OpenOffice::OODoc::Styles - Document styles and layout processing


This class is designed to handle styles, whether automatic or named, contained in styles.xml or content.xml. It inherits from the common OpenOffice::OODoc::XPath class and brings style-focused features.

This class should not be explicitly used in an ordinary application, because all its features are available in the OpenOffice::OODoc::Document class, in combination with other features. Practically, the present manual is provided to describe the style processing features of OpenOffice::OODoc::Document (knowing that these features are technically supported by the OpenOffice::OODoc::Styles component of the API).

Remember that named styles are those that the end user can see and edit using the Stylist tool in Such styles usually have meaningful names and are stored in the styles.xml member. But an OpenDocument-compliant style may own two names, so-called 'name' and 'display-name'. The 'display-name' is the name as it's displayed by the office software, while the 'name' is the main identifier. Both are displayable character strings, but they often differ. For a given 'display-name', the application software is allowed to set any arbitrary 'name'. For example, with 2, the well-known pre-defined style whose display name is "Text body" is named "Text_20_body" (the space character is replaced by its hexadecimal value between two "_" characters). In the other hand, the 'name' and the 'display-name' generally don't differ when they contain letters and/or digits only. Remember that the 'name' (and not the 'display-name') is the main identifier of a style element. So, such a method as getStyleElement("style name") uses the 'name' attribute to retrieve a style descriptor (unless you change this behaviour through the 'retrieve_by' document property).

Care should be taken particularly with predefined base styles in These styles are described in styles.xml just like named styles, but they appear to the end user with localised names (in their local language), so the really displayed style name is neither the 'name' nor the 'display-name' stored attributes. For example, in the French distribution of, the "Text body" style appears as "Corps de texte", while its "display-name" is "Text body" and its "name" is "Text_20_body". However, this is not a problem for user-defined styles as the stored display-name is exactly the same as the effective display name.

There are also numerous "automatic" styles in a document which are created implicitly by the office application each time a particular set of presentation attributes is given to an element, but where no named style is referenced. Automatic styles which apply to the document body are stored in content.xml (but in an XML element isolated from the content). An automatic style's name can change randomly each time the document is edited or saved in Applications which access automatic styles will not want to indicate them using "hard-coded" names. The best way is to retrieve each automatic style via an object that is known to use it. Using a "hard-coded" name is all right for styles created by a program (the createStyle() method requires it), but such a name should only be considered to be stable for the duration of the session. If you want a program-created style name to be then respected by, you must create it as a named style. This is no more complicated, but it is better to avoid making hundreds of styles visible to the user that they do not need to see.

There are some structural differences between the old 1.0 format and the new OASIS Open Document (ODF) one. A few of these differences aren't made fully transparent by OpenOffice::OODoc. So, in some cases, a program including style definitions or updates doesn't produce exactly the same results with both OOo 1 and OOo 2 documents.

Some styles are more complex than others as they describe the page layout. These styles can themselves contain text and images. A page style, or a "master page", can actually define a header, a footer, margins, and a background.

Headers and footers can contain text and images which can otherwise be handled by OODoc::Text and OODoc::Image.

A background contains a colour and can also include a background image (several methods are possible).

Presentation of these objects is itself controlled by styles.

All of this leads to the conclusion that it is not enough just to associate each content element with a style. In reality, document styles form a rather complex network of interdependencies.

As for page styles, the format contains a concept which must be understood in order to use some of the following methods. By virtue of the principle of separation of content and presentation, the definition of a page style is based on two distinct objects: "master page" and "page layout". A "master page" object encompasses any page style content (i.e. the content of headers and footers) and links to a "page layout" object which describes page presentation characteristics (with large numbers of parameters from page dimensions to background colour to footnote separator size, etc.). Names which appear in the list of page styles in are actually names of "master pages". However, to work with physical aspects of the presentation, you have to access the associated "page layout".

To complicate matters, there are also header and footer styles. Each object contained in a header or footer (e.g. paragraph or image) has a style. The number and range of styles are much larger that you would imagine just looking at the Stylist tool in Up to a point, OODoc::Styles methods make life easier for you by masking some of this complexity.

In OODoc::Styles methods, styles are normally indicated by their logical names (which must be unique), but, except where otherwise stated, they can also be indicated by their style element reference. Moreover, when a method is expecting a page layout as an argument but the programmer passes it a master page instead (whether by design or by mistake), it "knows" in most cases how to automatically select the associated page layout.

Defining a style requires a great many attributes. Some appear in code examples in this manual, but for a full list of possible attributes for each style, you must refer to the specification or publications derived from it.

OODoc::Styles module is designed to allow applications to manipulate any style and even create new ones. It is not recommended, however, to use it to create a presentation entirely from code. Here again, it is better to start from document templates which already contain at least a blank of each required style.


Constructor : OpenOffice::OODoc::Styles->new(<parameters>)

        Short form: ooStyles(<parameters>)

        See OpenOffice::OODoc::XPath->new.

        Returns an OODoc::XPath OpenDocument connector with additional
        style-aware features.
        The member loaded by default is "styles.xml" which gives access to
        named or automatic styles associated with the page layout. The
        "content.xml" member should be forced if the application is to work
        with styles associated with the document body (automatic styles

backgroundImageLink(page [, link])

        Allows you to check the background image's link (if found) for the
        page style given as the first argument. If another link is given as
        the second argument, it replaces the existing link.

