File::pushd - change directory temporarily for a limited scope

    version 1.016

     use File::pushd;

     chdir $ENV{HOME};

     # change directory again for a limited scope
         my $dir = pushd( '/tmp' );
         # working directory changed to /tmp
     # working directory has reverted to $ENV{HOME}

     # tempd() is equivalent to pushd( File::Temp::tempdir )
         my $dir = tempd();

     # object stringifies naturally as an absolute path
        my $dir = pushd( '/tmp' );
        my $filename = File::Spec->catfile( $dir, "somefile.txt" );
        # gives /tmp/somefile.txt

    File::pushd does a temporary "chdir" that is easily and automatically
    reverted, similar to "pushd" in some Unix command shells. It works by
    creating an object that caches the original working directory. When the
    object is destroyed, the destructor calls "chdir" to revert to the
    original working directory. By storing the object in a lexical variable
    with a limited scope, this happens automatically at the end of the

    This is very handy when working with temporary directories for tasks
    like testing; a function is provided to streamline getting a temporary
    directory from File::Temp.

    For convenience, the object stringifies as the canonical form of the
    absolute pathname of the directory entered.

    Warning: if you create multiple "pushd" objects in the same lexical
    scope, their destruction order is not guaranteed and you might not wind
    up in the directory you expect.

     use File::pushd;

    Using File::pushd automatically imports the "pushd" and "tempd"

         my $dir = pushd( $target_directory );

    Caches the current working directory, calls "chdir" to change to the
    target directory, and returns a File::pushd object. When the object is
    destroyed, the working directory reverts to the original directory.

    The provided target directory can be a relative or absolute path. If
    called with no arguments, it uses the current directory as its target
    and returns to the current directory when the object is destroyed.

    If the target directory does not exist or if the directory change fails
    for some reason, "pushd" will die with an error message.

    Can be given a hashref as an optional second argument. The only
    supported option is "untaint_pattern", which is used to untaint file
    paths involved. It defaults to {qr{^("" in -+@\w.+)$}}, which is
    reasonably restrictive (e.g. it does not even allow spaces in the path).
    Change this to suit your circumstances and security needs if running
    under taint mode. *Note*: you must include the parentheses in the
    pattern to capture the untainted portion of the path.

         my $dir = tempd();

    This function is like "pushd" but automatically creates and calls
    "chdir" to a temporary directory created by File::Temp. Unlike normal
    File::Temp cleanup which happens at the end of the program, this
    temporary directory is removed when the object is destroyed. (But also
    see "preserve".) A warning will be issued if the directory cannot be

    As with "pushd", "tempd" will die if "chdir" fails.

    It may be given a single options hash that will be passed internally to

         my $dir = tempd();
         $dir->preserve;      # mark to preserve at end of scope
         $dir->preserve(0);   # mark to delete at end of scope

    Controls whether a temporary directory will be cleaned up when the
    object is destroyed. With no arguments, "preserve" sets the directory to
    be preserved. With an argument, the directory will be preserved if the
    argument is true, or marked for cleanup if the argument is false. Only
    "tempd" objects may be marked for cleanup. (Target directories to
    "pushd" are always preserved.) "preserve" returns true if the directory
    will be preserved, and false otherwise.

    "pushd" and "tempd" warn with message "Useless use of File::pushd::*%s*
    in void context" if called in void context and the warnings category
    "void" is enabled.

        use warnings 'void';


    *   File::chdir

  Bugs / Feature Requests
    Please report any bugs or feature requests through the issue tracker at
    <>. You will be notified
    automatically of any progress on your issue.

  Source Code
    This is open source software. The code repository is available for
    public review and contribution under the terms of the license.


      git clone

    David Golden <>

    *   Diab Jerius <>

    *   Graham Ollis <>

    *   Olivier Mengué <>

    *   Shoichi Kaji <>

    This software is Copyright (c) 2018 by David A Golden.

    This is free software, licensed under:

      The Apache License, Version 2.0, January 2004