Path::Tiny - File path utility

    version 0.124

      use Path::Tiny;

      # creating Path::Tiny objects

      $dir = path("/tmp");
      $foo = path("foo.txt");

      $subdir = $dir->child("foo");
      $bar = $subdir->child("bar.txt");

      # stringifies as cleaned up path

      $file = path("./foo.txt");
      print $file; # "foo.txt"

      # reading files

      $guts = $file->slurp;
      $guts = $file->slurp_utf8;

      @lines = $file->lines;
      @lines = $file->lines_utf8;

      ($head) = $file->lines( {count => 1} );
      ($tail) = $file->lines( {count => -1} );

      # writing files

      $bar->spew( @data );
      $bar->spew_utf8( @data );

      # reading directories

      for ( $dir->children ) { ... }

      $iter = $dir->iterator;
      while ( my $next = $iter->() ) { ... }

    This module provides a small, fast utility for working with file paths.
    It is friendlier to use than File::Spec and provides easy access to
    functions from several other core file handling modules. It aims to be
    smaller and faster than many alternatives on CPAN, while helping people
    do many common things in consistent and less error-prone ways.

    Path::Tiny does not try to work for anything except Unix-like and Win32
    platforms. Even then, it might break if you try something particularly
    obscure or tortuous. (Quick! What does this mean:
    "///../../..//./././a//b/.././c/././"? And how does it differ on Win32?)

    All paths are forced to have Unix-style forward slashes. Stringifying
    the object gives you back the path (after some clean up).

    File input/output methods "flock" handles before reading or writing, as
    appropriate (if supported by the platform and/or filesystem).

    The *_utf8 methods ("slurp_utf8", "lines_utf8", etc.) operate in raw
    mode. On Windows, that means they will not have CRLF translation from
    the ":crlf" IO layer. Installing Unicode::UTF8 0.58 or later will speed
    up *_utf8 situations in many cases and is highly recommended.
    Alternatively, installing PerlIO::utf8_strict 0.003 or later will be
    used in place of the default ":encoding(UTF-8)".

    This module depends heavily on PerlIO layers for correct operation and
    thus requires Perl 5.008001 or later.

        $path = path("foo/bar");
        $path = path("/tmp", "file.txt"); # list
        $path = path(".");                # cwd
        $path = path("~user/file.txt");   # tilde processing

    Constructs a "Path::Tiny" object. It doesn't matter if you give a file
    or directory path. It's still up to you to call directory-like methods
    only on directories and file-like methods only on files. This function
    is exported automatically by default.

    The first argument must be defined and have non-zero length or an
    exception will be thrown. This prevents subtle, dangerous errors with
    code like "path( maybe_undef() )->remove_tree".

    If the first component of the path is a tilde ('~') then the component
    will be replaced with the output of "glob('~')". If the first component
    of the path is a tilde followed by a user name then the component will
    be replaced with output of "glob('~username')". Behaviour for
    non-existent users depends on the output of "glob" on the system.

    On Windows, if the path consists of a drive identifier without a path
    component ("C:" or "D:"), it will be expanded to the absolute path of
    the current directory on that volume using "Cwd::getdcwd()".

    If called with a single "Path::Tiny" argument, the original is returned
    unless the original is holding a temporary file or directory reference
    in which case a stringified copy is made.

        $path = path("foo/bar");
        $temp = Path::Tiny->tempfile;

        $p2 = path($path); # like $p2 = $path
        $t2 = path($temp); # like $t2 = path( "$temp" )

    This optimizes copies without proliferating references unexpectedly if a
    copy is made by code outside your control.

    Current API available since 0.017.

        $path = Path::Tiny->new("foo/bar");

    This is just like "path", but with method call overhead. (Why would you
    do that?)

    Current API available since 0.001.

        $path = Path::Tiny->cwd; # path( Cwd::getcwd )
        $path = cwd; # optional export

    Gives you the absolute path to the current directory as a "Path::Tiny"
    object. This is slightly faster than "path(".")->absolute".

    "cwd" may be exported on request and used as a function instead of as a

    Current API available since 0.018.

        $path = Path::Tiny->rootdir; # /
        $path = rootdir;             # optional export

    Gives you "File::Spec->rootdir" as a "Path::Tiny" object if you're too
    picky for "path("/")".

    "rootdir" may be exported on request and used as a function instead of
    as a method.

    Current API available since 0.018.

  tempfile, tempdir
        $temp = Path::Tiny->tempfile( @options );
        $temp = Path::Tiny->tempdir( @options );
        $temp = $dirpath->tempfile( @options );
        $temp = $dirpath->tempdir( @options );
        $temp = tempfile( @options ); # optional export
        $temp = tempdir( @options );  # optional export

    "tempfile" passes the options to "File::Temp->new" and returns a
    "Path::Tiny" object with the file name. The "TMPDIR" option is enabled
    by default.

