/*###################################################################################
#
#   Embperl - Copyright (c) 1997-2008 Gerald Richter / ecos gmbh  www.ecos.de
#   Embperl - Copyright (c) 2008-2014 Gerald Richter
#
#   You may distribute under the terms of either the GNU General Public
#   License or the Artistic License, as specified in the Perl README file.
#   For use with Apache httpd and mod_perl, see also Apache copyright.
#
#   THIS PACKAGE IS PROVIDED "AS IS" AND WITHOUT ANY EXPRESS OR
#   IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, THE IMPLIED
#   WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTIBILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
#
#   $Id: epmem.c 1578075 2014-03-16 14:01:14Z richter $
#
###################################################################################*/

/* parts of this file are taken from the Apache sources, so we need another copyright ... */

/* ====================================================================
 * The Apache Software License, Version 1.1
 *
 * Copyright (c) 2000 The Apache Software Foundation.  All rights
 * reserved.
 *
 * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
 * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
 * are met:
 *
 * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
 *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
 *
 * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
 *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in
 *    the documentation and/or other materials provided with the
 *    distribution.
 *
 * 3. The end-user documentation included with the redistribution,
 *    if any, must include the following acknowledgment:
 *       "This product includes software developed by the
 *        Apache Software Foundation (http:/ /www.apache.org/)."
 *    Alternately, this acknowledgment may appear in the software itself,
 *    if and wherever such third-party acknowledgments normally appear.
 *
 * 4. The names "Apache" and "Apache Software Foundation" must
 *    not be used to endorse or promote products derived from this
 *    software without prior written permission. For written
 *    permission, please contact apache@apache.org.
 *
 * 5. Products derived from this software may not be called "Apache",
 *    nor may "Apache" appear in their name, without prior written
 *    permission of the Apache Software Foundation.
 *
 * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED
 * WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES
 * OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
 * DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE APACHE SOFTWARE FOUNDATION OR
 * ITS CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL,
 * SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT
 * LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF
 * USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND
 * ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY,
 * OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT
 * OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
 * SUCH DAMAGE.
 * ====================================================================
 *
 * This software consists of voluntary contributions made by many
 * individuals on behalf of the Apache Software Foundation.  For more
 * information on the Apache Software Foundation, please see
 * <http:/ /www.apache.org/>.
 *
 * Portions of this software are based upon public domain software
 * originally written at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications,
 * University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.
 */

/*
 * Resource allocation code... the code here is responsible for making
 * sure that nothing leaks.
 *
 * rst --- 4/95 --- 6/95
 */

#include "ep.h"


#ifdef OS2
#define INCL_DOS
#include <os2.h>
#endif

#ifndef EP_API_EXPORT
#define EP_API_EXPORT(x) x
#endif
#ifndef EP_API_EXPORT_NONSTD
#define EP_API_EXPORT_NONSTD(x) x
#endif

#ifndef ep_inline
#define ep_inline
#endif

#define ep_block_alarms()
#define ep_unblock_alarms()


#ifndef BLOCK_MINFREE
#define BLOCK_MINFREE 4096
#endif
#ifndef BLOCK_MINALLOC
#define BLOCK_MINALLOC 8192
#endif


/* --- don't use Perl's memory management and io layer here --- */

#ifndef DMALLOC
#undef malloc
#undef free
#undef fprintf
#undef exit
#endif

/* debugging support, define this to enable code which helps detect re-use
 * of freed memory and other such nonsense.
 *
 * The theory is simple.  The FILL_BYTE (0xa5) is written over all malloc'd
 * memory as we receive it, and is written over everything that we free up
 * during a clear_pool.  We check that blocks on the free list always
 * have the FILL_BYTE in them, and we check during palloc() that the bytes
 * still have FILL_BYTE in them.  If you ever see garbage URLs or whatnot
 * containing lots of 0xa5s then you know something used data that's been
 * freed or uninitialized.
 */
/* #define ALLOC_DEBUG */