        See imageLink in OODoc::Image about links. Put more simply, a link
        is the address of the graphics file which corresponds to the
        physical content of the image. Even though the background image
        belongs to the "page layout", the first argument can also be either
        a "master page" or a "page layout".

        If the second argument "link" is given, its value replaces the
        existing link in the same way as with imageLink.


                ("Standard", "");

        If the page did not have a background image before the call, one is
        created. It must, however, be an external linked image (as in the
        above example), unless the link represents the internal address of
        an already loaded image. This method does not itself carry out any
        physical import of an image.

        See also importBackgroundImage.

createMasterPage(name, options)

        Creates a new page style. Options are:

            'layout'    => page layout name
            'next'      => next master page style name

        The association with a "page layout" allows you to associate a
        layout to the page. Otherwise the page will have a default layout.


                        layout  => 'pm1',
                        next    => 'Standard'

        See the OpenDocument specification (or the 'Organizer' tab in the
        "Format/Page" dialog box of if you want to know what
        a "Next Style" is. The optional "next" parameter simply gives the name
        of a "master page", which can be the one you are currently creating.

createPageLayout(name, options)

        Creates a new layout style (page layout) which can be used by a page
        style (master page). Options are the same as for updatePageLayout.

createPageMaster(name, options)

        See createPageLayout()

createStyle(name, options)

        Creates a new style of any type or class (depending on options) and
        returns its reference if successful.

        The first argument indicates the new style name which must be unique
        in the document. By default, a check is automatically done; the method
        fails and produces a warning if the style already exists. However,
        no check is done if a 'check' option is provided and set to 'false'.
        Avoiding the uniqueness check can improve the 
        If the external name of the style, as it could be made visible for the
        end-user through an OpenDocument-compliant editing software (such as, is not the same as the internal name, it may be set
        through a 'display-name' option. Without this option, the display name
        is the same as the internal name.

        If the active OODoc::Styles object is associated with a document
        content (content.xml), the new style is always taken to be an
        automatic style. If associated with the styles.xml member, the new
        style is considered to be a named style by default. However, the
        category => 'automatic' option (or category => 'auto') allows you to
        specify it as an automatic style. Please note: in the case of
        content.xml, the "category" option is ignored as all styles are
        automatic in this member.

        By default, the method stores a style in the form of an XML element
        "style:style" (which corresponds to the most commonly used content
        styles). Some style elements are indicated in a different way. The
        "namespace" and "type" options are available for this. If, for
        example, you want to create a footer configuration style (called
        "text:footnote-configuration" in the specification),
        you will have to specify the "footnote-configuration" type
        explicitly in the "text" namespace using one of the following two

            namespace           => 'text',
            type                => 'footnote-configuration'

        The other possible options are:

            namespace           => namespace
            type                => style type
            family              => style family (text, paragraph, ...)
            class               => style class
            parent              => parent style (inherit)
            next                => next style

        If other style "organisation" attributes (often for links to other
        styles) prove to be needed but are not on the above list, they must
        be grouped together in a hash provided by the application and
        indicated by a "references" option.

        Of course, if you create a new style, you do not just sort it into
        type, class or family, etc. You attribute its own presentation
        attributes which can be inherited by other styles which cite it as
        "parent". These personal attributes (whose nature obviously depends
        on the style type) are all attributed by the "properties" attribute
        which itself indicates a hash provided by the application.

        Here is an example of a paragraph style creation in an OOo 1

                family  => 'paragraph',
                parent  => 'Standard',
                properties =>
                        'fo:margin-left'        => '2cm',
                        'fo:margin-right'       => '1.5cm',
                        'fo:text-align'         => 'justify',
                        'style:font-name'       => 'Times',
                        'fo:font-size'          => '14pt',
                        'fo:font-weight'        => 'bold',
                        'fo:font-style'         => 'italic',
                        'fo:color'              => '#000080',
                        'fo:background-color'   => '#ffff00'
            $doc->setStyle($doc->getParagraph(3), "P3");

        This sequence gives paragraph 3 of the document a lovely Times font
        in dark blue size 14 bold italics on a yellow background. This is
        done using a style called "Colour" (reusable later for other
        paragraphs) based on the "Standard" style. You will note that the
        colour codes are in RGB hexadecimal preceded by a '#'.
        We could replace '#000080' with odfColor('navy blue') if we used the
        standard rgb.txt colour table from the Xorg distribution (see
        odfColor() below). A large part of these layout properties come from
        the FO (Form Object) language, that is a part of the OpenDocument
        XML vocabulary. You should look at the OpenDocument Format
        specification for an exhaustive presentation of the supported FO

        In this example, "namespace" and "type" are not specified because
        the default namespace and type are appropriate here. (Rest assured
        that this is often the case when working with text styles.)

        Be careful: the example above works with an OOo 1 document, put some
        of the given properties are ignored with an OOo 2 one. See below about
        the differences between the two formats.