    The resulting "File::Temp" object is cached. When the "Path::Tiny"
    object is destroyed, the "File::Temp" object will be as well.

    "File::Temp" annoyingly requires you to specify a custom template in
    slightly different ways depending on which function or method you call,
    but "Path::Tiny" lets you ignore that and can take either a leading
    template or a "TEMPLATE" option and does the right thing.

        $temp = Path::Tiny->tempfile( "customXXXXXXXX" );             # ok
        $temp = Path::Tiny->tempfile( TEMPLATE => "customXXXXXXXX" ); # ok

    The tempfile path object will be normalized to have an absolute path,
    even if created in a relative directory using "DIR". If you want it to
    have the "realpath" instead, pass a leading options hash like this:

        $real_temp = tempfile({realpath => 1}, @options);

    "tempdir" is just like "tempfile", except it calls "File::Temp->newdir"

    Both "tempfile" and "tempdir" may be exported on request and used as
    functions instead of as methods.

    The methods can be called on an instances representing a directory. In
    this case, the directory is used as the base to create the temporary
    file/directory, setting the "DIR" option in File::Temp.

        my $target_dir = path('/to/destination');
        my $tempfile = $target_dir->tempfile('foobarXXXXXX');
        $tempfile->spew('A lot of data...');  # not atomic
        $tempfile->move($target_dir->child('foobar')); # hopefully atomic

    In this case, any value set for option "DIR" is ignored.

    Note: for tempfiles, the filehandles from File::Temp are closed and not
    reused. This is not as secure as using File::Temp handles directly, but
    is less prone to deadlocks or access problems on some platforms. Think
    of what "Path::Tiny" gives you to be just a temporary file name that
    gets cleaned up.

    Note 2: if you don't want these cleaned up automatically when the object
    is destroyed, File::Temp requires different options for directories and
    files. Use "CLEANUP => 0" for directories and "UNLINK => 0" for files.

    Note 3: Don't lose the temporary object by chaining a method call
    instead of storing it:

        my $lost = tempdir()->child("foo"); # tempdir cleaned up right away

    Note 4: The cached object may be accessed with the "cached_temp" method.
    Keeping a reference to, or modifying the cached object may break the
    behavior documented above and is not supported. Use at your own risk.

    Current API available since 0.119.

        $abs = path("foo/bar")->absolute;
        $abs = path("foo/bar")->absolute("/tmp");

    Returns a new "Path::Tiny" object with an absolute path (or itself if
    already absolute). If no argument is given, the current directory is
    used as the absolute base path. If an argument is given, it will be
    converted to an absolute path (if it is not already) and used as the
    absolute base path.

    This will not resolve upward directories ("foo/../bar") unless
    "canonpath" in File::Spec would normally do so on your platform. If you
    need them resolved, you must call the more expensive "realpath" method

    On Windows, an absolute path without a volume component will have it
    added based on the current drive.

    Current API available since 0.101.

  append, append_raw, append_utf8
        path("foo.txt")->append({binmode => ":raw"}, @data);

    Appends data to a file. The file is locked with "flock" prior to writing
    and closed afterwards. An optional hash reference may be used to pass
    options. Valid options are:

    *   "binmode": passed to "binmode()" on the handle used for writing.

    *   "truncate": truncates the file after locking and before appending

    The "truncate" option is a way to replace the contents of a file in
    place, unlike "spew" which writes to a temporary file and then replaces
    the original (if it exists).

    "append_raw" is like "append" with a "binmode" of ":unix" for fast,
    unbuffered, raw write.

    "append_utf8" is like "append" with a "binmode" of
    ":unix:encoding(UTF-8)" (or PerlIO::utf8_strict). If Unicode::UTF8 0.58+
    is installed, a raw append will be done instead on the data encoded with

    Current API available since 0.060.

        $path = path("foo.txt")->assert( sub { $_->exists } );

    Returns the invocant after asserting that a code reference argument
    returns true. When the assertion code reference runs, it will have the
    invocant object in the $_ variable. If it returns false, an exception
    will be thrown. The assertion code reference may also throw its own

    If no assertion is provided, the invocant is returned without error.

    Current API available since 0.062.

        $name = path("foo/bar.txt")->basename;        # bar.txt
        $name = path("foo.txt")->basename('.txt');    # foo
        $name = path("foo.txt")->basename(qr/.txt/);  # foo
        $name = path("foo.txt")->basename(@suffixes);

    Returns the file portion or last directory portion of a path.

