``````NAME
Geo::Coordinates::UTM - Perl extension for Latitiude Longitude
conversions.

SYNOPSIS
use Geo::Coordinates::UTM;

my (\$zone,\$easting,\$northing)=latlon_to_utm(\$ellipsoid,\$latitude,\$longitude);

my (\$latitude,\$longitude)=utm_to_latlon(\$ellipsoid,\$zone,\$easting,\$northing);

my (\$zone,\$easting,\$northing)=mgrs_to_utm(\$mgrs);

my (\$latitude,\$longitude)=mgrs_to_latlon(\$ellipsoid,\$mgrs);

my (\$mgrs)=utm_to_mgrs(\$zone,\$easting,\$northing);

my (\$mgrs)=latlon_to_mgrs(\$ellipsoid,\$latitude,\$longitude);

my @ellipsoids=ellipsoid_names;

my(\$name, \$r, \$sqecc) = ellipsoid_info 'WGS-84';

DESCRIPTION
This module will translate latitude longitude coordinates to Universal
Transverse Mercator(UTM) coordinates and vice versa.

Mercator Projection

The Mercator projection was first invented to help mariners. They needed
to be able to take a course and know the distance traveled, and draw a
line on the map which showed the day's journey. In order to do this,
Mercator invented a projection which preserved length, by projecting the
earth's surface onto a cylinder, sharing the same axis as the earth
itself. This caused all Latitude and Longitude lines to intersect at a
90 degree angle, thereby negating the problem that longitude lines get
closer together at the poles.

Transverse Mercator Projection

A Transverse Mercator projection takes the cylinder and turns it on its
side. Now the cylinder's axis passes through the equator, and it can be
rotated to line up with the area of interest. Many countries use
Transverse Mercator for their grid systems.

Universal Transverse Mercator

The Universal Transverse Mercator(UTM) system sets up a universal world
wide system for mapping. The Transverse Mercator projection is used,
with the cylinder in 60 positions. This creates 60 zones around the
world. Positions are measured using Eastings and Northings, measured in
meters, instead of Latitude and Longitude. Eastings start at 500,000 on
the centre line of each zone. In the Northern Hemisphere, Northings are
zero at the equator and increase northward. In the Southern Hemisphere,
Northings start at 10 million at the equator, and decrease southward.
You must know which hemisphere and zone you are in to interpret your
location globally. Distortion of scale, distance, direction and area
increase away from the central meridian.

UTM projection is used to define horizontal positions world-wide by
dividing the surface of the Earth into 6 degree zones, each mapped by
the Transverse Mercator projection with a central meridian in the center
of the zone. UTM zone numbers designate 6 degree longitudinal strips
extending from 80 degrees South latitude to 84 degrees North latitude.
UTM zone characters designate 8 degree zones extending north and south
from the equator. Eastings are measured from the central meridian (with
a 500 km false easting to insure positive coordinates). Northings are
measured from the equator (with a 10,000 km false northing for positions
south of the equator).

UTM is applied separately to the Northern and Southern Hemisphere, thus
within a single UTM zone, a single X / Y pair of values will occur in
both the Northern and Southern Hemisphere. To eliminate this confusion,
and to speed location of points, a UTM zone is sometimes subdivided into
20 zones of Latitude. These grids can be further subdivided into 100,000
meter grid squares with double-letter designations. This subdivision by
Latitude and further division into grid squares is generally referred to
as the Military Grid Reference System (MGRS). The unit of measurement of
UTM is always meters and the zones are numbered from 1 to 60 eastward,
beginning at the 180th meridian. The scale distortion in a north-south
direction parallel to the central meridian (CM) is constant However, the
scale distortion increases either direction away from the CM. To
equalize the distortion of the map across the UTM zone, a scale factor
of 0.9996 is applied to all distance measurements within the zone. The
distortion at the zone boundary, 3 degrees away from the CM is
approximately 1%.

Datums and Ellipsoids

Unlike local surveys, which treat the Earth as a plane, the precise
determination of the latitude and longitude of points over a broad area
must take into account the actual shape of the Earth. To achieve the
precision necessary for accurate location, the Earth cannot be assumed
to be a sphere. Rather, the Earth's shape more closely approximates an
ellipsoid (oblate spheroid): flattened at the poles and bulging at the
Equator. Thus the Earth's shape, when cut through its polar axis,
approximates an ellipse. A "Datum" is a standard representation of shape
and offset for coordinates, which includes an ellipsoid and an origin.
You must consider the Datum when working with geospatial data, since
data with two different Datum will not line up. The difference can be as
much as a kilometer!

EXAMPLES
A description of the available ellipsoids and sample usage of the
conversion routines follows

Ellipsoids

The Ellipsoids available are as follows:

1 Airy
2 Australian National
3 Bessel 1841
4 Bessel 1841 Nambia
5 Clarke 1866
6 Clarke 1880
7 Everest
8 Fischer 1960 Mercury
9 Fischer 1968
10 GRS 1967
11 GRS 1980
12 Helmert 1906
13 Hough
14 International
15 Krassovsky
16 Modified Airy
17 Modified Everest
18 Modified Fischer 1960
19 South American 1969
20 WGS 60
21 WGS 66
22 WGS-72
23 WGS-84
24 Everest 1830 Malaysia
25 Everest 1956 India
26 Everest 1964 Malaysia and Singapore
27 Everest 1969 Malaysia
28 Everest Pakistan
29 Indonesian 1974
30 Arc 1950

ellipsoid_names

The ellipsoids can be accessed using ellipsoid_names. To store thes into
an array you could use

my @names = ellipsoid_names;

ellipsoid_info

Ellipsoids may be called either by name, or number. To return the
ellipsoid information, ( "official" name, equator radius and square
eccentricity) you can use ellipsoid_info and specify a name. The
specified name can be numeric (for compatibility reasons) or a
more-or-less exact name. Any text between parentheses will be ignored.

my(\$name, \$r, \$sqecc) = ellipsoid_info 'wgs84';
my(\$name, \$r, \$sqecc) = ellipsoid_info 'WGS 84';
my(\$name, \$r, \$sqecc) = ellipsoid_info 'WGS-84';
my(\$name, \$r, \$sqecc) = ellipsoid_info 'WGS-84 (new specs)';
my(\$name, \$r, \$sqecc) = ellipsoid_info 23;

latlon_to_utm

Latitude values in the southern hemisphere should be supplied as
negative values (e.g. 30 deg South will be -30). Similarly Longitude
values West of the meridian should also be supplied as negative values.
Both latitude and longitude should not be entered as deg,min,sec but as
their decimal equivalent, e.g. 30 deg 12 min 22.432 sec should be
entered as 30.2062311

The ellipsoid value should correspond to one of the numbers above, e.g.
to use WGS-84, the ellipsoid value should be 23

For latitude 57deg 49min 59.000sec North longitude 02deg 47min 20.226sec
West

using Clarke 1866 (Ellipsoid 5)

(\$zone,\$east,\$north)=latlon_to_utm('clarke 1866',57.803055556,-2.788951667)

returns

\$zone  = 30V
\$east  = 512533.364651484
\$north = 6409932.13416127

utm_to_latlon

Reversing the above example,

(\$latitude,\$longitude)=utm_to_latlon(5,30V,512533.364651484,6409932.13416127)

returns

\$latitude  = 57.8330555601433
\$longitude = -2.788951666974

which equates to

latitude  57deg 49min 59.000sec North
longitude 02deg 47min 20.226sec West

latlon_to_utm_force_zone

On occasions, it is necessary to map a pair of (latitude, longitude)
coordinates to a predefined zone. This function allows to select the
projection zone as follows:

(\$zone, \$east, \$north)=latlon_to_utm('international', \$zone_number,
\$latitude, \$longitude)

For instance, Spain territory goes over zones 29, 30 and 31 but
sometimes it is convenient to use the projection corresponding to zone
30 for all the country.

Santiago de Compostela is at 42deg 52min 57.06sec North, 8deg 32min 28.70sec West

(\$zone, \$east, \$norh)=latlon_to_utm('international',  42.882517, -8.541306)

returns

\$zone = 29T
\$east = 537460.331
\$north = 4747955.991

but forcing the conversion to zone 30:

(\$zone, \$east, \$norh)=latlon_to_utm_force_zone('international',
30, 42.882517, -8.541306)

returns

\$zone = 30T
\$east = 47404.442
\$north = 4762771.704

latlon_to_mgrs

Latitude values in the southern hemisphere should be supplied as negative values (e.g. 30 deg South will be -30). Similarly Longitude values West of the meridian should also be supplied as negative values. Both latitude and longitude should not be entered as deg,min,sec but as their decimal equivalent, e.g. 30 deg 12 min 22.432 sec should be entered as 30.2062311

The ellipsoid value should correspond to one of the numbers above, e.g. to use WGS-84, the ellipsoid value should be 23

For latitude  57deg 49min 59.000sec North
longitude 02deg 47min 20.226sec West

using WGS84 (Ellipsoid 23)

(\$mgrs)=latlon_to_mgrs(23,57.8030590197684,-2.788956799)

returns

\$mgrs  = 30VWK1254306804

mgrs_to_latlon

Reversing the above example,

(\$latitude,\$longitude)=mgrs_to_latlon(23,'30VWK1254306804')

returns

\$latitude  = 57.8030590197684
\$longitude = -2.788956799645

mgrs_to_utm

Similarly it is possible to convert MGRS directly to UTM

AUTHOR
Graham Crookham, grahamc@cpan.org

THANKS
Thanks go to the following:

Felipe Mendonca Pimenta for helping out with the Southern hemisphere
testing.

Michael Slater for discovering the Escape \Q bug.

Mark Overmeer for the ellipsoid_info routines and code review.

Lok Yan for the >72deg. N bug.