NAME
bigint  transparent big integer support for Perl
SYNOPSIS
use bigint;
$x = 2 + 4.5; # Math::BigInt 6
print 2 ** 512; # Math::BigInt 134...096
print inf + 42; # Math::BigInt inf
print NaN * 7; # Math::BigInt NaN
print hex("0x1234567890123490"); # Perl v5.10.0 or later
{
no bigint;
print 2 ** 256; # a normal Perl scalar now
}
# for older Perls, import into current package:
use bigint qw/hex oct/;
print hex("0x1234567890123490");
print oct("01234567890123490");
DESCRIPTION
All numeric literal in the given scope are converted to Math::BigInt objects. Numeric literal that represent nonintegers are truncated to an integer. All results of expressions are also truncated to integer.
All operators (including basic math operations) except the range operator ..
are overloaded.
Unlike the integer pragma, the bigint
pragma creates integers that are only limited in their size by the available memory.
So, the following:
use bigint;
$x = 1234;
creates a Math::BigInt and stores a reference to in $x. This happens transparently and behind your back, so to speak.
You can see this with the following:
perl Mbigint le 'print ref(1234)'
Since numbers are actually objects, you can call all the usual methods from Math::BigFloat on them. This even works to some extent on expressions:
perl Mbigint le '$x = 1234; print $x>bdec()'
perl Mbigint le 'print 1234>copy()>binc();'
perl Mbigint le 'print 1234>copy()>binc>badd(6);'
perl Mbigint le 'print +(1234)>copy()>binc()'
(Note that print doesn't do what you expect if the expression starts with '(' hence the +
)
You can even chain the operations together as usual:
perl Mbigint le 'print 1234>copy()>binc>badd(6);'
1241
Please note the following does not work as expected (prints nothing), since overloading of '..' is not yet possible in Perl (as of v5.8.0):
perl Mbigint le 'for (1..2) { print ref($_); }'
use integer vs. use bigint
There are some difference between use integer
and use bigint
.
Whereas use integer
is limited to what can be handled as a Perl scalar, use bigint
can handle arbitrarily large integers.
Also, use integer
does affect assignments to variables and the return value of some functions. use bigint
truncates these results to integer:
# perl Minteger wle 'print 3.2'
3.2
# perl Minteger wle 'print 3.2 + 0'
3
# perl Mbigint wle 'print 3.2'
3
# perl Mbigint wle 'print 3.2 + 0'
3
# perl Mbigint wle 'print exp(1) + 0'
2
# perl Mbigint wle 'print exp(1)'
2
# perl Minteger wle 'print exp(1)'
2.71828182845905
# perl Minteger wle 'print exp(1) + 0'
2
In practice this seldom makes a difference for small integers as parts and results of expressions are truncated anyway, but this can, for instance, affect the return value of subroutines:
sub three_integer { use integer; return 3.2; }
sub three_bigint { use bigint; return 3.2; }
print three_integer(), " ", three_bigint(),"\n"; # prints "3.2 3"
Options
bigint
recognizes some options that can be passed while loading it via use
. The following options exist:
 a or accuracy

This sets the accuracy for all math operations. The argument must be greater than or equal to zero. See Math::BigInt's bround() method for details.
perl Mbigint=a,2 le 'print 12345+1'
Note that setting precision and accuracy at the same time is not possible.
 p or precision

This sets the precision for all math operations. The argument can be any integer. Negative values mean a fixed number of digits after the dot, and are ignored since all operations happen in integer space. A positive value rounds to this digit left from the dot. 0 means round to integer. See Math::BigInt's bfround() method for details.
perl mbigint=p,5 le 'print 123456789+123'
Note that setting precision and accuracy at the same time is not possible.
 t or trace

This enables a trace mode and is primarily for debugging.
 l, lib, try, or only

Load a different math lib, see "Math Library".
perl Mbigint=l,GMP e 'print 2 ** 512' perl Mbigint=lib,GMP e 'print 2 ** 512' perl Mbigint=try,GMP e 'print 2 ** 512' perl Mbigint=only,GMP e 'print 2 ** 512'
 hex

Override the builtin hex() method with a version that can handle big numbers. This overrides it by exporting it to the current package. Under Perl v5.10.0 and higher, this is not so necessary, as hex() is lexically overridden in the current scope whenever the
bigint
pragma is active.  oct

Override the builtin oct() method with a version that can handle big numbers. This overrides it by exporting it to the current package. Under Perl v5.10.0 and higher, this is not so necessary, as oct() is lexically overridden in the current scope whenever the
bigint
pragma is active.  v or version