    Given a list of suffixes as strings or regular expressions, any that
    match at the end of the file portion or last directory portion will be
    removed before the result is returned.

    Current API available since 0.054.

        $canonical = path("foo/bar")->canonpath; # foo\bar on Windows

    Returns a string with the canonical format of the path name for the
    platform. In particular, this means directory separators will be "\" on

    Current API available since 0.001.

    Returns the cached "File::Temp" or "File::Temp::Dir" object if the
    "Path::Tiny" object was created with "/tempfile" or "/tempdir". If there
    is no such object, this method throws.

    WARNING: Keeping a reference to, or modifying the cached object may
    break the behavior documented for temporary files and directories
    created with "Path::Tiny" and is not supported. Use at your own risk.

    Current API available since 0.101.

        $file = path("/tmp")->child("foo.txt"); # "/tmp/foo.txt"
        $file = path("/tmp")->child(@parts);

    Returns a new "Path::Tiny" object relative to the original. Works like
    "catfile" or "catdir" from File::Spec, but without caring about file or

    WARNING: because the argument could contain ".." or refer to symlinks,
    there is no guarantee that the new path refers to an actual descendent
    of the original. If this is important to you, transform parent and child
    with "realpath" and check them with "subsumes".

    Current API available since 0.001.

        @paths = path("/tmp")->children;
        @paths = path("/tmp")->children( qr/\.txt\z/ );

    Returns a list of "Path::Tiny" objects for all files and directories
    within a directory. Excludes "." and ".." automatically.

    If an optional "qr//" argument is provided, it only returns objects for
    child names that match the given regular expression. Only the base name
    is used for matching:

        @paths = path("/tmp")->children( qr/^foo/ );
        # matches children like the glob foo*

    Current API available since 0.028.


    Sets file or directory permissions. The argument can be a numeric mode,
    a octal string beginning with a "0" or a limited subset of the symbolic
    mode use by /bin/chmod.

    The symbolic mode must be a comma-delimited list of mode clauses.
    Clauses must match "qr/\A([augo]+)([=+-])([rwx]+)\z/", which defines
    "who", "op" and "perms" parameters for each clause. Unlike /bin/chmod,
    all three parameters are required for each clause, multiple ops are not
    allowed and permissions "stugoX" are not supported. (See File::chmod for
    more complex needs.)

    Current API available since 0.053.


    Copies the current path to the given destination using File::Copy's
    "copy" function. Upon success, returns the "Path::Tiny" object for the
    newly copied file.

    Current API available since 0.070.

        $obj = path("/tmp/foo.txt")->digest;        # SHA-256
        $obj = path("/tmp/foo.txt")->digest("MD5"); # user-selected
        $obj = path("/tmp/foo.txt")->digest( { chunk_size => 1e6 }, "MD5" );

    Returns a hexadecimal digest for a file. An optional hash reference of
    options may be given. The only option is "chunk_size". If "chunk_size"
    is given, that many bytes will be read at a time. If not provided, the
    entire file will be slurped into memory to compute the digest.

    Any subsequent arguments are passed to the constructor for Digest to
    select an algorithm. If no arguments are given, the default is SHA-256.

    Current API available since 0.056.

  dirname (deprecated)
        $name = path("/tmp/foo.txt")->dirname; # "/tmp/"

    Returns the directory portion you would get from calling
    "File::Spec->splitpath( $path->stringify )" or "." for a path without a
    parent directory portion. Because File::Spec is inconsistent, the result
    might or might not have a trailing slash. Because of this, this method
    is deprecated.

    A better, more consistently approach is likely
    "$path->parent->stringify", which will not have a trailing slash except
    for a root directory.

    Deprecated in 0.056.

  edit, edit_raw, edit_utf8
        path("foo.txt")->edit( \&callback, $options );
        path("foo.txt")->edit_utf8( \&callback );
        path("foo.txt")->edit_raw( \&callback );

    These are convenience methods that allow "editing" a file using a single
    callback argument. They slurp the file using "slurp", place the contents
    inside a localized $_ variable, call the callback function (without
    arguments), and then write $_ (presumably mutated) back to the file with

    An optional hash reference may be used to pass options. The only option
    is "binmode", which is passed to "slurp" and "spew".

    "edit_utf8" and "edit_raw" act like their respective "slurp_*" and
    "spew_*" methods.