/* debugging support, if defined all allocations will be done with
 * malloc and free()d appropriately at the end.  This is intended to be
 * used with something like Electric Fence or Purify to help detect
 * memory problems.  Note that if you're using efence then you should also
 * add in ALLOC_DEBUG.  But don't add in ALLOC_DEBUG if you're using Purify
 * because ALLOC_DEBUG would hide all the uninitialized read errors that
 * Purify can diagnose.
 */
/* #define ALLOC_USE_MALLOC */

/* tMemPool debugging support.  This is intended to detect cases where the
 * wrong tMemPool is used when assigning data to an object in another pool.
 * In particular, it causes the table_{set,add,merge}n routines to check
 * that their arguments are safe for the table they're being placed in.
 * It currently only works with the unix multiprocess model, but could
 * be extended to others.
 */
/* #define POOL_DEBUG */

/* Provide diagnostic information about make_table() calls which are
 * possibly too small.  This requires a recent gcc which supports
 * __builtin_return_address().  The error_log output will be a
 * message such as:
 *    table_push: table created by 0x804d874 hit limit of 10
 * Use "l *0x804d874" to find the source that corresponds to.  It
 * indicates that a table allocated by a call at that address has
 * possibly too small an initial table size guess.
 */
/* #define MAKE_TABLE_PROFILE */

/* Provide some statistics on the cost of allocations.  It requires a
 * bit of an understanding of how alloc.c works.
 */
/* #define ALLOC_STATS */

#ifdef POOL_DEBUG
#ifdef ALLOC_USE_MALLOC
# error "sorry, no support for ALLOC_USE_MALLOC and POOL_DEBUG at the same time"
#endif
#ifdef MULTITHREAD
# error "sorry, no support for MULTITHREAD and POOL_DEBUG at the same time"
#endif
#endif

#ifdef ALLOC_USE_MALLOC
#undef BLOCK_MINFREE
#undef BLOCK_MINALLOC
#define BLOCK_MINFREE	0
#define BLOCK_MINALLOC	0
#endif

/*****************************************************************
 *
 * Managing free storage blocks...
 */

union align {
    /* Types which are likely to have the longest RELEVANT alignment
     * restrictions...
     */

    char *cp;
    void (*f) (void);
    long l;
    FILE *fp;
    double d;
};

#define CLICK_SZ (sizeof(union align))

union block_hdr {
    union align a;

    /* Actual header... */

    struct {
	char *endp;
	union block_hdr *next;
	char *first_avail;
#ifdef POOL_DEBUG
	union block_hdr *global_next;
	struct tMemPool *owning_pool;
#endif
    } h;
};

static union block_hdr *block_freelist = NULL;

static perl_mutex alloc_mutex ;
static perl_mutex spawn_mutex ;
#ifdef POOL_DEBUG
static char *known_stack_point;
static int stack_direction;
static union block_hdr *global_block_list;
#define FREE_POOL	((struct tMemPool *)(-1))
#endif
#ifdef ALLOC_STATS
static unsigned long long num_free_blocks_calls;
static unsigned long long num_blocks_freed;
static unsigned max_blocks_in_one_free;
static unsigned num_malloc_calls;
static unsigned num_malloc_bytes;
#endif

#ifdef ALLOC_DEBUG
#define FILL_BYTE	((char)(0xa5))

#define debug_fill(ptr,size)	((void)memset((ptr), FILL_BYTE, (size)))

static ep_inline void debug_verify_filled(const char *ptr,
    const char *endp, const char *error_msg)
{
    for (; ptr < endp; ++ptr) {
	if (*ptr != FILL_BYTE) {
	    fputs(error_msg, stderr);
	    abort();
	    exit(1);
	}
    }
}

