=begin pod

=for comment
TODO: Maybe add sections on aliasing (C<:=>), gather/take, :10<number>,
Q://, repeat { }, exceptions, try/CATCH, laziness

=for NAME
perlsyn - Perl 6 syntax


A Perl program consists of a sequence of declarations and statements
which run from the top to the bottom.  Loops, subroutines and other
control structures allow you to jump around within the code.

Perl is a B<free-form> language, you can format and indent it however
you like.  Whitespace mostly serves to separate tokens, unlike
languages like Python where it is an important part of the syntax.

Many of Perl's syntactic elements are B<optional>.  Rather than
requiring you to put parentheses around every function call and
declare every variable, you can often leave such explicit elements off
and Perl will figure out what you meant.  This is known as B<Do What I
Mean>, abbreviated B<DWIM>.  It allows programmers to be B<lazy> and to
code in a style with which they are comfortable.

Perl B<borrows syntax> and concepts from many languages: awk, sed, C,
Bourne Shell, Smalltalk, Lisp and even English. And of course, earlier
versions of Perl.  Other languages have borrowed syntax from Perl,
particularly its regular expression extensions.  So if you have programmed
in another language you will see familiar pieces in Perl.  They often work
the same, but see L<doc:perltrap> for information about how they differ.

=head2 Declarations
X<declaration> X<undef> X<undefined> X<uninitialized>

=for comment
The only things you need to declare in Perl are report formats and
subroutines (and sometimes not even subroutines).

A variable holds
the undefined value (C<undef>) until it has been assigned a defined
value, which is anything other than C<undef>.  When used as a number,
C<undef> is treated as C<0>; when used as a string, it is treated as
the empty string, C<"">; and when used as a reference that isn't being
assigned to, it is treated as an error.  Perl will warn you of an
uninitialized value whenever you treat C<undef> as a string or a number.
Well, usually.  Boolean contexts, such as:

    my $a;
    if $a { ... }

are exempt from warnings (because they care about truth rather than
definedness).  Operators such as C<++>, C<-->, C<+=>,
C<-=>, and C<.=>, that operate on undefined left values such as:

    my $a;

are also always exempt from such warnings.

A declaration can be put anywhere a statement can, but has no effect on
the execution of the primary sequence of statements--declarations all
take effect at compile time.  Typically all the declarations are put at
the beginning or the end of the script.  However, if you're using
lexically-scoped private variables created with C<my>, you'll
have to make sure your subroutine definition is within the same block scope
as the C<my> if you expect to be able to access those private variables.

Declaring a subroutine allows a subroutine name to be used as if it were a
list operator from that point forward in the program.  You can declare a
subroutine without defining it by saying C<sub name;>, thus:
X<subroutine, declaration>

    sub myname;
    $me = myname $*PROGRAM_NAME or die "can't get myname";

=for comment
Note that C<myname()> functions as a list operator, not as a unary operator;
so be careful to use C<or> instead of C<||> in this case.  However, if
you were to declare the subroutine as C<sub myname ($)>, then
C<myname> would function as a unary operator, so either C<or> or
C<||> would work.

Subroutines declarations can also be loaded up with the C<require> statement
or both loaded and imported into your namespace with a C<use> statement.
See L<doc:perlmod> for details on this.

A statement sequence may contain declarations of lexically-scoped
variables, but apart from declaring a variable name, the declaration acts
like an ordinary statement, and is elaborated within the sequence of
statements as if it were an ordinary statement.  That means it actually
has both compile-time and run-time effects.

=head2 Comments
X<comment> X<#>

Text from a C<#> character until the end of the line is a comment,
and is ignored.  Exceptions include C<#> inside a string.

An B<embedded comment> may be written by following the C<#> character with
a pair of matching bracketing characters. Such comments can appear inline:

    say #( embedded comment ) "hello, world!";

They may not, however, appear at the beginning of a line:

    #sub foo        # line-end comment
    #{              # ILLEGAL, syntax error
    #   ...

=head2 Simple Statements
X<statement> X<semicolon> X<expression> X<;>

The only kind of simple statement is an expression evaluated for its
side effects.  Every simple statement must be terminated with a
semicolon, unless it is the final statement in a block, in which case
the semicolon is optional.  (A semicolon is still encouraged if the
block takes up more than one line, because you may eventually add
another line.)

