- NAME
- DESCRIPTION
- OVERLOADING
- ASSIGNMENT FUNCTIONS
- ASSIGNMENT OF INF, NAN, UNITY and ZERO
- ASSIGNMENT OF FLOAT.H & MATH.H CONSTANTS
- RETRIEVAL FUNCTIONS
- MATH LIBRARY FUNCTIONS
- OTHER FUNCTIONS
- BASE CONVERSIONS
- LICENSE
- AUTHOR

# NAME

Math::LongDouble - perl interface to C's long double operations

# DESCRIPTION

```
use Math::LongDouble qw(:all);
$arg = ~0; # largest UV
$d1 = Math::LongDouble->new($arg); # Assign the UV ~0 to $d2.
$d2 = UVtoLD($arg); # Assign the UV ~0 to $d2.
$arg = -21;
$d1 = Math::LongDouble->new($arg); # Assign the IV -21 to $d2.
$d2 = IVtoLD($arg); # Assign the IV -21 to $d2.
$arg = 32.1;
$d1 = Math::LongDouble->new($arg); # Assign the NV 32.1 to $d2.
$d2 = NVtoLD($arg); # Assign the NV 32.1 to $d2.
$arg = "32.1";
$d1 = Math::LongDouble->new($arg); # Assign strtold("32.1") to $d2.
$d2 = STRtoLD($arg); # Assign strtold("32.1") to $d2.
$d3 = Math::LongDouble->new($d1); # Assign the value of $d1 to $d3.
$d4 = LDtoLD($d1); # Assign the value of $d1 to $d4.
$d5 = $d1; # Assign the value of $d1 to $d5.
This behaviour has changed from 0.06 and earlier.
A number of the functions below accept string arguments. These arguments
having been handed to strtold() will be checked for the presence of
non-numeric characters. If any such non-numeric characters are detected,
then the global non-numeric flag (which is initially set to 0) will be
incremented.
Neither leading nor trailing whitespace is deemed non-numeric, but any
other (ie internal) whitespace *is* regarded as non-numeric.
You can query the value held by the global non-numeric flag by running
Math::Float128::nnumflag() and you can manually alter the value of this
global using Math::Float128::set_nnum and Math::Float128::clear_nnum.
These functions are documented below.
NOTE:
Math::LongDouble->new(32.1) != Math::LongDouble->new('32.1')
unless $Config{nvtype} reports 'long double'. The same holds
for many (but not all) numeric values. In general, it's not
always true (and is often untrue) that
Math::LongDouble->new($n) == Math::LongDouble->new("$n")
```

# OVERLOADING

```
The following operations are overloaded:
+ - * / **
+= -= *= /= **=
!= == <= >= <=> < >
++ --
""
abs bool ! int
sqrt log exp
sin cos atan2
=
NOTE: Making use of the '=' overloading is not recommended unless
you understand its caveats. See 'perldoc overload' and
read it thoroughly, including the documentation regarding
'copy constructors'.
In those situations where the overload subroutine operates on 2
perl variables, then obviously one of those perl variables is
a Math::LongDouble object. To determine the value of the other
variable the subroutine works through the following steps (in
order), using the first value it finds, or croaking if it gets
to step 6:
1. If the variable is a UV (unsigned integer value) then that
value is used. The variable is considered to be a UV if
(perl 5.8) the UOK flag is set or if (perl 5.6) SvIsUV()
returns true.
2. If the variable is an IV (signed integer value) then that
value is used. The variable is considered to be an IV if the
IOK flag is set.
3. If the variable is an NV (floating point value) then that
value is used. The variable is considered to be an NV if the
NOK flag is set.
4. If the variable is a string (ie the POK flag is set) then the
value of that string is used.
5. If the variable is a Math::LongDouble object then the value
encapsulated in that object is used.
6. If none of the above is true, then the second variable is
deemed to be of an invalid type. The subroutine croaks with
an appropriate error message.
```

# ASSIGNMENT FUNCTIONS

```
The following create and assign a new Math::LongDouble.
$ld = Math::LongDouble->new($arg);
Returns a Math::LongDouble object to which the numeric value of $arg
has been assigned.
If $arg is not provided then the value of $ld will be NaN.
$ld = UVtoLD($arg);
Returns a Math::LongDouble object to which the numeric (unsigned
integer) value of $arg has been assigned.
$ld = IVtoLD($arg);
Returns a Math::LongDouble object to which the numeric (signed
integer) value of $arg has been assigned.
$ld = NVtoLD($arg);
Returns a Math::LongDouble object to which the numeric (floating
point) value of $arg has been assigned.
$ld2 = LDtoLD($ld1);
Returns a Math::LongDouble object that is a copy of the
Math::LongDouble object provided as the argument.
Courtesy of overloading, this is in effect no different to doing:
$ld2 = $ld1;
$ld = STRtoLD($str);
Returns a Math::LongDouble object that has the value of the string
$str.
```