#else
#define debug_fill(a,b)
#define debug_verify_filled(a,b,c)
#endif


/* Get a completely new block from the system pool. Note that we rely on
   malloc() to provide aligned memory. */

static union block_hdr *malloc_block(int size)
{
    union block_hdr *blok;

#ifdef ALLOC_DEBUG
    /* make some room at the end which we'll fill and expect to be
     * always filled
     */
    size += CLICK_SZ;
#endif
#ifdef ALLOC_STATS
    ++num_malloc_calls;
    num_malloc_bytes += size + sizeof(union block_hdr);
#endif
    blok = (union block_hdr *) malloc(size + sizeof(union block_hdr));
    if (blok == NULL) {
	/*fprintf(stderr, "Ouch!  malloc failed in malloc_block()\n");*/
	/* mmmh, Perl overrides stderr, so it won't work here!!! bad... */
        printf("Ouch!  malloc failed in malloc_block()\n");
	exit(1);
    }
    debug_fill(blok, size + sizeof(union block_hdr));
    blok->h.next = NULL;
    blok->h.first_avail = (char *) (blok + 1);
    blok->h.endp = size + blok->h.first_avail;
#ifdef ALLOC_DEBUG
    blok->h.endp -= CLICK_SZ;
#endif
#ifdef POOL_DEBUG
    blok->h.global_next = global_block_list;
    global_block_list = blok;
    blok->h.owning_pool = NULL;
#endif

    return blok;
}



#if defined(ALLOC_DEBUG) && !defined(ALLOC_USE_MALLOC)
static void chk_on_blk_list(union block_hdr *blok, union block_hdr *free_blk)
{
    debug_verify_filled(blok->h.endp, blok->h.endp + CLICK_SZ,
	"Ouch!  Someone trounced the padding at the end of a block!\n");
    while (free_blk) {
	if (free_blk == blok) {
	    fprintf(stderr, "Ouch!  Freeing free block\n");
	    abort();
	    exit(1);
	}
	free_blk = free_blk->h.next;
    }
}
#else
#define chk_on_blk_list(_x, _y)
#endif

/* Free a chain of blocks --- must be called with alarms blocked. */

static void free_blocks(union block_hdr *blok)
{
#ifdef ALLOC_USE_MALLOC
    union block_hdr *next;

    for (; blok; blok = next) {
	next = blok->h.next;
	free(blok);
    }
#else
#ifdef ALLOC_STATS
    unsigned num_blocks;
#endif
    /* First, put new blocks at the head of the free list ---
     * we'll eventually bash the 'next' pointer of the last block
     * in the chain to point to the free blocks we already had.
     */

    union block_hdr *old_free_list;

    if (blok == NULL)
	return;			/* Sanity check --- freeing empty pool? */

    ep_acquire_mutex(alloc_mutex);
    old_free_list = block_freelist;
    block_freelist = blok;

    /*
     * Next, adjust first_avail pointers of each block --- have to do it
     * sooner or later, and it simplifies the search in new_block to do it
     * now.
     */

#ifdef ALLOC_STATS
    num_blocks = 1;
#endif
    while (blok->h.next != NULL) {
#ifdef ALLOC_STATS
	++num_blocks;
#endif
	chk_on_blk_list(blok, old_free_list);
	blok->h.first_avail = (char *) (blok + 1);
	debug_fill(blok->h.first_avail, blok->h.endp - blok->h.first_avail);
#ifdef POOL_DEBUG
	blok->h.owning_pool = FREE_POOL;
#endif
	blok = blok->h.next;
    }

    chk_on_blk_list(blok, old_free_list);
    blok->h.first_avail = (char *) (blok + 1);
    debug_fill(blok->h.first_avail, blok->h.endp - blok->h.first_avail);
#ifdef POOL_DEBUG
    blok->h.owning_pool = FREE_POOL;
#endif

    /* Finally, reset next pointer to get the old free blocks back */

    blok->h.next = old_free_list;