=for comment
Note that there are some operators like C<eval {}> and
C<do {}> that look like compound statements, but aren't (they're just
TERMs in an expression), and thus need an explicit termination if used
as the last item in a statement.

=head2 Truth and Falsehood
X<truth> X<falsehood> X<true> X<false> X<!> X<not> X<negation> X<0>

The number C<0>, the strings C<'0'> and C<''>, the empty list C<()>, and
C<undef> are all false in a boolean context. All other values are true.
Negation of a true value by C<!> or C<not> returns a special false value.
When evaluated as a string it is treated as C<''>, but as a number, it
is treated as C<0>.

=head2 Statement Modifiers
X<statement modifier> X<modifier> X<if> X<unless> X<while>
X<until> X<when> X<foreach> X<for>

Any simple statement may optionally be followed by a I<SINGLE> modifier,
just before the terminating semicolon (or block ending).  The possible
modifiers are:

    if EXPR
    unless EXPR
    while EXPR
    until EXPR
    when EXPR
    for LIST

The I<EXPR> following the modifier is referred to as the "condition".
Its truth or falsehood determines how the modifier will behave.

C<if> executes the statement once I<if> and only if the condition is
true.  C<unless> is the opposite, it executes the statement I<unless>
the condition is true (i.e., if the condition is false).

    say "Basset hounds got long ears" if length $ear >= 10;
    go_outside() and play() unless $is_raining;

C<when> executes the statement I<when> C<$_> smart matches C<EXPR>, and
then either C<break>s out if it's enclosed in a C<given> scope or skips
to the C<next> element when it lies directly inside a C<for> loop.
See also L<#Switch statements>.

    given $something {
        $abc    = 1 when /^^abc/;
        $just_a = 1 when /^^a/;
        $other  = 1;

    for @names {
        admin($_)   when <Alice Bob>;
        regular($_) when <Chris David Ellen>;

The C<for> modifier is an iterator: it executes the statement once
for each item in the LIST (with C<$_> aliased to each item in turn).

    say "Hello $_!" for <world Dolly nurse>;

C<while> repeats the statement I<while> the condition is true.
C<until> does the opposite, it repeats the statement I<until> the
condition is true (or while the condition is false):

    # Both of these count from 0 to 10.
    print $i++ while $i <= 10;
    print $j++ until $j >  10;

The C<while> and C<until> modifiers have the usual "C<while> loop"
semantics (conditional evaluated first), except when applied to a
C<do>-BLOCK (or to the deprecated C<do>-SUBROUTINE statement), in
which case the block executes once before the conditional is
evaluated.  This is so that you can write loops like:

    do {
        $line = <STDIN>;
    } until $line eq ".\n";

See L<doc:perlfunc#do>.  Note also that the loop control statements described
later will I<NOT> work in this construct, because modifiers don't take
loop labels.  Sorry.  You can always put another block inside of it
(for C<next>) or around it (for C<last>) to do that sort of thing.
For C<next>, just double the braces:
X<next> X<last> X<redo>

    do {{
        next if $x == $y;
        # do something here
    }} until $x++ > $z;

For C<last>, you have to be more elaborate:

    LOOP: { 
        do {
            last if $x = $y**2;
            # do something here
        } while $x++ <= $z;

B<NOTE:> The behaviour of a C<my> statement modified with a statement
modifier conditional or loop construct (e.g. C<my $x if ...>) is
B<undefined>.  The value of the C<my> variable may be C<undef>, any
previously assigned value, or possibly anything else.  Don't rely on
it.  Future versions of perl might do something different from the
version of perl you try it out on.  Here be dragons.

=head2 Compound Statements
X<statement, compound> X<block> X<bracket, curly> X<curly bracket> X<brace>
X<{> X<}> X<if> X<unless> X<while> X<until> X<for> X<continue>

In Perl, a sequence of statements that defines a scope is called a block.
Sometimes a block is delimited by the file containing it (in the case
of a required file, or the program as a whole), and sometimes a block
is delimited by the extent of a string (in the case of an eval).

But generally, a block is delimited by curly brackets, also known as braces.
We will call this syntactic construct a BLOCK.