# ASSIGNMENT OF INF, NAN, UNITY and ZERO

```
$ld = InfLD($sign);
If $sign < 0, returns a Math::LongDouble object set to
negative infinity; else returns a Math::LongDouble object set
to positive infinity.
$ld = NaNLD();
If $sign < 0, returns a Math::longDouble object set to NaN.
$ld = ZeroLD($sign);
If $sign < 0, returns a Math::LongDouble object set to
negative zero; else returns a Math::LongDouble object set to
zero.
$ld = UnityLD($sign);
If $sign < 0, returns a Math::LongDouble object set to
negative one; else returns a Math::LongDouble object set to
one.
ld_set_prec($precision);
Sets the precision of stringified values to $precision decimal
digits. Default precision is set in the XS global _DIGITS to
1 + ceil(MANT_PREC * log(2) / log(10)
where MANT_PREC is LDBL_MANT_DIG if float.h defines that symbol.
Else MANT_PREC is DBL_MANT_DIG if float.h defines that symbol.
Else MANT_PREC is 21 (which is the correct value for a 64-bit
precision mantissa).
$precision = ld_get_prec();
Returns the precision (in decimal digits) that will be used
when stringifying values (by printing them, or calling
LDtoSTR).
```

# ASSIGNMENT OF FLOAT.H & MATH.H CONSTANTS

```
The following functions return their values as either normal
perl scalar integer values ($iv) or Math::LongDouble objects
($ld), as appropriate.
Those LD_DBL_* functions that return 'double' values could have been
structured to return an NV, but they *do* return Math::LongDouble
objects - mainly for consistency with their LD_LDBL_* counterparts.
$iv = LD_DBL_DIG;
$iv = LD_LDBL_DIG;
Returns DBL_DIG/LDBL_DIG or croaks if DBL_DIG/LDBL_DIG is not
defined.
$ld = LD_DBL_MAX;
$ld = LD_LDBL_MAX;
Returns DBL_MAX/LDBL_MAX or croaks if DBL_MAX/LDBL_MAX is not defined.
$ld = LD_DBL_MIN;
$ld = LD_LDBL_MIN;
Returns DBL_MIN/LDBL_MIN or croaks if DBL_MIN/LDBL_MIN is not defined.
$ld = LD_DBL_EPSILON;
$ld = LD_LDBL_EPSILON;
Returns DBL_EPSILON/LDBL_EPSILON or croaks if
DBL_EPSILON/LDBL_EPSILON is not defined.
$ld = LD_DBL_DENORM_MIN;
$ld = LD_LDBL_DENORM_MIN;
Returns DBL_DENORM_MIN/LDBL_DENORM_MIN or croaks if
DBL_DENORM_MIN/LDBL_DENORM_MIN is not defined.
$iv = LD_DBL_MANT_DIG;
$iv = LD_LDBL_MANT_DIG;
Returns DBL_MANT_DIG/LDBL_MANT_DIG or croaks if
DBL_MANT_DIG/LDBL_MANT_DIG is not defined.
$iv = LD_DBL_MIN_EXP;
$iv = LD_LDBL_MIN_EXP;
Returns DBL_MIN_EXP/LDBL_MIN_EXP or croaks if
DBL_MIN_EXP/LDBL_MIN_EXP is not defined.
$iv = LD_DBL_MAX_EXP;
$iv = LD_LDBL_MAX_EXP;
Returns DBL_MAX_EXP/LDBL_MAX_EXP or croaks if
DBL_MAX_EXP/LDBL_MAX_EXP is not defined.
$iv = LD_DBL_MIN_10_EXP;
$iv = LD_LDBL_MIN_10_EXP;
Returns DBL_MIN_10_EXP/LDBL_MIN_10_EXP or croaks if
DBL_MIN_10_EXP/LDBL_MIN_10_EXP is not defined.
$iv = LD_DBL_MAX_10_EXP;
$iv = LD_LDBL_MAX_10_EXP;
Returns DBL_MAX_10_EXP/LDBL_MAX_10_EXP or croaks if
DBL_MAX_10_EXP/LDBL_MAX_10_EXP is not defined.
$ld = M_El;
Returns M_El (e) or expl(1.0) if M_El is not defined.
$ld = M_LOG2El;
Returns M_LOG2El or log2l(expl(1.0)) if M_LOG2El is not
defined.
$ld = M_LOG10El;
Returns M_LOG10El or log10l(expl(1.0)) if M_LOG10El is not
defined.
$ld = M_LN2l;
Returns M_LN2l or logl(2) if M_LN2l is not defined.
$ld = M_LN10l;
Returns M_LN10l or logl(10) if M_LN10l is not defined.
$ld = M_PIl;
Returns M_PIl (pi) or 2 * asinl(1) if M_PIl is not defined.
$ld = M_PI_2l;
Returns M_PI_2l (pi/2) or asinl(1) if M_PI_2l is not defined.
$ld = M_PI_4l;
Returns M_PI_4l (pi/4) or asinl(1)/2 if M_PI_4l is not defined.
$ld = M_1_PIl;
Returns M_1_PIl (1/pi) or 0.5/asinl(1) if M_1_PIl is not
defined.
$ld = M_2_PIl;
Returns M_2_PIl (2/pi) or 1/asinl(1) if M_2_PIl is not defined.
$ld = M_2_SQRTPIl;
Returns M_2_SQRTPIl (2/sqrt(pi)) or 2/sqrtl(pi) if M_2_SQRTPIl
is not defined.
$ld = M_SQRT2l;
Returns M_SQRT2l or sqrtl(2)) if M_SQRT2l is not defined.
$ld = M_SQRT1_2l;
Returns M_SQRT1_2l or 1/sqrtl(2)) if M_SQRT1_2l is not defined.
```

