use Config;
use File::Basename qw(&basename &dirname);
use Cwd;

# List explicitly here the variables you want Configure to
# generate.  Metaconfig only looks for shell variables, so you
# have to mention them as if they were shell variables, not
# %Config entries.  Thus you write
#  $startperl
# to ensure Configure will look for $Config{startperl}.

# This forces PL files to create target in same directory as PL file.
# This is so that make depend always knows where to find PL derivatives.
my $origdir = cwd;
chdir dirname($0);
my $file = basename($0, '.PL');
$file .= '.com' if $^O eq 'VMS';

open OUT, ">", $file or die "Can't create $file: $!";

print "Extracting $file (with variable substitutions)\n";

# In this section, perl variables will be expanded during extraction.
# You can use $Config{...} to use Configure variables.

print OUT <<"!GROK!THIS!";
    eval 'exec $Config{perlpath} -S \$0 \${1+"\$@"}'
	if 0; # ^ Run only under a shell

# In the following, perl variables are not expanded during extraction.

print OUT <<'!NO!SUBS!';

BEGIN { pop @INC if $INC[-1] eq '.' }

use warnings;

=head1 NAME

h2xs - convert .h C header files to Perl extensions


B<h2xs> [B<OPTIONS> ...] [headerfile ... [extra_libraries]]

B<h2xs> B<-h>|B<-?>|B<--help>


I<h2xs> builds a Perl extension from C header files.  The extension
will include functions which can be used to retrieve the value of any
#define statement which was in the C header files.

The I<module_name> will be used for the name of the extension.  If
module_name is not supplied then the name of the first header file
will be used, with the first character capitalized.

If the extension might need extra libraries, they should be included
here.  The extension Makefile.PL will take care of checking whether
the libraries actually exist and how they should be loaded.  The extra
libraries should be specified in the form -lm -lposix, etc, just as on
the cc command line.  By default, the Makefile.PL will search through
the library path determined by Configure.  That path can be augmented
by including arguments of the form B<-L/another/library/path> in the
extra-libraries argument.

In spite of its name, I<h2xs> may also be used to create a skeleton pure
Perl module. See the B<-X> option.

=head1 OPTIONS

=over 5

=item B<-A>, B<--omit-autoload>

Omit all autoload facilities.  This is the same as B<-c> but also
removes the S<C<use AutoLoader>> statement from the .pm file.

=item B<-B>, B<--beta-version>

Use an alpha/beta style version number.  Causes version number to
be "0.00_01" unless B<-v> is specified.

=item B<-C>, B<--omit-changes>

Omits creation of the F<Changes> file, and adds a HISTORY section to
the POD template.

=item B<-F>, B<--cpp-flags>=I<addflags>

Additional flags to specify to C preprocessor when scanning header for
function declarations.  Writes these options in the generated F<Makefile.PL>

=item B<-M>, B<--func-mask>=I<regular expression>

selects functions/macros to process.

=item B<-O>, B<--overwrite-ok>

Allows a pre-existing extension directory to be overwritten.

=item B<-P>, B<--omit-pod>

Omit the autogenerated stub POD section.

=item B<-X>, B<--omit-XS>

Omit the XS portion. Used to generate a skeleton pure Perl module.
C<-c> and C<-f> are implicitly enabled.

=item B<-a>, B<--gen-accessors>

Generate an accessor method for each element of structs and unions. The
generated methods are named after the element name; will return the current
value of the element if called without additional arguments; and will set
the element to the supplied value (and return the new value) if called with
an additional argument. Embedded structures and unions are returned as a
pointer rather than the complete structure, to facilitate chained calls.

These methods all apply to the Ptr type for the structure; additionally
two methods are constructed for the structure type itself, C<_to_ptr>
which returns a Ptr type pointing to the same structure, and a C<new>
method to construct and return a new structure, initialised to zeroes.

=item B<-b>, B<--compat-version>=I<version>

Generates a .pm file which is backwards compatible with the specified
perl version.

For versions < 5.6.0, the changes are.
    - no use of 'our' (uses 'use vars' instead)
    - no 'use warnings'

Specifying a compatibility version higher than the version of perl you
are using to run h2xs will have no effect.  If unspecified h2xs will default
to compatibility with the version of perl you are using to run h2xs.

=item B<-c>, B<--omit-constant>

Omit C<constant()> from the .xs file and corresponding specialised
C<AUTOLOAD> from the .pm file.

=item B<-d>, B<--debugging>

Turn on debugging messages.

=item B<-e>, B<--omit-enums>=[I<regular expression>]

If I<regular expression> is not given, skip all constants that are defined in
a C enumeration. Otherwise skip only those constants that are defined in an
enum whose name matches I<regular expression>.

Since I<regular expression> is optional, make sure that this switch is followed
by at least one other switch if you omit I<regular expression> and have some
pending arguments such as header-file names. This is ok:

    h2xs -e -n Module::Foo foo.h

This is not ok:

    h2xs -n Module::Foo -e foo.h

In the latter, foo.h is taken as I<regular expression>.

=item B<-f>, B<--force>

Allows an extension to be created for a header even if that header is
not found in standard include directories.

=item B<-g>, B<--global>

Include code for safely storing static data in the .xs file.
Extensions that do no make use of static data can ignore this option.

=item B<-h>, B<-?>, B<--help>

Print the usage, help and version for this h2xs and exit.

=item B<-k>, B<--omit-const-func>

For function arguments declared as C<const>, omit the const attribute in the
generated XS code.

=item B<-m>, B<--gen-tied-var>

B<Experimental>: for each variable declared in the header file(s), declare
a perl variable of the same name magically tied to the C variable.

=item B<-n>, B<--name>=I<module_name>

Specifies a name to be used for the extension, e.g., S<-n RPC::DCE>

=item B<-o>, B<--opaque-re>=I<regular expression>

Use "opaque" data type for the C types matched by the regular
expression, even if these types are C<typedef>-equivalent to types
from typemaps.  Should not be used without B<-x>.

This may be useful since, say, types which are C<typedef>-equivalent
to integers may represent OS-related handles, and one may want to work
with these handles in OO-way, as in C<$handle-E<gt>do_something()>.
Use C<-o .> if you want to handle all the C<typedef>ed types as opaque

The type-to-match is whitewashed (except for commas, which have no
whitespace before them, and multiple C<*> which have no whitespace
between them).

=item B<-p>, B<--remove-prefix>=I<prefix>

Specify a prefix which should be removed from the Perl function names,
e.g., S<-p sec_rgy_> This sets up the XS B<PREFIX> keyword and removes
the prefix from functions that are autoloaded via the C<constant()>

=item B<-s>, B<--const-subs>=I<sub1,sub2>

Create a perl subroutine for the specified macros rather than autoload
with the constant() subroutine.  These macros are assumed to have a
return type of B<char *>, e.g.,
S<-s sec_rgy_wildcard_name,sec_rgy_wildcard_sid>.

=item B<-t>, B<--default-type>=I<type>

Specify the internal type that the constant() mechanism uses for macros.
The default is IV (signed integer).  Currently all macros found during the
header scanning process will be assumed to have this type.  Future versions
of C<h2xs> may gain the ability to make educated guesses.

=item B<--use-new-tests>

When B<--compat-version> (B<-b>) is present the generated tests will use
C<Test::More> rather than C<Test> which is the default for versions before
5.6.2.  C<Test::More> will be added to PREREQ_PM in the generated

=item B<--use-old-tests>

Will force the generation of test code that uses the older C<Test> module.

=item B<--skip-exporter>

Do not use C<Exporter> and/or export any symbol.

=item B<--skip-ppport>

Do not use C<Devel::PPPort>: no portability to older version.

=item B<--skip-autoloader>

Do not use the module C<AutoLoader>; but keep the constant() function
and C<sub AUTOLOAD> for constants.

=item B<--skip-strict>

Do not use the pragma C<strict>.

=item B<--skip-warnings>

Do not use the pragma C<warnings>.

=item B<-v>, B<--version>=I<version>

Specify a version number for this extension.  This version number is added
to the templates.  The default is 0.01, or 0.00_01 if C<-B> is specified.
The version specified should be numeric.