The following compound statements may be used to control flow:

    if (EXPR) BLOCK
    if (EXPR) BLOCK else BLOCK
    if (EXPR) BLOCK elsif (EXPR) BLOCK ... else BLOCK
    LABEL while (EXPR) BLOCK
    LABEL while (EXPR) BLOCK continue BLOCK
    LABEL until (EXPR) BLOCK
    LABEL until (EXPR) BLOCK continue BLOCK
    LABEL for LIST -> VAR BLOCK continue BLOCK
    LABEL BLOCK continue BLOCK

Note that, unlike C and Pascal, these are defined in terms of BLOCKs,
not statements.  This means that the curly brackets are I<required>--no
dangling statements allowed.  If you want to write conditionals without
curly brackets there are several other ways to do it.  The following
all do the same thing:

    if (!$foo = open 'foo') { die "Can't open foo: $!"; }
    die "Can't open foo: $!" unless $foo = open 'foo';
    $foo = open 'foo' or die "Can't open foo: $!"; # FOO or bust!
    $foo = open 'foo' ? 'hi mom' : die "Can't open foo: $!";
                                # a bit exotic, that last one

The C<if> statement is straightforward.  Because BLOCKs are always
bounded by curly brackets, there is never any ambiguity about which
C<if> an C<else> goes with.  If you use C<unless> in place of C<if>,
the sense of the test is reversed.

The C<while> statement executes the block as long as the expression is
L<true|#Truth and Falsehood>.
The C<until> statement executes the block as long as the expression is
false. The LABEL is optional, and if present, consists of an identifier
followed by a colon.  The LABEL identifies the loop for the loop control
statements C<next>, C<last>, and C<redo>.
If the LABEL is omitted, the loop control statement
refers to the innermost enclosing loop.

=for comment
This may include dynamically
looking back your call-stack at run time to find the LABEL.  Such
desperate behavior triggers a warning if you use the C<use warnings>
pragma or the B<-w> flag.

If there is a C<continue> BLOCK, it is always executed just before the
conditional is about to be evaluated again.  Thus it can be used to
increment a loop variable, even when the loop has been continued via
the C<next> statement.

=head2 Loop Control
X<loop control> X<loop, control> X<next> X<last> X<redo> X<continue>

The C<next> command starts the next iteration of the loop:

    LINE: while $*IN.get {
        next LINE if /^^#/;      # discard comments

The C<last> command immediately exits the loop in question.  The
C<continue> block, if any, is not executed:

    LINE: while $*IN.get {
        last LINE if /^^$$/;      # exit when done with header

The C<redo> command restarts the loop block without evaluating the
conditional again.  The C<continue> block, if any, is I<not> executed.
This command is normally used by programs that want to lie to themselves
about what was just input.

=begin comment

For example, when processing a file like F</etc/termcap>.
If your input lines might end in backslashes to indicate continuation, you
want to skip ahead and get the next record.

    while (<>) {
	if (s/\\$//) {
	    $_ .= <>;
	    redo unless eof();
	# now process $_

which is Perl short-hand for the more explicitly written version:

    LINE: while (defined($line = <ARGV>)) {
	if ($line =~ s/\\$//) {
	    $line .= <ARGV>;
	    redo LINE unless eof(); # not eof(ARGV)!
	# now process $line

Note that if there were a C<continue> block on the above code, it would
get executed only on lines discarded by the regex (since redo skips the
continue block). A continue block is often used to reset line counters
or C<?pat?> one-time matches:

    # inspired by :1,$g/fred/s//WILMA/
    while (<>) {
	?(fred)?    && s//WILMA $1 WILMA/;
	?(barney)?  && s//BETTY $1 BETTY/;
	?(homer)?   && s//MARGE $1 MARGE/;
    } continue {
	print "$ARGV $.: $_";
	close ARGV  if eof();		# reset $.
	reset	    if eof();		# reset ?pat?

=end comment

If the word C<while> is replaced by the word C<until>, the sense of the
test is reversed, but the conditional is still tested before the first

The loop control statements don't work in an C<if> or C<unless>, since
they aren't loops.  You can double the braces to make them such, though.

    if (/pattern/) {{
        last if /fred/;
        next if /barney/; # same effect as "last", but doesn't document as well
        # do something here

This is caused by the fact that a block by itself acts as a loop that
executes once, see L<#Basic BLOCKs>.

