=encoding utf8

=head1 TITLE

Synopsis 32: Setting Library - Temporal

=head1 AUTHORS

    Carl Mäsak <cmasak@gmail.com>
    Martin Berends <mberends@autoexec.demon.nl>
    Moritz Lenz <moritz@faui2k3.org>
    Olivier Mengué <dolmen@cpan.org>
    Kodi Arfer
    (and others named in FOOTNOTE at bottom)

=head1 VERSION

    Created: 19 Mar 2009

    Last Modified: 29 Nov 2010
    Version: 21

=head1 Time and time again

Two chief aspects of a Perl 6 synopsis seem to contribute to it having
some extra volatility: how far it sits from the rest of the data model
of the language, and how everyday the topic in question is. C<S32> has
always been volatile for these reasons; C<S32::Temporal> doubly so.

The truth is that while there are many interests to satisfy in the case
of a C<Temporal> module, and many details to take into account, there's
also the danger of putting too much in. Therefore, Perl 6's C<Temporal>
module takes the C<DateTime> module on CPAN as a starting point, adapts
it to the Perl 6 OO system, and boils it down to bare essentials.

One of the unfortunate traditions that Perl 6 aims to break is that of
having a set of "core" modules which could better serve the community on
CPAN than in the Perl core. For this reason, this module doesn't handle
all the world's time zones, locales, date formatters or calendars.
Instead, it handles a number of "natural" operations well enough for
most people to be happy, and shows how those who want more than that can
load a module, or roll their own variants.  Put differently, the below
are the aspects of time that are felt to be stable enough to belong in
the core.

Note that in this document, the term "POSIX time" means the number of
seconds since midnight UTC of 1 January 1970, not counting leap seconds.
This is the same as the output of the ISO C C<time> function.
Unlike in Perl 5, C<time> does not return fractional seconds, since C<POSIX>
does not define the concept during leap seconds.  You want
to use C<now> for that instead.

=head1 C<time>

Returns the current POSIX time as an C<Int>. Use C<now> for an
epoch-agnostic measure of atomic seconds (i.e., an C<Instant>).
Note that both C<time> and C<now> are not functions, but terms
of the pseudo-constant variety; as such they never take an argument.
Saying C<time()> doesn't work unless you happen to have a function
of that name defined.

=head1 C<DateTime>

A C<DateTime> object, which is immutable, describes a moment in time as it
would appear on someone's calendar and someone's clock. You can create a
C<DateTime> object from an C<Instant> or from an C<Int>; in the latter
case, the argument is interpreted as POSIX time.

    my $now = DateTime.new(now);
    my $now = DateTime.new(time);

These two statements are equivalent except that C<time> doesn't know about
leap seconds or fractions of seconds. Ambiguous POSIX times (such as
915148800, which could refer to 1998-12-31T23:59:60Z or
1999-01-01T00:00:00Z) are interpreted as non-leap seconds (so in this case,
the result would be 1999-01-01T00:00:00Z).

Or you can use named arguments:

    my $moonlanding = DateTime.new( :year(1969), :month(7), :day(16),
                                    :hour(20), :minute(17) ); # UTC time

This form allows the following arguments:

    :year       required
    :month      defaults to 1   range 1..12
    :day        defaults to 1   range 1..31
    :hour       defaults to 0   range 0..23
    :minute     defaults to 0   range 0..59
    :second     defaults to 0   range 0.0..^62.0

Another multi exists with C<Date :date> instead of C<:year>, C<:month> and
C<:day> (and the same defaults as listed above).

All of the aforementioned forms of C<new> accept two additional named
arguments. C<:formatter> is a callable object that takes a C<DateTime> and
returns a string. The default formatter creates an ISO 8601 timestamp (see
below). C<:timezone> is a callable object that takes a C<DateTime> to
convert and a C<Bool> that specifies the direction of the conversion: to
UTC if true, from UTC if false. The C<:timezone> signifies the necessary
conversion by returning an integer giving the difference from UTC in
seconds. Alternatively, C<:timezone> can be a number, which is interpreted
as a static offset from UTC. The default time zone is C<0> (i.e., UTC).
The system's local time zone is available as C<$*TZ>.

A shorter way to send in date and time information is to provide a
single string with a full ISO 8601 date and time. The example from above
would then be

    my $moonlanding = DateTime.new( '1969-07-16T20:17:00Z' ); # UTC time

The general form is C<[date]T[time][offset]>, with C<[date]> given as
C<YYYY-MM-DD> and C<[time]> given as C<hh:mm:ss>. The final C<Z> is a short
form for C<+0000>, meaning UTC. (Note that while this form of C<new>
accepts all of C<+0000>, C<-0000>, and C<Z>, the default formatter for
C<DateTime> always expresses UTC as C<Z>.) The general notation for the
C<[offset]> is C<+hhmm> or C<-hhmm>. The time zone of the new object is
assumed to be a static offset equal to the C<[offset]>. The C<[offset]> is
optional; if omitted, a C<:timezone> argument is permitted; if this too is
omitted, UTC is assumed. Finally, the constructor also accepts a
C<:formatter> argument.

