Mojo::SQLite - A tiny Mojolicious wrapper for SQLite


      use Mojo::SQLite;
      # Select the library version
      my $sql = Mojo::SQLite->new('sqlite:test.db');
      say $sql->db->query('select sqlite_version() as version')->hash->{version};
      # Use migrations to create a table
      -- 1 up
      create table names (id integer primary key autoincrement, name text);
      -- 1 down
      drop table names;
      # Use migrations to drop and recreate the table
      # Get a database handle from the cache for multiple queries
      my $db = $sql->db;
      # Use SQL::Abstract to generate simple CRUD queries for you
      $db->insert('names', {name => 'Isabel'});
      my $id = $db->select('names', ['id'], {name => 'Isabel'})->hash->{id};
      $db->update('names', {name => 'Bel'}, {id => $id});
      $db->delete('names', {name => 'Bel'});
      # Insert a few rows in a transaction with SQL and placeholders
      eval {
        my $tx = $db->begin;
        $db->query('insert into names (name) values (?)', 'Sara');
        $db->query('insert into names (name) values (?)', 'Stefan');
      say $@ if $@;
      # Insert another row with SQL::Abstract and return the generated id
      say $db->insert('names', {name => 'Daniel'})->last_insert_id;
      # JSON roundtrip
      say $db->query('select ? as foo', {json => {bar => 'baz'}})
        ->expand(json => 'foo')->hash->{foo}{bar};
      # Select one row at a time
      my $results = $db->query('select * from names');
      while (my $next = $results->hash) {
        say $next->{name};
      # Select all rows with SQL::Abstract
      say $_->{name} for $db->select('names')->hashes->each;


    Mojo::SQLite is a tiny wrapper around DBD::SQLite that makes SQLite
    <> a lot of fun to use with the Mojolicious
    <> real-time web framework. Use all SQL features
    <> SQLite has to offer, generate CRUD
    queries from data structures, and manage your database schema with


    Database and statement handles are cached automatically, so they can be
    reused transparently to increase performance. And you can handle
    connection timeouts gracefully by holding on to them only for short
    amounts of time.

      use Mojolicious::Lite;
      use Mojo::SQLite;
      helper sqlite => sub { state $sql = Mojo::SQLite->new('sqlite:test.db') };
      get '/' => sub ($c) {
        my $db = $c->sqlite->db;
        $c->render(json => $db->query(q{select datetime('now','localtime') as now})->hash);

    In this example application, we create a sqlite helper to store a
    Mojo::SQLite object. Our action calls that helper and uses the method
    "db" in Mojo::SQLite to dequeue a Mojo::SQLite::Database object from
    the connection pool. Then we use the method "query" in
    Mojo::SQLite::Database to execute an SQL
    <> statement,
    which returns a Mojo::SQLite::Results object. And finally we call the
    method "hash" in Mojo::SQLite::Results to retrieve the first row as a
    hash reference.

    All I/O and queries are performed synchronously, and SQLite's default
    journal mode only supports concurrent reads from multiple processes
    while the database is not being written. The "Write-Ahead Log" journal
    mode allows multiple processes to read and write concurrently to the
    same database file (but only one can write at a time). WAL mode is
    enabled by the wal_mode option, currently enabled by default, and
    persists when opening that same database in the future.

      # Performed concurrently (concurrent with writing only with WAL journaling mode)
      my $pid = fork || die $!;
      say $sql->db->query(q{select datetime('now','localtime') as time})->hash->{time};
      exit unless $pid;

    The no_wal option prevents WAL mode from being enabled in new databases
    but doesn't affect databases where it has already been enabled.
    wal_mode may not be set by default in a future release. See and "journal_mode" in DBD::SQLite for more

    The double-quoted string literal misfeature 
    is disabled for all connections since Mojo::SQLite 3.003; use single
    quotes for string literals and double quotes for identifiers, as is
    normally recommended.

    All cached database handles will be reset automatically if a new
    process has been forked, this allows multiple processes to share the
    same Mojo::SQLite object safely.

    Any database errors will throw an exception as RaiseError is
    automatically enabled, so use eval or Try::Tiny to catch them. This
    makes transactions with "begin" in Mojo::SQLite::Database easy.