# RETRIEVAL FUNCTIONS

```
The following functions provide ways of seeing the value of
Math::LongDouble objects.
$nv = LDtoNV($ld);
This function returns the value of the Math::LongDouble object to
a perl scalar (NV). It may not translate the value accurately.
$string = LDtoSTR($ld);
Returns the value of the Math::LongDouble object as a string.
The returned string will contain the same as is displayed by
"print $ld", except that print() will strip the trailing zeroes
in the mantissa (significand) whereas LDtoSTR won't.
By default, provides 21 decimal digits of precision for the
typical 80-bit long double or 17 decimal digits if the long double
is a double. The number of digits dispalayed can be altered by
specifying the desired precision (in decimal digits) in a call to
ld_set_prec.
$string = LDtoSTRP($ld, $precision);
Same as LDtoSTR, but takes an additional arg that specifies the
precision (in decimal digits) of the stringified return value.
```

# MATH LIBRARY FUNCTIONS

```
With the following functions, "$rop" and "$op" are Math::LongDouble
objects, and "$iv" is just a normal perl scalar that either
holds a signed integer value, or to which a signed integer value
will be returned.
These are just interfaces to the standard math library functions.
I'm assuming you already have access to their documentation.
These functions do not check their argument types - if you get
a segfault, check that you've supplied the correct argument type(s).
acos_LD($rop, $op);
acosl($op) is assigned to $rop.
acosh_LD($rop, $op);
acoshl($op) is assigned to $rop.
asin_LD($rop, $op);
asinl($op) is assigned to $rop.
asinh_LD($rop, $op);
asinhl($op) is assigned to $rop.
atan_LD($rop, $op);
atanl($op) is assigned to $rop.
atanh_LD($rop, $op);
atanhl($op) is assigned to $rop.
atan2_LD($rop, $op1, $op2);
atan2l($op1, $op2) is assigned to $rop.
cbrt_LD($rop, $op);
cbrtl($op) is assigned to $rop.
ceil_LD($rop, $op);
ceill($op) is assigned to $rop.
copysign_LD($rop, $op1, $op2);
copysignl($op1, $op2) is assigned to $rop.
cosh_LD($rop, $op);
coshl($op) is assigned to $rop.
cos_LD($rop, $op);
cosl($op) is assigned to $rop.
erf_LD($rop, $op);
erfl($op) is assigned to $rop.
erfc_LD($rop, $op);
erfcl($op) is assigned to $rop.
exp_LD($rop, $op);
expl($op) is assigned to $rop.
expm1_LD($rop, $op);
expm1l($op) is assigned to $rop.
fabs_LD($rop, $op);
fabsl($op) is assigned to $rop.
fdim_LD($rop, $op1, $op2);
fdiml($op1, $op2) is assigned to $rop.
$iv = finite_LD($op);
finite($op) is assigned to $iv.
floor_LD($rop, $op);
floorl($op) is assigned to $rop.
fma_LD($rop, $op1, $op2, $op3);
fmal($op1, $op2, $op3) is assigned to $rop.
On mingw-w64 compilers, fmaq() crashes, so for those compilers
we assign ($op1 * $op2)+$op3 to $rop.
fmax_LD($rop, $op1, $op2);
fmaxl($op1, $op2) is assigned to $rop.
fmin_LD($rop, $op1, $op2);
fmin($op1, $op2) is assigned to $rop.
fmod_LD($rop, $op1, $op2);
fmodl($op1, $op2) is assigned to $rop.
frexp_LD($rop, $iv, $op);
frexpl($op) is assigned to ($rop, $iv)
hypot_LD($rop, $op1, $op2);
hypotl($op1, $op2) is assigned to $rop.
$iv = isinf_LD($op);
isinf($op) is assigned to $iv.
$iv = ilogb_LD($op);
ilogbl($op) is assigned to $iv.
$iv = isnan_LD($op);
isnanl($op) is assigned to $iv.