With all the above constructors, if you attempt to pass in values that
are outside of the ranges specified in the list above, you'll get an
exception. An exception will also be thrown if the given day (like 31 April
2000 or 29 February 2006) or second (like 23:59:60 on 1 January 2000)
doesn't exist. The same checks are run when you produce an object with

    my $dt = DateTime.new(:year(1999), :month(1), :day(29));
    say $dt.clone(:year(2000), :month(2)); # 2000-02-29T00:00:00Z
    say $dt.clone(:year(1999), :month(2)); # WRONG; 1999 was a common year

To convert an object from one time zone to another, use the C<in-timezone>

    my $dt = DateTime.new('2005-02-01T15:00:00+0900');
    say $dt.hour;                       # 15
    $dt = $dt.in-timezone(6 * 60 * 60); # 6 hours ahead of UTC
    say $dt.hour;                       # 12

The C<utc> method is shorthand for C<in-timezone(0)>, and the C<local>
method is short for C<in-timezone($*TZ)>.

In general, C<DateTime> is not required to check for ambiguous or invalid
local times caused by Daylight Saving Time. However, if C<$dt> is an
unambiguous C<DateTime>, the object returned by C<$dt.in-timezone(...)> is
required to remember its actual offset from UTC, so that, for example,
the default formatter can generate the right string.

The C<truncated-to> method allows you to "clear" a number of time values
below a given resolution:

    my $dt = DateTime.new('2005-02-01T15:20:35Z');
    say $dt.truncated-to(:hour); # 2005-02-01T15:00:00Z

An argument of C<:week> yields an object with the date of the last Monday
(or the same date, if it already is a Monday) and with hours, minutes, and
seconds all set to zero:

    say $dt.truncated-to(:week); # 2005-01-31T00:00:00Z

There's one additional constructor: C<now>. It works just like
C<DateTime.new(now)> except that there is no positional parameter and the
C<:timezone> argument defaults to C<$*TZ>.

=head2 Accessors

There are methods C<year>, C<month>, C<day>, C<hour>, C<minute>, C<second>,
C<timezone>, and C<formatter>, giving you the corresponding values of the
C<DateTime> object. The C<day> method also has the synonym C<day-of-month>.

The method C<Instant> returns an C<Instant>, and the method C<posix>
returns a POSIX time.

The method C<week> returns two values, the I<week year> and I<week number>.
(These are also available through the methods C<week-year> and C<week-number>,
respectively.) The first week of the year is defined by ISO as the one which
contains the fourth day of January. Thus, dates early in January often end
up in the last week of the prior year, and similarly, the final few days of
December may be placed in the first week of the next year.

There's a C<day-of-week> method, which returns the day of the week as a
number 1..7, with 1 being Monday and 7 being Sunday.

The C<weekday-of-month> method returns a number 1..5 indicating the
number of times a particular weekday has occurred so far during that
month, the day itself included. For example, June 9, 2003 is the second
Monday of the month, and so this method returns 2 for that day.

The C<days-in-month> method returns the number of days in the current
month of the current year. So in the case of January, C<days-in-month>
always returns 31, whereas in the case of February, C<days-in-month>
returns 28 or 29 depending on the year.

The C<day-of-year> method returns the day of the year, a value between 1
and 366.

The method C<is-leap-year> returns a C<Bool>, which is true if and only
if the current year is a leap year in the Gregorian calendar.

The method C<whole-second> returns the second truncated to an integer.

The C<Date> method returns a C<Date> object, and is the same as
C<Date.new($dt.year, $dt.month, $dt.day)>.

The method C<offset> returns the object's current offset from UTC.
In general, C<$dt.offset> is C<$dt.timezone($dt, True)> if
C<$dt.timezone> does C<Callable> and $<dt.timezone> itself otherwise.
The exception is when C<$dt> is ambiguous but was created by
converting an unambiguous C<DateTime>. In that case, implementations
will need to return a precomputed offset to guarantee correctness.

=head1 C<Date>

C<Date> objects represent a day without a time component. Like C<DateTime>
objects, they are immutable. They allow easier manipulation by assuming
that integers always mean days.

Days, Months and days of week are 1-based.

=head2 Constructors

    Date.today();               # today's date
    Date.new(DateTime.now);     # same
    Date.new('2010-12-20');     # YYYY-MM-DD format
    Date.new(:year(2010), :month(12), :day(20));
    Date.new(2010, 12, 20);
    Date.new(2010, 1, 20).clone(month => 12);
    Date.new(2010, 12, 24).truncated-to(:week);

The constructors die with a helpful error message if month or day are out of

=head2 Instance methods

C<Date> objects support all of the following accessors, which work just
like their C<DateTime> equivalents:


The <Str> method returns a string of the form 'yyyy-mm-dd'.

=head2 Arithmetics

    $d.succ                     # Date.new('2010-12-25')
    $d.pred                     # Date.new('2010-12-23')
    $d - Date.new('1984-03-02') # 9793      # (difference in days)
    $d - 42                     # Date.new('2010-11-12')
    $d + 3                      # Date.new('2010-12-27')
    3  + $d                     # Date.new('2010-12-27')


The authors of the current rewrite want to mention, with thanks, the
indirect contribution made by the previous authors:

    The authors of the related Perl 5 docs
    Rod Adams <rod@rodadams.net>
    Larry Wall <larry@wall.org>
    Aaron Sherman <ajs@ajs.com>
    Mark Stosberg <mark@summersault.com>
    Carl Mäsak <cmasak@gmail.com>
    Moritz Lenz <moritz@faui2k3.org>
    Tim Nelson <wayland@wayland.id.au>
    Daniel Ruoso <daniel@ruoso.com>
    Dave Rolsky <autarch@urth.org>
    Matthew (lue) <rnddim@gmail.com>