=encoding utf8

=head1 TITLE

DRAFT: Synopsis 32: Setting Library - Basics

=head1 AUTHORS

    Rod Adams <rod@rodadams.net>
    Larry Wall <larry@wall.org>
    Aaron Sherman <ajs@ajs.com>
    Mark Stosberg <mark@summersault.com>
    Carl Mäsak <cmasak@gmail.com>
    Moritz Lenz <moritz@faui2k3.org>
    Tim Nelson <wayland@wayland.id.au>

=head1 VERSION

    Created: 19 Mar 2009 extracted from S29-functions.pod

    Last Modified: 17 Dec 2009
    Version: 4

The document is a draft.

If you read the HTML version, it is generated from the Pod in the specs
repository under
so edit it there in the git repository if you would like to make changes.

=head1 Roles

=head2 Mu

The following are defined in the C<Mu> role:

 role Mu {
     our Bool multi method defined ($self:) is export {...}
     our Bool multi method defined ($self: ::role ) is export {...}

     our multi method undefine( $self: ) is export {...}

     method not() {...}
     method so() {...}


=item defined

  our Bool multi method defined ( $self: ) is export
  our Bool multi method defined ( $self: ::role ) is export

C<defined> returns true if the parameter has a value and that value is
considered defined by its type, otherwise false is returned.

Same as Perl 5, only takes extra optional argument to ask if value is defined
with respect to a particular role:

  defined($x, SomeRole);

A value may be defined according to one role and undefined according to another.
Without the extra argument, defaults to the definition of defined supplied by
the type of the object.

=item undefine

  our multi undefine( Any $thing )
  our multi method undefine( Any $self )

Takes any variable as a parameter and attempts to "remove" its
definition. For simple scalar variables this means assigning
the undefined value to the variable. For objects, this is equivalent
to invoking their undefine method. For arrays, hashes and other
complex data, this might require emptying the structures associated
with the object.

In all cases, calling C<undefine> on a variable
should place the object in the same state as if it was just

=item not

     method not() {...}

=item so

     method so() {...}

XXX Copied from S02 -- should it be deleted from there?

The definition of C<.Bool> for the most ancestral type (that is, the
C<Mu> type) is equivalent to C<.defined>.  Since type objects are
considered undefined, all type objects (including C<Mu> itself)
are false unless the type overrides the definition of C<.Bool>
to include undefined values.  Instantiated objects default to true
unless the class overrides the definition.  Note that if you could
instantiate a C<Mu> it would be considered defined, and thus true.
(It is not clear that this is allowed, however.)


=head2 Any

The following are defined in the C<Any> role:

 role Any does Mu does Pattern {
     our multi method clone (::T $self --> T) {...}
     our multi method clone (::T $self, *%attributes --> T) {...}

     our Callable multi method can ($self:, Str $method) {...}
     our Bool     multi method does ($self:, $type) {...}
     our Bool     multi method isa  ($self:, $type) {...}
     our Str      multi method perl ( Mu $o: ) is export {...}
     our          multi method warn ( Mu $o: ) is export {...}


=item can

 our Callable multi method can ($self:, Str $method)

If there is a multi method of name C<$method> that can be called on
C<$self>, then a closure is return which has C<$self> bound to the position
of the invocant.

Otherwise an undefined value is returned.

=item clone

 our multi method clone (::T $self --> T)
 our multi method clone (::T $self, *%attributes --> T)

The first variant returns  an independent copy of C<$o> that is equivalent
to C<$o>.

The second variant does the same, but any named arguments override an
attribute during the cloning process.

=item does

 our Bool multi method does ($self:, $type)

Returns C<True> if and only if C<$self> conforms to type C<$type>.

=item isa

 our Bool multi method isa ($self:, $type)

Returns C<True> if a the invocant an instance of class C<$type>, or
of a subset type or a derived class (through inheritance) of C<$type>.

=item perl

 our Str multi method perl ( Mu $o: ) is export

Returns a perlish representation of the object, so that calling C<eval>
on the returned string reproduces the object as accurately as possible.

=item warn

 our multi method warn ( Mu $o: ) is export

Throws a resumable warning exception, which is considered a control
exception, and hence is invisible to most normal exception handlers.
The outermost control handler will print the warning to C<$*ERR>
(which usually finds C<$PROCESS::ERR>; see C<Synopsis 16: IPC /
IO / Signals> for details).  After printing the warning, the exception
is resumed where it was thrown.  To override this behavior, catch the
exception in a CONTROL block.  A quietly {...} block is the opposite of a
try {...} block in that it will suppress any warnings but pass fatal
exceptions through.

To simply print to C<$*ERR>, please use C<note> instead.  C<warn>
should be reserved for use in threatening situations when you don't
quite want to throw an exception.


=head2 Pattern

 role Pattern {
     method ACCEPTS($self:, $other) {...}



Used in smartmatching; see S03.


=head2 Scalar

B<API document>: L<Scalar>

C<Scalar> provides the basic tools for operating on undifferentiated
scalar variables. All of the following are exported by default.


=item VAR

This is not really a method, but some kind of macro.  See L<S12> for details.


=head1 Additions

Please post errors and feedback to perl6-language.  If you are making
a general laundry list, please separate messages by topic.