If Math::LOngDouble::_have_isnanl returns false, uses custom
(_is_nan) XSub instead.
ldexp_LD($rop, $op, $iv);
ldexpl($op, $iv) is assigned to $rop.
$iv should not contain a value that won't fit into a signed int
lgamma_LD($rop, $op);
lgammal($op) is assigned to $rop.
$iv = llrint_LD($op);
llrintl($op) is assigned to $iv.
This requires that perl's IV is large enough to hold a longlong
int. Otherwise attempts to use this function will result in a fatal
error, accompanied by a message stating that the function is
unimplemented.
$iv = llround_LD($op);
llroundl($op) is assigned to $rop.
This requires that perl's IV is large enough to hold a longlong
int. Otherwise attempts to use this function will result in a fatal
error, accompanied by a message stating that the function is
unimplemented.
log_LD($rop, $op);
logl($op) is assigned to $rop. # base e
log10_LD($rop, $op);
log10l($op) is assigned to $rop. # base 10
log2_LD($rop, $op);
log2l($op) is assigned to $rop. # base 2
log1p_LD($rop, $op);
log1pl($op) is assigned to $rop. # base e
$iv = lrint_LD($op);
lrintl($op) is assigned to $iv.
This requires that perl's IV is large enough to hold a long int.
Otherwise attempts to use this function will result in a fatal
error, accompanied by a message stating that the function is
unimplemented.
$iv = lround_LD($op);
lroundl($op) is assigned to $iv
This requires that perl's IV is large enough to hold a long int.
Otherwise attempts to use this function will result in a fatal
error, accompanied by a message stating that the function is
unimplemented.
modf_LD($rop1, $rop2, $op);
modfl($op) is assigned to ($rop1, $rop2).
nan_LD($rop, $op);
nanl($op) is assigned to $rop.
If Math::LongDouble::_have_nanl returns false, uses custom
(_get_nan) XSub instead.
nearbyint_LD($rop, $op);
nearbyintl($op) is assigned to $rop.
nextafter_LD($rop, $op1, $op2);
nextafterl($op1, $op2) is assigned to $rop.
pow_LD($rop, $op1, $op2);
pow($op1, $op2) is assigned to $rop.
remainder_LD($rop, $op1, $op2);
remainderl($op1, $op2) is assigned to $rop.
remquo_LD($rop1, $rop2, $op1, $op2);
remquol($op1, $op2) is assigned to ($rop1, $rop2).
I find this function can return unexpected results with some
compilers. Therefore, this function is not tested in the test suite.
Use it at your own risk.
$iv = rint_LD($op);
rintl($op) is assigned to $rop.
$iv = round_LD($op);
roundl($op) is assigned to $iv.
scalbln_LD($rop, $op, $iv);
scalblnl($op, $iv) is assigned to $rop.
$iv should not contain a value that won't fit into a signed
long int.
scalbn_LD($rop, $op, $iv);
scalbnl($op, $iv) is assigned to $rop.
$iv should not contain a value that won't fir into a signed int.
$iv = signbit_LD($op);
signbitl($op) is assigned to $iv.
If Math::LongDouble::_have_signbitl returns false signbit() is
used instead.
sincos_LD($rop1, $rop2, $op);
sinl($op) is assigned to $rop1.
cosl($op) is assigned to $rop2.
sinh_LD($rop, $op);
sinhl($op) is assigned to $rop.
sin_LD($rop, $op);
sin($op) is assigned to $rop.
sqrt_LD($rop, $op);
sqrtl($op) is assigned to $rop.
tan_LD($rop, $op);
tanl($op) is assigned to $rop.
tanh_LD($rop, $op);
tanhl($op) is assigned to $rop.
tgamma_LD($rop, $op);
gammal($op) is assigned to $rop.
trunc_LD($rop, $op);
truncl($op) is assigned to $rop.
```