    While passing a file path of :memory: (or a custom "dsn" with
    mode=memory) will create a temporary database, in-memory databases
    cannot be shared between connections, so subsequent calls to "db" may
    return connections to completely different databases. For a temporary
    database that can be shared between connections and processes, pass a
    file path of :temp: to store the database in a temporary directory
    (this is the default), or consider constructing a temporary directory
    yourself with File::Temp if you need to reuse the filename. A temporary
    directory allows SQLite to create additional temporary files
    <> safely.

      use File::Spec::Functions 'catfile';
      use File::Temp;
      use Mojo::SQLite;
      my $tempdir = File::Temp->newdir; # Deleted when object goes out of scope
      my $tempfile = catfile $tempdir, 'test.db';
      my $sql = Mojo::SQLite->new->from_filename($tempfile);


    This distribution also contains a well-structured example blog
    <> you
    can use for inspiration. This application shows how to apply the MVC
    design pattern in practice.


    Mojo::SQLite inherits all events from Mojo::EventEmitter and can emit
    the following new ones.


      $sql->on(connection => sub ($sql, $dbh) {
        $dbh->do('pragma journal_size_limit=1000000');

    Emitted when a new database connection has been established.


    Mojo::SQLite implements the following attributes.


      my $abstract = $sql->abstract;
      $sql         = $sql->abstract(SQL::Abstract->new);

    SQL::Abstract object used to generate CRUD queries for
    Mojo::SQLite::Database, defaults to a SQL::Abstract::Pg object with
    name_sep set to . and quote_char set to ".

      # Generate WHERE clause and bind values
      my($stmt, @bind) = $sql->abstract->where({foo => 'bar', baz => 'yada'});

    SQL::Abstract::Pg provides additional features to the SQL::Abstract
    query methods in Mojo::SQLite::Database such as -json and limit/offset.
    The for feature is not applicable to SQLite queries.

      $sql->db->select(['some_table', ['other_table', foo_id => 'id']],
        ['foo', [bar => 'baz'], \q{datetime('now') as dt}],
        {foo => 'value'},
        {order_by => 'foo', limit => 10, offset => 5, group_by => ['foo'], having => {baz => 'value'}});
      # Upsert supported since SQLite 3.24.0
      $sql->db->insert('some_table', {name => $name, value => $value},
        {on_conflict => [name => {value => \'"excluded"."value"'}]});


      my $bool = $sql->auto_migrate;
      $sql     = $sql->auto_migrate($bool);

    Automatically migrate to the latest database schema with "migrations",
    as soon as "db" has been called for the first time.


      my $class = $sql->database_class;
      $sql      = $sql->database_class('MyApp::Database');

    Class to be used by "db", defaults to Mojo::SQLite::Database. Note that
    this class needs to have already been loaded before "db" is called.


      my $dsn = $sql->dsn;
      $sql    = $sql->dsn('dbi:SQLite:uri=file:foo.db');

    Data source name, defaults to dbi:SQLite:dbname= followed by a path to
    a temporary file.


      my $max = $sql->max_connections;
      $sql    = $sql->max_connections(3);

    Maximum number of idle database handles to cache for future use,
    defaults to 1.


      my $migrations = $sql->migrations;
      $sql           = $sql->migrations(Mojo::SQLite::Migrations->new);

    Mojo::SQLite::Migrations object you can use to change your database
    schema more easily.

      # Load migrations from file and migrate to latest version


      my $options = $sql->options;
      $sql        = $sql->options({AutoCommit => 1, RaiseError => 1});

    Options for database handles, defaults to setting sqlite_string_mode to
    AutoInactiveDestroy and RaiseError, and deactivating PrintError. Note
    that AutoCommit and RaiseError are considered mandatory, so
    deactivating them would be very dangerous. See "ATTRIBUTES COMMON TO
    more information on available options.


      my $parent = $sql->parent;
      $sql       = $sql->parent(Mojo::SQLite->new);

    Another Mojo::SQLite object to use for connection management, instead
    of establishing and caching our own database connections.


    Mojo::SQLite inherits all methods from Mojo::EventEmitter and
    implements the following new ones.


      my $sql = Mojo::SQLite->new;
      my $sql = Mojo::SQLite->new('file:test.db);
      my $sql = Mojo::SQLite->new('sqlite:test.db');
      my $sql = Mojo::SQLite->new(Mojo::SQLite->new);

    Construct a new Mojo::SQLite object and parse connection string with
    "from_string" if necessary.

