NAME

Text::PO::Gettext - A GNU Gettext implementation

SYNOPSIS

    use Text::PO::Gettext;
    my $po = Text::PO::Gettext->new || die( Text::PO::Gettext->error, "\n" );
    my $po = Text::PO::GettextGettext->new({
        category => 'LC_MESSAGES',
        debug    => 3,
        domain   => "com.example.api",
        locale   => 'ja-JP',
        path     => "/home/joe/locale",
        use_json => 1,
    }) || die( Text::PO::Gettext->error, "\n" );

VERSION

    v0.1.2

DESCRIPTION

This module is used to access the data in either po, mo or json file and provides various methods to access those data.

The conventional way to use GNU gettext is to set the global environment variable LANGUAGE (not LANG by the way. GNU gettext only uses LANGUAGE), then set the "setlocale" in POSIX to the language such as:

    use Locale::gettext;
    use POSIX ();
    POSIX::setlocale( &POSIX::LC_ALL, 'ja_JP' );
    my $d = Locale::gettext->domain( 'com.example.api' );

And then in your application, you would write a statement like:

    print $d->get( 'Hello!' );

Or possibly using direct access to the C function:

    use Locale::gettext;
    use POSIX ();
    POSIX::setlocale( &POSIX::LC_ALL, 'ja_JP' );
    textdomain( 'com.example.api' );

And then:

    print gettext( 'Hello!' );

See Locale::gettext for more on this.

This works fine, but has the inconvenience that it uses the global LANGUAGE environment variable and makes it less than subpar as to the necessary flexibility when using multiple domains and flipping back and forth among locales.

Thus comes a more straightforward object-oriented interface offered by this module.

You instantiate an object, passing the domain, the locale and the filesystem path where the locale data resides.

    my $po = Text::PO::Gettext->new(
        domain => 'com.example.api',
        locale => 'ja_JP',
        path   => '/some/where/locale'
    );
    print $po->gettext( 'Hello!' );

This will load into memory the locale data whether they are stored as .po, .mo or even .json file, thus making calls to "gettext" super fast since they are in memory.

More than one locale can be loaded, each with its own Text::PO::Gettext object

This distribution comes with its Javascript library equivalent. See the share folder alone with its own test units.

Also, there is a script in scripts that can be used to transcode .po or .mo files into json format and vice versa.

Still, it is better to convert the original .po files to json using the po.pl utility that comes in this Text::PO distribution since it would allow the standalone JavaScript library to read json-based po files. For example:

    ./po.pl --as-json --output /home/joe/www/locale/ja_JP/LC_MESSAGES/com.example.api.json ./ja_JP.po

This api supports locale that use hyphens or underscore in them such as en-GB or en_GB. You can use either, it will be converted internally.

CONSTRUCTOR

new

Takes the following options and returns a Gettext object.

category

If category is defined, such as LC_MESSAGES (by default), it will be used when building the path.

Other possible category values are: LC_CTYPE, LC_NUMERIC, LC_TIME, LC_COLLATE, LC_MONETARY

See GNU documentation for more information and "LOCALE CATEGORIES" in perllocale

On the web, using the path is questionable.

See the GNU documentation for more information on this.

domain

The portable object domain, such as com.example.api

locale

The locale, such as ja_JP, or en, or it could even contain a dash instead of an underscore, such as en-GB. Internally, though, this will be converted to underscore.

path

The uri path where the gettext localised data are.

This is used to form a path along with the locale string. For example, with a locale of ja_JP and a domain of com/example.api, if the path were /locale, the data po json data would be fetched from /locale/ ja_JP/LC_MESSAGES/com.example.api.json

METHODS

addItem

This takes a locale, a message id and its localised version and it will add this to the current dictionary for the current domain.

    $po->addItem( 'ja_JP', 'Hello!' => "今日は!" );

category

The category to use. This defaults to LC_MESSAGES, but if you prefer you can nix its use by making it undefined, or empty:

    my $po = Text::PO::Gettext->new(
        category => '',
        domain => 'com.example.api',
        locale => 'ja_JP',
        path   => '/some/where/locale'
    );
    # Setting category to empty string will have the module get the po data 
    # under C</some/where/locale/ja_JP/com.example.api.json> for example.
    print $po->gettext( 'Hello!' );

charset

Returns a string containing the value of the charset encoding as defined in the Content-Type header.

