=head1 NAME

WebService::Discord::Webhook - A module for posting messages to Discord chat service

=head1 VERSION

version 1.10


    use WebService::Discord::Webhook;

    my $webhook = WebService::Discord::Webhook->new( $url );

    print "Webhook posting as '" . $webhook->{name} .
      "' in channel " . $webhook->{channel_id} . "\n";

    $webhook->execute( content => 'Hello, world!', tts => 1 );


    $webhook->execute( 'Goodbye, world!' );


This module posts messages to the Discord chat service, using their Webhook
interface.  Webhooks are a simple way to add post-only functions to external
clients, without the need to create a full-fledged client or "bot".

Normally, Webhooks are used to issue a notification to chat channels when an
external event from another site or service occurs, e.g. when a commit is made
to a Git repository, a story is posted to a news site, or a player is fragged
in a game.

An example Discord Webhook URL looks like this:


where the first magic number ("2237...5344") is the C<id> and the second
("3d89...cf11") is the C<token>.

For more information on Discord Webhooks, see the Discord API documentation
located at L<https://discord.com/developers/docs/resources/webhook>.

=head1 METHODS

=head2 new

Constructs and returns a new WebService::Discord::Webhook object using the
specified parameters.

This function should be passed a hash, containing either a C<url> key, or
C<token> plus C<id> keys, with values matching the Webhook created via the
Discord web UI.

The following optional parameters are also available:


=item * timeout

Override the default timeout of the underlying L<HTTP::Tiny> object used for
making web requests.

=item * verify_SSL

Enable SSL certificate verification on the underlying L<HTTP::Tiny> object.
Note that this will probably require a trusted CA certificate list installed.

=item * wait

Webhook execution will block before returning, until the server confirms that
he message was sent.  By default this is disabled (webhook execution is NOT
synchronized), so the function may return success although a message does not
actually post.  See C<execute> for more details.


As a special case, if C<new> is called with a scalar parameter, it is assumed
to be a C<url>.

=head2 get

Retrieves server-side information for the Webhook, and caches the result in
the WebService::Discord::Webhook object.  No parameters are expected.

Information which can be returned from the remote service include:


=item * guild_id:
The guild ("server") which the Webhook currently posts to, if set

=item * channel_id:
The specific channel which the Webhook posts to

=item * name:
The current display name of the Webhook

=item * avatar:
A URL pointing to the current avatar used by the Webhook


A hash containing the data is returned.  Additionally, the hash values are
copied into the object itself, so they can be later retrieved by calling code
(as in C<$webhook-E<gt>{channel_id}>).

=head2 modify

Modifies the server-side information for the Webhook.  This can be used to
alter the name the Webhook uses, the avatar, or both.

This function should be passed a hash, containing (at least) a
C<name> key or C<avatar> key (or both).

For C<avatar>, the value should be the raw data bytes of a png, jpeg, or gif

As a special case, if C<modify> is called with a scalar parameter, it is
assumed to be a new username.

The return value for this function is the same as C<get>, and the results are
also cached as above.

=head2 destroy

Deletes the Webhook from the Discord service.  There is no return value.

B<Warning!>  Once a Webhook is deleted, the existing token and ID are no
longer valid.  A server administrator will need to re-create the endpoint
through the Discord UI.  Unless you have very good reason to do this, it is
probably best to leave this function alone.

=head2 execute

Executes a Webhook (posts a message).

The function should be passed a hash containing a Discord webhook
structure.  Discord allows several different methods to post to a channel.
At least one of the following components is required:


=item * content

Post a message to the channel.  The message can be up to 2000 Unicode
characters in length.  Discord may format the message after receipt according
to its usual Markdown rules.

The value should be a scalar containing the message to post.

C<content> can be combined with the other post methods as well, to attach
a message along with an embed or file.

=item * file

Upload a file to the channel.

The value should be a hash reference with two keys: C<name> for the desired
filename, and C<data> for the raw data bytes of the file.  Discord uses
the file extension to determine whether to display it as an image, video,
download, etc.

C<file> cannot be combined with C<embed>.

=item * files

Similar to C<file>, but accepts an array of file hashref instead.  (Do not
combine C<file> with C<files>.)

Discord allows up to 10 file attachments in one request.