        Another example:

                family  => 'graphics',
                parent  => 'Graphics',
                properties =>
                        'style:vertical-pos'    => 'from-top',
                        'style:horizontal-pos'  => 'from-left',
                        'style:vertical-rel'    => 'page',
                        'style:horizontal-rel'  => 'page',
                        'draw:luminance'        => '4%',
                        'draw:contrast'         => '2%',
                        'draw:gamma'            => '1.1',
                        'draw:transparency'     => '5%',
                        'draw:red'              => '-3%',
                        'draw:green'            => '2%'

        The "Photo1" style defined above is of course an image style i.e. in
        the "graphics" family, based on the parent graphics style
        "Graphics". Any images to which this style will be applied will have
        coordinates which relate to the upper left edge of the page measured
        from top to bottom and left to right. They will be presented with an
        increase in luminosity of 4% and contrast of 2%, gamma correction of
        1.1 and 5% transparency. Moreover, 3% less red and 2% more green
        will freshen the image and highlight the vibrancy of the
        chlorophyll. There are yet more in the list of options, so don't
        throw out your holiday snaps!

        While all the properties of a given style are directly available
        through a single "properties" structure in OOo 1 documents, they are
        stored in separate, specialised structures in OOo 2 (ODF) documents.
        A property name can be used (with different effects) in more than one
        property area. For example, with an OOo 2 document, we should rewrite
        our "Colour" style definition using 2 separate instructions as shown

                family  => 'paragraph',
                parent  => 'Standard',
                properties =>
                        '-area'                 => 'paragraph',
                        'fo:margin-left'        => '2cm',
                        'fo:margin-right'       => '1.5cm',
                        'fo:text-align'         => 'justify',
                        'fo:background-color'   => '#ffff00'
                properties  =>
                        '-area'                 => 'text',
                        'style:font-name'       => 'Times',
                        'fo:font-size'          => '14pt',
                        'fo:font-weight'        => 'bold',
                        'fo:font-style'         => 'italic',
                        'fo:color'              => '#000080',

        The first instruction creates the style with properties that apply
        to the "paragraph" area. The second one brings additional properties
        for the text content of the paragraph. A paragraph style includes
        "paragraph properties", such as the margins, the text alignment, the
        background color, and "text properties", such as any font-focused
        attribute. The '-area' option is not a style property; it's only a
        switch that indicates what is the target property area. Without this
        option, the default area name is the family name (so, for a paragraph
        style, the default area for updateStyle() is "paragraph properties").
        This sophistication sounds strange at first look, but it could prove
        very useful because, knowing that the OpenDocument format brings more
        features than the old OOo format, the same property name can be
        used in more than one area, with different effects. For example,
        we could put a 'fo:background-color' in the 'text' area AND another
        one in the 'paragraph' area; the 'text' background color should apply
        to the text-covered areas only, while the 'paragraph' background
        is a rectangular area, that is not always fully covered by text.
        The same result could be obtained (more efficiently) with
        styleProperties() instead of updateStyle (see styleProperties()).
        The '-area' switch is silently ignored when used with OOo 1 documents,
        and sometimes required for ODF, so you can safely use it if you want
        to write portable code. In addition, up to now, the unknown style
        attributes are simply ignored by the software, and
        they don't harm. However, if the document is later edited and saved
        through, every unknown attribute is removed. As a
        consequence, everybody can use proprietary (non-OpenDocument) style
        attributes for application-specific markup.

        So, while OpenOffice::OODoc supports both OOo 1 and ODF with the
        same API, the present version can't completely hide the differences
        between the two formats. However, the program's logic can hide these
        differences for the end-user, because it can know the format of
        the current document (see isOpenDocument in OpenOffice::OODoc::XPath).

        Defining a style can be made a lot easier by reusing an already
        existing style than by creating it programmatically. The simplest way
        is by inheritance using the "parent" option, but the link to "parent"
        creates a permanent dependency (any further changes in the parent will
        affect the children). OODoc::Styles offers another possibility: copy
        the properties of an existing style, without creating a link to a
        parent, using the "prototype" option. This option points to another
        style whose properties are then taken up and combined with the new
        properties. New properties prevail over old ones if the new
        properties replace existing attributes in the prototype style, just
        like when they are inherited.


                prototype       => "Colour",
                properties      =>
                        'fo:font-size'  => '16pt'

        This new style called "Bigger" is an exact copy of the previously
        defined "Colour" style, except for the font size.

        The given "parent" style is not necessarily defined yet and, if the
        current document member is "content", it can be the name of a style
        defined in the "styles" member. (See getAncestorStyle() and

        Generally speaking, explicit parameters passed by an application
        (e.g. font size) prevail over prototype's parameters.

        The prototype parameter can be a style name (as in the above
        example) or a style element. If it's an element, its origin doesn't
        matter (it can be a copy of a style element previously extracted from
        another document). If it's a name, the prototype style is retrieved
        either in the current document (default) or, if the 'source' option
        is provided, in another document.
        The value of the 'source' option is another OODoc::Styles (or
        OODoc::Document) object. If this option is provided, createStyle
        looks in the indicated document for the prototype style. If 'source'
        is provided without 'prototype', the prototype style is supposed to
        have the same name as the style to be created.
        If you want to create a style called "MyStyle", for example, in
        document $doc1 which imitates a style called "HisStyle" in document
        $doc2 (where both documents are OODoc::Styles or OODoc::Document
        objects), you can do the following:

                        prototype       => "HisStyle",
                        source          => $doc2
        but if you write
                        source          => $doc2
        the local style "MyStyle" is built as a copy of the so-named style
        in the source document (it's a direct import).
        Whatever the origin of the prototype style, any property can be
        set or redefined in the new style.

