=encoding utf8

=head1 TITLE

Synopsis 29: Builtin Functions

=head1 AUTHORS

    Rod Adams <rod@rodadams.net>
    Larry Wall <larry@wall.org>
    Aaron Sherman <ajs@ajs.com>
    Mark Stosberg <mark@summersault.com>
    Carl Mäsak <cmasak@gmail.com>
    Moritz Lenz <moritz@faui2k3.org>
    Tim Nelson <wayland@wayland.id.au>
    Carlin Bingham <carlin@theintersect.org>

=head1 Version

    Created: 12 Mar 2005

    Last Modified: 20 Nov 2010
    Version: 47

The document is a draft.

If you read the HTML version, it is generated from the Pod in the specs
repository under L<https://github.com/perl6/specs/blob/master/S29-functions.pod>
so edit it there in the git repository if you would like to make changes.

=head1 Notes

In Perl 6, all builtin functions belong to a named package (generally a
class or role). Not all
functions are guaranteed to be imported into the CORE scope.
In addition, the list of functions imported into C<CORE> will be
subject to change with each release of Perl. Authors wishing to
"Future Proof" their code should either specifically import the
functions they will be using, or always refer to the functions by their
full name.

After 6.0.0 comes out, global aliases will not be removed lightly,
and will never be removed at all without having gone through a
deprecation cycle of at least a year.  In any event, you can specify
that you want the interface for a particular version of Perl, and
that can be emulated by later versions of Perl to the extent that
security updates allow.

Where code is given here, it is intended to define semantics, not to
dictate implementation.

=head2 Operators vs. Functions

There is no particular difference between an operator and a function,
but for the sake of documentation, only functions declared without
specifying a grammatical category or with a category of C<term:>
(see L<S02/"Bits and Pieces">) will be described as "functions",
and everything else as "operators" which are outside of the scope
of this document.  (See S03 for operators.)

=head2 Multis vs. Functions

In actual fact, most of the "functions" defined here are multi
subs, or are multi methods that are also exported as multi subs.
The Setting is responsible for importing all the standard multi subs
from their various packages into the CORE lexical scope.  See S02.

=head1 Type Declarations

The following type declarations are assumed:


=item AnyChar

The root class of all "character" types, regardless of level.

This is a subtype of C<Str>, limited to a length of 1 at its highest
supported Unicode level.

The type name C<Char> is aliased to the maximum supported Unicode level
in the current lexical scope (where "current" is taken to mean the
eventual lexical scope for generic code (roles and macros), not the
scope in which the generic code is defined).  In other words, use C<Char>
when you don't care which level you're writing for.

Subclasses (things that are C<isa AnyChar>):


=item CharLingua (language-defined characters)

=item Grapheme (language-independent graphemes)

=item Codepoint

=item Byte

Yes, Byte is both a string and a number.


The short name for C<Grapheme> is typically C<Char> since that's the
default Unicode level.  A grapheme is defined as a base codepoint plus
any subsequent "combining" codepoints that apply to that base codepoint.
Graphemes are always assigned a unique integer id which, in the case of
a grapheme that has a precomposed codepoint, happens to be the same as
that codepoint.

There is no short name for C<CharLingua> because the type is meaningless
outside the scope of a particular language declaration.  In fact,
C<CharLingua> is itself an abstract type that cannot be instantiated.
Instead you have names like C<CharFrench>, C<CharJapanese>,
C<CharTurkish>, etc. for instantiated C<CharLingua> types.
(Plus the corresponding C<StrLingua> types, presumably.)

=item Matcher

 subset Matcher of Mu where none(Bool)

Used to supply a test to match against. Assume C<~~> will be used against it.
Booleans are forbidden because they almost always indicate a programming
error where the argument has been evaluated too soon against the wrong C<$_>.
For instance:

    grep $_ == 1, 1,2,3;        # evaluating wrong $_, so forbidden
    grep { $_ == 1 }, 1,2,3;    # okay
    grep * == 1, 1,2,3;         # okay

=item Ordering

 subset KeyExtractor of Code where { .signature === :(Any --> Any) };
 subset Comparator   of Code where { .signature === :(Any, Any --> Int ) };
 subset OrderingPair of Pair where { .left ~~ KeyExtractor && .right ~~ Comparator };

 subset Ordering where Signature | KeyExtractor | Comparator | OrderingPair | Whatever;

Used to handle comparisons between things.  Generally this
ends up in functions like C<sort()>,
C<min()>, C<max()>, etc., as a $by parameter which provides
the information on how two things compare relative to each other.