    Current API available since 0.077.

  edit_lines, edit_lines_utf8, edit_lines_raw
        path("foo.txt")->edit_lines( \&callback, $options );
        path("foo.txt")->edit_lines_utf8( \&callback );
        path("foo.txt")->edit_lines_raw( \&callback );

    These are convenience methods that allow "editing" a file's lines using
    a single callback argument. They iterate over the file: for each line,
    the line is put into a localized $_ variable, the callback function is
    executed (without arguments) and then $_ is written to a temporary file.
    When iteration is finished, the temporary file is atomically renamed
    over the original.

    An optional hash reference may be used to pass options. The only option
    is "binmode", which is passed to the method that open handles for
    reading and writing.

    "edit_lines_utf8" and "edit_lines_raw" act like their respective
    "slurp_*" and "spew_*" methods.

    Current API available since 0.077.

  exists, is_file, is_dir
        if ( path("/tmp")->exists ) { ... }     # -e
        if ( path("/tmp")->is_dir ) { ... }     # -d
        if ( path("/tmp")->is_file ) { ... }    # -e && ! -d

    Implements file test operations, this means the file or directory
    actually has to exist on the filesystem. Until then, it's just a path.

    Note: "is_file" is not "-f" because "-f" is not the opposite of "-d".
    "-f" means "plain file", excluding symlinks, devices, etc. that often
    can be read just like files.

    Use "-f" instead if you really mean to check for a plain file.

    Current API available since 0.053.

        $fh = path("/tmp/foo.txt")->filehandle($mode, $binmode);
        $fh = path("/tmp/foo.txt")->filehandle({ locked => 1 }, $mode, $binmode);
        $fh = path("/tmp/foo.txt")->filehandle({ exclusive => 1  }, $mode, $binmode);

    Returns an open file handle. The $mode argument must be a Perl-style
    read/write mode string ("<" ,">", ">>", etc.). If a $binmode is given,
    it is set during the "open" call.

    An optional hash reference may be used to pass options.

    The "locked" option governs file locking; if true, handles opened for
    writing, appending or read-write are locked with "LOCK_EX"; otherwise,
    they are locked with "LOCK_SH". When using "locked", ">" or "+>" modes
    will delay truncation until after the lock is acquired.

    The "exclusive" option causes the open() call to fail if the file
    already exists. This corresponds to the O_EXCL flag to sysopen /
    open(2). "exclusive" implies "locked" and will set it for you if you
    forget it.

    See "openr", "openw", "openrw", and "opena" for sugar.

    Current API available since 0.066.

  is_absolute, is_relative
        if ( path("/tmp")->is_absolute ) { ... }
        if ( path("/tmp")->is_relative ) { ... }

    Booleans for whether the path appears absolute or relative.

    Current API available since 0.001.

        while ( ! $path->is_rootdir ) {
            $path = $path->parent;

    Boolean for whether the path is the root directory of the volume. I.e.
    the "dirname" is "q[/]" and the "basename" is "q[]".

    This works even on "MSWin32" with drives and UNC volumes:

        path("C:/")->is_rootdir;             # true
        path("//server/share/")->is_rootdir; #true

    Current API available since 0.038.

        $iter = path("/tmp")->iterator( \%options );

    Returns a code reference that walks a directory lazily. Each invocation
    returns a "Path::Tiny" object or undef when the iterator is exhausted.

        $iter = path("/tmp")->iterator;
        while ( $path = $iter->() ) {

    The current and parent directory entries ("." and "..") will not be

    If the "recurse" option is true, the iterator will walk the directory
    recursively, breadth-first. If the "follow_symlinks" option is also
    true, directory links will be followed recursively. There is no
    protection against loops when following links. If a directory is not
    readable, it will not be followed.

    The default is the same as:

        $iter = path("/tmp")->iterator( {
            recurse         => 0,
            follow_symlinks => 0,
        } );

    For a more powerful, recursive iterator with built-in loop avoidance,
    see Path::Iterator::Rule.

    See also "visit".

    Current API available since 0.016.

  lines, lines_raw, lines_utf8
        @contents = path("/tmp/foo.txt")->lines;
        @contents = path("/tmp/foo.txt")->lines(\%options);
        @contents = path("/tmp/foo.txt")->lines_raw;
        @contents = path("/tmp/foo.txt")->lines_utf8;

        @contents = path("/tmp/foo.txt")->lines( { chomp => 1, count => 4 } );

    Returns a list of lines from a file. Optionally takes a hash-reference
    of options. Valid options are "binmode", "count" and "chomp".

    If "binmode" is provided, it will be set on the handle prior to reading.

    If a positive "count" is provided, that many lines will be returned from
    the start of the file. If a negative "count" is provided, the entire
    file will be read, but only "abs(count)" will be kept and returned. If
    "abs(count)" exceeds the number of lines in the file, all lines will be

    If "chomp" is set, any end-of-line character sequences ("CR", "CRLF", or
    "LF") will be removed from the lines returned.