        Not only can you import styles available in other documents, but
        you can also create automatic styles in a 'content' member which
        are derived from named styles found in the 'styles' member and

        WARNING: The "prototype" option can produce unexpected results if
        the two documents are not in the same format. As a consequence,
        using an OOo 1 style as the prototype of an OpenDocument one (and
        vice-versa) should be avoided.

        Always be careful of dependencies. There are often dependencies
        between styles (heritage or usage). An application must be wary of
        importing styles without modification which are directly or
        indirectly dependent on other styles which are not available in the
        target document. Text styles are fairly easy to control in this way,
        but table, page and graphic styles, for example, have more complex

        When a font name is set (generally through a 'style:font-name'
        text property) in a new style, take care of the availability of
        the corresponding font declaration in the document. A font is not
        rendered if it's not declared (see importFontDeclaration()).
        See the OpenDocument specification (chapter 14, "Styles") for a
        complete list of possible attributes for each type of style.
        However, creating sophisticated styles from scratch is *not*
        recommended; remember the most easy (and the less error-prone) way
        consists of creating template documents through the
        GUI (or any other ODF-compliant office software) and using them as
        style libraries.

exportBackgroundImage(page [, destination])

        Exports the graphics file which corresponds to the background image
        of a page style where the image exists and is internal to the archive. (A linked image is obviously not exportable
        since it is not actually present in the document.) See the
        exportImage method in OODoc::Image for export details.


                ("First Page", "C:\Images\backgrnd.jpg");


        Returns the name of the primary known ancestor of the given style.

        If the style has a standalone definition (i.e. it's its own ancestor),
        the method returns it's name.

        This method returns the ancestor name as it's known in the current
        document space. The genealogy is not followed out of the scope of
        the current XML member.
        For example, if we have an automatic paragraph style "P1", defined in
        the "content" member and derived from "Text body", the returned
        ancestor name will be "Text body". However, "Text body" itself could
        be a derivative of "Standard". But "Text body" is defined in the
        "styles" member, so its definition (including the name of its parent
        style) is out of the scope.

        As a consequence, in a regular OOo document, there are 2 possible

        - if the current space is "styles", the returned style name is really
        the name of the primary ancestor, because a style defined in this
        space can't inherit from anything elsewhere;

        - if the current space is "content", the returned value can be the
        name of a style defined elsewhere.

        A possible check is a simple call to getStyleElement() with the
        returned ancestor name. If getStyleElement() returns undef, then
        the ancestor style is not defined in the current space (and, if
        needed, we could reach it the "styles" member, if we currently work
        with the "content" member).

        See also getParentStyle().


        Returns a list of automatic style elements in the current document.
        By default, only "style" type elements in the "style" namespace are
        returned. You can select special styles using the "namespace" and
        "type" options.

        For example, if you want to get a list of number styles (namespace
        "number", type "number-style"), do it like this:

            my @styles = $doc->getAutoStyleList
                (namespace => 'number', type => 'number-style');


        Returns the element that contains all the automatic style elements.
        See also getNamedStyleRoot().


        Returns the attributes of the given page style's background image
        (if any), in the form of a hash (attribute => value).


        Returns the element reference of the given page style's background
        image (if found).


        Returns the given default style's attributes (if any). Default
        styles are generally "paragraph" and "graphics". See also


        Returns the default style element's reference given by its logical

        A default style describes default values assigned to certain
        attributes of a given style family.

        For example, to get the default paragraph style of a document, use:

            my $def_para = $doc->getDefaultStyleElement("paragraph");


        Returns the font declaration element corresponding to the given font
        name, or undef if the font is not declared in the current document.
                unless ($doc->getFontDeclaration("Times New Roman"))
                        $doc->importFontDeclaration($doc2, "Times New Roman");

        (See also importFontDeclaration.)

getFooterParagraph(masterpage, number)

        In a text document, returns a footer paragraph's reference, if the
        master page has a footer and the paragraph exists. Arguments are
        master page and paragraph number.
        Caution: the first argument can't be a page number, knowing that
        printable pages are dynamically created by the office software and
        don't exist in the stored document.

getHeaderParagraph(masterpage, number)

        Like getFooterParagraph, but for a header.


        Returns a master page element reference whose logical name is given,
        or undef if the page style is not found. You can also pass an
        element reference instead of a name. In this case, the method's role
        is simply to check if the element is indeed a master page type. If
        so, it returns the argument as is. If not, it returns undef.
        Look at the DESCRIPTION part of the present manual chapter for a few
        explanations about master pages (and, of course, feel free to dig in
        the OpenDocument specification for details).
        This method should preferently be used on the 'styles' member; it
        doesn't generally make sense with the 'content' member, knowing that
        the master pages are generally described as named styles.


        Returns a list of master styles in the current document. By default,
        the list contains the master page elements.
        Other kinds of styles may be retrieved, according to the 'namespace'
        and/or 'type' options (see getStyleElement()). But the search space
        is limited to the master styles area, whatever the type and the

        Like getMasterPageElement(), this method makes more sense on 'styles'
        members than on 'content' ones.


        Like getNamedStyleRoot(), but the returned element contains the
        master style descriptors instead.       


        Returns a list of named styles in the current document, using the
        same options as for getAutoStyleList. By definition, in documents this list should be empty in all elements
        except styles.xml.