=item B<-x>, B<--autogen-xsubs>

Automatically generate XSUBs basing on function declarations in the
header file.  The package C<C::Scan> should be installed. If this
option is specified, the name of the header file may look like
C<NAME1,NAME2>. In this case NAME1 is used instead of the specified
string, but XSUBs are emitted only for the declarations included from
file NAME2.

Note that some types of arguments/return-values for functions may
result in XSUB-declarations/typemap-entries which need
hand-editing. Such may be objects which cannot be converted from/to a
pointer (like C<long long>), pointers to functions, or arrays.  See
also the section on L</LIMITATIONS of B<-x>>.



    # Default behavior, extension is Rusers
    h2xs rpcsvc/rusers

    # Same, but extension is RUSERS
    h2xs -n RUSERS rpcsvc/rusers

    # Extension is rpcsvc::rusers. Still finds <rpcsvc/rusers.h>
    h2xs rpcsvc::rusers

    # Extension is ONC::RPC.  Still finds <rpcsvc/rusers.h>
    h2xs -n ONC::RPC rpcsvc/rusers

    # Without constant() or AUTOLOAD
    h2xs -c rpcsvc/rusers

    # Creates templates for an extension named RPC
    h2xs -cfn RPC

    # Extension is ONC::RPC.
    h2xs -cfn ONC::RPC

    # Extension is a pure Perl module with no XS code.
    h2xs -X My::Module

    # Extension is Lib::Foo which works at least with Perl5.005_03.
    # Constants are created for all #defines and enums h2xs can find
    # in foo.h.
    h2xs -b 5.5.3 -n Lib::Foo foo.h

    # Extension is Lib::Foo which works at least with Perl5.005_03.
    # Constants are created for all #defines but only for enums
    # whose names do not start with 'bar_'.
    h2xs -b 5.5.3 -e '^bar_' -n Lib::Foo foo.h

    # Makefile.PL will look for library -lrpc in
    # additional directory /opt/net/lib
    h2xs rpcsvc/rusers -L/opt/net/lib -lrpc

    # Extension is DCE::rgynbase
    # prefix "sec_rgy_" is dropped from perl function names
    h2xs -n DCE::rgynbase -p sec_rgy_ dce/rgynbase

    # Extension is DCE::rgynbase
    # prefix "sec_rgy_" is dropped from perl function names
    # subroutines are created for sec_rgy_wildcard_name and
    # sec_rgy_wildcard_sid
    h2xs -n DCE::rgynbase -p sec_rgy_ \
    -s sec_rgy_wildcard_name,sec_rgy_wildcard_sid dce/rgynbase

    # Make XS without defines in perl.h, but with function declarations
    # visible from perl.h. Name of the extension is perl1.
    # When scanning perl.h, define -DEXT=extern -DdEXT= -DINIT(x)=
    # Extra backslashes below because the string is passed to shell.
    # Note that a directory with perl header files would
    #  be added automatically to include path.
    h2xs -xAn perl1 -F "-DEXT=extern -DdEXT= -DINIT\(x\)=" perl.h

    # Same with function declaration in proto.h as visible from perl.h.
    h2xs -xAn perl2 perl.h,proto.h

    # Same but select only functions which match /^av_/
    h2xs -M '^av_' -xAn perl2 perl.h,proto.h

    # Same but treat SV* etc as "opaque" types
    h2xs -o '^[S]V \*$' -M '^av_' -xAn perl2 perl.h,proto.h

=head2 Extension based on F<.h> and F<.c> files

Suppose that you have some C files implementing some functionality,
and the corresponding header files.  How to create an extension which
makes this functionality accessible in Perl?  The example below
assumes that the header files are F<interface_simple.h> and
I<interface_hairy.h>, and you want the perl module be named as
C<Ext::Ension>.  If you need some preprocessor directives and/or
linking with external libraries, see the flags C<-F>, C<-L> and C<-l>
in L<"OPTIONS">.


=item Find the directory name

Start with a dummy run of h2xs:

  h2xs -Afn Ext::Ension

The only purpose of this step is to create the needed directories, and
let you know the names of these directories.  From the output you can
see that the directory for the extension is F<Ext/Ension>.

=item Copy C files

Copy your header files and C files to this directory F<Ext/Ension>.

=item Create the extension

Run h2xs, overwriting older autogenerated files:

  h2xs -Oxan Ext::Ension interface_simple.h interface_hairy.h

h2xs looks for header files I<after> changing to the extension
directory, so it will find your header files OK.

=item Archive and test

As usual, run

  cd Ext/Ension
  perl Makefile.PL
  make dist
  make test

=item Hints

It is important to do C<make dist> as early as possible.  This way you
can easily merge(1) your changes to autogenerated files if you decide
to edit your C<.h> files and rerun h2xs.

Do not forget to edit the documentation in the generated F<.pm> file.

Consider the autogenerated files as skeletons only, you may invent
better interfaces than what h2xs could guess.

Consider this section as a guideline only, some other options of h2xs
may better suit your needs.



No environment variables are used.

=head1 AUTHOR

Larry Wall and others

=head1 SEE ALSO

L<perl>, L<perlxstut>, L<ExtUtils::MakeMaker>, and L<AutoLoader>.


The usual warnings if it cannot read or write the files involved.

=head1 LIMITATIONS of B<-x>

F<h2xs> would not distinguish whether an argument to a C function
which is of the form, say, C<int *>, is an input, output, or
input/output parameter.  In particular, argument declarations of the

	int *n

should be better rewritten as

	int &n

if C<n> is an input parameter.

Additionally, F<h2xs> has no facilities to intuit that a function

	char *addr
	int   l

takes a pair of address and length of data at this address, so it is better
to rewrite this function as

	    SV *addr
	    STRLEN len;
	    char *s;
	    s = SvPV(sv,len);
	    RETVAL = foo(s, len);

or alternately

    static int
    my_foo(SV *sv)
	STRLEN len;
	char *s = SvPV(sv,len);

	return foo(s, len);

    MODULE = foo	PACKAGE = foo	PREFIX = my_

	SV *sv

See L<perlxs> and L<perlxstut> for additional details.


# ' # Grr
use strict;

my( $H2XS_VERSION ) = ' $Revision: 1.23 $ ' =~ /\$Revision:\s+([^\s]+)/;
my $TEMPLATE_VERSION = '0.01';
my @ARGS = @ARGV;
my $compat_version = $];

use Getopt::Long;
use Config;
use Text::Wrap;
$Text::Wrap::huge = 'overflow';
$Text::Wrap::columns = 80;
use ExtUtils::Constant qw (WriteConstants WriteMakefileSnippet autoload);
use File::Compare;
use File::Path;

sub usage {
    warn "@_\n" if @_;
    die <<EOFUSAGE;
h2xs [OPTIONS ... ] [headerfile [extra_libraries]]
version: $H2XS_VERSION
    -A, --omit-autoload   Omit all autoloading facilities (implies -c).
    -B, --beta-version    Use beta \$VERSION of 0.00_01 (ignored if -v).
    -C, --omit-changes    Omit creating the Changes file, add HISTORY heading
                          to stub POD.
    -F, --cpp-flags       Additional flags for C preprocessor/compile.
    -M, --func-mask       Mask to select C functions/macros
                          (default is select all).
    -O, --overwrite-ok    Allow overwriting of a pre-existing extension directory.
    -P, --omit-pod        Omit the stub POD section.
    -X, --omit-XS         Omit the XS portion (implies both -c and -f).
    -a, --gen-accessors   Generate get/set accessors for struct and union members
                          (used with -x).
    -b, --compat-version  Specify a perl version to be backwards compatible with.
    -c, --omit-constant   Omit the constant() function and specialised AUTOLOAD
                          from the XS file.
    -d, --debugging       Turn on debugging messages.
    -e, --omit-enums      Omit constants from enums in the constant() function.
                          If a pattern is given, only the matching enums are
    -f, --force           Force creation of the extension even if the C header
                          does not exist.
    -g, --global          Include code for safely storing static data in the .xs file.
    -h, -?, --help        Display this help message.
    -k, --omit-const-func Omit 'const' attribute on function arguments
                          (used with -x).
    -m, --gen-tied-var    Generate tied variables for access to declared
    -n, --name            Specify a name to use for the extension (recommended).
    -o, --opaque-re       Regular expression for \"opaque\" types.
    -p, --remove-prefix   Specify a prefix which should be removed from the
                          Perl function names.
    -s, --const-subs      Create subroutines for specified macros.
    -t, --default-type    Default type for autoloaded constants (default is IV).
        --use-new-tests   Use Test::More in backward compatible modules.
        --use-old-tests   Use the module Test rather than Test::More.
        --skip-exporter   Do not export symbols.
        --skip-ppport     Do not use portability layer.
        --skip-autoloader Do not use the module C<AutoLoader>.
        --skip-strict     Do not use the pragma C<strict>.
        --skip-warnings   Do not use the pragma C<warnings>.
    -v, --version         Specify a version number for this extension.
    -x, --autogen-xsubs   Autogenerate XSUBs using C::Scan.
        --use-xsloader    Use XSLoader in backward compatible modules (ignored
                          when used with -X).