this prints out the name and version of the modules and then exits.
perl Mbigint=v
Math Library
Math with the numbers is done (by default) by a backend library module called Math::BigInt::Calc. The default is equivalent to saying:
use bigint lib => 'Calc';
you can change this by using:
use bigint lib => 'GMP';
The following would first try to find Math::BigInt::Foo, then Math::BigInt::Bar, and if this also fails, revert to Math::BigInt::Calc:
use bigint lib => 'Foo,Math::BigInt::Bar';
Using c<lib> warns if none of the specified libraries can be found and Math::BigInt fell back to one of the default libraries. To suppress this warning, use c<try> instead:
use bigint try => 'GMP';
If you want the code to die instead of falling back, use only
instead:
use bigint only => 'GMP';
Please see the respective module documentation for further details.
Method calls
Since all numbers are now objects, you can use all methods that are part of the Math::BigInt API.
But a warning is in order. When using the following to make a copy of a number, only a shallow copy will be made.
$x = 9; $y = $x;
$x = $y = 7;
Using the copy or the original with overloaded math is okay, e.g., the following work:
$x = 9; $y = $x;
print $x + 1, " ", $y,"\n"; # prints 10 9
but calling any method that modifies the number directly will result in both the original and the copy being destroyed:
$x = 9; $y = $x;
print $x>badd(1), " ", $y,"\n"; # prints 10 10
$x = 9; $y = $x;
print $x>binc(1), " ", $y,"\n"; # prints 10 10
$x = 9; $y = $x;
print $x>bmul(2), " ", $y,"\n"; # prints 18 18
Using methods that do not modify, but test that the contents works:
$x = 9; $y = $x;
$z = 9 if $x>is_zero(); # works fine
See the documentation about the copy constructor and =
in overload, as well as the documentation in Math::BigInt for further details.
Methods
 inf()

A shortcut to return Math::BigInt>binf(). Useful because Perl does not always handle bareword
inf
properly.  NaN()

A shortcut to return Math::BigInt>bnan(). Useful because Perl does not always handle bareword
NaN
properly.  e

# perl Mbigint=e wle 'print e'
Returns Euler's number
e
, aka exp(1). Note that underbigint
, this is truncated to an integer, i.e., 2.  PI

# perl Mbigint=PI wle 'print PI'
Returns PI. Note that under
bigint
, this is truncated to an integer, i.e., 3.  bexp()

bexp($power, $accuracy);
Returns Euler's number
e
raised to the appropriate power, to the wanted accuracy.Note that under
bigint
, the result is truncated to an integer.Example:
# perl Mbigint=bexp wle 'print bexp(1,80)'
 bpi()

bpi($accuracy);
Returns PI to the wanted accuracy. Note that under
bigint
, this is truncated to an integer, i.e., 3.Example:
# perl Mbigint=bpi wle 'print bpi(80)'
 upgrade()

Return the class that numbers are upgraded to, is in fact returning
Math::BigInt>upgrade()
.  in_effect()

use bigint; print "in effect\n" if bigint::in_effect; # true { no bigint; print "in effect\n" if bigint::in_effect; # false }
Returns true or false if
bigint
is in effect in the current scope.This method only works on Perl v5.9.4 or later.
CAVEATS
 Hexadecimal, octal, and binary floating point literals

Perl (and this module) accepts hexadecimal, octal, and binary floating point literals, but use them with care with Perl versions before v5.32.0, because some versions of Perl silently give the wrong result.
 Operator vs literal overloading

bigint
works by overloading handling of integer and floating point literals, converting them to Math::BigInt objects.This means that arithmetic involving only string values or string literals are performed using Perl's builtin operators.
For example:
use bigint; my $x = "900000000000000009"; my $y = "900000000000000007"; print $x  $y;
outputs
0
on default 32bit builds, sincebigint
never sees the string literals. To ensure the expression is all treated asMath::BigInt
objects, use a literal number in the expression:print +(0+$x)  $y;
 Ranges

Perl does not allow overloading of ranges, so you can neither safely use ranges with
bigint
endpoints, nor is the iterator variable aMath::BigInt
.use 5.010; for my $i (12..13) { for my $j (20..21) { say $i ** $j; # produces a floatingpoint number, # not an object } }
 in_effect()

This method only works on Perl v5.9.4 or later.
 hex()/oct()

bigint
overrides these routines with versions that can also handle big integer values. Under Perl prior to version v5.9.4, however, this will not happen unless you specifically ask for it with the two import tags "hex" and "oct"  and then it will be global and cannot be disabled inside a scope withno bigint
:use bigint qw/hex oct/; print hex("0x1234567890123456"); { no bigint; print hex("0x1234567890123456"); }
The second call to hex() will warn about a nonportable constant.
Compare this to:
use bigint; # will warn only under Perl older than v5.9.4 print hex("0x1234567890123456");
EXAMPLES
Some cool command line examples to impress the Python crowd ;) You might want to compare them to the results under Mbignum or Mbigrat:
perl Mbigint le 'print sqrt(33)'
perl Mbigint le 'print 2*255'
perl Mbigint le 'print 4.5+2*255'
perl Mbigint le 'print 123>is_odd()'
perl Mbigint=l,GMP le 'print 7 ** 7777'
BUGS
Please report any bugs or feature requests to bugbignum at rt.cpan.org
, or through the web interface at https://rt.cpan.org/Ticket/Create.html?Queue=bignum (requires login). We will be notified, and then you'll automatically be notified of progress on your bug as I make changes.
SUPPORT
You can find documentation for this module with the perldoc command.
perldoc bigint
You can also look for information at:
GitHub
RT: CPAN's request tracker
MetaCPAN
CPAN Testers Matrix
CPAN Ratings
LICENSE
This program is free software; you may redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.
SEE ALSO
Math::BigInt, Math::BigFloat, Math::BigRat and Math::Big as well as Math::BigInt::FastCalc, Math::BigInt::Pari and Math::BigInt::GMP.
AUTHORS
(C) by Tels http://bloodgate.com/ in early 2002  2007.
Maintained by Peter John Acklam <pjacklam@gmail.com>, 2014.