Template::Liquid - A Simple, Stateless Template System


    use Template::Liquid;
    my $template = Template::Liquid->parse(
        '{% for x in (1..3) reversed %}{{ x }}, {% endfor %}{{ some.text }}');
    print $template->render(some => {text => 'Contact!'}); # 3, 2, 1, Contact!


The original Liquid template engine was crafted for very specific requirements:

  • It has to have simple markup and beautiful results.

    Template engines which don't produce good looking results are no fun to use.

  • It needs to be non-evaling and secure.

    Liquid templates are made so that users can edit them. You don't want to run code on your server which your users wrote.

  • It has to be stateless.

    The compile and render steps have to be separate so the expensive parsing and compiling can be done once; later on, you can just render it by passing in a hash with local variables and objects.

  • It needs to be able to style email as well as HTML.

Getting Started

It's very simple to get started. Templates are built and used in two steps: Parse and Render.

If you're in a hurry, you could just...

    use Template::Liquid;
    print Template::Liquid->parse('Hi, {{name}}!')->render(name => 'Sanko');

But because Liquid is stateless, you can split that part. Keep reading.


    use Template::Liquid;
    my $sol = Template::Liquid->new();    # Create a Template::Liquid object
    $sol->parse('Hi, {{name}}!');         # Parse and compile the template


    use Template::Liquid;
    my $sol = Template::Liquid->parse('Hi, {{name}}!'); # Obj is auto-created

The parse step creates a fully compiled template which can be re-used as often as you like. You can store it in memory or in a cache for faster rendering later. Templates are simple, blessed references so you could do...

    use Template::Liquid;
    use Data::Dump qw[pp];
    my $greet = Template::Liquid->parse('Hi, {{name}}!');
    my $dump = pp($greet); $dump somewhere (a file, database, etc.) and then eval the structure later without doing the 'expensive' parsing step again.


To complete our $sol examples from the previous section, rendering a template is as easy as...

    $sol->render(name => 'Sanko');    # Returns 'Hi, Sanko!'
    $sol->render(name => 'Megatron'); # Returns 'Hi, Megatron!'

All parameters you want Template::Liquid to work with must be passed to the render method. Template::Liquid is a closed ecosystem; it does not know about your local, instance, global, or environment variables. If your template requires any of those, you must pass them along:

    use Template::Liquid;
    print Template::Liquid->parse(
                              '@INC: {%for item in inc%}{{item}}, {%endfor%}')
        ->render(inc => \@INC);

Standard Liquid Tags

Expanding the list of supported tags is easy but here's the current standard set:


Comment tags are simple blocks that do nothing during the render stage. Use these to temporarily disable blocks of code or to insert documentation.

    This is a {% comment %} secret {% endcomment %}line of text.

...renders to...

    This is a line of text.

For more, see Template::Liquid::Tag::Comment.


Raw temporarily disables tag processing. This is useful for generating content (Mustache, Handlebars) which uses conflicting syntax.

    {% raw %}
        In Handlebars, {{ this }} will be HTML-escaped, but {{{ that }}} will not.
    {% endraw %}

...renders to...

    In Handlebars, {{ this }} will be HTML-escaped, but {{{ that }}} will not.

For more, see Template::Liquid::Tag::Raw.

if / elseif / else

    {% if post.body contains search_string %}
        <div class="post result" id="p-{{}}">
            <p class="title">{{ post.title }}</p>
    {% endunless %}

For more, see Template::Liquid::Tag::If and Template::Liquid::Condition. .

unless / elseif / else

This is sorta the opposite of if.

    {% unless some.value == 3 %}
        Well, the value sure ain't three.
    {% elseif some.value > 1 %}
        It's greater than one.
    {% else %}
       Well, is greater than one but not equal to three.
       Psst! It's {{some.value}}.
    {% endunless %}

For more, see Template::Liquid::Tag::Unless and Template::Liquid::Condition.


If you need more conditions, you can use the case statement:

    {% case condition %}
        {% when 1 %}
            hit 1
        {% when 2 or 3 %}
            hit 2 or 3
        {% else %}
            ... else ...
    {% endcase %}

For more, see Template::Liquid::Tag::Case.


Often you have to alternate between different colors or similar tasks. Liquid has built-in support for such operations, using the cycle tag.

    {% cycle 'one', 'two', 'three' %}
    {% cycle 'one', 'two', 'three' %}
    {% cycle 'one', 'two', 'three' %}
    {% cycle 'one', 'two', 'three' %}

...will result in...


If no name is supplied for the cycle group, then it's assumed that multiple calls with the same parameters are one group.

If you want to have total control over cycle groups, you can optionally specify the name of the group. This can even be a variable.

    {% cycle 'group 1': 'one', 'two', 'three' %}
    {% cycle 'group 1': 'one', 'two', 'three' %}
    {% cycle 'group 2': 'one', 'two', 'three' %}
    {% cycle 'group 2': 'one', 'two', 'three' %}

...will result in...


For more, see Template::Liquid::Tag::Cycle.