         are any libraries that might be needed for loading the
         extension, e.g. -lm would try to link in the math library.

my ($opt_A,


my %options = (
                'omit-autoload|A'    => \$opt_A,
                'beta-version|B'     => \$opt_B,
                'omit-changes|C'     => \$opt_C,
                'cpp-flags|F=s'      => \$opt_F,
                'func-mask|M=s'      => \$opt_M,
                'overwrite_ok|O'     => \$opt_O,
                'omit-pod|P'         => \$opt_P,
                'omit-XS|X'          => \$opt_X,
                'gen-accessors|a'    => \$opt_a,
                'compat-version|b=s' => \$opt_b,
                'omit-constant|c'    => \$opt_c,
                'debugging|d'        => \$opt_d,
                'omit-enums|e:s'     => \$opt_e,
                'force|f'            => \$opt_f,
                'global|g'           => \$opt_g,
                'help|h|?'           => \$opt_h,
                'omit-const-func|k'  => \$opt_k,
                'gen-tied-var|m'     => \$opt_m,
                'name|n=s'           => \$opt_n,
                'opaque-re|o=s'      => \$opt_o,
                'remove-prefix|p=s'  => \$opt_p,
                'const-subs|s=s'     => \$opt_s,
                'default-type|t=s'   => \$opt_t,
                'version|v=s'        => \$opt_v,
                'autogen-xsubs|x'    => \$opt_x,
                'use-new-tests'      => \$new_test,
                'use-old-tests'      => \$old_test,
                'skip-exporter'      => \$skip_exporter,
                'skip-ppport'        => \$skip_ppport,
                'skip-autoloader'    => \$skip_autoloader,
                'skip-warnings'      => \$skip_warnings,
                'skip-strict'        => \$skip_strict,
                'use-xsloader'       => \$use_xsloader,

GetOptions(%options) || usage;

usage if $opt_h;

if( $opt_b ){
    usage "You cannot use -b and -m at the same time.\n" if ($opt_b && $opt_m);
    $opt_b =~ /^v?(\d+)\.(\d+)\.(\d+)/ ||
    usage "You must provide the backwards compatibility version in X.Y.Z form. "
          .  "(i.e. 5.5.0)\n";
    my ($maj,$min,$sub) = ($1,$2,$3);
    if ($maj < 5 || ($maj == 5 && $min < 6)) {
        $compat_version =
	    $sub ? sprintf("%d.%03d%02d",$maj,$min,$sub) :
	           sprintf("%d.%03d",    $maj,$min);
    } else {
        $compat_version = sprintf("%d.%03d%03d",$maj,$min,$sub);
} else {
    my ($maj,$min,$sub) = $compat_version =~ /(\d+)\.(\d\d\d)(\d*)/;
    $sub ||= 0;
    warn sprintf <<'EOF', $maj,$min,$sub;
Defaulting to backwards compatibility with perl %d.%d.%d
If you intend this module to be compatible with earlier perl versions, please
specify a minimum perl version with the -b option.


if( $opt_B ){
    $TEMPLATE_VERSION = '0.00_01';

if( $opt_v ){

    # check if it is numeric
    my $temp_version = $TEMPLATE_VERSION;
    my $beta_version = $temp_version =~ s/(\d)_(\d\d)/$1$2/;
    my $notnum;
        local $SIG{__WARN__} = sub { $notnum = 1 };
        use warnings 'numeric';
        $temp_version = 0+$temp_version;

    if ($notnum) {
        my $module = $opt_n || 'Your::Module';
        warn <<"EOF";
You have specified a non-numeric version.  Unless you supply an
appropriate VERSION class method, users may not be able to specify a
minimum required version with C<use $module versionnum>.

    else {
        $opt_B = $beta_version;

# -A implies -c.
$skip_autoloader = $opt_c = 1 if $opt_A;

# -X implies -c and -f
$opt_c = $opt_f = 1 if $opt_X;

$opt_t ||= 'IV';

my %const_xsub;
%const_xsub = map { $_,1 } split(/,+/, $opt_s) if $opt_s;

my $extralibs = '';

my @path_h;

while (my $arg = shift) {
    if ($arg =~ /^-l/i) {
        $extralibs .= "$arg ";
    last if $extralibs;
    push(@path_h, $arg);

usage "Must supply header file or module name\n"
        unless (@path_h or $opt_n);

my $fmask;
my $tmask;

$fmask = qr{$opt_M} if defined $opt_M;
$tmask = qr{$opt_o} if defined $opt_o;
my $tmask_all = $tmask && $opt_o eq '.';

if ($opt_x) {
  eval {require C::Scan; 1}
    or die <<EOD;
C::Scan required if you use -x option.
To install C::Scan, execute
   perl -MCPAN -e "install C::Scan"
  unless ($tmask_all) {
    $C::Scan::VERSION >= 0.70
      or die <<EOD;
C::Scan v. 0.70 or later required unless you use -o . option.
You have version $C::Scan::VERSION installed as $INC{'C/Scan.pm'}.
To install C::Scan, execute
   perl -MCPAN -e "install C::Scan"
  if (($opt_m || $opt_a) && $C::Scan::VERSION < 0.73) {
    die <<EOD;
C::Scan v. 0.73 or later required to use -m or -a options.
You have version $C::Scan::VERSION installed as $INC{'C/Scan.pm'}.
To install C::Scan, execute
   perl -MCPAN -e "install C::Scan"
elsif ($opt_o or $opt_F) {
  warn <<EOD if $opt_o;
Option -o does not make sense without -x.
  warn <<EOD if $opt_F and $opt_X ;
Option -F does not make sense with -X.

my @path_h_ini = @path_h;
my ($name, %fullpath, %prefix, %seen_define, %prefixless, %const_names);

my $module = $opt_n;

if( @path_h ){
    use File::Spec;
    my @paths;
    my $pre_sub_tri_graphs = 1;
    if ($^O eq 'VMS') {  # Consider overrides of default location
      # XXXX This is not equivalent to what the older version did:
      #		it was looking at $hadsys header-file per header-file...
      my($hadsys) = grep s!^sys/!!i , @path_h;
      @paths = qw( Sys$Library VAXC$Include );
      push @paths, ($hadsys ? 'GNU_CC_Include[vms]' : 'GNU_CC_Include[000000]');
      push @paths, qw( DECC$Library_Include DECC$System_Include );
    else {
      @paths = (File::Spec->curdir(), $Config{usrinc},
		(split / +/, $Config{locincpth} // ""), '/usr/include');
    foreach my $path_h (@path_h) {
        $name ||= $path_h;
    $module ||= do {
      $name =~ s/\.h$//;
      if ( $name !~ /::/ ) {
	$name =~ s#^.*/##;
	$name = "\u$name";

    if( $path_h =~ s#::#/#g && $opt_n ){
	warn "Nesting of headerfile ignored with -n\n";
    $path_h .= ".h" unless $path_h =~ /\.h$/;
    my $fullpath = $path_h;
    $path_h =~ s/,.*$// if $opt_x;
    $fullpath{$path_h} = $fullpath;

