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=head1 NAME

Lucy::Docs::FileLocking - Manage indexes on shared volumes.

=head1 SYNOPSIS

    use Sys::Hostname qw( hostname );
    my $hostname = hostname() or die "Can't get unique hostname";
    my $manager = Lucy::Index::IndexManager->new( host => $hostname );

    # Index time:
    my $indexer = Lucy::Index::Indexer->new(
        index   => '/path/to/index',
        manager => $manager,
    );

    # Search time:
    my $reader = Lucy::Index::IndexReader->open(
        index   => '/path/to/index',
        manager => $manager,
    );
    my $searcher = Lucy::Search::IndexSearcher->new( index => $reader );



=head1 DESCRIPTION

Normally, index locking is an invisible process.  Exclusive write access is
controlled via lockfiles within the index directory and problems only arise
if multiple processes attempt to acquire the write lock simultaneously;
search-time processes do not ordinarily require locking at all.

On shared volumes, however, the default locking mechanism fails, and manual
intervention becomes necessary.

Both read and write applications accessing an index on a shared volume need
to identify themselves with a unique C<< host >> id, e.g. hostname or
ip address.  Knowing the host id makes it possible to tell which lockfiles
belong to other machines and therefore must not be removed when the
lockfile's pid number appears not to correspond to an active process.

At index-time, the danger is that multiple indexing processes from
different machines which fail to specify a unique C<< host >> id can
delete each others' lockfiles and then attempt to modify the index at the
same time, causing index corruption.  The search-time problem is more
complex.

Once an index file is no longer listed in the most recent snapshot, Indexer
attempts to delete it as part of a post-commit() cleanup routine.  It is
possible that at the moment an Indexer is deleting files which it believes
no longer needed, a Searcher referencing an earlier snapshot is in fact
using them.  The more often that an index is either updated or searched,
the more likely it is that this conflict will arise from time to time.

Ordinarily, the deletion attempts are not a problem.   On a typical unix
volume, the files will be deleted in name only: any process which holds an
open filehandle against a given file will continue to have access, and the
file won't actually get vaporized until the last filehandle is cleared.
Thanks to "delete on last close semantics", an Indexer can't truly delete
the file out from underneath an active Searcher.   On Windows, where file
deletion fails whenever any process holds an open handle, the situation is
different but still workable: Indexer just keeps retrying after each commit
until deletion finally succeeds.

On NFS, however, the system breaks, because NFS allows files to be deleted
out from underneath active processes.  Should this happen, the unlucky read
process will crash with a "Stale NFS filehandle" exception.

Under normal circumstances, it is neither necessary nor desirable for
IndexReaders to secure read locks against an index, but for NFS we have to
make an exception.  LockFactory's make_shared_lock() method exists for this
reason; supplying an IndexManager instance to IndexReader's constructor
activates an internal locking mechanism using make_shared_lock() which
prevents concurrent indexing processes from deleting files that are needed
by active readers.

Since shared locks are implemented using lockfiles located in the index
directory (as are exclusive locks), reader applications must have write
access for read locking to work.  Stale lock files from crashed processes
are ordinarily cleared away the next time the same machine -- as identified
by the C<< host >> parameter -- opens another IndexReader. (The
classic technique of timing out lock files is not feasible because search
processes may lie dormant indefinitely.) However, please be aware that if
the last thing a given machine does is crash, lock files belonging to it
may persist, preventing deletion of obsolete index data.









=cut