=item Comparator

A closure with arity of 2, which for ordering returns
negative/zero/positive, signaling the first argument should
be before/tied with/after the second. aka "The Perl 5 way".

For equivalence the closure returns either not 0 or 0 indicating
if the first argument is equivalent or not to the second.

=item KeyExtractor

A closure with arity of 1, which returns the "key" by which
to compare.  Values are compared using C<cmp> for orderings
and C<eqv> for equivalences, which in Perl 6 do different
comparisons depending on the types.  (To get a Perl 5 string
ordering you must compare with C<leg> instead.)

Internally the result of the KeyExtractor on a value should
be cached.

Note that it is very easy to generate a simple C<KeyExtractor>
using C<~*> for strings and C<+*> for numbers, since with most
simple operators C<*> returns a closure of one argument.

    @sorted = sort +*, @unsorted;  #ascending numeric
    @sorted = sort -*, @unsorted;  #descending numeric

=item OrderingPair

A combination of the two methods above, for when one wishes
to take advantage of the internal caching of keys that is
expected to happen, but wishes to compare them with something
other than C<eqv> or C<cmp>, such as C<E<lt>=E<gt>> or C<leg>.

=item Signature

If a signature is specified as a criterion, the signature is
bound to each value and then each parameter does comparisons
in positional order according to its type, as modified by
its traits.  Basically, the system will write the body of
the key extraction and comparison subroutine for you based on
the signature.

For ordering the list of positional parameter comparisons is
reduced as if using [||] but all comparisons do not need to be
performed if an early one determines an increasing or decreasing
order.  For equivalence the list is reduced as if using [&&].

=item Whatever

An ordering of C<*> does the default comparison for the operator:

    @sorted = sort *, @unsorted;



=head1 Function Packages

=head2 Context


=item caller

See L<S06/"The C<callframe> and C<caller> functions">.

=item callframe

See L<S06/"The C<callframe> and C<caller> functions">.

=item eval

 multi eval ( Str|Buf $code, Grammar :$lang = CALLER::<$?PARSER>)

Execute C<$code> as if it were code written in C<$lang>. If C<$code> 
is of type C<Buf>, the same decoding techniques are applied as a compiler
for C<$lang> would usually do to input files.

The default for C<$lang> is the language in effect at the exact
location of the eval call.

Returns whatever C<$code> returns, or fails.

=item evalfile

 multi evalfile (Str $filename ; Grammar :$lang = Perl6)

Behaves like, and replaces Perl 5 C<do EXPR>, with optional C<$lang>

=item exit

 multi exit (Int $status = 0)

Stops all program execution, and returns C<$status> to the calling environment.

=item sleep

 our Num multi sleep ( Num $for = Inf )

Attempt to sleep for up to C<$for> seconds. Implementations are obligated
to support sub-second resolutions if that is at all possible.

See C<Synopsis 17: Concurrency> for more details.

=item die

 multi die (@LIST)

Throws a fatal Exception. The default exception handler prints each element of
the list to $*ERR (STDERR).

=item fail

 multi fail (Str $message)

Can only be called inside a routine and causes the routine to C<return> an
unthrown exception; a C<Failure> object which stringifies to C<$message>.
If C<use fatal> is in effect where the routine was called from, it throws
the exception.


=head2 Conversions


=item bless

 our Object method bless(Object::RepCandidate $candidate, *@protos, *%init_args)

Calling C<bless> on any invocant (but typically a type object) to create a new
object with the same class as the invocant.

C<$candidate> is used to provide the underlying representation of the object.
The default is C<P6opaque>, but various other representations might be
desired, especially when interoperating with other languages. C<@protos> and
C<%init_args> both provide ways for values to be provided to the new
object, just like in the default C<new> method.

C<bless> automatically calls all appropriate C<BUILD> routines by calling the
C<BUILDALL> routine for the current class, which initializes the object in
least-derived to most-derived order. See L<S12/Objects>
for more detailed information on object creation.

=item chr

=item ord

 multi method chr( Int $grid: --> Char ) is export
 multi sub chr( Int *@grid  --> Char )
 multi method ord( Str $string: --> Int ) is export

C<chr> takes zero or more integer grapheme ids and returns the
corresponding characters as a string.  If any grapheme id is used
that represents a higher abstraction level than the current
lexical scope supports, that grapheme is converted to the
corresponding lower-level string of codepoints/bytes that would
be appropriate to the current pragmatic context, just as any other Str
would be downgraded in context.