#ifdef ALLOC_STATS
    if (num_blocks > max_blocks_in_one_free) {
	max_blocks_in_one_free = num_blocks;
    }
    ++num_free_blocks_calls;
    num_blocks_freed += num_blocks;
#endif

    ep_release_mutex(alloc_mutex);
#endif
}


/* Get a new block, from our own free list if possible, from the system
 * if necessary.  Must be called with alarms blocked.
 */

static union block_hdr *new_block(int min_size)
{
    union block_hdr **lastptr = &block_freelist;
    union block_hdr *blok = block_freelist;

    /* First, see if we have anything of the required size
     * on the free list...
     */

    while (blok != NULL) {
	if (min_size + BLOCK_MINFREE <= blok->h.endp - blok->h.first_avail) {
	    *lastptr = blok->h.next;
	    blok->h.next = NULL;
	    debug_verify_filled(blok->h.first_avail, blok->h.endp,
		"Ouch!  Someone trounced a block on the free list!\n");
	    return blok;
	}
	else {
	    lastptr = &blok->h.next;
	    blok = blok->h.next;
	}
    }

    /* Nope. */

    min_size += BLOCK_MINFREE;
    blok = malloc_block((min_size > BLOCK_MINALLOC) ? min_size : BLOCK_MINALLOC);
    return blok;
}


/* Accounting */

static long bytes_in_block_list(union block_hdr *blok)
{
    long size = 0;

    while (blok) {
	size += blok->h.endp - (char *) (blok + 1);
	blok = blok->h.next;
    }

    return size;
}


/*****************************************************************
 *
 * tMemPool internals and management...
 * NB that subprocesses are not handled by the generic cleanup code,
 * basically because we don't want cleanups for multiple subprocesses
 * to result in multiple three-second pauses.
 */

struct process_chain;
struct cleanup;

/* static void run_cleanups(struct cleanup *); */
/* static void free_proc_chain(struct process_chain *); */
#define run_cleanups(x)
#define free_proc_chain(x)

struct tMemPool {
    union block_hdr *first;
    union block_hdr *last;
    struct cleanup *cleanups;
    struct process_chain *subprocesses;
    struct tMemPool *sub_pools;
    struct tMemPool *sub_next;
    struct tMemPool *sub_prev;
    struct tMemPool *parent;
    char *free_first_avail;
#ifdef ALLOC_USE_MALLOC
    void *allocation_list;
#endif
#ifdef POOL_DEBUG
    struct tMemPool *joined;
#endif
};

static tMemPool *permanent_pool;

/* Each tMemPool structure is allocated in the start of its own first block,
 * so we need to know how many bytes that is (once properly aligned...).
 * This also means that when a pool's sub-pool is destroyed, the storage
 * associated with it is *completely* gone, so we have to make sure it
 * gets taken off the parent's sub-pool list...
 */

#define POOL_HDR_CLICKS (1 + ((sizeof(struct tMemPool) - 1) / CLICK_SZ))
#define POOL_HDR_BYTES (POOL_HDR_CLICKS * CLICK_SZ)

EP_API_EXPORT(struct tMemPool *) ep_make_sub_pool(struct tMemPool *p)
{
    union block_hdr *blok;
    tMemPool *new_pool;

    ep_block_alarms();

    ep_acquire_mutex(alloc_mutex);

    blok = new_block(POOL_HDR_BYTES);
    new_pool = (tMemPool *) blok->h.first_avail;
    blok->h.first_avail += POOL_HDR_BYTES;
#ifdef POOL_DEBUG
    blok->h.owning_pool = new_pool;
#endif

    memset((char *) new_pool, '\0', sizeof(struct tMemPool));
    new_pool->free_first_avail = blok->h.first_avail;
    new_pool->first = new_pool->last = blok;

    if (p) {
	new_pool->parent = p;
	new_pool->sub_next = p->sub_pools;
	if (new_pool->sub_next)
	    new_pool->sub_next->sub_prev = new_pool;
	p->sub_pools = new_pool;
    }

    ep_release_mutex(alloc_mutex);
    ep_unblock_alarms();

    return new_pool;
}

#ifdef POOL_DEBUG
static void stack_var_init(char *s)
{
    char t;

    if (s < &t) {
	stack_direction = 1; /* stack grows up */
    }
    else {
	stack_direction = -1; /* stack grows down */
    }
}
#endif