# OTHER FUNCTIONS

```
$iv = Math::LongDouble::nnumflag(); # not exported
Returns the value of the non-numeric flag. This flag is
initialized to zero, but incemented by 1 whenever a function
is handed a string containing non-numeric characters. The
value of the flag therefore tells us how many times functions
have been handed such a string. The flag can be reset to 0 by
running Math::LongDouble::clear_nnum().
Math::LongDouble::set_nnum($iv); # not exported
Resets the global non-numeric flag to the value specified by
$iv.
Math::LongDouble::clear_nnum(); # not exported
Resets the global non-numeric flag to 0.(Essentially the same
as running Math::LongDouble::set_nnum(0).)
$bool = is_NaNLD($ld);
Returns 1 if $ld is a Math::LongDouble NaN.
Else returns 0
$int = is_InfLD($ld)
If the Math::LongDouble object $ld is -inf, returns -1.
If it is +inf, returns 1.
Otherwise returns 0.
$int = is_ZeroLD($ld);
If the Math::LongDouble object $ld is -0, returns -1.
If it is zero, returns 1.
Otherwise returns 0.
$int = cmp_NV($ld, $nv);
$nv can be any perl number - ie NV, UV or IV.
If the Math::LongDouble object $ld < $nv returns -1.
If it is > $nv, returns 1.
Otherwise returns 0.
$hex = ld_bytes($ld);
Returns the hex representation (in big-endian order) of the
byte structure of $ld.
```

# BASE CONVERSIONS

```
$min_prec = ld_min_inter_prec($orig_base, $orig_prec, $to_base);
NOTE: $min_prec can be (very rarely) off by one if $orig_prec is in
the millions, or if either $orig_base or $to_base are
outside of the range 2..64.
Example 1:
Let's say we have some base 10 integers comprising 16 base 10
digits, and we want to represent those numbers in base 2 (binary).
What is the minimum required number of bits, such that it can be
guaranteed that converting the base 2 representations back to base
10 will result in the original 16 digit representations ?
We can calculate that minimum required precision with:
$min_prec = ld_min_inter_prec($orig_base, $orig_prec, $to_base);
In this example case that becomes:
$min_prec = mpfr_min_inter_prec(10, 16, 2);
which will set $min_prec to 55.
That is, so long as our base 2 representations provide at least 55
bits, we can pass 16-digit, base 10, integer values to them,
and be assured of retrieving the original base 10 representation when
we convert the base 2 representations back to base 10.
Sure ... not all 16-digit values require 55 bits, but there are some
that do ... and there are none that require more than 55 bits.
Example 2:
$min_prec = ld_min_inter_prec(2, 53, 10);
$min_prec is set to 17.
This tells us that a base 10 representation of a 53-bit integer needs
to comprise at least 17 digits if we are to be assured that assigning
that base 10 representation to a 53-bit integer will result in a
53-bit integer that is identical to the first.
Otherwise, there is no such assurance.
$max_prec = ld_max_orig_prec ($orig_base, $to_base, $to_prec);
NOTE: $max_prec can be (very rarely) off by one if $to_prec is in
the millions, or if either $orig_base or $to_base are
outside of the range 2..64.
For example:
To determine the maximum significant number of base 10 digits that
can be specified, when assigning to a 53-bit double. We have:
$max_len = ld_max_orig_len($orig_base, $to_base, $to_prec);
For this example that becomes:
$max_len = mpfr_max_orig_len(10, 2, 53);
which will set $max_len to 15.
That is, so long as our base 10 integer consists of no more than
15 significant digits, we can assign it to a 53-bit double and be
assured of retrieving the original value upon converting that
double back to a 15-digit base 10 representation.
Otherwise, there is no such assurance.
It is to be expected that
mpfr_max_orig_len(10, 2, 53) == DBL_DIG
and
mpfr_max_orig_len(10, 2, 113) == FLT128_DIG
and
mpfr_max_orig_len(10, 2, $long_double_prec) == LDBL_DIG
(where $long_double_prec is the precision, in bits, of the
the C 'long double' type - usually either 53 or 64 or 113.)
```

# LICENSE

```
This program is free software; you may redistribute it and/or modify
it under the same terms as Perl itself.
Copyright 2012-16, 2020 Sisyphus
```

# AUTHOR

` Sisyphus <sisyphus at(@) cpan dot (.) org>`