        Returns the root element of the named styles area. In other words,
        this method retrieves the element that contains all the named style
        elements, with the exception of the master styles.
        This element could be, for example, copied from a document to another
        one in order to use exactly the same named styles (user-defined or
        provided with the office software) in both.


        Returns the outline style descriptor related to the given outline
        level. The returned element is available for subsequent get/set
        operations using getAttributes(), setAttributes(), and so on.
        See also updateOutlineStyle().


        Returns the description of a page layout. The argument can be
        either a page layout directly or a master page style which
        refers to it.

        The structure of returned data is a hash of hashes. It contains four
        elements, each of which is a hash. As follows:

            - "references": style reference attributes with at least its
            name and possibly its links to other styles.
            - "properties": background description (dimensions, orientation,
            margins, colour, etc.).
            - "header": presentation attributes for the header.
            - "footer": presentation attributes for the footer.
            - "footnote-sep": footnote separator attributes.
            - "background-image": background image attributes.

        Attributes are displayed according to specifications.


        See getPageLayoutAttributes()


        Returns the page layout element reference from a search argument
        which can be either a logical name or a page style reference. If the
        argument is a master page, the method returns the corresponding page


        See getPageLayoutElement()


        Returns the name of the parent of the given style, or undef if the
        style has a standalone definition (without inheritance).

        The returned parent name can be the name of a style defined elsewhere
        (or not defined yet).

        See also getAncestorStyle().


        Returns a style's description (other than a page style) given as a
        logical name or reference.

        The structure of returned data is a hash of hashes. It contains the
        two following elements:

            - "references": style reference attributes with at least its
            name and possibly its links to other styles (either its family,
            parent style, class and/or next style).
            - "properties": description of the presentation characteristics
            for this style (and which depend on the type of object the style
            is applied to).

        Remember that this structure can be used directly by an application
        to create or update another style.

getStyleElement(style [, options])

        Returns a style element's reference using its name.

        If the first argument is already an element reference, it returns
        the argument if it is indeed a style element, and undef if not.

        By default, the style name is sought amongst "style" type elements
        in the "style" namespace. If an application is looking for a special
        style (e.g. page or number), then it can pass the optional
        parameters "namespace" and/or "type". See the section on createStyle
        for these concepts.

        A search is of course limited to automatic styles if the current XML
        document is content. If the document is styles, the search for the
        name is made in all styles by default. You can, however, limit it
        with the "path" parameter where "path" equals "auto" to search in
        automatic styles or "named" in named styles.
        Note: Take care of possible differences between the 'display-name'
        and the real 'name' of any style (see the DESCRIPTION of the present
        manual chapter). If you decide to select the styles by their visible
        names, set the 'retrieve_by' property of the document to
        'display-name'. Example:
                $doc->{'retrieve_by'} = 'display-name';
                my $s = $doc->getStyleElement("Text body");


        Combines the results of getAutoStyleList and getNamedStyleList (same

importBackgroundImage(page, filename [, link])

        Imports a background image into the given page style from an
        external file.

        The page style can be either a page layout or a master page. An
        optional link can be inserted (e.g. to reuse an existing link). See
        backgroundImageLink or imageLink (in OODoc::Image) for information
        about links. Otherwise, an internal link under "Pictures/" is
        created by default and takes the name of the source file.

        Returns the link if found, undef if not.

        Caution: the actual import is not made until a save is called (see
        importImage in OODoc::Image).

importFontDeclaration(doc, fontname)


        In the first form, retrieves a font declaration in another document
        and installs it in the current document. The first argument is a
        OODoc::Styles or OODoc::Document object.
                my $source = ooDocument
                        file => "source.sxw", member => "styles"
                my $target = ooDocument
                        file => "target.sxw", member => "styles"
                $target->importFontDeclaration($source, "Helvetica");
        In the second form, the single argument is the XML string
        containing a font declaration.

        The following example creates a declaration for the "Comic Sans MS"
        font in an OpenDocument:
                    '<style:font-face '                         .
                        'style:name="Comic Sans MS" '           .
                        'svg:font-family="Comic Sans MS"        .
        This last import feature is not mainly provided in order to encourage
        raw XML coding! Be careful, the XML font declaration syntax is not
        exactly the same with the two supported document formats. This feature
        should be used in order to import previously exported font declarations
        (see exportXMLElement in OODoc::XPath).   
        A font declaration must be imported if it's used in a newly
        created style and not currently available in the target document.

masterPageExtension(page, extension_type [, element])

        This method allows the user to get or set an extension to an existing
        master page. The most used extensions are "header", "footer",
        "header-left", "footer-left", but any other key could be provided
        (warning: there is no ODF-compliance check, so any application-
        specific tag is allowed, knowing that any provided keyword will be
        automatically prefixed by "style:" in the generated XML).
        See masterPageFooter(), masterPageFooterLeft(), masterPageHeader(),
        masterPageHeaderLeft(); these methods can be regarded as synonyms
        for masterPageExtension() with the four listed extension types.

masterPageFooter(page [, element])

        Returns the given page style's footer element reference (master
        page) or undef if not found.

        If the second argument is a content element, it is added to the
        footer. If the footer does not exist, it is created.

masterPageFooterLeft(page [, element])

        Returns the given page style's footer left element reference (master
        page) or undef if not found.
        A "footer left" element can be used to specify different content for
        left pages, if appropriate. Unless a footer left element is defined
        in the master page, the content of the footers on left and right pages
        is the same. 