    Because the return is a list, "lines" in scalar context will return the
    number of lines (and throw away the data).

        $number_of_lines = path("/tmp/foo.txt")->lines;

    "lines_raw" is like "lines" with a "binmode" of ":raw". We use ":raw"
    instead of ":unix" so PerlIO buffering can manage reading by line.

    "lines_utf8" is like "lines" with a "binmode" of ":raw:encoding(UTF-8)"
    (or PerlIO::utf8_strict). If Unicode::UTF8 0.58+ is installed, a raw
    UTF-8 slurp will be done and then the lines will be split. This is
    actually faster than relying on ":encoding(UTF-8)", though a bit memory
    intensive. If memory use is a concern, consider "openr_utf8" and
    iterating directly on the handle.

    Current API available since 0.065.

        path("foo/bar/baz")->mkpath( \%options );

    Like calling "make_path" from File::Path. An optional hash reference is
    passed through to "make_path". Errors will be trapped and an exception
    thrown. Returns the list of directories created or an empty list if the
    directories already exist, just like "make_path".

    See also "touchpath" as a chainable alternative to create a writeable
    file path (though without options).

    Current API available since 0.001.


    Move the current path to the given destination path using Perl's
    built-in rename function. Returns the result of the "rename" function
    (except it throws an exception if it fails).

    Current API available since 0.001.

  openr, openw, openrw, opena
        $fh = path("foo.txt")->openr($binmode);  # read
        $fh = path("foo.txt")->openr_raw;
        $fh = path("foo.txt")->openr_utf8;

        $fh = path("foo.txt")->openw($binmode);  # write
        $fh = path("foo.txt")->openw_raw;
        $fh = path("foo.txt")->openw_utf8;

        $fh = path("foo.txt")->opena($binmode);  # append
        $fh = path("foo.txt")->opena_raw;
        $fh = path("foo.txt")->opena_utf8;

        $fh = path("foo.txt")->openrw($binmode); # read/write
        $fh = path("foo.txt")->openrw_raw;
        $fh = path("foo.txt")->openrw_utf8;

    Returns a file handle opened in the specified mode. The "openr" style
    methods take a single "binmode" argument. All of the "open*" methods
    have "open*_raw" and "open*_utf8" equivalents that use ":raw" and
    ":raw:encoding(UTF-8)", respectively.

    An optional hash reference may be used to pass options. The only option
    is "locked". If true, handles opened for writing, appending or
    read-write are locked with "LOCK_EX"; otherwise, they are locked for

        $fh = path("foo.txt")->openrw_utf8( { locked => 1 } );

    See "filehandle" for more on locking.

    Current API available since 0.011.

        $parent = path("foo/bar/baz")->parent; # foo/bar
        $parent = path("foo/wibble.txt")->parent; # foo

        $parent = path("foo/bar/baz")->parent(2); # foo

    Returns a "Path::Tiny" object corresponding to the parent directory of
    the original directory or file. An optional positive integer argument is
    the number of parent directories upwards to return. "parent" by itself
    is equivalent to parent(1).

    Current API available since 0.014.

        $real = path("/baz/foo/../bar")->realpath;
        $real = path("foo/../bar")->realpath;

    Returns a new "Path::Tiny" object with all symbolic links and upward
    directory parts resolved using Cwd's "realpath". Compared to "absolute",
    this is more expensive as it must actually consult the filesystem.

    If the parent path can't be resolved (e.g. if it includes directories
    that don't exist), an exception will be thrown:

        $real = path("doesnt_exist/foo")->realpath; # dies

    However, if the parent path exists and only the last component (e.g.
    filename) doesn't exist, the realpath will be the realpath of the parent
    plus the non-existent last component:

        $real = path("./aasdlfasdlf")->realpath; # works

    The underlying Cwd module usually worked this way on Unix, but died on
    Windows (and some Unixes) if the full path didn't exist. As of version
    0.064, it's safe to use anywhere.

    Current API available since 0.001.

        $rel = path("/tmp/foo/bar")->relative("/tmp"); # foo/bar

    Returns a "Path::Tiny" object with a path relative to a new base path
    given as an argument. If no argument is given, the current directory
    will be used as the new base path.

    If either path is already relative, it will be made absolute based on
    the current directly before determining the new relative path.

    The algorithm is roughly as follows:

    *   If the original and new base path are on different volumes, an
        exception will be thrown.