    # Minor trickery: we can't chdir() before we processed the headers
    # (so know the name of the extension), but the header may be in the
    # extension directory...
    my $tmp_path_h = $path_h;
    my $rel_path_h = $path_h;
    my @dirs = @paths;
    if (not -f $path_h) {
      my $found;
      for my $dir (@paths) {
	$found++, last
	  if -f ($path_h = File::Spec->catfile($dir, $tmp_path_h));
      if ($found) {
	$rel_path_h = $path_h;
	$fullpath{$path_h} = $fullpath;
      } else {
	(my $epath = $module) =~ s,::,/,g;
	$epath = File::Spec->catdir('ext', $epath) if -d 'ext';
	$rel_path_h = File::Spec->catfile($epath, $tmp_path_h);
	$path_h = $tmp_path_h;	# Used during -x
	push @dirs, $epath;

    if (!$opt_c) {
      die "Can't find $tmp_path_h in @dirs\n"
	if ( ! $opt_f && ! -f "$rel_path_h" );
      # Scan the header file (we should deal with nested header files)
      # Record the names of simple #define constants into const_names
            # Function prototypes are processed below.
      open(CH, "<", "$rel_path_h") || die "Can't open $rel_path_h: $!\n";
      while (<CH>) {
	if ($pre_sub_tri_graphs) {
	    # Preprocess all tri-graphs
	    # including things stuck in quoted string constants.
	    s/\?\?=/#/g;                         # | ??=|  #|
	    s/\?\?\!/|/g;                        # | ??!|  ||
	    s/\?\?'/^/g;                         # | ??'|  ^|
	    s/\?\?\(/[/g;                        # | ??(|  [|
	    s/\?\?\)/]/g;                        # | ??)|  ]|
	    s/\?\?\-/~/g;                        # | ??-|  ~|
	    s/\?\?\//\\/g;                       # | ??/|  \|
	    s/\?\?</{/g;                         # | ??<|  {|
	    s/\?\?>/}/g;                         # | ??>|  }|
	if (/^[ \t]*#[ \t]*define\s+([\$\w]+)\b(?!\()\s*(?=[^"\s])(.*)/) {
	    my $def = $1;
	    my $rest = $2;
	    $rest =~ s!/\*.*?(\*/|\n)|//.*!!g; # Remove comments
	    $rest =~ s/^\s+//;
	    $rest =~ s/\s+$//;
	    if ($rest eq '') {
	      print("Skip empty $def\n") if $opt_d;
	      next defines;
	    # Cannot do: (-1) and ((LHANDLE)3) are OK:
	    #print("Skip non-wordy $def => $rest\n"),
	    #  next defines if $rest =~ /[^\w\$]/;
	    if ($rest =~ /"/) {
	      print("Skip stringy $def => $rest\n") if $opt_d;
	      next defines;
	    print "Matched $_ ($def)\n" if $opt_d;
	    $seen_define{$def} = $rest;
	    $_ = $def;
	    next if /^_.*_h_*$/i; # special case, but for what?
	    if (defined $opt_p) {
	      if (!/^$opt_p(\d)/) {
		++$prefix{$_} if s/^$opt_p//;
	      else {
		warn "can't remove $opt_p prefix from '$_'!\n";
	    $prefixless{$def} = $_;
	    if (!$fmask or /$fmask/) {
		print "... Passes mask of -M.\n" if $opt_d and $fmask;
      if (defined $opt_e and !$opt_e) {
      else {
	# Work from miniperl too - on "normal" systems
        my $SEEK_SET = eval 'use Fcntl qw/SEEK_SET/; SEEK_SET' || 0;
        seek CH, 0, $SEEK_SET;
        my $src = do { local $/; <CH> };
        close CH;
        no warnings 'uninitialized';

        # Remove C and C++ comments
        $src =~ s#/\*[^*]*\*+([^/*][^*]*\*+)*/|("(\\.|[^"\\])*"|'(\\.|[^'\\])*'|.[^/"'\\]*)#$2#gs;
        $src =~ s#//.*$##gm;

	while ($src =~ /\benum\s*([\w_]*)\s*\{\s([^}]+)\}/gsc) {
	    my ($enum_name, $enum_body) = ($1, $2);
            # skip enums matching $opt_e
            next if $opt_e && $enum_name =~ /$opt_e/;
            my $val = 0;
            for my $item (split /,/, $enum_body) {
                next if $item =~ /\A\s*\Z/;
                my ($key, $declared_val) = $item =~ /(\w+)\s*(?:=\s*(.*))?/;
                $val = defined($declared_val) && length($declared_val) ? $declared_val : 1 + $val;
                $seen_define{$key} = $val;
                $const_names{$key} = { name => $key, macro => 1 };
        } # while (...)
      } # if (!defined $opt_e or $opt_e)

# Save current directory so that C::Scan can use it
my $cwd = File::Spec->rel2abs( File::Spec->curdir );

# As Ilya suggested, use a name that contains - and then it can't clash with
# the names of any packages. A directory 'fallback' will clash with any
# new pragmata down the fallback:: tree, but that seems unlikely.
my $constscfname = 'const-c.inc';
my $constsxsfname = 'const-xs.inc';
my $fallbackdirname = 'fallback';

my $ext = chdir 'ext' ? 'ext/' : '';

my @modparts  = split(/::/,$module);
my $modpname  = join('-', @modparts);
my $modfname  = pop @modparts;
my $modpmdir  = join '/', 'lib', @modparts;
my $modpmname = join '/', $modpmdir, $modfname.'.pm';

if ($opt_O) {
	warn "Overwriting existing $ext$modpname!!!\n" if -e $modpname;
else {
	die "Won't overwrite existing $ext$modpname\n" if -e $modpname;
-d "$modpname"   || mkpath([$modpname], 0, 0775);
chdir($modpname) || die "Can't chdir $ext$modpname: $!\n";

my %types_seen;
my %std_types;
my $fdecls = [];
my $fdecls_parsed = [];
my $typedef_rex;
my %typedefs_pre;
my %known_fnames;
my %structs;

my @fnames;
my @fnames_no_prefix;
my %vdecl_hash;
my @vdecls;

if( ! $opt_X ){  # use XS, unless it was disabled
  unless ($skip_ppport) {
    require Devel::PPPort;
    warn "Writing $ext$modpname/ppport.h\n";
        || die "Can't create $ext$modpname/ppport.h: $!\n";
  open(XS, ">", "$modfname.xs") || die "Can't create $ext$modpname/$modfname.xs: $!\n";
  if ($opt_x) {
    warn "Scanning typemaps...\n";
    my @td;
    my @good_td;
    my $addflags = $opt_F || '';

    foreach my $filename (@path_h) {
      my $c;
      my $filter;

      if ($fullpath{$filename} =~ /,/) {
	$filename = $`;
	$filter = $';
      warn "Scanning $filename for functions...\n";
      my @styles = $Config{gccversion} ? qw(C++ C9X GNU) : qw(C++ C9X);
      $c = C::Scan->new('filename' => $filename, 'filename_filter' => $filter,
        'add_cppflags' => $addflags, 'c_styles' => \@styles);
      $c->set('includeDirs' => ["$Config::Config{archlib}/CORE", $cwd]);