        If the second argument is a content element, it is added to the
        footer. If the footer does not exist, it is created.

masterPageHeader(page [, element])

        Returns the given page style's header element reference (master
        page) or undef if not found.

        If the second argument is a content element, it is added to the
        header. If the header does not exist, it is created.

masterPageHeaderLeft(page [, element])

        Returns the given page style's header left element reference (master
        page) or undef if not found.
        A "header left" element can be used to specify different content for
        left pages, if appropriate. Unless a header left element is defined
        in the master page, the content of the headers on left and right pages
        is the same. 

        If the second argument is a content element, it is added to the
        header. If the header does not exist, it is created.

pageLayout(master_page [, page_master])

        Returns or modifies the layout of a given page style (master page).
        If the second argument is given, it replaces the old page layout value
        (i.e. it changes the layout of the page without changing the header or
        footer content.

pageMasterStyle(master_page [, page_master])

        See pageLayout()

removeStyleElement(style [, options])

        Deletes the given style. The argument and options are the same as
        for getStyleElement. The method returns "True" (1) if successful or
        undef if the style is not found.

selectStyleElementByFamily(family [, options])

        Returns the first (or only) available style in the given family
        (using the "family" attribute), or undef if not found. Options are
        the same as for getStyleElement.


            my $style = $doc->selectStyleElementByFamily
                        type    => 'default-style'

        selects the element which describes the default graphic style.

        This method is useful for selecting styles whose "family" attribute
        is their identifier (and which do not have a "name" attribute). For
        example, this is the case for default styles where there is normally
        a default style for the "paragraph" family and another for the
        "graphics" family. In the above example, we used the "type" option
        where the type is "default-style" and not "style". We did not use
        the "namespace" option because it would be pointless to know that
        the default style namespace is just the default namespace ("style").

selectStyleElementsByFamily(family [, options])

        Like selectStyleElementByFamily but returns a list of elements which
        belong to the given family. The "family" argument is treated as a
        regular expression, so an application must therefore give the
        appropriate meta-characters if the search is to be limited to the
        exact family name.

selectStyleElementsByName(name [, options])

        Returns a list of styles whose names match the first argument (which
        is treated as a regular expression). Options are the same as for the
        other selectStyleElementsXXX methods.

setBackgroundImage(page, options)

        Inserts or replaces a background image in a page style. The "page"
        argument points either to the page layout directly, or to the master
        page to which it refers. Options point to the graphics object and
        how it is presented. The returned value is the created or modified
        background image's element reference (see

        You should first indicate the graphics file which contains the image
        and whether it will merely be linked to the page by reference, or if
        it has to be physically imported into the file. To
        "link" the image, you supply its address using the "link" option. To
        import it, you supply the image using the "import" option.


                "First page",
                import          => "C:\Images\Logo.jpg"

                "First page",
                link            => "C:\Images\Logo.jpg"

        These two calls produce the same effect, but the second only inserts
        a link to the image.

        Remember that if by error an application supplies both the "link"
        and "import" options, the "import" option is the one that prevails.

        The other options control the import of images as backgrounds. By
        default, OODoc::Styles installs the image in the center without
        tiling and with an automatic update-on-load attribute if the image
        is by external link. You can choose other options using the standard vocabulary.

        To link a background image which is stretched to fit the entire
        page, use the following:

                "First page",
                link            => "C:\Images\back.jpg",
                'style:repeat'  => 'stretch'

styleName(style_element [, name])

styleName(name [, options])

        The first form checks that the given argument is indeed a "style"
        element reference and, if it is, returns its name (undef if not). If
        a name is given as the second argument, it replaces the style name.

        In the second form, the current style name is given. In this case,
        and without any other arguments, the method only checks if the given
        name is indeed a style and returns a positive result (undef if not).
        It is still possible to change its name using this form, by using
        the "newname" option. With this form, some other options allow you
        to choose the namespace, type and category (automatic or named).
        These options are "namespace", "type" and "category" (see
        getStyleElement for these concepts). Without these parameters, the
        default values are the same as for getStyleElement.

styleProperties(style [, options])

        This method is for checking and updating the formatting properties
        of a given style.
        It is more limited than updateStyle, but easier to code. The
        styleProperties method accesses only the style's formatting
        attributes and does not touch its references, such as its name, class
        or family (see getStyleAttributes).

        With no options, the current style's properties are simply returned
        in the form of a hash in which the keys are attributes belonging to
        the standard vocabulary and which depend on the type
        of object. The same data structure can be used to modify a style's
        properties by passing options as a hash. This structure is the same
        as the sub-hash "properties" of getStyleAttributes or updateStyle.
        If you wanted to redo the style we called "Colour" (see createStyle),
        for example, changing the colour of the characters to red and
        replacing the italics with standard font, you could do it as follows:

                        '-area'         => 'text',
                        'fo:color'      => rgb2oo("red"),
                        'fo:font-style' => undef

        This short sequence sets the "fo:color" attribute to red and clears
        the "font-style" attribute. Remember that in RGB notation, the
        quantity of red is given by the first two hexadecimal digits, which
        here are set to maximum, and by setting the green and blue to zero.
        The "font-style" attribute had previously been set to "italic".
        Here, the 'area' option is neutral if the document format is OOo,
        but it must be set to 'text' for an ODF document, because all that
        is related to characters belongs to the 'text' area in a paragraph
        style (see below).

        styleProperties returns all the style's properties but only modifies
        those that have been set using options. To clear an existing
        property without giving it a new value, you must pass the
        corresponding option giving it a null value.