#ifdef ALLOC_STATS
static void dump_stats(void)
{
    fprintf(stderr,
	"alloc_stats: [%d] #free_blocks %llu #blocks %llu max %u #malloc %u #bytes %u\n",
	(int)getpid(),
	num_free_blocks_calls,
	num_blocks_freed,
	max_blocks_in_one_free,
	num_malloc_calls,
	num_malloc_bytes);
}
#endif

tMemPool *ep_init_alloc(void)
{
#ifdef POOL_DEBUG
    char s;

    known_stack_point = &s;
    stack_var_init(&s);
#endif
    ep_create_mutex(alloc_mutex);
    ep_create_mutex(spawn_mutex );
    permanent_pool = ep_make_sub_pool(NULL);
#ifdef ALLOC_STATS
    atexit(dump_stats);
#endif

    return permanent_pool;
}

void ep_cleanup_alloc(void)
{
    ep_destroy_mutex(alloc_mutex);
    ep_destroy_mutex(spawn_mutex);
}

EP_API_EXPORT(void) ep_clear_pool(struct tMemPool *a)
{
    ep_block_alarms();

    ep_acquire_mutex(alloc_mutex);
    while (a->sub_pools)
	ep_destroy_pool(a->sub_pools);
    ep_release_mutex(alloc_mutex);
    /* Don't hold the mutex during cleanups. */
    run_cleanups(a->cleanups);
    a->cleanups = NULL;
    free_proc_chain(a->subprocesses);
    a->subprocesses = NULL;
    free_blocks(a->first->h.next);
    a->first->h.next = NULL;

    a->last = a->first;
    a->first->h.first_avail = a->free_first_avail;
    debug_fill(a->first->h.first_avail,
	a->first->h.endp - a->first->h.first_avail);

#ifdef ALLOC_USE_MALLOC
    {
	void *c, *n;

	for (c = a->allocation_list; c; c = n) {
	    n = *(void **)c;
	    free(c);
	}
	a->allocation_list = NULL;
    }
#endif

    ep_unblock_alarms();
}

EP_API_EXPORT(void) ep_destroy_pool(tMemPool *a)
{
    ep_block_alarms();
    ep_clear_pool(a);

    ep_acquire_mutex(alloc_mutex);
    if (a->parent) {
	if (a->parent->sub_pools == a)
	    a->parent->sub_pools = a->sub_next;
	if (a->sub_prev)
	    a->sub_prev->sub_next = a->sub_next;
	if (a->sub_next)
	    a->sub_next->sub_prev = a->sub_prev;
    }
    ep_release_mutex(alloc_mutex);

    free_blocks(a->first);
    ep_unblock_alarms();
}

EP_API_EXPORT(long) ep_bytes_in_pool(tMemPool *p)
{
    return bytes_in_block_list(p->first);
}
EP_API_EXPORT(long) ep_bytes_in_free_blocks(void)
{
    return bytes_in_block_list(block_freelist);
}

/*****************************************************************
 * POOL_DEBUG support
 */
#ifdef POOL_DEBUG

/* the unix linker defines this symbol as the last byte + 1 of
 * the executable... so it includes TEXT, BSS, and DATA
 */
extern char _end;

/* is ptr in the range [lo,hi) */
#define is_ptr_in_range(ptr, lo, hi)	\
    (((unsigned long)(ptr) - (unsigned long)(lo)) \
	< \
	(unsigned long)(hi) - (unsigned long)(lo))