      $c->get('keywords')->{'__restrict'} = 1;

      push @$fdecls_parsed, @{ $c->get('parsed_fdecls') };
      push(@$fdecls, @{$c->get('fdecls')});

      push @td, @{$c->get('typedefs_maybe')};
      if ($opt_a) {
	my $structs = $c->get('typedef_structs');
	@structs{keys %$structs} = values %$structs;

      if ($opt_m) {
	%vdecl_hash = %{ $c->get('vdecl_hash') };
	@vdecls = sort keys %vdecl_hash;
	for (local $_ = 0; $_ < @vdecls; ++$_) {
	  my $var = $vdecls[$_];
	  my($type, $post) = @{ $vdecl_hash{$var} };
	  if (defined $post) {
	    warn "Can't handle variable '$type $var $post', skipping.\n";
	    splice @vdecls, $_, 1;
	  $type = normalize_type($type);
	  $vdecl_hash{$var} = $type;

      unless ($tmask_all) {
	warn "Scanning $filename for typedefs...\n";
	my $td = $c->get('typedef_hash');
	# eval {require 'dumpvar.pl'; ::dumpValue($td)} or warn $@ if $opt_d;
	my @f_good_td = grep $td->{$_}[1] eq '', keys %$td;
	push @good_td, @f_good_td;
	@typedefs_pre{@f_good_td}  = map $_->[0], @$td{@f_good_td};
    { local $" = '|';
      $typedef_rex = qr(\b(?<!struct )(?<!enum )(?:@good_td)\b) if @good_td;
    %known_fnames = map @$_[1,3], @$fdecls_parsed; # [1,3] is NAME, FULLTEXT
    if ($fmask) {
      my @good;
      for my $i (0..$#$fdecls_parsed) {
	next unless $fdecls_parsed->[$i][1] =~ /$fmask/; # [1] is NAME
	push @good, $i;
	print "... Function $fdecls_parsed->[$i][1] passes -M mask.\n"
	  if $opt_d;
      $fdecls = [@$fdecls[@good]];
      $fdecls_parsed = [@$fdecls_parsed[@good]];
    @fnames = sort map $_->[1], @$fdecls_parsed; # 1 is NAME
    # Sort declarations:
      my %h = map( ($_->[1], $_), @$fdecls_parsed);
      $fdecls_parsed = [ @h{@fnames} ];
    @fnames_no_prefix = @fnames;
      = sort map { ++$prefix{$_} if s/^$opt_p(?!\d)//; $_ } @fnames_no_prefix
         if defined $opt_p;
    # Remove macros which expand to typedefs
    print "Typedefs are @td.\n" if $opt_d;
    my %td = map {($_, $_)} @td;
    # Add some other possible but meaningless values for macros
    for my $k (qw(char double float int long short unsigned signed void)) {
      $td{"$_$k"} = "$_$k" for ('', 'signed ', 'unsigned ');
    # eval {require 'dumpvar.pl'; ::dumpValue( [\@td, \%td] ); 1} or warn $@;
    my $n = 0;
    my %bad_macs;
    while (keys %td > $n) {
      $n = keys %td;
      my ($k, $v);
      while (($k, $v) = each %seen_define) {
	# print("found '$k'=>'$v'\n"),
	$bad_macs{$k} = $td{$k} = $td{$v} if exists $td{$v};
    # Now %bad_macs contains names of bad macros
    for my $k (keys %bad_macs) {
      delete $const_names{$prefixless{$k}};
      print "Ignoring macro $k which expands to a typedef name '$bad_macs{$k}'\n" if $opt_d;
my (@const_specs, @const_names);

for (sort(keys(%const_names))) {
    my $v = $const_names{$_};
    push(@const_specs, ref($v) ? $v : $_);
    push(@const_names, $_);

-d $modpmdir || mkpath([$modpmdir], 0, 0775);
open(PM, ">", "$modpmname") || die "Can't create $ext$modpname/$modpmname: $!\n";

$" = "\n\t";
warn "Writing $ext$modpname/$modpmname\n";

print PM <<"END";
package $module;

use $compat_version;

print PM <<"END" unless $skip_strict;
use strict;

print PM "use warnings;\n" unless $skip_warnings or $compat_version < 5.006;

unless( $opt_X || $opt_c || $opt_A ){
	# we'll have an AUTOLOAD(), and it will have $AUTOLOAD and
	# will want Carp.
	print PM <<'END';
use Carp;

print PM <<'END' unless $skip_exporter;

require Exporter;

my $use_Dyna = (not $opt_X and $compat_version < 5.006 and not $use_xsloader);
print PM <<"END" if $use_Dyna;  # use DynaLoader, unless XS was disabled
require DynaLoader;

# Are we using AutoLoader or not?
unless ($skip_autoloader) { # no autoloader whatsoever.
	unless ($opt_c) { # we're doing the AUTOLOAD
		print PM "use AutoLoader;\n";
	else {
		print PM "use AutoLoader qw(AUTOLOAD);\n"

if ( $compat_version < 5.006 ) {
    my $vars = '$VERSION @ISA';
    $vars .= ' @EXPORT @EXPORT_OK %EXPORT_TAGS' unless $skip_exporter;
    $vars .= ' $AUTOLOAD' unless $opt_X || $opt_c || $opt_A;
    $vars .= ' $XS_VERSION' if $opt_B && !$opt_X;
    print PM "use vars qw($vars);";

# Determine @ISA.
my @modISA;
push @modISA, 'Exporter'	unless $skip_exporter;
push @modISA, 'DynaLoader' 	if $use_Dyna;  # no XS
my $myISA = "our \@ISA = qw(@modISA);";
$myISA =~ s/^our // if $compat_version < 5.006;

print PM "\n$myISA\n\n";

my @exported_names = (@const_names, @fnames_no_prefix, map '$'.$_, @vdecls);

my $tmp='';
$tmp .= <<"END" unless $skip_exporter;
# Items to export into callers namespace by default. Note: do not export
# names by default without a very good reason. Use EXPORT_OK instead.
# Do not simply export all your public functions/methods/constants.

# This allows declaration	use $module ':all';
# If you do not need this, moving things directly into \@EXPORT or \@EXPORT_OK
# will save memory.
our %EXPORT_TAGS = ( 'all' => [ qw(
) ] );

our \@EXPORT_OK = ( \@{ \$EXPORT_TAGS{'all'} } );

our \@EXPORT = qw(


$tmp .= "our \$VERSION = '$TEMPLATE_VERSION';\n";
if ($opt_B) {
    $tmp .= "our \$XS_VERSION = \$VERSION;\n" unless $opt_X;
    $tmp .= "\$VERSION = eval \$VERSION;  # see L<perlmodstyle>\n";
$tmp .= "\n";

$tmp =~ s/^our //mg if $compat_version < 5.006;
print PM $tmp;

if (@vdecls) {
    printf PM "our(@{[ join ', ', map '$'.$_, @vdecls ]});\n\n";

print PM autoload ($module, $compat_version) unless $opt_c or $opt_X;

if( ! $opt_X ){ # print bootstrap, unless XS is disabled
  if ($use_Dyna) {
	$tmp = <<"END";
bootstrap $module \$VERSION;
  } else {
	$tmp = <<"END";
require XSLoader;
XSLoader::load('$module', \$VERSION);
  $tmp =~ s:\$VERSION:\$XS_VERSION:g if $opt_B;
  print PM $tmp;

# tying the variables can happen only after bootstrap
if (@vdecls) {
    printf PM <<END;
@{[ join "\n", map "    _tievar_$_(\$$_);", @vdecls ]}


my $after;
if( $opt_P ){ # if POD is disabled
	$after = '__END__';
else {
	$after = '=cut';

print PM <<"END";

# Preloaded methods go here.

print PM <<"END" unless $opt_A;

# Autoload methods go after $after, and are processed by the autosplit program.

print PM <<"END";


my ($email,$author,$licence);

eval {
       my $username;
       ($username,$author) = (getpwuid($>))[0,6];
       if (defined $username && defined $author) {
	   $author =~ s/,.*$//; # in case of sub fields
	   my $domain = $Config{'mydomain'};
	   $domain =~ s/^\.//;
	   $email = "$username\@$domain";

$author =~ s/'/\\'/g if defined $author;
$author ||= "A. U. Thor";
$email  ||= 'a.u.thor@a.galaxy.far.far.away';

$licence = sprintf << "DEFAULT", $^V;
Copyright (C) ${\(1900 + (localtime) [5])} by $author

This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the same terms as Perl itself, either Perl version %vd or,
at your option, any later version of Perl 5 you may have available.

my $revhist = '';
$revhist = <<EOT if $opt_C;
#=head1 HISTORY
#=over 8
#Original version; created by h2xs $H2XS_VERSION with options
#  @ARGS

my $exp_doc = $skip_exporter ? '' : <<EOD;
#=head2 EXPORT
#None by default.

if (@const_names and not $opt_P) {
  $exp_doc .= <<EOD unless $skip_exporter;
#=head2 Exportable constants
#  @{[join "\n  ", @const_names]}

if (defined $fdecls and @$fdecls and not $opt_P) {
  $exp_doc .= <<EOD unless $skip_exporter;
#=head2 Exportable functions