=head2 C-style Loops

Perl's C-style C<loop> construct works like the corresponding C<while> loop;
that means that this:

    loop ($i = 1; $i < 10; $i++) {

is the same as this:

    $i = 1;
    while ($i < 10) {
    continue {

There is one minor difference: if variables are declared with C<my>
in the initialization section of the C<loop>, the lexical scope of
those variables is exactly the C<loop> loop (the body of the loop
and the control sections).

Besides the normal array index looping, C<loop> can lend itself
to many other interesting applications.  Here's one that avoids the
problem you get into if you explicitly test for end-of-file on
an interactive file descriptor causing your program to appear to
X<eof> X<end-of-file> X<end of file>

    $on_a_tty = $*IN :t && $*OUT :t;
    sub prompt { print "yes? " if $on_a_tty }
    for ( prompt(); $*in.get; prompt() ) {
	# do something

=begin comment

Using C<readline> (or the operator form, C«<EXPR>») as the
conditional of a C<for> loop is shorthand for the following.  This
behaviour is the same as a C<while> loop conditional.
X<readline> X«<>»

    for ( prompt(); defined( $_ = <STDIN> ); prompt() ) {
        # do something

=end comment

=head2 For Loops

=for comment
Revise the following

The C<for> loop iterates over a normal list value and aliases the
variable VAR to each element of the list in turn.  If the variable
is preceded with the keyword C<my>, then it is lexically scoped, and
is therefore visible only within the loop.  Otherwise, the variable is
implicitly local to the loop and regains its former value upon exiting
the loop.  If the variable was previously declared with C<my>, it uses
that variable instead of the global one, but it's still aliased in
the loop.  This implicit aliasation occurs I<only> in a C<for>
loop. If VAR is omitted, C<$_> is set to each value.
X<$_> X<my> X<local> X<aliasing>

=for comment
The C<foreach> keyword is actually a synonym for the C<for> keyword, so
you can use C<foreach> for readability or C<for> for brevity.  (Or because
the Bourne shell is more familiar to you than I<csh>, so writing C<for>
comes more naturally.)

If any element of LIST is an lvalue, you can modify it by modifying
VAR inside the loop.  Conversely, if any element of LIST is NOT an
lvalue, any attempt to modify that element will fail.  In other words,
the C<for> loop index variable is an implicit alias for each item
in the list that you're looping over.

If any part of LIST is an array, C<for> will get very confused if
you add or remove elements within the loop body, for example with
C<splice>.  So don't do that.

C<for> probably won't do what you expect if VAR is a tied or other
special variable.  Don't do that either.


    for @ary { s/foo/bar/ }

    for @elements -> $elem {
        $elem *= 2;

    for 10,9,8,7,6,5,4,3,2,1,'BOOM' -> $count {
        say $count; sleep(1);

    for 1..15 { print "Merry Christmas\n"; }

    for split(/:[\\\n:]*/, $ENV{TERMCAP}) -> $item {
        say "Item: $item";

Here's how a C programmer might code up a particular algorithm in Perl:

    loop (my $i = 0; $i < @ary1; $i++) {
        loop (my $j = 0; $j < @ary2; $j++) {
            if ($ary1[$i] > $ary2[$j]) {
                last; # can't go to outer :-(
            $ary1[$i] += $ary2[$j];
        # this is where that last takes me

Whereas here's how a Perl programmer more comfortable with the idiom might
do it:

    OUTER:  for @ary1 -> $wid {
    INNER:      for @ary2 -> $jet {
                    next OUTER if $wid > $jet;
                    $wid += $jet;

See how much easier this is?  It's cleaner, safer, and faster.  It's
cleaner because it's less noisy.  It's safer because if code gets added
between the inner and outer loops later on, the new code won't be
accidentally executed.  The C<next> explicitly iterates the other loop
rather than merely terminating the inner one.  And it's faster because
Perl executes a C<for> statement more rapidly than it would the
equivalent C<loop> loop.

=head2 Basic BLOCKs

A BLOCK by itself (labeled or not) is semantically equivalent to a
loop that executes once.  Thus you can use any of the loop control
statements in it to leave or restart the block.  (Note that this is
I<NOT> true in C<eval{}>, C<sub{}>, or contrary to popular belief
C<do{}> blocks, which do I<NOT> count as loops.)  The C<continue>
block is optional.

The BLOCK construct can be used to emulate case structures.