      # Customize configuration further
      my $sql = Mojo::SQLite->new->dsn('dbi:SQLite:dbname=test.db');
      my $sql = Mojo::SQLite->new->dsn('dbi:SQLite:uri=file:test.db?mode=memory');
      # Pass filename directly
      my $sql = Mojo::SQLite->new->from_filename($filename);


      my $db = $sql->db;

    Get a database object based on "database_class" (which is usually
    Mojo::SQLite::Database) for a cached or newly established database
    connection. The DBD::SQLite database handle will be automatically
    cached again when that object is destroyed, so you can handle problems
    like connection timeouts gracefully by holding on to it only for short
    amounts of time.

      # Add up all the money
      say $sql->db->select('accounts')
        ->hashes->reduce(sub { $a->{money} + $b->{money} });


      $sql = $sql->from_filename('C:\\Documents and Settings\\foo & bar.db', $options);

    Parse database filename directly. Unlike "from_string", the filename is
    parsed as a local filename and not a URL. A hashref of "options" may be
    passed as the second argument.

      # Absolute filename
      # Relative to current directory
      # Temporary file database (default)
      # In-memory temporary database (single connection only)
      my $db = $sql->from_filename(':memory:')->db;
      # Additional options
      $sql->from_filename($filename, { PrintError => 1 });
      # Readonly connection without WAL mode
      $sql->from_filename($filename, { ReadOnly => 1, no_wal => 1 });
      # Strict unicode strings and WAL mode
      use DBD::SQLite::Constants ':dbd_sqlite_string_mode';
      $sql->from_filename($filename, { sqlite_string_mode => DBD_SQLITE_STRING_MODE_UNICODE_STRICT, wal_mode => 1 });


      $sql = $sql->from_string('test.db');
      $sql = $sql->from_string('file:test.db');
      $sql = $sql->from_string('file:///C:/foo/bar.db');
      $sql = $sql->from_string('sqlite:C:%5Cfoo%5Cbar.db');
      $sql = $sql->from_string(Mojo::SQLite->new);

    Parse configuration from connection string or use another Mojo::SQLite
    object as "parent". Connection strings are parsed as URLs, so you
    should construct them using a module like Mojo::URL, URI::file, or
    URI::db. For portability on non-Unix-like systems, either construct the
    URL with the sqlite scheme, or use "new" in URI::file to construct a
    URL with the file scheme. A URL with no scheme will be parsed as a file
    URL, and file URLs are parsed according to the current operating
    system. If specified, the hostname must be localhost. If the URL has a
    query string, it will be parsed and applied to "options".

      # Absolute filename
      # Relative to current directory
      # Connection string must be a valid URL
      $sql->from_string(URI::db->new->Mojo::Base::tap(engine => 'sqlite')->Mojo::Base::tap(dbname => $filename));
      # Temporary file database (default)
      # In-memory temporary database (single connection only)
      my $db = $sql->from_string(':memory:')->db;
      # Additional options
      $sql->from_string(Mojo::URL->new->scheme('sqlite')->path($filename)->query(sqlite_see_if_its_a_number => 1));
      $sql->from_string(URI::file->new($filename)->Mojo::Base::tap(query_form => {PrintError => 1}));
      # Readonly connection without WAL mode
      # String unicode strings and WAL mode
      use DBD::SQLite::Constants ':dbd_sqlite_string_mode';
        ->query(sqlite_string_mode => DBD_SQLITE_STRING_MODE_UNICODE_STRICT, wal_mode => 1));


    You can set the DBI_TRACE environment variable to get some advanced
    diagnostics information printed by DBI.



    This is the class hierarchy of the Mojo::SQLite distribution.

      * Mojo::SQLite

      * Mojo::SQLite::Database

      * Mojo::SQLite::Migrations

      * Mojo::SQLite::Results

      * Mojo::SQLite::Transaction


    Report any issues on the public bugtracker.


    Dan Book,


    Sebastian Riedel, author of Mojo::Pg, which this distribution is based


    Copyright 2015, Dan Book.

    This library is free software; you may redistribute it and/or modify it
    under the terms of the Artistic License version 2.0.


    Mojolicious, Mojo::Pg, DBD::SQLite