#  $exp_doc .= <<EOD if $opt_p;
#When accessing these functions from Perl, prefix C<$opt_p> should be removed.
  $exp_doc .= <<EOD unless $skip_exporter;
#  @{[join "\n  ", @known_fnames{@fnames}]}

my $meth_doc = '';

if ($opt_x && $opt_a) {
  my($name, $struct);
  $meth_doc .= accessor_docs($name, $struct)
    while ($name, $struct) = each %structs;

# Prefix the default licence with hash symbols.
# Is this just cargo cult - it seems that the first thing that happens to this
# block is that all the hashes are then s///g out.
my $licence_hash = $licence;
$licence_hash =~ s/^/#/gm;

my $pod;
$pod = <<"END" unless $opt_P;
## Below is stub documentation for your module. You'd better edit it!
#=head1 NAME
#$module - Perl extension for blah blah blah
#=head1 SYNOPSIS
#  use $module;
#  blah blah blah
#Stub documentation for $module, created by h2xs. It looks like the
#author of the extension was negligent enough to leave the stub
#Blah blah blah.
#=head1 SEE ALSO
#Mention other useful documentation such as the documentation of
#related modules or operating system documentation (such as man pages
#in UNIX), or any relevant external documentation such as RFCs or
#If you have a mailing list set up for your module, mention it here.
#If you have a web site set up for your module, mention it here.
#=head1 AUTHOR
#$author, E<lt>${email}E<gt>

$pod =~ s/^\#//gm unless $opt_P;
print PM $pod unless $opt_P;

close PM;

if( ! $opt_X ){ # print XS, unless it is disabled
warn "Writing $ext$modpname/$modfname.xs\n";

print XS <<"END";
#include "EXTERN.h"
#include "perl.h"
#include "XSUB.h"


print XS <<"END" unless $skip_ppport;
#include "ppport.h"


if( @path_h ){
    foreach my $path_h (@path_h_ini) {
	my($h) = $path_h;
	$h =~ s#^/usr/include/##;
	if ($^O eq 'VMS') { $h =~ s#.*vms\]#sys/# or $h =~ s#.*[:>\]]##; }
        print XS qq{#include <$h>\n};
    print XS "\n";

print XS <<"END" if $opt_g;

/* Global Data */

#define MY_CXT_KEY "${module}::_guts" XS_VERSION

typedef struct {
    /* Put Global Data in here */
    int dummy;		/* you can access this elsewhere as MY_CXT.dummy */
} my_cxt_t;



my %pointer_typedefs;
my %struct_typedefs;

sub td_is_pointer {
  my $type = shift;
  my $out = $pointer_typedefs{$type};
  return $out if defined $out;
  my $otype = $type;
  $out = ($type =~ /\*$/);
  # This converts only the guys which do not have trailing part in the typedef
  if (not $out
      and $typedef_rex and $type =~ s/($typedef_rex)/$typedefs_pre{$1}/go) {
    $type = normalize_type($type);
    print "Is-Pointer: Type mutation via typedefs: $otype ==> $type\n"
      if $opt_d;
    $out = td_is_pointer($type);
  return ($pointer_typedefs{$otype} = $out);

sub td_is_struct {
  my $type = shift;
  my $out = $struct_typedefs{$type};
  return $out if defined $out;
  my $otype = $type;
  $out = ($type =~ /^(struct|union)\b/) && !td_is_pointer($type);
  # This converts only the guys which do not have trailing part in the typedef
  if (not $out
      and $typedef_rex and $type =~ s/($typedef_rex)/$typedefs_pre{$1}/go) {
    $type = normalize_type($type);
    print "Is-Struct: Type mutation via typedefs: $otype ==> $type\n"
      if $opt_d;
    $out = td_is_struct($type);
  return ($struct_typedefs{$otype} = $out);

print_tievar_subs(\*XS, $_, $vdecl_hash{$_}) for @vdecls;

if( ! $opt_c ) {
  # We write the "sample" files used when this module is built by perl without
  # ExtUtils::Constant.
  # h2xs will later check that these are the same as those generated by the
  # code embedded into Makefile.PL
  unless (-d $fallbackdirname) {
    mkdir "$fallbackdirname" or die "Cannot mkdir $fallbackdirname: $!\n";
  warn "Writing $ext$modpname/$fallbackdirname/$constscfname\n";
  warn "Writing $ext$modpname/$fallbackdirname/$constsxsfname\n";
  my $cfallback = File::Spec->catfile($fallbackdirname, $constscfname);
  my $xsfallback = File::Spec->catfile($fallbackdirname, $constsxsfname);
  WriteConstants ( C_FILE =>       $cfallback,
                   XS_FILE =>      $xsfallback,
                   DEFAULT_TYPE => $opt_t,
                   NAME =>         $module,
                   NAMES =>        \@const_specs,
  print XS "#include \"$constscfname\"\n";

my $prefix = defined $opt_p ? "PREFIX = $opt_p" : '';

# Now switch from C to XS by issuing the first MODULE declaration:
print XS <<"END";

MODULE = $module		PACKAGE = $module		$prefix


# If a constant() function was #included then output a corresponding
# XS declaration:
print XS "INCLUDE: $constsxsfname\n" unless $opt_c;

print XS <<"END" if $opt_g;

    /* If any of the fields in the my_cxt_t struct need
       to be initialised, do it here.


foreach (sort keys %const_xsub) {
    print XS <<"END";
char *

#ifdef $_
	RETVAL = $_;
	croak("Your vendor has not defined the $module macro $_");



my %seen_decl;
my %typemap;

sub print_decl {
  my $fh = shift;
  my $decl = shift;
  my ($type, $name, $args) = @$decl;
  return if $seen_decl{$name}++; # Need to do the same for docs as well?

  my @argnames = map {$_->[1]} @$args;
  my @argtypes = map { normalize_type( $_->[0], 1 ) } @$args;
  if ($opt_k) {
    s/^\s*const\b\s*// for @argtypes;
  my @argarrays = map { $_->[4] || '' } @$args;
  my $numargs = @$args;
  if ($numargs and $argtypes[-1] eq '...') {
    $argnames[-1] = '...';
  local $" = ', ';
  $type = normalize_type($type, 1);

  print $fh <<"EOP";


  for my $arg (0 .. $numargs - 1) {
    print $fh <<"EOP";
	$argtypes[$arg]	$argnames[$arg]$argarrays[$arg]

sub print_tievar_subs {
  my($fh, $name, $type) = @_;
  print $fh <<END;
_get_$name(IV index, SV *sv) {
    (void)call_pv("$module\::_get_$name", G_DISCARD);
    return (I32)0;

_set_$name(IV index, SV *sv) {
    (void)call_pv("$module\::_set_$name", G_DISCARD);
    return (I32)0;


sub print_tievar_xsubs {
  my($fh, $name, $type) = @_;
  print $fh <<END;
	SV* sv
	struct ufuncs uf;
	uf.uf_val = &_get_$name;
	uf.uf_set = &_set_$name;
	uf.uf_index = (IV)&_get_$name;
	sv_magic(sv, 0, 'U', (char*)&uf, sizeof(uf));

	$type THIS = NO_INIT
	THIS = $name;

	$type THIS
	$name = THIS;


sub print_accessors {
  my($fh, $name, $struct) = @_;
  return unless defined $struct && $name !~ /\s|_ANON/;
  $name = normalize_type($name);
  my $ptrname = normalize_type("$name *");
  print $fh <<"EOF";

MODULE = $module		PACKAGE = ${name}		$prefix

$name *
	$name THIS = NO_INIT
	if (sv_derived_from(ST(0), "$name")) {
	    STRLEN len;
	    char *s = SvPV((SV*)SvRV(ST(0)), len);
	    if (len != sizeof(THIS))
		croak("Size \%d of packed data != expected \%d",
			len, sizeof(THIS));
	    RETVAL = ($name *)s;
	    croak("THIS is not of type $name");

	char *CLASS = NO_INIT
	Zero((void*)&RETVAL, sizeof(RETVAL), char);