    *   If the original and new base are identical, the relative path is

    *   If the new base subsumes the original, the relative path is the
        original path with the new base chopped off the front

    *   If the new base does not subsume the original, a common prefix path
        is determined (possibly the root directory) and the relative path
        will consist of updirs ("..") to reach the common prefix, followed
        by the original path less the common prefix.

    Unlike "File::Spec::abs2rel", in the last case above, the calculation
    based on a common prefix takes into account symlinks that could affect
    the updir process. Given an original path "/A/B" and a new base "/A/C",
    (where "A", "B" and "C" could each have multiple path components):

    *   Symlinks in "A" don't change the result unless the last component of
        A is a symlink and the first component of "C" is an updir.

    *   Symlinks in "B" don't change the result and will exist in the result
        as given.

    *   Symlinks and updirs in "C" must be resolved to actual paths, taking
        into account the possibility that not all path components might
        exist on the filesystem.

    Current API available since 0.001. New algorithm (that accounts for
    symlinks) available since 0.079.


    This is just like "unlink", except for its error handling: if the path
    does not exist, it returns false; if deleting the file fails, it throws
    an exception.

    Current API available since 0.012.

        # directory
        path("foo/bar/baz")->remove_tree( \%options );
        path("foo/bar/baz")->remove_tree( { safe => 0 } ); # force remove

    Like calling "remove_tree" from File::Path, but defaults to "safe" mode.
    An optional hash reference is passed through to "remove_tree". Errors
    will be trapped and an exception thrown. Returns the number of
    directories deleted, just like "remove_tree".

    If you want to remove a directory only if it is empty, use the built-in
    "rmdir" function instead.

        rmdir path("foo/bar/baz/");

    Current API available since 0.013.

        $foo = path("/tmp/foo.txt");
        $sib = $foo->sibling("bar.txt");        # /tmp/bar.txt
        $sib = $foo->sibling("baz", "bam.txt"); # /tmp/baz/bam.txt

    Returns a new "Path::Tiny" object relative to the parent of the
    original. This is slightly more efficient than

    Current API available since 0.058.

  size, size_human
        my $p = path("foo"); # with size 1025 bytes

        $p->size;                            # "1025"
        $p->size_human;                      # "1.1 K"
        $p->size_human( {format => "iec"} ); # "1.1 KiB"

    Returns the size of a file. The "size" method is just a wrapper around

    The "size_human" method provides a human-readable string similar to "ls
    -lh". Like "ls", it rounds upwards and provides one decimal place for
    single-digit sizes and no decimal places for larger sizes. The only
    available option is "format", which has three valid values:

    *   'ls' (the default): base-2 sizes, with "ls" style single-letter
        suffixes (K, M, etc.)

    *   'iec': base-2 sizes, with IEC binary suffixes (KiB, MiB, etc.)

    *   'si': base-10 sizes, with SI decimal suffixes (kB, MB, etc.)

    If "-s" would return "undef", "size_human" returns the empty string.

    Current API available since 0.122.

  slurp, slurp_raw, slurp_utf8
        $data = path("foo.txt")->slurp;
        $data = path("foo.txt")->slurp( {binmode => ":raw"} );
        $data = path("foo.txt")->slurp_raw;
        $data = path("foo.txt")->slurp_utf8;

    Reads file contents into a scalar. Takes an optional hash reference
    which may be used to pass options. The only available option is
    "binmode", which is passed to "binmode()" on the handle used for

    "slurp_raw" is like "slurp" with a "binmode" of ":unix" for a fast,
    unbuffered, raw read.

    "slurp_utf8" is like "slurp" with a "binmode" of ":unix:encoding(UTF-8)"
    (or PerlIO::utf8_strict). If Unicode::UTF8 0.58+ is installed, a raw
    slurp will be done instead and the result decoded with "Unicode::UTF8".
    This is just as strict and is roughly an order of magnitude faster than
    using ":encoding(UTF-8)".

    Note: "slurp" and friends lock the filehandle before slurping. If you
    plan to slurp from a file created with File::Temp, be sure to close
    other handles or open without locking to avoid a deadlock:

        my $tempfile = File::Temp->new(EXLOCK => 0);
        my $guts = path($tempfile)->slurp;

    Current API available since 0.004.

  spew, spew_raw, spew_utf8
        path("foo.txt")->spew({binmode => ":raw"}, @data);

    Writes data to a file atomically. The file is written to a temporary
    file in the same directory, then renamed over the original. An optional
    hash reference may be used to pass options. The only option is
    "binmode", which is passed to "binmode()" on the handle used for

    "spew_raw" is like "spew" with a "binmode" of ":unix" for a fast,
    unbuffered, raw write.