    $po->charset()

contentEncoding

Returns a string containing the value of the header Content-Encoding.

    $po->contentEncoding();

contentType

Returns a string containing the value of the header Content-Type.

    $po->contentType(); # text/plain; charset=utf-8

currentLang

Return the current globally used locale. This is the value found in environment variables LANGUAGE or LANG. Note that GNU gettext only recognises LANGUAGE

and thus, this is different from the locale set in the Gettext class object using </setLocale> or upon class object instantiation.

dgettext

Takes a domain and a message id and returns the equivalent localised string if any, otherwise the original message id.

    $po->dgettext( 'com.example.auth', 'Please enter your e-mail address' );
    # Assuming the locale currently set is ja_JP, this would return:
    # 電子メールアドレスをご入力下さい。

dngettext

Same as "ngettext", but takes also a domain as first argument. For example:

    $po->ngettext( 'com.example.auth', '%d comment awaiting moderation', '%d comments awaiting moderation', 12 );
    # Assuming the locale is ru_RU, this would return:
    # %d комментариев ожидают проверки

domain

Sets or gets the domain.

    $po->domain( 'com.example.api' );

By doing so, this will call "textdomain" and load the associated data from file, if any are found.

exists

Provided with a locale, and this returns true if the locale exists in the current domain, or false otherwise.

fetchLocale

Given an original string (msgid), this returns an array of <span> html element each for one language and its related localised content. For example:

    my $array = $po->fetchLocale( "Hello!" );
    # Returns:
    <span lang="de-DE">Grüß Gott!</span>
    <span lang="fr-FR">Salut !</span>
    <span lang="ja-JP">今日は!</span>
    <span lang="ko-KR">안녕하세요!</span>

This is designed to be added to the html, and based on lang attribute of the html tag, and using the following css trick, this will automatically display the right localised data:

    [lang=de-DE] [lang=en-GB],
    [lang=de-DE] [lang=fr-FR],
    [lang=de-DE] [lang=ja-JP],
    [lang=de-DE] [lang=ko-KR],
    [lang=en-GB] [lang=de-DE],
    [lang=en-GB] [lang=fr-FR],
    [lang=en-GB] [lang=ja-JP],
    [lang=en-GB] [lang=ko-KR],
    [lang=fr-FR] [lang=de-DE],
    [lang=fr-FR] [lang=en-GB],
    [lang=fr-FR] [lang=ja-JP],
    [lang=fr-FR] [lang=ko-KR],
    [lang=ja-JP] [lang=de-DE],
    [lang=ja-JP] [lang=en-GB]
    [lang=ja-JP] [lang=fr-FR],
    [lang=ja-JP] [lang=ko-KR]
    {
        display: none !important;
        visibility: hidden !important;
    }

getDataPath

This takes no argument and will check for the environment variables TEXTDOMAINDIR. If found, it will use this in lieu of the path option used during object instantiation.

It returns the value found. This is just a helper method and does not affect the value of the path property set during object instantiation.

getDaysLong

Returns an array reference containing the 7 days of the week in their long representation.

    my $ref = $po->getDaysLong();
    # Assuming the locale is fr_FR, this would yield
    print $ref->[0], "\n"; # dim.

getDaysShort

Returns an array reference containing the 7 days of the week in their short representation.

    my $ref = $po->getDaysShort();
    # Assuming the locale is fr_FR, this would yield
    print $ref->[0], "\n"; # dimanche

getDomainHash

This takes an optional hash of parameters and return the global hash dictionary used by this class to store the localised data.

    # Will use the default domain as set in po.domain
    my $data = $po->getDomainHash();
    # Explicitly specify another domain
    my $data = $po->getDomainHash( domain => "net.example.api" );
    # Specify a domain and a locale
    my $l10n = $po->getDomainHash( domain => "com.example.api", locale => "ja_JP" );

Possible options are:

domain The domain for the data, such as com.example.api
locale The locale to return the associated dictionary.

getLangDataPath

Contrary to its JavaScript equivalent, this takes no parameter. It returns the value of the environment variable TEXTLOCALEDIR if found.