C<ord> goes the other direction; it takes a string value and returns
character values as integers.  In item context, the return value
is the just the integer value of the first character in the string. In
list context, the return value is the list of integers representing
the entire string.  The definition of character is pragma dependent.
Normally it's a grapheme id, but under codepoints or bytes scopes,
the string is coerced to the appropriate low-level view and interpreted
as codepoints or bytes.  Hence, under "use bytes" you will never see a
value larger than 256, and under "use codepoints" you will never see a
value larger than 0x10ffff.  The only guarantee under "use graphemes"
(the default) is that the number returned will correspond to the
codepoint of the precomposed codepoint representing the grapheme, if
there is such a codepoint.  Otherwise, the implementation is free to
return any unique id that larger than 0x10ffff.  (The C<chr> function
will know how to backtranslate such ids properly to codepoints or
bytes in any context.  Note that we are assuming that every codepoint's
context knows its normalization preferences, and every byte's context
also knows its encoding preferences. (These are knowable in the
lexical scope via the $?NF and $?ENC compile-time constants).)

=item item

 our Item multi item ( $item )

Forces generic Item context on its argument, and returns it.

=item flat

 our List multi flat ( *@list )

Forces flat context on its arguments, and returns them.
The heavy work is done by the C<*@> binding.

=item list

 our List multi list ( Iterable $item ) { $item.iterator.list }
 our List multi list ( List \$iter ) { $iter }

Almost a no-op; just makes sure that $item can be iterated.

=item flat

 our List multi flat ( *@list )

Forces flat context on its arguments, and returns them.
The heavy work is done by the C<*@> binding.

=item lol

 our List multi lol ( **@list )

Forces the argument list to be evaluated in lol ("list of lists") context.
(Subscripts treat such a list of lists as a multidimensional slice.)
Any C<Parcel> within the top level of the outer list will be transformed into a C<Seq>.
The work is actually done by the binding to the C<**@> parameter.
See also the more general C<.tree> method, which defaults to C<lol> semantics.

=item hash

The C<hash> contextualizer

 our Hash multi hash ( *@list )

Forces the argument list to be evaluated in hash context.
The expression is evaluated in list context (flattening any C<Capture>s),
then a hash will be created from the list, taken as a list of C<Pair>s.
(Any element in the list that is not a C<Pair> will pretend to be a key
and grab the next value in the list as its value.)  Equivalent to
C<%()> (except that empty C<%()> means C<%($/)>, while
empty C<hash()> means an empty hash).

=item :16, :8, :2, :10

 our Num multi prefix:<:16> ( Str $hexstr )
 our Num multi prefix:<:8> ( Str $octstr )
 our Num multi prefix:<:2> ( Str $binstr )
 our Num multi prefix:<:10> ( Str $decstr )

Interprets string as a number, with a default
hexadecimal/octal/binary/decimal radix. Any radix prefix (0b, 0d, 0x, 0o)
mentioned inside the string will override this operator (this statement is true: 10 == :8("0d10")), except 0b and 0d will be interpreted
as hex digits by :16 (C<hex("0d10") == :16 "0d10">).  C<fail>s on failure.

These aren't really functions, syntactically, but adverbial forms that
just happen to allow a parenthesize argument.  But more typically you'll


and such.

Replaces Perl 5 C<hex> and C<oct>.


=head2 OS


=item gethost

 our OS::Name multi gethost()
 our OS::Name multi gethost( Str $name, OS::Addfamily :$type )
 our OS::Name multi method gethost( OS::Addr $addr: ) is export
 our OS::Name multi method gethost( URI $uri: ) is export

The C<gethost> function operates on host naming or address information
and returns an C<OS::Name>. An C<OS::Name> is, minimally:

 class OS::Name {
   has Str $.name;
   has OS::Addr $.addr;
   has Array of Str @.aliases;
   has Array of OS::Addr @.addrs;

Such names can apply to anything which has a name that maps
to an address, however, in this case the name is a hostname
and the address is some sort of network identifier (e.g.
an IPV4 address when resolving hosts that have IPV4 addresses).

When stringified, an C<OS::Name> yields its name. When
stringified, an C<OS::Addr> yields its address in an
appropriate text format (e.g. "" for an IPV4 address).