    "spew_utf8" is like "spew" with a "binmode" of ":unix:encoding(UTF-8)"
    (or PerlIO::utf8_strict). If Unicode::UTF8 0.58+ is installed, a raw
    spew will be done instead on the data encoded with "Unicode::UTF8".

    NOTE: because the file is written to a temporary file and then renamed,
    the new file will wind up with permissions based on your current umask.
    This is a feature to protect you from a race condition that would
    otherwise give different permissions than you might expect. If you
    really want to keep the original mode flags, use "append" with the
    "truncate" option.

    Current API available since 0.011.

  stat, lstat
        $stat = path("foo.txt")->stat;
        $stat = path("/some/symlink")->lstat;

    Like calling "stat" or "lstat" from File::stat.

    Current API available since 0.001.

        $path = path("foo.txt");
        say $path->stringify; # same as "$path"

    Returns a string representation of the path. Unlike "canonpath", this
    method returns the path standardized with Unix-style "/" directory

    Current API available since 0.001.

        path("foo/bar")->subsumes("foo/bar/baz"); # true
        path("/foo/bar")->subsumes("/foo/baz");   # false

    Returns true if the first path is a prefix of the second path at a
    directory boundary.

    This does not resolve parent directory entries ("..") or symlinks:

        path("foo/bar")->subsumes("foo/bar/../baz"); # true

    If such things are important to you, ensure that both paths are resolved
    to the filesystem with "realpath":

        my $p1 = path("foo/bar")->realpath;
        my $p2 = path("foo/bar/../baz")->realpath;
        if ( $p1->subsumes($p2) ) { ... }

    Current API available since 0.048.


    Like the Unix "touch" utility. Creates the file if it doesn't exist, or
    else changes the modification and access times to the current time. If
    the first argument is the epoch seconds then it will be used.

    Returns the path object so it can be easily chained with other methods:

        # won't die if foo.txt doesn't exist
        $content = path("foo.txt")->touch->slurp;

    Current API available since 0.015.


    Combines "mkpath" and "touch". Creates the parent directory if it
    doesn't exist, before touching the file. Returns the path object like
    "touch" does.

    Current API available since 0.022.

        path("/tmp")->visit( \&callback, \%options );

    Executes a callback for each child of a directory. It returns a hash
    reference with any state accumulated during iteration.

    The options are the same as for "iterator" (which it uses internally):
    "recurse" and "follow_symlinks". Both default to false.

    The callback function will receive a "Path::Tiny" object as the first
    argument and a hash reference to accumulate state as the second
    argument. For example:

        # collect files sizes
        my $sizes = path("/tmp")->visit(
            sub {
                my ($path, $state) = @_;
                return if $path->is_dir;
                $state->{$path} = -s $path;
            { recurse => 1 }

    For convenience, the "Path::Tiny" object will also be locally aliased as
    the $_ global variable:

        # print paths matching /foo/
        path("/tmp")->visit( sub { say if /foo/ }, { recurse => 1} );

    If the callback returns a reference to a false scalar value, iteration
    will terminate. This is not the same as "pruning" a directory search;
    this just stops all iteration and returns the state hash reference.

        # find up to 10 files larger than 100K
        my $files = path("/tmp")->visit(
            sub {
                my ($path, $state) = @_;
                $state->{$path}++ if -s $path > 102400
                return \0 if keys %$state == 10;
            { recurse => 1 }

    If you want more flexible iteration, use a module like

    Current API available since 0.062.

        $vol = path("/tmp/foo.txt")->volume;   # ""
        $vol = path("C:/tmp/foo.txt")->volume; # "C:"

    Returns the volume portion of the path. This is equivalent to what
    File::Spec would give from "splitpath" and thus usually is the empty
    string on Unix-like operating systems or the drive letter for an
    absolute path on "MSWin32".

    Current API available since 0.001.

    Simple usage errors will generally croak. Failures of underlying Perl
    functions will be thrown as exceptions in the class "Path::Tiny::Error".

    A "Path::Tiny::Error" object will be a hash reference with the following

    *   "op" — a description of the operation, usually function call and any
        extra info

    *   "file" — the file or directory relating to the error

    *   "err" — hold $! at the time the error was thrown

    *   "msg" — a string combining the above data and a Carp-like short
        stack trace

    Exception objects will stringify as the "msg" field.

    If the environment variable "PERL_PATH_TINY_NO_FLOCK" is set to a true
    value then flock will NOT be used when accessing files (this is not

  Subclassing not supported
    For speed, this class is implemented as an array based object and uses
    many direct function calls internally. You must not subclass it and
    expect things to work properly.