This is used internally during object instantiation when the path parameter is not provided.

getLanguageDict

Provided with a locale, such as ja_JP and this will return the dictionary for the current domain and the given locale.

getLocale

Returns the locale set for the current object, such as fr_FR or ja_JP

Locale returned are always formatted for the server-side, which means having an underscore rather than an hyphen like in the web environment.

getLocales

Provided with a msgid (i.e. an original text) and this will call "fetchLocale" and return those span tags as a string containing their respective localised content, joined by a new line

getLocalesf

This is similar to "getLocale", except that it does a sprintf internally before returning the resulting value.

getMetaKeys

Returns an array of the meta field names used.

getMetaValue

Provided with a meta field name and this returns its corresponding value.

getMonthsLong

Returns an array reference containing the 12 months in their long representation.

    my $ref = $po->getMonthsLong();
    # Assuming the locale is fr_FR, this would yield
    print $ref->[0], "\n"; # janvier

getMonthsShort

Returns an array reference containing the 12 months in their short representation.

    my $ref = $po->getMonthsShort();
    # Assuming the locale is fr_FR, this would yield
    print $ref->[0], "\n"; # janv.

getNumericDict

Returns an hash reference containing the following properties:

    my $ref = $po->getNumericDict();
currency string

Contains the usual currency symbol, such as , or $, or ¥

decimal string

Contains the character used to separate decimal. In English speaking countries, this would typically be a dot.

int_currency string

Contains the 3-letters international currency symbol, such as USD, or EUR or JPY

negative_sign string

Contains the negative sign used for negative number

precision integer

An integer whose value represents the fractional precision allowed for monetary context.

For example, in Japanese, this value would be 0 while in many other countries, it would be 2.

thousand string

Contains the character used to group and separate thousands.

For example, in France, it would be a space, such as :

    1 000 000,00

While in English countries, including Japan, it would be a comma :

    1,000,000.00

getNumericPosixDict

Returns the full hash reference returned by "lconv" in POSIX. It contains the following properties:

Here the values shown as example are for the locale en_US

currency_symbol string

The local currency symbol: $

decimal_point string

The decimal point character, except for currency values, cannot be an empty string: .

frac_digits integer

The number of digits after the decimal point in the local style for currency value: 2

grouping

The sizes of the groups of digits, except for currency values. unpack( "C*", $grouping ) will give the number

int_curr_symbol string

The standardized international currency symbol: USD

int_frac_digits integer

The number of digits after the decimal point in an international-style currency value: 2

int_n_cs_precedes integer

Same as n_cs_precedes, but for internationally formatted monetary quantities: 1

int_n_sep_by_space integer

Same as n_sep_by_space, but for internationally formatted monetary quantities: 1

int_n_sign_posn integer

Same as n_sign_posn, but for internationally formatted monetary quantities: 1

int_p_cs_precedes integer

Same as p_cs_precedes, but for internationally formatted monetary quantities: 1

int_p_sep_by_space integer

Same as p_sep_by_space, but for internationally formatted monetary quantities: 1

int_p_sign_posn integer

Same as p_sign_posn, but for internationally formatted monetary quantities: 1

mon_decimal_point string

The decimal point character for currency values: .

mon_grouping

Like grouping but for currency values.

mon_thousands_sep string

The separator for digit groups in currency values: ,

n_cs_precedes integer

Like p_cs_precedes but for negative values: 1

n_sep_by_space integer

Like p_sep_by_space but for negative values: 0

n_sign_posn integer

Like p_sign_posn but for negative currency values: 1

negative_sign string

The character used to denote negative currency values, usually a minus sign: -

p_cs_precedes integer

1 if the currency symbol precedes the currency value for nonnegative values, 0 if it follows: 1

p_sep_by_space integer

1 if a space is inserted between the currency symbol and the currency value for nonnegative values, 0 otherwise: 0

p_sign_posn integer

The location of the positive_sign with respect to a nonnegative quantity and the currency_symbol, coded as follows:

    0    Parentheses around the entire string.
    1    Before the string.
    2    After the string.
    3    Just before currency_symbol.
    4    Just after currency_symbol.
positive_sign string

The character used to denote nonnegative currency values, usually the empty string

thousands_sep string

The separator between groups of digits before the decimal point, except for currency values: ,

getPlural

Calls "plural" in Text::PO and returns an array object (Module::Generic::Array) with 2 elements.