    SWITCH: {
	if (/^abc/) { $abc = 1; last SWITCH; }
	if (/^def/) { $def = 1; last SWITCH; }
	if (/^xyz/) { $xyz = 1; last SWITCH; }
	$nothing = 1;

Such constructs were quite frequently used, because older versions
of Perl had no official C<switch> statement.

=head2 Switch statements
X<switch> X<case> X<given> X<when> X<default>

The keywords C<given> and C<when> are analogous
to C<switch> and C<case> in other languages, so the code
above could be written as

    given $_ {
        when /^^abc/ { $abc = 1; }
        when /^^def/ { $def = 1; }
        when /^^xyz/ { $xyz = 1; }
        default { $nothing = 1; }

This construct is very flexible and powerful. For example:

    given $foo {
        when undef {
           say '$foo is undefined';
        when "foo" {
            say '$foo is the string "foo"';
        when 1|3|5|7|9 {
            say '$foo is an odd digit';
            continue; # Fall through
        when $_ < 100 {
            say '$foo is numerically less than 100';
        when &complicated_check {
            say 'a complicated check for $foo is true';
        default {
            die q(I don't know what to do with $foo);

C<given(EXPR)> will assign the value of EXPR to C<$_>
within the lexical scope of the block, so it's similar to

    do { my $_ = EXPR; ... }

except that the block is automatically broken out of by a
successful C<when> or an explicit C<break>.

Most of the power comes from implicit smart matching:

    when $foo

is exactly equivalent to

    when $_ ~~ $foo

In fact C<when EXPR> is treated as an implicit smart match most of the
time. The exceptions are that when EXPR is:

=for comment
Double check this list and compare with S03

=item a subroutine or method call

=for item
a regular expression match, i.e. C</REGEX/> or C<$foo =~ /REGEX/>,
or a negated regular expression match (C<!/REGEX/> or C<$foo !~ /REGEX/>).

=for item
a comparison such as C<$_ E<lt> 10> or C<$x eq "abc">
(or of course C<$_ ~~ $c>)

=item C<defined(...)>, C<exists(...)>, or C<eof(...)>

=for item
a negated expression C<!(...)> or C<not (...)>, or a logical
exclusive-or C<(...) xor (...)>.

=for item
a filetest operator, with the exception of C<-s>, C<-M>, C<-A>, and C<-C>,
that return numerical values, not boolean ones.

=begin item
the C<..> and C<...> flip-flop operators.

In those cases the value of EXPR is used directly as a boolean.
=end item


=for item
If EXPR is C<... && ...> or C<... and ...>, the test
is applied recursively to both arguments. If I<both>
arguments pass the test, then the argument is treated
as boolean.

=begin item
If EXPR is C<... || ...>, C<... // ...> or C<... or ...>, the test
is applied recursively to the first argument.

These rules look complicated, but usually they will do what
you want. For example you could write:

    when /^\d+$/ && $_ < 75 { ... }
=end item

=for comment
Another useful shortcut is that, if you use a literal array
or hash as the argument to C<when>, it is turned into a
reference. So C<given(@foo)> is the same as C<given(\@foo)>,
for example.

C<default> behaves exactly like C<when True>, which is
to say that it always matches.

See L<#Smart matching in detail> for more information
on smart matching.

=head3 Breaking out

You can use the C<break> keyword to break out of the enclosing
C<given> block.  Every C<when> block is implicitly ended with
a C<break>.

=head3 Fall-through

You can use the C<continue> keyword to fall through from one
case to the next:

    given $foo {
        when /x/ { say '$foo contains an x'; continue }
        when /y/ { say '$foo contains a y' }
        default    { say '$foo does not contain a y' }

=head3 Switching in a loop

Instead of using C<given>, you can use a C<for> loop.
For example, here's one way to count how many times a particular
string occurs in an array:

    my $count = 0;
    for @array {
        when "foo" { ++$count }
    say "\@array contains $count copies of 'foo'";

On exit from the C<when> block, there is an implicit C<next>.
You can override that with an explicit C<last> if you're only
interested in the first match.

=for comment
Is the following correct?

This doesn't work if you explicitly specify a loop variable,
as in C<<for @array -> $item>>. You have to use the default
variable C<$_> (You can use C<<for @array -> $_>>).

