Text::PO - Read and write PO files


    use Text::PO;
    my $po = Text::PO->new;
    $po->debug( 2 );
    $po->parse( $poFile ) || die( $po->error, "\n" );
    my $hash = $po->as_hash;
    my $json = $po->as_json;
    # Add data:
    my $e = $po->add_element(
        msgid => 'Hello!',
        msgstr => 'Salut !',
    $po->remove_element( $e );
        my $e = shift( @_ ); # $_ is also available
        if( $e->msgid eq $other->msgid )
            # do something
    # Write in a PO format to STDOUT
    # or to a file handle
    $po->dump( $io );
    # Synchronise data
    $po->sync( '/some/where/com.example.api.po' );
    $po->sync( $file_handle );
    # or merge
    $po->merge( '/some/where/com.example.api.po' );
    $po->merge( $file_handle );




This module parse GNU PO (portable object) and POT (portable object template) files, making it possible to edit the localised text and write it back to a po file.

Text::PO::MO reads and writes .mo (machine object) binary files.

Thus, with those modules, you do not need to install msgfmt, msginit of GNU. It is better if you have them though.

Also, this distribution provides a way to export the po files in json format to be used from within JavaScript and a JavaScript class to load and use those files is also provided along with some command line scripts. See the share folder along with its own test units.

Also, there is a script in scripts that can be used to transcode .po or mo files into json format and vice versa.



Create a new Text::PO object acting as an accessor.

One object should be created per po file, because it stores internally the po data for that file in the Text::PO object instantiated.

Returns the object.



Given either a Text::PO::Element object, or an hash ref with keys like msgid and msgstr, or given a msgid followed by an optional hash ref, "add_element" will add this to the stack of elements.

It returns the newly created element if it did not already exist, or the existing one found. Thus if you try to add an element data that already exists, this will prevent it and return the existing element object found.


Returns an array object (Module::Generic::Array) of Text::PO::Element objects added during synchronisation.


This takes an optional hash reference of option parameters and return a json formatted string.

All options take a boolean value. Possible options are:


If true, JSON will indent the data.

Default to false.


If true, this will return a human-readable json data.


If true, this will instruct JSON to sort the keys. This makes it slower to generate.

It defaults to false, which will use a pseudo random order set by perl.


If true, JSON will utf8 encode the data.


Return the data parsed as an hash reference.


Return the PO data parsed as json data.


Sets or gets the character encoding for the po data. This will affect the charset parameter in Content-Type meta information.


Sets or gets the meta field value for Content-Encoding


Sets or gets the meta field value for Content-Type


Returns the current language environment variable set, trying LANGUAGE and LANG


Given a string, this will decode it using the character set specified with "encoding"


Sets or gets the domain (or namespace) for this PO. Something like com.example.api


Given an optional filehandle, or STDOUT by default, it will print to that filehandle in a format suitable to the po file.

Thus, one could create a perl script, read a po file, then redirect the output of the dump back to another po file like

    ./ en_GB.po > new_en_GB.po

It returns the Text::PO object used.


Returns the array reference of all the Text::PO::Element objects


Sets or gets the character set encoding for the GNU PO file. Typically this should be utf-8


Given a Text::PO::Element object, it will check if this object exists in its current stack.

It returns true of false accordingly.


Returns the data of the po file as an hash reference with each key representing a string and its value the localised version.

Access the headers data for this po file. The data is an array reference.


Sets or gets the meta field value for Language


Sets or gets the meta field value for Language-Team


Sets or gets the meta field value for Last-Translator


This takes the same parameters as "sync" and will merge the current data with the target data and return the newly created Text::PO object


This sets or return the given meta information. The meta field name provided is case insensitive and you can replace dashes (-) with underscore (<_>)

    $po->meta( 'Project-Id-Version' => 'MyProject 1.0' );
    # or this will also work
    $po->meta( project_id_version => 'MyProject 1.0' );

It can take a hash ref, a hash, or a single element. If a single element is provided, it return its corresponding value.

This returns its internal hash of meta information.


This is an hash reference of meta information.


Sets or gets the meta field value for MIME-Version


Provided with an hash or hash reference of property-value pairs, and this will pass those information to Text::PO::Element and return the new object.


Given a meta field, this will return a normalised version of it, ie a field name with the right case and dash instead of underscore characters.