/* Find the tMemPool that ts belongs to, return NULL if it doesn't
 * belong to any pool.
 */
EP_API_EXPORT(tMemPool *) ep_find_pool(const void *ts)
{
    const char *s = ts;
    union block_hdr **pb;
    union block_hdr *b;

    /* short-circuit stuff which is in TEXT, BSS, or DATA */
    if (is_ptr_in_range(s, 0, &_end)) {
	return NULL;
    }
    /* consider stuff on the stack to also be in the NULL pool...
     * XXX: there's cases where we don't want to assume this
     */
    if ((stack_direction == -1 && is_ptr_in_range(s, &ts, known_stack_point))
	|| (stack_direction == 1 && is_ptr_in_range(s, known_stack_point, &ts))) {
	abort();
	return NULL;
    }
    ep_block_alarms();
    /* search the global_block_list */
    for (pb = &global_block_list; *pb; pb = &b->h.global_next) {
	b = *pb;
	if (is_ptr_in_range(s, b, b->h.endp)) {
	    if (b->h.owning_pool == FREE_POOL) {
		fprintf(stderr,
		    "Ouch!  find_pool() called on pointer in a free block\n");
		abort();
		exit(1);
	    }
	    if (b != global_block_list) {
		/* promote b to front of list, this is a hack to speed
		 * up the lookup */
		*pb = b->h.global_next;
		b->h.global_next = global_block_list;
		global_block_list = b;
	    }
	    ep_unblock_alarms();
	    return b->h.owning_pool;
	}
    }
    ep_unblock_alarms();
    return NULL;
}

/* return TRUE iff a is an ancestor of b
 * NULL is considered an ancestor of all pools
 */
EP_API_EXPORT(int) ep_pool_is_ancestor(tMemPool *a, tMemPool *b)
{
    if (a == NULL) {
	return 1;
    }
    while (a->joined) {
	a = a->joined;
    }
    while (b) {
	if (a == b) {
	    return 1;
	}
	b = b->parent;
    }
    return 0;
}

/* All blocks belonging to sub will be changed to point to p
 * instead.  This is a guarantee by the caller that sub will not
 * be destroyed before p is.
 */
EP_API_EXPORT(void) ep_pool_join(tMemPool *p, tMemPool *sub)
{
    union block_hdr *b;

    /* We could handle more general cases... but this is it for now. */
    if (sub->parent != p) {
	fprintf(stderr, "pool_join: p is not parent of sub\n");
	abort();
    }
    ep_block_alarms();
    while (p->joined) {
	p = p->joined;
    }
    sub->joined = p;
    for (b = global_block_list; b; b = b->h.global_next) {
	if (b->h.owning_pool == sub) {
	    b->h.owning_pool = p;
	}
    }
    ep_unblock_alarms();
}
#endif

/*****************************************************************
 *
 * Allocating stuff...
 */


EP_API_EXPORT(void *) ep_palloc(struct tMemPool *a, int reqsize)
{
#ifdef ALLOC_USE_MALLOC
    int size = reqsize + CLICK_SZ;
    void *ptr;

    ep_block_alarms();
    ptr = malloc(size);
    if (ptr == NULL) {
	fputs("Ouch!  Out of memory!\n", stderr);
	exit(1);
    }
    debug_fill(ptr, size); /* might as well get uninitialized protection */
    *(void **)ptr = a->allocation_list;
    a->allocation_list = ptr;
    ep_unblock_alarms();
    return (char *)ptr + CLICK_SZ;
#else

    /* Round up requested size to an even number of alignment units (core clicks)
     */

    int nclicks = 1 + ((reqsize - 1) / CLICK_SZ);
    int size = nclicks * CLICK_SZ;

