameters from different NumSeq
classes can be a single control widget in a GUI etc. Normally the C
is enough, but when the same name has slightly different meanings in
different classes a C keeps different meanings separate.
=back
=head2 Optional Methods
The following methods are only implemented for some sequences since it's
sometimes difficult to generate an arbitrary numbered element etc. Check
C<$seq-Ecan('ith')> etc before using.
=over
=item C<$seq-Eseek_to_i($i)>
=item C<$seq-Eseek_to_value($value)>
Move the current i so C will return C<$i> or C<$value> on the next
call. If C<$value> is not in the sequence then move so as to return the
next higher value which is.
Usually C only makes sense for sequences where all values
are distinct, so that a value is an unambiguous location.
=item C<$value = $seq-Eith($i)>
Return the C<$i>'th value in the sequence. Only some sequence classes
implement this method.
=item C<($v0, $v1) = $seq-Eith_pair($i)>
Return two values C and C from the sequence. This
method can be used whenever C exists. C<$seq-Ecan('ith_pair')>
says whether C can be used (and gives a coderef).
For some sequences a pair of values can be calculated with less work than
two separate C calls.
=item C<$bool = $seq-Epred($value)>
Return true if C<$value> occurs in the sequence. For example, for the
squares this returns true if C<$value> is a square or false if not.
=item C<$i = $seq-Evalue_to_i($value)>
=item C<$i = $seq-Evalue_to_i_ceil($value)>
=item C<$i = $seq-Evalue_to_i_floor($value)>
Return the index i of C<$value>. If C<$value> is not in the sequence then
C returns C, or C returns the i of
the next higher value which is, C the i of the next
lower value.
These methods usually only make sense for monotonic increasing sequences, or
perhaps non-decreasing so with some repeating values.
=item C<$i = $seq-Evalue_to_i_estimate($value)>
Return an estimate of the i corresponding to C<$value>.
The accuracy of this estimate is unspecified, but can at least hint at the
growth rate of the sequence. For example if making an "intersection"
checking for given values in the sequence then if the estimated i is small
it may be fastest to go through the sequence by C and compare,
rather than apply C to each target.
=back
=head1 SEE ALSO
=for my_pod see_also begin
L,
L,
L,
L,
L,
L,
L,
L,
L,
L
L,
L,
L,
L,
L,
L
L,
L,
L,
L,
L,
L,
L,
L,
L,
L,
L,
L
L,
L
L,
L,
L
L,
L,
L,
L,
L,
L,
L,
L,
L
L,
L,
L,
L,
L,
L,
L,
L,
L,
L
L,
L,
L,
L,
L,
L
L,
L,
L,
L,
L,
L
L,
L,
L
L,
L,
L,
L,
L,
L,
L,
L,
L,
L
L,
L,
L,
L,
L,
L,
L,
L,
L,
L,
L
L,
L,
L,
L,
L,
L,
L,
L,
L,
L,
L,
L,
L
L,
L,
L,
L,
L,
L,
L,
L
L,
L,
L,
L,
L
L,
L,
L
=for my_pod see_also end
L,
L,
L
(in the Math-NumSeq-Alpha dist)
L (in the Math-Aronson dist)
L, L,
L, L (in the
Math-PlanePath dist)
=head2 Other Modules Etc
L and L, for symbolic recursive sequence
definitions
L, for displaying images with the NumSeq sequences
=head1 HOME PAGE
http://user42.tuxfamily.org/math-numseq/index.html
=head1 LICENSE
Copyright 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2016, 2019, 2020 Kevin Ryde
Math-NumSeq is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free
Software Foundation; either version 3, or (at your option) any later
version.
Math-NumSeq is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for
more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with
Math-NumSeq. If not, see .
=cut