=head3 Smart matching in detail

The behaviour of a smart match depends on what type of thing its arguments
are. The behaviour is determined by the following table: the first row
that applies determines the match behaviour (which is thus mostly
determined by the type of the right operand). Note that the smart match
implicitly dereferences any non-blessed hash or array ref, so the "Hash"
and "Array" entries apply in those cases. (For blessed references, the
"Object" entries apply.)

=for comment
Double-check this with S03

    $a      $b        Type of Match Implied    Matching Code
    ======  =====     =====================    =============
    Any     undef     undefined                !defined $a

    Any     Object    invokes ~~ overloading on $object, or dies

    Hash    CodeRef   sub truth for each key[1] !grep { !$b->($_) } keys %$a
    Array   CodeRef   sub truth for each elt[1] !grep { !$b->($_) } @$a
    Any     CodeRef   scalar sub truth          $b->($a)

    Hash    Hash      hash keys identical (every key is found in both hashes)
    Array   Hash      hash slice existence     grep { exists $b->{$_} } @$a
    Regex   Hash      hash key grep            grep /$a/, keys %$b
    undef   Hash      always false (undef can't be a key)
    Any     Hash      hash entry existence     exists $b->{$a}

    Hash    Array     hash slice existence     grep { exists $a->{$_} } @$b
    Array   Array     arrays are comparable[2]
    Regex   Array     array grep               grep /$a/, @$b
    undef   Array     array contains undef     grep !defined, @$b
    Any     Array     match against an array element[3]
                                               grep $a ~~ $_, @$b

    Hash    Regex     hash key grep            grep /$b/, keys %$a
    Array   Regex     array grep               grep /$b/, @$a
    Any     Regex     pattern match            $a =~ /$b/

    Object  Any       invokes ~~ overloading on $object, or falls back:
    Any     Num       numeric equality         $a == $b
    Num     numish[4] numeric equality         $a == $b
    undef   Any       undefined                !defined($b)
    Any     Any       string equality          $a eq $b

 1 - empty hashes or arrays will match.
 2 - that is, each element smart-matches the element of same index in the
     other array. [3]
 3 - If a circular reference is found, we fall back to referential equality.
 4 - either a real number, or a string that looks like a number

The "matching code" doesn't represent the I<real> matching code,
of course: it's just there to explain the intended meaning. Unlike
C<grep>, the smart match operator will short-circuit whenever it can.

=head3 Custom matching via overloading

You can change the way that an object is matched by overloading
the C<~~> operator. This trumps the usual smart match semantics.
See L<doc:overload>.

It should be noted that C<~~> will refuse to work on objects that
don't overload it (in order to avoid relying on the object's
underlying structure).

=head3 Differences from Perl 6

=for comment
Remove this section

The Perl 5 smart match and C<given>/C<when> constructs are not
absolutely identical to their Perl 6 analogues. The most visible
difference is that, in Perl 5, parentheses are required around
the argument to C<given()> and C<when()> (except when this last
one is used as a statement modifier). Parentheses in Perl 6
are always optional in a control construct such as C<if()>,
C<while()>, or C<when()>; they can't be made optional in Perl
5 without a great deal of potential confusion, because Perl 5
would parse the expression

  given $foo {

as though the argument to C<given> were an element of the hash
C<%foo>, interpreting the braces as hash-element syntax.

The table of smart matches is not identical to that proposed by the
Perl 6 specification, mainly due to the differences between Perl 6's
and Perl 5's data models.

In Perl 6, C<when()> will always do an implicit smart match
with its argument, whilst it is convenient in Perl 5 to
suppress this implicit smart match in certain situations,
as documented above. (The difference is largely because Perl 5
does not, even internally, have a boolean type.)

=head2 Goto

=for comment
Revise this section

Although not for the faint of heart, Perl does support a C<goto>
statement.  There are three forms: C<goto>-LABEL, C<goto>-EXPR, and
C<goto>-&NAME.  A loop's LABEL is not actually a valid target for
a C<goto>; it's just the name of the loop.

The C<goto>-LABEL form finds the statement labeled with LABEL and resumes
execution there.  It may not be used to go into any construct that
requires initialization, such as a subroutine or a C<foreach> loop.  It
also can't be used to go into a construct that is optimized away.  It
can be used to go almost anywhere else within the dynamic scope,
including out of subroutines, but it's usually better to use some other
construct such as C<last> or C<die>.  The author of Perl has never felt the
need to use this form of C<goto> (in Perl, that is--C is another matter).