    /* First, see if we have space in the block most recently
     * allocated to this pool
     */

    union block_hdr *blok = a->last;
    char *first_avail = blok->h.first_avail;
    char *new_first_avail;

    if (reqsize <= 0)
	return NULL;

    new_first_avail = first_avail + size;

    if (new_first_avail <= blok->h.endp) {
	debug_verify_filled(first_avail, blok->h.endp,
	    "Ouch!  Someone trounced past the end of their allocation!\n");
	blok->h.first_avail = new_first_avail;
	return (void *) first_avail;
    }

    /* Nope --- get a new one that's guaranteed to be big enough */

    ep_block_alarms();

    ep_acquire_mutex(alloc_mutex);

    blok = new_block(size);
    a->last->h.next = blok;
    a->last = blok;
#ifdef POOL_DEBUG
    blok->h.owning_pool = a;
#endif

    ep_release_mutex(alloc_mutex);

    ep_unblock_alarms();

    first_avail = blok->h.first_avail;
    blok->h.first_avail += size;

    return (void *) first_avail;
#endif
}

EP_API_EXPORT(void *) ep_pcalloc(struct tMemPool *a, int size)
{
    void *res = ep_palloc(a, size);
    memset(res, '\0', size);
    return res;
}

EP_API_EXPORT(char *) ep_pstrdup(struct tMemPool *a, const char *s)
{
    char *res;
    size_t len;

    if (s == NULL)
	return NULL;
    len = strlen(s) + 1;
    res = ep_palloc(a, len);
    memcpy(res, s, len);
    return res;
}

EP_API_EXPORT(char *) ep_pstrndup(struct tMemPool *a, const char *s, int n)
{
    char *res;

    if (s == NULL)
	return NULL;
    res = ep_palloc(a, n + 1);
    memcpy(res, s, n);
    res[n] = '\0';
    return res;
}

EP_API_EXPORT_NONSTD(char *) ep_pstrcat(tMemPool *a,...)
{
    char *cp, *argp, *res;

    /* Pass one --- find length of required string */

    int len = 0;
    va_list adummy;

    va_start(adummy, a);

    while ((cp = va_arg(adummy, char *)) != NULL)
	     len += strlen(cp);

    va_end(adummy);

    /* Allocate the required string */

    res = (char *) ep_palloc(a, len + 1);
    cp = res;
    *cp = '\0';

    /* Pass two --- copy the argument strings into the result space */

    va_start(adummy, a);

    while ((argp = va_arg(adummy, char *)) != NULL) {
	strcpy(cp, argp);
	cp += strlen(argp);
    }

    va_end(adummy);

    /* Return the result string */

    return res;
}

#ifdef EPSPRINTF

/* ep_psprintf is implemented by writing directly into the current
 * block of the pool, starting right at first_avail.  If there's
 * insufficient room, then a new block is allocated and the earlier
 * output is copied over.  The new block isn't linked into the pool
 * until all the output is done.
 *
 * Note that this is completely safe because nothing else can
 * allocate in this tMemPool while ep_psprintf is running.  alarms are
 * blocked, and the only thing outside of alloc.c that's invoked
 * is ep_vformatter -- which was purposefully written to be
 * self-contained with no callouts.
 */

struct psprintf_data {
    ep_vformatter_buff vbuff;
#ifdef ALLOC_USE_MALLOC
    char *base;
#else
    union block_hdr *blok;
    int got_a_new_block;
#endif
};

static int psprintf_flush(ep_vformatter_buff *vbuff)
{
    struct psprintf_data *ps = (struct psprintf_data *)vbuff;
#ifdef ALLOC_USE_MALLOC
    int size;
    char *ptr;

    size = (char *)ps->vbuff.curpos - ps->base;
    ptr = realloc(ps->base, 2*size);
    if (ptr == NULL) {
	fputs("Ouch!  Out of memory!\n", stderr);
	exit(1);
    }
    ps->base = ptr;
    ps->vbuff.curpos = ptr + size;
    ps->vbuff.endpos = ptr + 2*size - 1;
    return 0;
#else
    union block_hdr *blok;
    union block_hdr *nblok;
    size_t cur_len;
    char *strp;

    blok = ps->blok;
    strp = ps->vbuff.curpos;
    cur_len = strp - blok->h.first_avail;