MODULE = $module		PACKAGE = ${name}Ptr		$prefix

  my @items = @$struct;
  while (@items) {
    my $item = shift @items;
    if ($item->[0] =~ /_ANON/) {
      if (defined $item->[2]) {
	push @items, map [
	  @$_[0, 1], "$item->[2]_$_->[2]", "$item->[2].$_->[2]",
	], @{ $structs{$item->[0]} };
      } else {
	push @items, @{ $structs{$item->[0]} };
    } else {
      my $type = normalize_type($item->[0]);
      my $ttype = $structs{$type} ? normalize_type("$type *") : $type;
      print $fh <<"EOF";
$item->[2](THIS, __value = NO_INIT)
	$ptrname THIS
	$type __value
    PROTOTYPE: \$;\$
	if (items > 1)
	    THIS->$item->[-1] = __value;
	RETVAL = @{[
	    $type eq $ttype ? "THIS->$item->[-1]" : "&(THIS->$item->[-1])"


sub accessor_docs {
  my($name, $struct) = @_;
  return unless defined $struct && $name !~ /\s|_ANON/;
  $name = normalize_type($name);
  my $ptrname = $name . 'Ptr';
  my @items = @$struct;
  my @list;
  while (@items) {
    my $item = shift @items;
    if ($item->[0] =~ /_ANON/) {
      if (defined $item->[2]) {
	push @items, map [
	  @$_[0, 1], "$item->[2]_$_->[2]", "$item->[2].$_->[2]",
	], @{ $structs{$item->[0]} };
      } else {
	push @items, @{ $structs{$item->[0]} };
    } else {
      push @list, $item->[2];
  my $methods = (join '(...)>, C<', @list) . '(...)';

  my $pod = <<"EOF";
#=head2 Object and class methods for C<$name>/C<$ptrname>
#The principal Perl representation of a C object of type C<$name> is an
#object of class C<$ptrname> which is a reference to an integer
#representation of a C pointer.  To create such an object, one may use
#a combination
#  my \$buffer = $name->new();
#  my \$obj = \$buffer->_to_ptr();
#This exercises the following two methods, and an additional class
#C<$name>, the internal representation of which is a reference to a
#packed string with the C structure.  Keep in mind that \$buffer should
#better survive longer than \$obj.
#=item C<\$object_of_type_$name-E<gt>_to_ptr()>
#Converts an object of type C<$name> to an object of type C<$ptrname>.
#=item C<$name-E<gt>new()>
#Creates an empty object of type C<$name>.  The corresponding packed
#string is zeroed out.
#=item C<$methods>
#return the current value of the corresponding element if called
#without additional arguments.  Set the element to the supplied value
#(and return the new value) if called with an additional argument.
#Applicable to objects of type C<$ptrname>.
  $pod =~ s/^\#//gm;
  return $pod;

# Should be called before any actual call to normalize_type().
sub get_typemap {
  # We do not want to read ./typemap by obvios reasons.
  my @tm =  qw(../../../typemap ../../typemap ../typemap);
  my $stdtypemap =  "$Config::Config{privlib}/ExtUtils/typemap";
  unshift @tm, $stdtypemap;
  my $proto_re = "[" . quotemeta('\$%&*@;') . "]" ;

  # Start with useful default values
  $typemap{float} = 'T_NV';

  foreach my $typemap (@tm) {
    next unless -e $typemap ;
    # skip directories, binary files etc.
    warn " Scanning $typemap\n";
    warn("Warning: ignoring non-text typemap file '$typemap'\n"), next
      unless -T $typemap ;
    open(TYPEMAP, "<", $typemap)
      or warn ("Warning: could not open typemap file '$typemap': $!\n"), next;
    my $mode = 'Typemap';
    while (<TYPEMAP>) {
      next if /^\s*\#/;
      if (/^INPUT\s*$/)   { $mode = 'Input'; next; }
      elsif (/^OUTPUT\s*$/)  { $mode = 'Output'; next; }
      elsif (/^TYPEMAP\s*$/) { $mode = 'Typemap'; next; }
      elsif ($mode eq 'Typemap') {
	next if /^\s*($|\#)/ ;
	my ($type, $image);
	if ( ($type, $image) =
	     # This may reference undefined functions:
	     and not ($image eq 'T_PACKED' and $typemap eq $stdtypemap)) {
	  $typemap{normalize_type($type)} = $image;
    close(TYPEMAP) or die "Cannot close $typemap: $!";
  %std_types = %types_seen;
  %types_seen = ();

sub normalize_type {		# Second arg: do not strip const's before \*
  my $type = shift;
  my $do_keep_deep_const = shift;
  # If $do_keep_deep_const this is heuristic only
  my $keep_deep_const = ($do_keep_deep_const ? '\b(?![^(,)]*\*)' : '');
  my $ignore_mods
    = "(?:\\b(?:(?:__const__|const)$keep_deep_const|static|inline|__inline__)\\b\\s*)*";
  if ($do_keep_deep_const) {	# Keep different compiled /RExen/o separately!
    $type =~ s/$ignore_mods//go;
  else {
    $type =~ s/$ignore_mods//go;
  $type =~ s/([^\s\w])/ $1 /g;
  $type =~ s/\s+$//;
  $type =~ s/^\s+//;
  $type =~ s/\s+/ /g;
  $type =~ s/\* (?=\*)/*/g;
  $type =~ s/\. \. \./.../g;
  $type =~ s/ ,/,/g;
    unless $type eq '...' or $type eq 'void' or $std_types{$type};

my $need_opaque;

sub assign_typemap_entry {
  my $type = shift;
  my $otype = $type;
  my $entry;
  if ($tmask and $type =~ /$tmask/) {
    print "Type $type matches -o mask\n" if $opt_d;
    $entry = (td_is_struct($type) ? "T_OPAQUE_STRUCT" : "T_PTROBJ");
  elsif ($typedef_rex and $type =~ s/($typedef_rex)/$typedefs_pre{$1}/go) {
    $type = normalize_type $type;
    print "Type mutation via typedefs: $otype ==> $type\n" if $opt_d;
    $entry = assign_typemap_entry($type);
  # XXX good do better if our UV happens to be long long
  return "T_NV" if $type =~ /^(unsigned\s+)?long\s+(long|double)\z/;
  $entry ||= $typemap{$otype}
    || (td_is_struct($type) ? "T_OPAQUE_STRUCT" : "T_PTROBJ");
  $typemap{$otype} = $entry;
  $need_opaque = 1 if $entry eq "T_OPAQUE_STRUCT";
  return $entry;

for (@vdecls) {
  print_tievar_xsubs(\*XS, $_, $vdecl_hash{$_});

if ($opt_x) {
  for my $decl (@$fdecls_parsed) { print_decl(\*XS, $decl) }
  if ($opt_a) {
    while (my($name, $struct) = each %structs) {
      print_accessors(\*XS, $name, $struct);

close XS;

if (%types_seen) {
  my $type;
  warn "Writing $ext$modpname/typemap\n";
  open TM, ">", "typemap" or die "Cannot open typemap file for write: $!";

  for $type (sort keys %types_seen) {
    my $entry = assign_typemap_entry $type;
    print TM $type, "\t" x (5 - int((length $type)/8)), "\t$entry\n"

  print TM <<'EOP' if $need_opaque; # Older Perls do not have correct entry
	if (sv_derived_from($arg, \"${ntype}\")) {
	    STRLEN len;
	    char  *s = SvPV((SV*)SvRV($arg), len);

	    if (len != sizeof($var))
		croak(\"Size %d of packed data != expected %d\",
			len, sizeof($var));
	    $var = *($type *)s;
	    croak(\"$var is not of type ${ntype}\")
	sv_setref_pvn($arg, \"${ntype}\", (char *)&$var, sizeof($var));

  close TM or die "Cannot close typemap file for write: $!";