The C<goto>-EXPR form expects a label name, whose scope will be resolved
dynamically.  This allows for computed C<goto>s per FORTRAN, but isn't
necessarily recommended if you're optimizing for maintainability:

    goto(("FOO", "BAR", "GLARCH")[$i]);

The C<goto>-&NAME form is highly magical, and substitutes a call to the
named subroutine for the currently running subroutine.  This is used by
C<AUTOLOAD()> subroutines that wish to load another subroutine and then
pretend that the other subroutine had been called in the first place
(except that any modifications to C<@_> in the current subroutine are
paropagated to the other subroutine.)  After the C<goto>, not even C<caller()>
will be able to tell that this routine was called first.

In almost all cases like this, it's usually a far, far better idea to use the
structured control flow mechanisms of C<next>, C<last>, or C<redo> instead of
resorting to a C<goto>.  For certain applications, the catch and throw pair of
C<eval{}> and die() for exception processing can also be a prudent approach.

=head2 Pod: Embedded Documentation
X<Pod> X<documentation>

For now see Synopsis 26 for information on Pod.

=begin comment
Perl has a mechanism for intermixing documentation with source code.
While it's expecting the beginning of a new statement, if the compiler
encounters a line that begins with an equal sign and a word, like this

    =head1 Here There Be Pods!

Then that text and all remaining text up through and including a line
beginning with C<=cut> will be ignored.  The format of the intervening
text is described in L<doc:perlpod>.

This allows you to intermix your source code
and your documentation text freely, as in

    =item snazzle($)

    The snazzle() function will behave in the most spectacular
    form that you can possibly imagine, not even excepting
    cybernetic pyrotechnics.

    =cut back to the compiler, nuff of this pod stuff!

    sub snazzle($) {
        my $thingie = shift;

Note that pod translators should look at only paragraphs beginning
with a pod directive (it makes parsing easier), whereas the compiler
actually knows to look for pod escapes even in the middle of a
paragraph.  This means that the following secret stuff will be
ignored by both the compiler and the translators.

    =secret stuff
     warn "Neither POD nor CODE!?"
    =cut back
    print "got $a\n";

You probably shouldn't rely upon the C<warn()> being podded out forever.
Not all pod translators are well-behaved in this regard, and perhaps
the compiler will become pickier.

One may also use pod directives to quickly comment out a section
of code.
=end comment

=head2 Plain Old Comments (Not!)
X<comment> X<line> X<#> X<preprocessor> X<eval>

Perl can process line directives, much like the C preprocessor.  Using
this, one can control Perl's idea of filenames and line numbers in
error or warning messages (especially for strings that are processed
with C<eval()>).  The syntax for this mechanism is the same as for most
C preprocessors: it matches the regular expression

    # example: '# line 42 "new_filename.plx"'
    /^\#   \s*
      line \s+ (\d+)   \s*
      (?:\s("?)([^"]+)\2)? \s*

with C<$1> being the line number for the next line, and C<$3> being
the optional filename (specified with or without quotes).

There is a fairly obvious gotcha included with the line directive:
Debuggers and profilers will only show the last source line to appear
at a particular line number in a given file.  Care should be taken not
to cause line number collisions in code you'd like to debug later.

Here are some examples that you should be able to type into your command

    % perl
    # line 200 "bzzzt"
    # the `#' on the previous line must be the first char on line
    die 'foo';
    foo at bzzzt line 201.

    % perl
    # line 200 "bzzzt"
    eval qq[\n#line 2001 ""\ndie 'foo']; print $@;
    foo at - line 2001.

    % perl
    eval qq[\n#line 200 "foo bar"\ndie 'foo']; print $@;
    foo at foo bar line 200.

    % perl
    # line 345 "goop"
    eval "\n#line " . __LINE__ . ' "' . __FILE__ ."\"\ndie 'foo'";
    print $@;
    foo at goop line 345.


=begin AUTHORS
L<Hinrik Örn Sigurðsson|mailto:hinrik.sig@gmail.com> (Perl 6 port)

The Perl 5 documentation authors

=comment vim: filetype=perl6
=end pod