    /* must try another blok */
    (void) ep_acquire_mutex(alloc_mutex);
    nblok = new_block(2 * cur_len);
    (void) ep_release_mutex(alloc_mutex);
    memcpy(nblok->h.first_avail, blok->h.first_avail, cur_len);
    ps->vbuff.curpos = nblok->h.first_avail + cur_len;
    /* save a byte for the NUL terminator */
    ps->vbuff.endpos = nblok->h.endp - 1;

    /* did we allocate the current blok? if so free it up */
    if (ps->got_a_new_block) {
	debug_fill(blok->h.first_avail, blok->h.endp - blok->h.first_avail);
	(void) ep_acquire_mutex(alloc_mutex);
	blok->h.next = block_freelist;
	block_freelist = blok;
	(void) ep_release_mutex(alloc_mutex);
    }
    ps->blok = nblok;
    ps->got_a_new_block = 1;
    /* note that we've deliberately not linked the new block onto
     * the tMemPool yet... because we may need to flush again later, and
     * we'd have to spend more effort trying to unlink the block.
     */
    return 0;
#endif
}

EP_API_EXPORT(char *) ep_pvsprintf(tMemPool *p, const char *fmt, va_list ap)
{
#ifdef ALLOC_USE_MALLOC
    struct psprintf_data ps;
    void *ptr;

    ep_block_alarms();
    ps.base = malloc(512);
    if (ps.base == NULL) {
	fputs("Ouch!  Out of memory!\n", stderr);
	exit(1);
    }
    /* need room at beginning for allocation_list */
    ps.vbuff.curpos = ps.base + CLICK_SZ;
    ps.vbuff.endpos = ps.base + 511;
    ep_vformatter(psprintf_flush, &ps.vbuff, fmt, ap);
    *ps.vbuff.curpos++ = '\0';
    ptr = ps.base;
    /* shrink */
    ptr = realloc(ptr, (char *)ps.vbuff.curpos - (char *)ptr);
    if (ptr == NULL) {
	fputs("Ouch!  Out of memory!\n", stderr);
	exit(1);
    }
    *(void **)ptr = p->allocation_list;
    p->allocation_list = ptr;
    ep_unblock_alarms();
    return (char *)ptr + CLICK_SZ;
#else
    struct psprintf_data ps;
    char *strp;
    int size;

    ep_block_alarms();
    ps.blok = p->last;
    ps.vbuff.curpos = ps.blok->h.first_avail;
    ps.vbuff.endpos = ps.blok->h.endp - 1;	/* save one for NUL */
    ps.got_a_new_block = 0;

    ep_vformatter(psprintf_flush, &ps.vbuff, fmt, ap);

    strp = ps.vbuff.curpos;
    *strp++ = '\0';

    size = strp - ps.blok->h.first_avail;
    size = (1 + ((size - 1) / CLICK_SZ)) * CLICK_SZ;
    strp = ps.blok->h.first_avail;	/* save away result pointer */
    ps.blok->h.first_avail += size;

    /* have to link the block in if it's a new one */
    if (ps.got_a_new_block) {
	p->last->h.next = ps.blok;
	p->last = ps.blok;
#ifdef POOL_DEBUG
	ps.blok->h.owning_pool = p;
#endif
    }
    ep_unblock_alarms();

    return strp;
#endif
}

EP_API_EXPORT_NONSTD(char *) ep_psprintf(tMemPool *p, const char *fmt, ...)
{
    va_list ap;
    char *res;

    va_start(ap, fmt);
    res = ep_pvsprintf(p, fmt, ap);
    va_end(ap);
    return res;
}

#endif