        If the current document is an OASIS Open Document, an additional
        "-area" option should be provided, because a style's properties may
        be stored in logical parts. For example, in a paragraph style, some
        properties apply to the paragraph itself, while some other ones apply
        to its text content (and some text properties can have the same name
        as some paragraph properties). The default value is the name of the
        style family. For example, if the style family is "paragraph", the
        "paragraph" part is selected by default. Because it updates font
        attributes (that are text properties), the example above couldn't
        work against an Open Document without an additional "area" option
        with the appropriate value:

                        '-area'         => 'text',
                        'fo:color'      => "#ff0000",
                        'fo:font-style' => undef

        After creating a new paragraph style in an Open Document, this method
        should be used in order to set the properties which have not been set
        by createStyle because of the separation in two areas. In the
        following example, the 'paragraph' properties are directly set with
        createStyle, then the 'text' properties are set with styleProperties:
                my $style = $doc->createStyle
                        family          => 'paragraph',
                        parent          => 'Standard',
                        properties      =>
                                '-area'                 => 'paragraph',
                                'fo:text-align'         => 'center',
                                'fo:margin-left'        => '0.5cm',
                                'fo:margin-right'       => '0.5cm'
                        $style, '-area' => 'text',
                        'fo:color'              => oo2rgb("blue"),
                        'fo:font-weight'        => 'bold',
                        'style:font-name'       => 'Times New Roman'
        Note: According to the OASIS OpenDocument v1.0 specification,
        any arbitrary custom attribute could be created in anyone of the
        style's properties area, and *should* be preserved by conforming
        applications when editing the document. However, up to now, any
        custom property is lost as soon as the document is edited through
        The "-area" option is silently ignored with OOo 1 documents.


        Switches a portrait page to landscape and vice-versa.

        The argument is a page style (page layout or master page).

        'portrait' and 'landscape' are not style properties. The logic of
        this method is very simplistic: it makes a swap between the height
        and the width of the page.

        CAUTION: don't try to give a page number as the argument. This
        method apply on a page style (i.e. master page) and not on a
        real page selected by its number.

updateDefaultStyle(family, options)

        Modifies the default style for the given family according to an
        options hash given by the application. The family is generally
        "paragraph" or "graphics".

        Options are given according to the style attributes

        The following example shows how to change the font, font size and
        default tab stops in the text:

                'fo:font-name'                  => 'Helvetica',
                'fo:font-size'                  => '10pt',
                'style:tab-stop-distance'       => '1.5cm'

updateOutlineStyle(level, properties)

updateOutlineStyle(outline style element, properties)

        Allows any change in the direct attributes of an outline style.
        The new properties must be provides through a hash, where each key
        is an OpenDocument-compliant attribute.
        The following example changes the numbering prefix and suffix, and
        the numbering format for the level 1 list elements, so their numbering
        will look like "[A] ", "[B] ", "[C] ", ...
                        'num-prefix'            => "[",
                        'num-suffix'            => "] ",
                        'num-format'            => "A"
        See the OpenDocument specification for the full set of possible
        attributes. Any attribute provided without namespace prefix (i.e.
        not including a ':'), such as those in the example above, are
        automatically prefixed by 'style:'; other attributes must be provided
        with their prefixes.
        Caution, some outline presentation characteristics, such as bullet
        style, are not directly under the control of this element. They depend
        on children "style:*-properties" elements.

updatePageLayout(page, options)

        Modifies all types of page presentation style characteristics (page
        master). The style given as the first argument can be either the
        appropriate page layout style directly, or a page style (master
        page) to which it refers.

        Options can be passed in the form of a hash of hashes (each option
        itself points to a hash containing the base attributes). The four
        top-level elements are as follows:

            references          => name, family, etc.
            properties          => global presentation attributes
            header              => header presentation style
            footer              => footer presentation style
            footnote-sep        => footnote separator style
            background-image    => backgrnd.jpg image characteristics

        The "references" branch will not generally be used unless you want
        to change the style's name.

        This data structure is the same as returned by
        getMasterPageAttributes(). A combination of these two methods allows
        you to copy the characteristics of one page style to another easily,
        especially when you want to apply the page setup of one document to
        another. When you only want to modify an existing style however, you
        only need to specify the attributes which you want to change.

        A "prototype" option allows you to clone the characteristics of an
        existing page layout. This option can indicate either an existing
        page layout reference, its logical name, or even the reference or
        logical name of a master page which refers to it. Only the first
        method is supported if the prototype page layout belongs to another
        document. The style name is not replaced by the prototype style
        name. See also createStyle about using a prototype style.

        The following example shows the code required to change several
        properties of the "Right page" style i.e. top margin width,
        background colour, maximum footnote height, minimum header height
        and the colour and width of the footnote separator.

                "Right page",
                properties      =>
                 'fo:margin-top'                => '2.5cm',
                 'fo:background-color           => '#88eecc',
                 'style:footnote-max-height'    => '3cm'
                'footnote-sep'  =>
                 'style:width'                  => '0.02cm',
                 'style:color'                  => '#0000ff'
                header          =>
                 'fo:min-height'                => '2cm'

        Once again, it is better to start with a getMasterPageAttributes()
        of an existing page than to create all your styles from code.

updatePageMaster(page, options)

        See updatePageLayout()

updateStyle(style, options)

        Modifies the characteristics of an existing style.