The optional C<type> adverb can be passed when resolving a hostname,
and will filter the result to only those addresses that are of
the appropriate address family. This feature may be supported by
the underlying operating system, or Perl may emulate it.


  say "Connection from {$socket.peer.gethost}";
  my $address = gethost("foo.example.com").addr;
  my $hostname = gethost(:addr<"">);

=item chroot

 our Bool multi chroot ( Str $path = CALLER::<$_> )

On POSIX systems, changes the process context of the current process such
that the "root" directory becomes C<$path> and all rooted paths
(those that begin with a leading path separator) are relative to
that path. For security reasons, many operating systems limit
this functionality to the superuser. The return value will be
true on success.

=item getlogin

 our Str multi getlogin ()

Returns the username of the account running the program. This may
not be as secure as using C<getpwuid> on some platforms.

=item kill

 our Bool multi kill ( OS::Signal $signal, Bool :$group, *@pids )
 our Bool multi method kill ( Proc::PID $pid: OS::Signal $signal?, Bool :$group )

Sends the given C<$signal> to the process(es) given and returns a boolean
value indicating success (true) if all of the processes existed and were
sent the signal and failure (false) if any of the processes did not exist
or the signal could not be delivered to them.

The C<$signal> can be initialized from an integer signal number or a
string. Common signals are:

 KILL - stop the process, do not allow it to exit gracefully
 TERM - stop the process, allow it to exit gracefully
 HUP  - Hangup, often used as a request to re-run from scratch
 STOP - Pause execution
 CONT - Continue after a STOP

Consult your operating system documentation for the full list
of signal names and numbers. For compatibility, a signal name
may be prefixed with "SIG".

The method form may omit the signal. In this case, the default signal is

If the C<:group> named parameter is passed, C<kill> will attempt to
send the signal to a process I<group> rather than a single process.
This functionality is platform-specific.

The special signal C<0> can be sent which does not actually deliver a
signal at all, and is used to determine if processes are still running:

  say "Still running" if $proc.kill(0);

=item run

 our Proc::Status multi run ( ; Str $command, :%env = %*ENV )
 our Proc::Status multi run ( ; Str $path, *@args, :%env = %*ENV )
 our Proc::Status multi run ( Str @path_and_args, :%env = %*ENV )

 our Proc multi run ( ; Str $command, Bool :$bg!, :%env = %*ENV )
 our Proc multi run ( ; Str $path, Bool :$bg!, *@args, :%env = %*ENV )
 our Proc multi run ( Str @path_and_args, Bool :$bg!, :%env = %*ENV )

C<run> executes an external program, and returns control to the caller
once the program has exited.

The default form expects a single string argument which contains the
full command-line. This command-line will be scanned for special
characters that the operating system's shell might interpret such as
C<;> or embedded quotes. If any are found, the command will be run
through a sub-shell in an operating system specific fashion (on
POSIX systems, this means C<sh -c>).

If called like this:

 run( :path<'/some/path'>, 'arg1', 'arg2', ... )

or with a single array (containing both the path and arguments), then the
path given is executed directly with no shell interpretation.

The return value is the exit status
of the program, and can be evaluated in the following contexts:

 Bool - True = success; False = failure
 Int  - Exit status (per the .exit method)

See C<wait> for more detail on how the C<Proc::Status> object
is used.

On failure to execute, an undefined value is returned.

If the C<:bg> named parameter is passed, the program will be executed
in the background, and the run command will return as soon as the
child process is created. This means that the object returned is
actually a C<Proc>, which represents the created process.

[ Note: should the :bg form take rw filehandles or is that over-overloading
        the functionality of run? Should run be the new open with
        respect to executing external code? -ajs ]

[ Note: system() should be renamed to sys() or sh() or run() or
some such to avoid P5-induced boolean inversion confusion, plus
Huffmanize it a little better.  I'm thinking run() might be best
for MMD reasons. --law

Note: exec should also be renamed to something clearer and "final"
and huffmanly longer.  I'm thinking runinstead().  And maybe the
function behind qq:x should be rungather() rather than readpipe().  -law

=item runinstead

 multi runinstead ( ; Str $path, *@args )
 multi runinstead ( ; Str $command )

Identical to C<run> except that it never returns. The executed program
replaces the currently running program in memory.