  File locking
    If flock is not supported on a platform, it will not be used, even if
    locking is requested.

    In situations where a platform normally would support locking, but the
    flock fails due to a filesystem limitation, Path::Tiny has some
    heuristics to detect this and will warn once and continue in an unsafe
    mode. If you want this failure to be fatal, you can fatalize the 'flock'
    warnings category:

        use warnings FATAL => 'flock';

    See additional caveats below.

   NFS and BSD
    On BSD, Perl's flock implementation may not work to lock files on an NFS
    filesystem. If detected, this situation will warn once, as described

    The Lustre filesystem does not support flock. If detected, this
    situation will warn once, as described above.

   AIX and locking
    AIX requires a write handle for locking. Therefore, calls that normally
    open a read handle and take a shared lock instead will open a read-write
    handle and take an exclusive lock. If the user does not have write
    permission, no lock will be used.

  utf8 vs UTF-8
    All the *_utf8 methods by default use ":encoding(UTF-8)" -- either as
    ":unix:encoding(UTF-8)" (unbuffered) or ":raw:encoding(UTF-8)"
    (buffered) -- which is strict against the Unicode spec and disallows
    illegal Unicode codepoints or UTF-8 sequences.

    Unfortunately, ":encoding(UTF-8)" is very, very slow. If you install
    Unicode::UTF8 0.58 or later, that module will be used by some *_utf8
    methods to encode or decode data after a raw, binary input/output
    operation, which is much faster. Alternatively, if you install
    PerlIO::utf8_strict, that will be used instead of ":encoding(UTF-8)" and
    is also very fast.

    If you need the performance and can accept the security risk,
    "slurp({binmode => ":unix:utf8"})" will be faster than
    ":unix:encoding(UTF-8)" (but not as fast as "Unicode::UTF8").

    Note that the *_utf8 methods read in raw mode. There is no CRLF
    translation on Windows. If you must have CRLF translation, use the
    regular input/output methods with an appropriate binmode:

      $path->spew_utf8($data);                            # raw
      $path->spew({binmode => ":encoding(UTF-8)"}, $data; # LF -> CRLF

  Default IO layers and the open pragma
    If you have Perl 5.10 or later, file input/output methods ("slurp",
    "spew", etc.) and high-level handle opening methods ( "filehandle",
    "openr", "openw", etc. ) respect default encodings set by the "-C"
    switch or lexical open settings of the caller. For UTF-8, this is almost
    certainly slower than using the dedicated "_utf8" methods if you have

    A standard MooseX::Types library is available at
    MooseX::Types::Path::Tiny. A Type::Tiny equivalent is available as

    These are other file/path utilities, which may offer a different feature
    set than "Path::Tiny".

    *   File::chmod

    *   File::Fu

    *   IO::All

    *   Path::Class

    These iterators may be slightly faster than the recursive iterator in

    *   Path::Iterator::Rule

    *   File::Next

    There are probably comparable, non-Tiny tools. Let me know if you want
    me to add a module to the list.

    This module was featured in the 2013 Perl Advent Calendar

  Bugs / Feature Requests
    Please report any bugs or feature requests through the issue tracker at
    <>. You will be notified
    automatically of any progress on your issue.

  Source Code
    This is open source software. The code repository is available for
    public review and contribution under the terms of the license.


      git clone

    David Golden <>

    *   Alex Efros <>

    *   Aristotle Pagaltzis <>

    *   Chris Williams <>

    *   Dan Book <>

    *   Dave Rolsky <>

    *   David Steinbrunner <>

    *   Doug Bell <>

    *   Flavio Poletti <>

    *   Gabor Szabo <>

    *   Gabriel Andrade <>

    *   George Hartzell <>

    *   Geraud Continsouzas <>

    *   Goro Fuji <>

    *   Graham Knop <>

    *   Graham Ollis <>

    *   Ian Sillitoe <>

    *   James Hunt <>

    *   John Karr <>

    *   Karen Etheridge <>

    *   Mark Ellis <>

    *   Martin H. Sluka <>

    *   Martin Kjeldsen <>

    *   Michael G. Schwern <>

    *   Nigel Gregoire <>

    *   Philippe Bruhat (BooK) <>

    *   regina-verbae <>

    *   Roy Ivy III <>

    *   Shlomi Fish <>

    *   Smylers <>

    *   Tatsuhiko Miyagawa <>

    *   Toby Inkster <>

    *   Yanick Champoux <>

    *   김도형 - Keedi Kim <>

    This software is Copyright (c) 2014 by David Golden.

    This is free software, licensed under:

      The Apache License, Version 2.0, January 2004