        Options are the same as for createStyle() except for "category",
        "namespace" and "type" which cannot be changed in an existing style
        since they form part of its basic identity. A style's logical name
        can, however, be changed.
        The first argument can be either a style name or a style element.
        The second way should be preferred when the program already owns
        the element (obtained, for example, through getStyleElement() or

        In the 'properties' structure, the 'area' switch is required with
        ODF (OOo 2) documents if the property area is not the default one
        (see styleProperties and createStyle about the 'area' option). 

        You can use the "prototype" option to update a style with another
        style's characteristics, but this option does not replace the
        style's name with the prototype's name. Be careful, the "prototype"
        option doesn't work for any kind of style, and it's not recommended
        in this method. The best approach for replicating an existing style
        consists of creating a new style with the "prototype" option (see

        By definition, the style already exists and can be indicated equally
        well by reference or by name.

        Returns the characteristics of the modified style, as in

Exported functions


        Converts an RGB color code or name into an ODF-compliant color code.
        See rgb2oo().


        Populates the %OpenOffice::OODoc::Styles::COLORMAP hash from the
        content of an RGB file. This file defines a colour dictionary.
        Without argument, the content of the $COLORMAP variable is considered
        as the filename.

        Each line must contain 4 space-separated fields. The 3 first fields
        represent, respectively, the red, green and blue values of a colour
        and must be positive integer values in the 0-255 range. The remainder
        of the line is considered as the symbolic name of a colour (it can
        contain spaces). Example:

                144 238 144     light green
                139   0 139     dark magenta
                255 105 180     hot pink
                255  99  71     tomato

        Such a file is sometimes provided in a system directory (for example
        /usr/lib/X11/rgb.txt in some Unix systems). In any case, the users
        can easily find and download it somewhere. For example, a convenient
        rgb.txt file is provided with the Color::Rgb Perl module (CPAN).

        When a COLORMAP is loaded, the programmer can provide symbolic, user-
        friendly names in place of RGB values to the rgb2oo() function.
        Without argument, the content of the $COLORMAP variable is considered
        as the filename.

        When the OpenOffice::OODoc::Styles module is loaded as a consequence
        of a "use OpenOffice::OODoc" statement, ooLoadColorMap() is
        automatically executed if a valid filename is provided in the
        <Styles-COLORMAP> element of the "OODoc/config.xml" file.


        Returns the conventional RGB value of an OOo-encoded colour.

        In array context, returns a 3-element array containing the red, green,
        blue decimal values of the colour.

        In scalar context, returns either a string with concatenated, comma
        separated red, green, blue values, or, if these values exactly match
        a known colour (according to the current %COLORMAP), the corresponding
        symbolic name.

        This function can be used to display or compute separately the RGB
        values of any colour attribute of a style, or to export these values
        to an image processing software. It produces the same result as the
        hex2rgb() method of the Color::Rgb Perl module.

rgb2oo($red, $green, $blue) =head3 rgb2oo("$red,$green,$blue") =head3 rgb2oo($colorname)

        Converts an RGB or named colour in ODF-compliant hexadecimal format
        (6 digits after a leading '#'). The 1st form has the same effect as
        the rgb2hex() function of the Color::Rgb Perl module.

        The resulting value can be used to set any colour attribute in a

        In the first form, the 3 arguments are the conventional numeric RGB
        values (between 0 an 255). In the second form, the only one argument
        is a string containing the comma-separated RGB values. In the third
        form, the given string is the symbolic name of a colour (the name
        must be an existing one in the %COLORMAP hash).


                        'fo:color'              => rgb2oo('black'),
                        'fo:background-color'   => rgb2oo('yellow')
        If the argument seems to be already an hexadecimal RGB string (i.e.
        it begins by "#"), rgb2oo() checks it and returns it unchanged if
        it's a regular RGB value, or undef if not.


        Converts an ODF-color code into a decimal RGB code or, according
        to a mapping file, into a plain text conventional color name.
        See oo2rgb().


        The 'retrieve_by' option, set to 'display-name', can be provided
        in order to select the style elements by their display name instead
        of their primary name (names and display names are introduced in the
        beginning of this manual chapter).

        The %COLORMAP hash, defined as a class variable, contains a name
        to RGB translation table. When loaded, it allows the rgb2oo() function
        to use symbolic names in place of RGB values.
        The keys are symbolic, user-defined colour names, and the values are
        strings containing the concatenated, comma-separated RGB values.


        %OpenOffice::OODoc::Styles::COLORMAP{'antique white'} = "250,235,215";

        By default, this hash contains a short, arbitrary set of colour
        definitions such as 'red', 'green', 'blue', 'white', 'black' and a few
        others. The user can populate it from an external RGB file, through
        the ooLoadColorMap() function previously described, and/or through
        program instructions like the example above.


Developer/Maintainer: Jean-Marie Gouarne


Copyright 2004-2006 by Genicorp, S.A.

Initial English version of the reference manual by Graeme A. Hunter (


        - Licence Publique Generale Genicorp v1.0
        - GNU Lesser General Public License v2.1