Given a filepath to a po file or a file handle, this will parse the po file and return a new Text::PO object.

For each new entry that "parse" find, it creates a Text::PO::Element object.

The list of all elements found can then be accessed using "elements"

It returns the current Text::PO object


Provided with a date string and this returns a DateTime object


Takes a header value such as text/plain; charset="utf-8" and this returns a Text::PO::HeaderValue object


Whether the pod file is stored as standard GNU po data or as json data, this method will read its data and return an hash reference of it.


Takes a file path, parse the po file and loads its data onto the current object. It returns the current object.


Sets or gets the plurality definition for this domain and locale used in the current object.

If set, this will expect 2 parameters: 1) an integer representing the possible plurality for the given locale and 2) the expression that will be evaluated to assess which plural form to use.

It returns an array reference representing those 2 values.


Sets or gets the meta field value for Plural-Forms


Sets or gets the meta field value for PO-Revision-Date


Sets or gets the meta field value for POT-Creation-Date


Sets or gets the meta field value for Project-Id-Version


Given a string, it will escape carriage return, double quote and return it,


Takes a boolean value to enable or disable the removal of duplicates in the po file.


Given a Text::PO::Element and this will remove it from the object elements list.

If the value provided is not an Text::PO::Element object it will return an error.

It returns a true value representing the number of elements removed or 0 if none could be found.


Sets or gets this boolean value.


Sets or gets the meta field value for Report-Msgid-Bugs-To


Takes a string and escape the characters that needs to be and returns it.


Takes a boolean value and if true, this will remove duplicate msgid.


Returns an array object (Module::Generic::Array) of Text::PO::Element removed during synchronisation.


Sets or gets an hash reference of parameters providing information about the source of the data.

It could have an attribute handle with a glob as value or an attribute file with a filepath as value.


    $po->sync( '/some/where/com.example.api.po' );
    # or
    $po->sync({ file => '/some/where/com.example.api.po' });
    # or
    $po->sync({ handle => $file_handle });
    # or, if source of data has been set previously by parse()
    $po->parse( '/some/where/com.example.api.po' );
    # Do some change to the data, then:

Given a file or a file handle, it will read the po file, and our current object will synchronise against it.

It takes an hash or hash reference passed as argument, as optional parameters with the following properties:


File path


Opened file handle

This means that our object is the source and the file or filehandle representing the target po file is the recipient of the synchronisation.

This method will return an error a file is provided, already exists, but is either a symbolic link or not a regular file (-f test), or a file handle is provided, but not currently opened.

If a file path is provided, and the file does not yet exist, it will attempt to create it or return an error if it cannot. In this case, it will use "dump" to write all its data to file.

If the target file was created, it will return the current object, otherwise it returns the newly created Text::PO representing the data synchronised.


Takes a file handle as its unique argument and synchronise the object data with the file handle. This means, the file handle provided must be opened in both read and write mode.

What it does is that, after creating a new Text::PO object, it will first call "parse" on the file handle to load its data, and then add all of the current object data to the newly created object, and finally dump all back to the file handle using "dump"

It will set two array of data: one for the elements that did not exist in the recipient data and thus were added and one for those elements in the target data that did not exist in the source object and thus were removed.

If the option append is specified, however, it will not remove those elements in the target that doe not exist in the source one. You can get the same result by calling the method "merge" instead of "sync"

You can get the data of each of those 2 arrays by calling the methods "added" and "removed" respectively.

It returns the newly created Text::PO object containing the synchronised data.


Takes a string, unescape it and returns it.


Takes a boolean value and if true, this will save the data as json instead of regular po format.

Saving data as json makes it quicker to load, but also enable the data to be used by JavaScript.



Given a filehandle, returns true if it can be written to it or false otherwise.


Takes a meta field name for a date-type field and sets its value, if one is provided, or returns a DateTime object.

If a value is provided, even a string, it will be converted to a DateTime object and a DateTime::Format::Strptime will be attached to it as a formatter so the stringification of the object produces a date compliant with PO format.


Takes a meta field name and sets or gets its value.


Jacques Deguest <>


Text::PO::Element, Text::PO::MO, Text::PO::Gettext,

GNU documentation on header format


Copyright (c) 2020-2021 DEGUEST Pte. Ltd.

You can use, copy, modify and redistribute this package and associated files under the same terms as Perl itself.