=item syscall


=head2 Concurrency

There are higher-level models of concurrency management in Perl (see
L<S17/Concurrency>). These functions are simply the lowest level


=item fork

 our Proc sub Processes::fork()

Creates a copy of the current process. Both processes return from
C<fork>. The original process returns
the I<child> process as a C<Proc> object. The newly created process
returns the I<parent> process as a C<Proc> object. As with
any Proc object, the child process object numifies to the
process ID (OS dependent integer). However, the parent process object
numifies to C<0> so that the child and parent can distinguish each other.

Typical usage would be:

 if !defined(my $pid = fork) {
   die "Error calling fork: $!";
 } elsif $pid == 0 {
   say "I am the new child!";
   exit 0;
 } else {
   say "I am the parent of {+$pid}";

=item wait

 our Proc::Status multi method wait( Proc $process: *%options )

 our Proc::Status multi wait ( Proc $process = -1, *%options )

Waits for a child process to terminate and returns the status
object for the child.  This status object will numify to the process
ID of the child that exited.

Important Proc::Status methods:

 .exit - Numeric exit value
 .pid - Process ID
 .signal - Signal number if any, otherwise 0

For historical reasons there is a C<.status> method which is equal to:

 ($status.exit +< 8) +| $status.signal

If C<$process> is supplied, then wait will only return when the given process
has exited. Either a full C<Proc> object can be passed, or just a
numeric process ID. A C<-1> explicitly indicates that wait should return
immediately if any child process exits.

When called in this way, the returned C<Proc::Status> object
will have a C<.pid> of C<-1> (which is also what it numifies to) if
there was no such process to wait for.

The named options include:


=item blocking

Defaults to true. If set to false, this forces wait to return immediately.


Exists for historical compatibility. C<WNOHANG => 1> is identical to
C<blocking => False>.



=head2 Pending Apocalypse

The following functions are classified by Apocalypse/Synopsis numbers.

=over 4

=item A/S??: OS Interaction

chroot crypt getlogin /[get|set][pw|gr].*/ kill setpgrp setpriority

... These are probably going to be part of POSIX, automatically imported to GLOBAL B<if> the platform is the right one


=head2 Default Functions

These functions are exported into the default namespace


=item all -- see S32-setting-library/Containers.pod

=item any -- see S32-setting-library/Containers.pod

=item cat -- see S32-setting-library/Containers.pod

=item classify -- see S32-setting-library/Containers.pod

=item defined -- see S32-setting-library/Scalars.pod

=item grep -- see S32-setting-library/Containers.pod

=item first -- see S32-setting-library/Containers.pod

=item keys -- see S32-setting-library/Containers.pod

=item kv -- see S32-setting-library/Containers.pod

=item join -- see S32-setting-library/Containers.pod

=item map -- see S32-setting-library/Containers.pod

=item max -- see S32-setting-library/Containers.pod

=item min -- see S32-setting-library/Containers.pod

=item none -- see S32-setting-library/Containers.pod

=item one -- see S32-setting-library/Containers.pod

=item pairs -- see S32-setting-library/Containers.pod

=item print -- see S32-setting-library/IO.pod

=item printf -- see S32-setting-library/IO.pod

=item roundrobin -- see S32-setting-library/Containers.pod

=item pick -- see S32-setting-library/Containers.pod

=item reduce -- see S32-setting-library/Containers.pod

=item reverse -- see S32-setting-library/Containers.pod

=item say -- see S32-setting-library/IO.pod

=item shape -- see S32-setting-library/Containers.pod

=item sort -- see S32-setting-library/Containers.pod

=item srand -- see S32-setting-library/Numeric.pod

=item undefine -- see S32-setting-library/Scalars.pod

=item uri -- see S32-setting-library/IO.pod

=item values -- see S32-setting-library/Containers.pod

=item warn -- see S32-setting-library/Any.pod

=item zip -- see S32-setting-library/Containers.pod


=head2 Non-default Functions

These functions which existed in perl5 still exist, but are not part of the default
namespace any more.

=head3 Container

The following functions can now be found in or replaced by something in the Container

delete, exists, pop, push, shift, splice, unshift

=head3 Numeric

See L<S32-setting-library/Numeric>.