See "plural" in Text::PO for more details.

getText

Provided with an original string, and this will return its localised equivalent if it exists, or by default, it will return the original string.

getTextf

Provided with an original string, and this will get its localised equivalent that wil be used as a template for the sprintf function. The resulting formatted localised content will be returned.

gettext

Provided with a msgid represented by a string, and this return a localised version of the string, if any is found and is translated, otherwise returns the msgid that was provided.

    $po->gettext( "Hello" );
    # With locale of fr_FR, this would return "Bonjour"

See the global function "_" for more information.

gettextf

This is an alias to "getTextf"

isSupportedLanguage

Provided with a locale such as fr-FR or ja_JP no matter whether an underscore or a dash is used, and this will return true if the locale has already been loaded and thus is supported. False otherwise.

language

Returns a string containing the value of the header Language.

    $po->language();

languageTeam

Returns a string containing the value of the header Language-Team.

    $po->languageTeam();

lastTranslator

Returns a string containing the value of the header Last-Translator.

    $po->lastTranslator();

locale

Returns the locale set in the object. if sets, this will trigger the (re)load of po data by calling "textdomain"

locale_unix

Provided with a locale, such as en-GB and this will return its equivalent formatted for server-side such as en_GB

locale_web

Provided with a locale, such as en_GB and this will return its equivalent formatted for the web such as en-GB

mimeVersion

Returns a string containing the value of the header MIME-Version.

    $po->mimeVersion();

ngettext

Takes an original string (a.k.a message id), the plural version of that string, and an integer representing the applicable count. For example:

    $po->ngettext( '%d comment awaiting moderation', '%d comments awaiting moderation', 12 );
    # Assuming the locale is ru_RU, this would return:
    # %d комментариев ожидают проверки

path

Sets or gets the filesystem path to the base directory containing the locale data:

    $po->path( '/locale' ); # /locale contains en_GB/LC_MESSAGES/com.example.api.mo for example

plural

Sets or gets the definition for plural for the current domain and locale.

It takes and returns an array reference of 2 elements:

0. An integer representing the various plural forms available, starting from 1
1. An expression to be evaluated resulting in an offset for the right plural form. For example:
    n>1

or more complex for Russian:

    (n==1) ? 0 : (n%10==1 && n%100!=11) ? 3 : ((n%10>=2 && n%10<=4 && (n%100<10 || n%100>=20)) ? 1 : 2)

pluralForms

Returns a string containing the value of the header Plural-Forms.

    $po->pluralForms();

po_object

Returns the Text::PO object used.

poRevisionDate

Returns a string containing the value of the header PO-Revision-Date.

    $po->poRevisionDate();

potCreationDate

Returns a string containing the value of the header POT-Creation-Date.

    $po->potCreationDate();

projectIdVersion

Returns a string containing the value of the header Project-Id-Version.

    $po->projectIdVersion();

reportBugsTo

Returns a string containing the value of the header Report-Msgid-Bugs-To.

    $po->reportBugsTo();

textdomain

Given a string representing a domain, such as com.example.api and this will load the .json (if the "use_json" option is enabled), .po or .mo file found in that order.

use_json

Takes a boolean and if set, Text::PO::Gettext will use a json po data if it exists, otherwise it will use a .po file or a .mo file in that order of preference.

_get_po

Returns the Text::PO object used.

AUTHOR

Jacques Deguest <jack@deguest.jp>

SEE ALSO

perl

COPYRIGHT & LICENSE

Copyright(c) 2021 DEGUEST Pte. Ltd. DEGUEST Pte. Ltd.