Creates a new number variable, and increases its value by one every time it is called. The initial value is 0.

    {% increment my_counter %}
    {% increment my_counter %}
    {% increment my_counter %}

...would become...



Creates a new number variable, and decreases its value by one every time it is called. The initial value is -1.

    {% decrement variable %}
    {% decrement variable %}
    {% decrement variable %}

...would become...


For more, see Template::Liquid::Tag::Decrement.


Liquid allows for loops over collections:

    {% for item in array %}
        {{ item }}
    {% endfor %}

Please see see Template::Liquid::Tag::For.


You can store data in your own variables, to be used in output or other tags as desired. The simplest way to create a variable is with the assign tag, which has a pretty straightforward syntax:

    {% assign name = 'freestyle' %}

    {% for t in collections.tags %}{% if t == name %}
    {% endif %}{% endfor %}

Another way of doing this would be to assign true / false values to the variable:

    {% assign freestyle = false %}

    {% for t in collections.tags %}{% if t == 'freestyle' %}
        {% assign freestyle = true %}
    {% endif %}{% endfor %}

    {% if freestyle %}
    {% endif %}

If you want to combine a number of strings into a single string and save it to a variable, you can do that with the capture tag.

For more, see Template::Liquid::Tag::Assign.


This tag is a block which "captures" whatever is rendered inside it, then assigns the captured value to the given variable instead of rendering it to the screen.

    {% capture attribute_name %}{{ item.title | handleize }}-{{ i }}-color{% endcapture %}

    <label for="{{ attribute_name }}">Color:</label>
    <select name="attributes[{{ attribute_name }}]" id="{{ attribute_name }}">
        <option value="red">Red</option>
        <option value="green">Green</option>
        <option value="blue">Blue</option>

For more, see Template::Liquid::Tag::Capture.

Standard Liquid Filters

Please see Template::Liquid::Filters.

Whitespace Control

In Liquid, you can include a hyphen in your tag syntax {{-, -}}, {%-, and -%} to strip whitespace from the left or right side of a rendered tag.


Extending Template::Liquid

Extending the Template::Liquid template engine for your needs is almost too simple. Keep reading.

Custom Tags

See the section entitled Extending Template::Liquid with Custom Tags in Template::Liquid::Tag for more information.

Also check out the examples of Template::LiquidX::Tag::Dump and Template::LiquidX::Tag::Include now on CPAN.

To assist with custom tag creation, Template::Liquid provides several basic tag types for subclassing and exposes the following methods:

Template::Liquid::register_tag( ... )

This registers a package which must contain (directly or through inheritance) both a parse and render method.

    # Register a new tag which Template::Liquid will look for in the calling package
    Template::Liquid::register_tag( 'newtag' );

    # Or simply say...
    Template::Liquid::register_tag( 'newtag' );
    # ...and Template::Liquid will assume the new tag is in the calling package

Pre-existing tags are replaced when new tags are registered with the same name. You may want to do this to override some functionality.

Custom Filters

Filters are simple subs called when needed. They are not passed any state data by design and must return the modified content.

Template::Liquid::register_filter( ... )

This registers a package which Template::Liquid will assume contains one or more filters.

    # Register a package as a filter
    Template::Liquid::register_filter( 'Template::Solution::Filter::Amalgamut' );

    # Or simply say...
    Template::Liquid::register_filter( );
    # ...and Template::Liquid will assume the filters are in the calling package

Why should I use Template::Liquid?

  • You want to allow your users to edit the appearance of your application, but don't want them to run insecure code on your server.

  • You want to render templates directly from the database.

  • You like Smarty-style template engines.

  • You need a template engine which does HTML just as well as email.

  • You don't like the markup language of your current template engine.

  • You wasted three days reinventing this wheel when you could have been doing something productive like volunteering or catching up on past seasons of Doctor Who.

Why shouldn't I use Template::Liquid?

  • You've found or written a template engine which fills your needs better than Liquid or Template::Liquid ever could.

  • You are uncomfortable with text that you didn't copy and paste yourself. Everyone knows computers cannot be trusted.

Template::LiquidX or Solution?

I'd really rather use Solution::{Package} for extensions but Template::LiquidX really is a better choice.

As I understand it, the original project's name, Liquid, is a reference to the classical states of matter (the engine itself being stateless). I wanted to use solution because it's liquid but with bits of other stuff floating in it. (Pretend you majored in chemistry instead of mathematics or computer science.) Liquid templates will always work with Template::Liquid but (due to Template::LiquidX's expanded syntax) Template::LiquidX templates may not be compatible with Liquid or Template::Liquid.


Sanko Robinson <> -


The original Liquid template system was developed by jadedPixel and Tobias Lütke.

License and Legal

Copyright (C) 2009-2022 by Sanko Robinson <>

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of The Artistic License 2.0. See the LICENSE file included with this distribution or notes on the Artistic License 2.0 for clarification.

When separated from the distribution, all original POD documentation is covered by the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 License. See the clarification of the CCA-SA3.0.