=head3 IO

The following functions can now be found in or replaced by something in the IO

accept, bind, binmode, chdir, chmod, chown, close, closedir, connect
eof, fcntl, fileno, flock, getc, getsockname, getsockopt, glob, ioctl, link, listen
lstat, mkdir, open, opendir, pipe, print, printf, read, readdir, readline, readlink
readpipe, recv, rename, rewinddir, rmdir, say, seek, seekdir, select, send, setsockopt
shutdown, socket, socketpair, stat, symlink, sysopen, sysread, sysseek
syswrite, tell, telldir, truncate, umask, unlink

=head3 Temporal

The following functions can now be found in or replaced by something in the Temporal

gmtime, localtime, time

=head3 String

The following functions can now be found in or replaced by something in the String

chop, chomp, index, lc, lcfirst, pack, quotemeta, rindex, split, sprintf, substr, uc,
ucfirst, unpack

=head2 Obsolete Functions

Some of these are obsoleted only as general functions, and are still available by using
the right packages.  Others are obsoleted in that they're keywords, rather than functions
(these are in their own section, below).

=over 4

=item %

 $num1 % $num2

Does a floating point modulo operation, i.e. 5.5 % 1 == 0.5 and 5 % 2.5 == 0.

=item dbmopen, dbmclose

 use DB_File;

=item dump

Dumped.  Restoring from core dumps is in any event not very useful on modern
virtual-memory operating systems.  Startup acceleration should be accomplished
using a precompiler of some kind (details will be very implementation specific),
or a pre-forking daemon such as Perl 5's App::Persistant (which will be an
external module when it is ported).

=item each

See .pairs() method, above.

=item endpwent, endgrent, endservent, endprotoent, endnetent, endhostent

The NameServices role in S16 covers most of these.

=item format, formline

See Exegesis 7.

=item getgrgid, getgrnam, getpwnam, getpwuid

The User and Group roles in S16 cover most of these.

=item getpwent, getgrent, getservent, getnetent, gethostent

The NameServices role in S16 covers most of these.

=item length()

This word is banned in Perl 6.  You must specify units.  In practise, this probably means
you want Str.chars(), although it could be Str.bytes(), or even something else.  See
S32-setting-library/String for details.

=item msgctl, msgget, msgrcv, msgsnd

See IPC::SysV

=item local

Replaced by C<temp> which, unlike C<local>, defaults to not changing the value.

=item lock

See L<S17/Concurrency>. C<lock> has been replaced by
C<is atomic>.

=item pos

There is no C<pos> function in Perl 6 because that would not allow a string
to be shared among threads.  Generally you want to use C<$/.to> for that now,
or keep your own position variable as a lexical.

=item prototype


=item ref

There is no ref() any more, since it was almost always used to get
the type name in Perl 5.  If you really want the type name, you can
use C<$var.WHAT.perl>.  If you really want P5 ref
semantics, use C<Perl5::p5ref>.

But if you're just wanting to test against a type, you're likely better off
performing an C<isa> or C<does> or C<can>, or just C<$var ~~ TYPE>.

=item reset

Was there a I<good> use for this?

=item semctl, semget, semop

See IPC::SysV;

=item setpwent, setgrent, setservent, setprotoent, setnetent, sethostent

The NameServices role in S16 covers most of these.

=item shmctl, shmget, shmread, shmwrite

See IPC::SysV;

=item study

Algorithm was too Anglo-centric.  Could be brought back if generalized somehow.

=item tie, tied

These are replaced by container types.  The compiler is free to assume
that any lexical variable is never going to change its container type
unless some representation is made to that effect in the declaration.
Note: P5's tied() is roughly replaced by P6's variable().

XXX Examples?

my $foo is ....? is tie
the meta operation on the container type for 'rebless' -
macro tie ( $var, $class, *@args ) { CODE { variable($var).meta.rebless( $class, *@args ) } } )


=item untie

See notes on "tie", above, but basically these are replaced with container classes.

=item vec

Should replace C<vec> with declared buffer/array of C<bit>, C<uint2>,
C<uint4>, etc.

=item waitpid

C<wait> can now be called with or without an optional process/pid.

=item write

See Exegesis 7.


=head3 Keywords

The following were listed in Perl 5's perlfunc, but should now be considered keywords
rather than functions.

last, my, next, no, our, package, return, sub, use

=head1 Default Export Questions

Not sure whether these are exported by default or not.  Also, many may no longer exist; if
so, they should be entered in the "Obsolete" section.


=item Signal-related


=item OS or library related

 getpeername -- should this go on Pipe?

OS objects:






=item Flow control


=item Other



=head1 Additions

Please post errors and feedback to perl6-language.  If you are making
a general laundry list, please separate messages by topic.

=for vim:set expandtab sw=4: