# PODNAME: Moose::Cookbook::Legacy::Labeled_AttributeMetaclass
# ABSTRACT: A meta-attribute, attributes with labels

__END__

=pod

=encoding UTF-8

=head1 NAME

Moose::Cookbook::Legacy::Labeled_AttributeMetaclass - A meta-attribute, attributes with labels

=head1 VERSION

version 2.2201

=head1 SYNOPSIS

  package MyApp::Meta::Attribute::Labeled;
  use Moose;
  extends 'Moose::Meta::Attribute';

  has label => (
      is        => 'rw',
      isa       => 'Str',
      predicate => 'has_label',
  );

  package Moose::Meta::Attribute::Custom::Labeled;
  sub register_implementation {'MyApp::Meta::Attribute::Labeled'}

  package MyApp::Website;
  use Moose;

  has url => (
      metaclass => 'Labeled',
      is        => 'rw',
      isa       => 'Str',
      label     => "The site's URL",
  );

  has name => (
      is  => 'rw',
      isa => 'Str',
  );

  sub dump {
      my $self = shift;

      my $meta = $self->meta;

      my $dump = '';

      for my $attribute ( map { $meta->get_attribute($_) }
          sort $meta->get_attribute_list ) {

          if (   $attribute->isa('MyApp::Meta::Attribute::Labeled')
              && $attribute->has_label ) {
              $dump .= $attribute->label;
          }
          else {
              $dump .= $attribute->name;
          }

          my $reader = $attribute->get_read_method;
          $dump .= ": " . $self->$reader . "\n";
      }

      return $dump;
  }

  package main;

  my $app = MyApp::Website->new( url => "http://google.com", name => "Google" );

=head1 SUMMARY

B<WARNING: Subclassing metaclasses (as opposed to providing metaclass traits)
is strongly discouraged. This recipe is provided solely for reference when
encountering older code that does this.>

In this recipe, we begin to delve into the wonder of meta-programming.
Some readers may scoff and claim that this is the arena of only the
most twisted Moose developers. Absolutely not! Any sufficiently
twisted developer can benefit greatly from going more meta.

Our goal is to allow each attribute to have a human-readable "label"
attached to it. Such labels would be used when showing data to an end
user. In this recipe we label the C<url> attribute with "The site's
URL" and create a simple method showing how to use that label.

The proper, modern way to extend attributes (using a role instead of a
subclass) is described in L<Moose::Cookbook::Meta::Recipe3>, but that recipe
assumes you've read and at least tried to understand this one.

=head1 META-ATTRIBUTE OBJECTS

All the attributes of a Moose-based object are actually objects
themselves.  These objects have methods and attributes. Let's look at
a concrete example.

  has 'x' => ( isa => 'Int', is => 'ro' );
  has 'y' => ( isa => 'Int', is => 'rw' );

Internally, the metaclass for C<Point> has two
L<Moose::Meta::Attribute>. There are several methods for getting
meta-attributes out of a metaclass, one of which is
C<get_attribute_list>. This method is called on the metaclass object.

The C<get_attribute_list> method returns a list of attribute names. You can
then use C<get_attribute> to get the L<Moose::Meta::Attribute> object itself.

Once you have this meta-attribute object, you can call methods on it like this:

  print $point->meta->get_attribute('x')->type_constraint;
     => Int

To add a label to our attributes there are two steps. First, we need a
new attribute metaclass that can store a label for an
attribute. Second, we need to create attributes that use that
attribute metaclass.

=head1 RECIPE REVIEW

We start by creating a new attribute metaclass.

  package MyApp::Meta::Attribute::Labeled;
  use Moose;
  extends 'Moose::Meta::Attribute';

We can subclass a Moose metaclass in the same way that we subclass
anything else.

  has label => (
      is        => 'rw',
      isa       => 'Str',
      predicate => 'has_label',
  );

Again, this is standard Moose code.

Then we need to register our metaclass with Moose:

  package Moose::Meta::Attribute::Custom::Labeled;
  sub register_implementation { 'MyApp::Meta::Attribute::Labeled' }

This is a bit of magic that lets us use a short name, "Labeled", when
referring to our new metaclass.

That was the whole attribute metaclass.

Now we start using it.

  package MyApp::Website;
  use Moose;
  use MyApp::Meta::Attribute::Labeled;

We have to load the metaclass to use it, just like any Perl class.

Finally, we use it for an attribute:

  has url => (
      metaclass => 'Labeled',
      is        => 'rw',
      isa       => 'Str',
      label     => "The site's URL",
  );

This looks like a normal attribute declaration, except for two things,
the C<metaclass> and C<label> parameters. The C<metaclass> parameter
tells Moose we want to use a custom metaclass for this (one)
attribute. The C<label> parameter will be stored in the meta-attribute
object.

The reason that we can pass the name C<Labeled>, instead of
C<MyApp::Meta::Attribute::Labeled>, is because of the
C<register_implementation> code we touched on previously.

When you pass a metaclass to C<has>, it will take the name you provide
and prefix it with C<Moose::Meta::Attribute::Custom::>. Then it calls
C<register_implementation> in the package. In this case, that means
Moose ends up calling
C<Moose::Meta::Attribute::Custom::Labeled::register_implementation>.

If this function exists, it should return the I<real> metaclass
package name. This is exactly what our code does, returning
C<MyApp::Meta::Attribute::Labeled>. This is a little convoluted, and
if you don't like it, you can always use the fully-qualified name.

We can access this meta-attribute and its label like this:

  $website->meta->get_attribute('url')->label()

  MyApp::Website->meta->get_attribute('url')->label()

We also have a regular attribute, C<name>:

  has name => (
      is  => 'rw',
      isa => 'Str',
  );

This is a regular Moose attribute, because we have not specified a new
metaclass.

Finally, we have a C<dump> method, which creates a human-readable
representation of a C<MyApp::Website> object. It will use an
attribute's label if it has one.

  sub dump {
      my $self = shift;

      my $meta = $self->meta;

      my $dump = '';

      for my $attribute ( map { $meta->get_attribute($_) }
          sort $meta->get_attribute_list ) {

          if (   $attribute->isa('MyApp::Meta::Attribute::Labeled')
              && $attribute->has_label ) {
              $dump .= $attribute->label;
          }

This is a bit of defensive code. We cannot depend on every
meta-attribute having a label. Even if we define one for every
attribute in our class, a subclass may neglect to do so. Or a
superclass could add an attribute without a label.

We also check that the attribute has a label using the predicate we
defined. We could instead make the label C<required>. If we have a
label, we use it, otherwise we use the attribute name:

          else {
              $dump .= $attribute->name;
          }

          my $reader = $attribute->get_read_method;
          $dump .= ": " . $self->$reader . "\n";
      }

      return $dump;
  }

The C<get_read_method> is part of the L<Moose::Meta::Attribute>
API. It returns the name of a method that can read the attribute's
value, I<when called on the real object> (don't call this on the
meta-attribute).

=head1 CONCLUSION

You might wonder why you'd bother with all this. You could just
hardcode "The Site's URL" in the C<dump> method. But we want to avoid
repetition. If you need the label once, you may need it elsewhere,
maybe in the C<as_form> method you write next.

Associating a label with an attribute just makes sense! The label is a
piece of information I<about> the attribute.

It's also important to realize that this was a trivial example. You
can make much more powerful metaclasses that I<do> things, as opposed
to just storing some more information. For example, you could
implement a metaclass that expires attributes after a certain amount
of time:

   has site_cache => (
       metaclass     => 'TimedExpiry',
       expires_after => { hours => 1 },
       refresh_with  => sub { get( $_[0]->url ) },
       isa           => 'Str',
       is            => 'ro',
   );

The sky's the limit!

=for testing my $app = MyApp::Website->new( url => "http://google.com", name => "Google" );
is(
    $app->dump, q{name: Google
The site's URL: http://google.com
}, '... got the expected dump value'
);

=head1 AUTHORS

=over 4

=item *

Stevan Little <stevan@cpan.org>

=item *

Dave Rolsky <autarch@urth.org>

=item *

Jesse Luehrs <doy@cpan.org>

=item *

Shawn M Moore <sartak@cpan.org>

=item *

יובל קוג'מן (Yuval Kogman) <nothingmuch@woobling.org>

=item *

Karen Etheridge <ether@cpan.org>

=item *

Florian Ragwitz <rafl@debian.org>

=item *

Hans Dieter Pearcey <hdp@cpan.org>

=item *

Chris Prather <chris@prather.org>

=item *

Matt S Trout <mstrout@cpan.org>

=back

=head1 COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

This software is copyright (c) 2006 by Infinity Interactive, Inc.

This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.

=cut