=item * embed

Post "embedded rich content" to the channel.  This is useful for posting
messages with image attachments, colorful borders or backgrounds, etc.

The value should be an embed object (hashref) to post.  These values are
not checked by WebService::Discord::Webhook.  For information on the expected
data structure, refer to Discord's documentation on Channel Embed Objects:

C<embed> cannot be combined with C<file>.

=item * embeds

Similar to C<embed>, but accepts an array of embed hashref instead.  (Do not
combine C<embed> with C<embeds>.)


Additionally, these optional parameters can be used to change the behavior
of the webhook:


=item * username:
Override the default username of the webhook (i.e. post this message under a
different name).  To make a permanent username change, see C<modify>.

=item * avatar_url:
Override the default avatar of the webhook (i.e. post this message using the
avatar at avatar_url).  To upload a new avatar to Discord, see C<modify>.

=item * tts:
If set, posts as a TTS message.  TTS messages appear as normal, but will also
be read aloud to users in the channel (if permissions allow).

=item * allowed_mentions:
Customize behavior of pings ("at mentions") in a message.  By default, Discord
will parse the message content looking for users, roles, and groups to notify.
Sometimes this is undesired - for example, when reposting content into the
channel, it would be impolite to let a news summary that includes "@everyone"
to ping the entire channel.  This parameter instructs Discord on how to
correctly parse (or suppress) mentions from the posted message.

The value should be an allowed_mentions object (hashref) to post.  These values
are not checked by WebService::Discord::Webhook.  For details about the data
structure, refer to Discord's documentation on Allowed Mentions Objects:


As a special case, if a scalar is passed to this function, it is assumed to
be a regular text message to post via the "content" method.

The return value for this function depends on the setting of C<wait> during
webhook construction.  If C<wait> is False (default), the function returns
immediately: parameters are checked for validity, but no attempt is made to
verify that the message actually posted to the channel.  There is no return
value in this case.

If C<wait> is True, function return is delayed until the message successfully
posts.  The return value in this case is a hashref containing details about
the posted message.

=head2 execute_slack

Executes a Slack-compatible Webhook.

The function should be passed either a scalar (assumed to be the JSON string
contents of the Slack webhook), or a hash containing a Slack webhook
structure (will be encoded to JSON using C<JSON::PP>).

More information about the format of a Slack webhook is available on the
Slack API reference at L<https://api.slack.com/incoming-webhooks>.

This function's return behavior is similar to C<execute()>, in that it is also
affected by the value of C<wait>.  Typically a Slack webhook returns the string
C<"ok"> on success.

=head2 execute_github

Executes a Github-compatible Webhook.

The function should be passed a hash containing two keys: C<json> as the JSON
string of a Github webhook, and C<event> as the string containing the name of
the Github event.  The value for C<event> is passed to Discord in the
C<X-GitHub-Event> header.

More information about the format of a Github webhook is available on the
Github API reference at L<https://developer.github.com/webhooks>.

This function's return behavior is similar to C<execute()>, in that it is also
affected by the value of C<wait>.

B<Note:>  Posting a message using the C<execute_github> function is currently
a specially-cased feature of Discord.  The webhook always appears as a user
named "GitHub" with a custom avatar, ignoring any existing styling.  Thus, it
should NOT be used as a general-purpose posting function.  However, it may be
useful to proxy messages from GitHub and repost them on Discord.

=head1 ERRORS

All errors in WebService::Discord::Webhook are handled by throwing exceptions
using C<croak()>.  This includes both local errors (e.g. invalid parameters)
as well as remote service errors (e.g. upload too large, name invalid).

Errors are returned as a single string.  Some attempt is made to standardize
the wording, so that they can be parsed by regex if the caller wants to inspect
the error and retry or continue.

If you wish to trap errors, the traditional Perl way to catch the exceptions is
to wrap them in an C<eval> block, as in:

    my $result = eval {

    if ($@) {
        # do something with the error here
        warn "Execute failed with error: $@";

    # execution continues...

Also consider using L<Try::Tiny>, which provides the familiar C<try> / C<catch>
constructs to help with exception handling.

=head1 LICENSE

This is released under the Artistic License.  See L<perlartistic>.

=head1 AUTHOR

Greg Kennedy - L<https://greg-kennedy.com/>