} # if( ! $opt_X )

warn "Writing $ext$modpname/Makefile.PL\n";
open(PL, ">", "Makefile.PL") || die "Can't create $ext$modpname/Makefile.PL: $!\n";

my $prereq_pm = '';

if ( $compat_version < 5.006002 and $new_test )
  $prereq_pm .= q%'Test::More'  =>  0, %;
elsif ( $compat_version < 5.006002 )
  $prereq_pm .= q%'Test'        =>  0, %;

if (!$opt_X and $use_xsloader)
  $prereq_pm .= q%'XSLoader'    =>  0, %;

print PL <<"END";
use $compat_version;
use ExtUtils::MakeMaker;
# See lib/ExtUtils/MakeMaker.pm for details of how to influence
# the contents of the Makefile that is written.
    NAME              => '$module',
    VERSION_FROM      => '$modpmname', # finds \$VERSION, requires EU::MM from perl >= 5.5
    PREREQ_PM         => {$prereq_pm}, # e.g., Module::Name => 1.1
    ABSTRACT_FROM     => '$modpmname', # retrieve abstract from module
    AUTHOR            => '$author <$email>',
    #LICENSE           => 'perl',
    #Value must be from legacy list of licenses here
if (!$opt_X) { # print C stuff, unless XS is disabled
  $opt_F = '' unless defined $opt_F;
  my $I = (((glob '*.h') || (glob '*.hh')) ? '-I.' : '');
  my $Ihelp = ($I ? '-I. ' : '');
  my $Icomment = ($I ? '' : <<EOC);
	# Insert -I. if you add *.h files later:

  print PL <<END;
    LIBS              => ['$extralibs'], # e.g., '-lm'
    DEFINE            => '$opt_F', # e.g., '-DHAVE_SOMETHING'
$Icomment    INC               => '$I', # e.g., '${Ihelp}-I/usr/include/other'

  my $C = grep {$_ ne "$modfname.c"}
    (glob '*.c'), (glob '*.cc'), (glob '*.C');
  my $Cpre = ($C ? '' : '# ');
  my $Ccomment = ($C ? '' : <<EOC);
	# Un-comment this if you add C files to link with later:

  print PL <<END;
$Ccomment    ${Cpre}OBJECT            => '\$(O_FILES)', # link all the C files too
} # ' # Grr
print PL ");\n";
if (!$opt_c) {
  my $generate_code =
    WriteMakefileSnippet ( C_FILE =>       $constscfname,
                           XS_FILE =>      $constsxsfname,
                           DEFAULT_TYPE => $opt_t,
                           NAME =>         $module,
                           NAMES =>        \@const_specs,
  print PL <<"END";
if  (eval {require ExtUtils::Constant; 1}) {
  # If you edit these definitions to change the constants used by this module,
  # you will need to use the generated $constscfname and $constsxsfname
  # files to replace their "fallback" counterparts before distributing your
  # changes.
else {
  use File::Copy;
  use File::Spec;
  foreach my \$file ('$constscfname', '$constsxsfname') {
    my \$fallback = File::Spec->catfile('$fallbackdirname', \$file);
    copy (\$fallback, \$file) or die "Can't copy \$fallback to \$file: \$!";

  eval $generate_code;
  if ($@) {
    warn <<"EOM";
Attempting to test constant code in $ext$modpname/Makefile.PL:
gave unexpected error $@
Please report the circumstances of this bug in h2xs version $H2XS_VERSION
using the issue tracker at https://github.com/Perl/perl5/issues.
  } else {
    my $fail;

    foreach my $file ($constscfname, $constsxsfname) {
      my $fallback = File::Spec->catfile($fallbackdirname, $file);
      if (compare($file, $fallback)) {
        warn << "EOM";
Files "$ext$modpname/$fallbackdirname/$file" and "$ext$modpname/$file" differ.
    if ($fail) {
      warn fill ('','', <<"EOM") . "\n";
It appears that the code in $ext$modpname/Makefile.PL does not autogenerate
the files $ext$modpname/$constscfname and $ext$modpname/$constsxsfname

Please report the circumstances of this bug in h2xs version $H2XS_VERSION
using the issue tracker at https://github.com/Perl/perl5/issues.
    } else {
      unlink $constscfname, $constsxsfname;
close(PL) || die "Can't close $ext$modpname/Makefile.PL: $!\n";

# Create a simple README since this is a CPAN requirement
# and it doesn't hurt to have one
warn "Writing $ext$modpname/README\n";
open(RM, ">", "README") || die "Can't create $ext$modpname/README:$!\n";
my $thisyear = (gmtime)[5] + 1900;
my $rmhead = "$modpname version $TEMPLATE_VERSION";
my $rmheadeq = "=" x length($rmhead);

my $rm_prereq;

if ( $compat_version < 5.006002 and $new_test )
  $rm_prereq = 'Test::More';
elsif ( $compat_version < 5.006002 )
  $rm_prereq = 'Test';
  $rm_prereq = 'blah blah blah';

print RM <<_RMEND_;

The README is used to introduce the module and provide instructions on
how to install the module, any machine dependencies it may have (for
example C compilers and installed libraries) and any other information
that should be provided before the module is installed.

A README file is required for CPAN modules since CPAN extracts the
README file from a module distribution so that people browsing the
archive can use it get an idea of the modules uses. It is usually a
good idea to provide version information here so that people can
decide whether fixes for the module are worth downloading.


To install this module type the following:

   perl Makefile.PL
   make test
   make install


This module requires these other modules and libraries:



Put the correct copyright and licence information here.


close(RM) || die "Can't close $ext$modpname/README: $!\n";

my $testdir  = "t";
my $testfile = "$testdir/$modpname.t";
unless (-d "$testdir") {
  mkdir "$testdir" or die "Cannot mkdir $testdir: $!\n";
warn "Writing $ext$modpname/$testfile\n";
my $tests = @const_names ? 2 : 1;

open EX, ">", "$testfile" or die "Can't create $ext$modpname/$testfile: $!\n";

print EX <<_END_;
# Before 'make install' is performed this script should be runnable with
# 'make test'. After 'make install' it should work as 'perl $modpname.t'


# change 'tests => $tests' to 'tests => last_test_to_print';

use strict;
use warnings;


my $test_mod = 'Test::More';

if ( $old_test or ($compat_version < 5.006002 and not $new_test ))
  my $test_mod = 'Test';

  print EX <<_END_;
use Test;
BEGIN { plan tests => $tests };
use $module;
ok(1); # If we made it this far, we're ok.


   if (@const_names) {
     my $const_names = join " ", @const_names;
     print EX <<'_END_';

my $fail;
foreach my $constname (qw(

     print EX wrap ("\t", "\t", $const_names);
     print EX (")) {\n");

     print EX <<_END_;
  next if (eval "my \\\$a = \$constname; 1");
  if (\$\@ =~ /^Your vendor has not defined $module macro \$constname/) {
    print "# pass: \$\@";
  } else {
    print "# fail: \$\@";
    \$fail = 1;
if (\$fail) {
  print "not ok 2\\n";
} else {
  print "ok 2\\n";

  print EX <<_END_;
use Test::More tests => $tests;
BEGIN { use_ok('$module') };


   if (@const_names) {
     my $const_names = join " ", @const_names;
     print EX <<'_END_';

my $fail = 0;
foreach my $constname (qw(

     print EX wrap ("\t", "\t", $const_names);
     print EX (")) {\n");

     print EX <<_END_;
  next if (eval "my \\\$a = \$constname; 1");
  if (\$\@ =~ /^Your vendor has not defined $module macro \$constname/) {
    print "# pass: \$\@";
  } else {
    print "# fail: \$\@";
    \$fail = 1;


ok( \$fail == 0 , 'Constants' );

print EX <<_END_;

# Insert your test code below, the $test_mod module is use()ed here so read
# its man page ( perldoc $test_mod ) for help writing this test script.


close(EX) || die "Can't close $ext$modpname/$testfile: $!\n";

unless ($opt_C) {
  warn "Writing $ext$modpname/Changes\n";
  $" = ' ';
  open(EX, ">", "Changes") || die "Can't create $ext$modpname/Changes: $!\n";
  @ARGS = map {/[\s\"\'\`\$*?^|&<>\[\]\{\}\(\)]/ ? "'$_'" : $_} @ARGS;
  print EX <<EOP;
Revision history for Perl extension $module.

$TEMPLATE_VERSION  @{[scalar localtime]}
\t- original version; created by h2xs $H2XS_VERSION with options

  close(EX) || die "Can't close $ext$modpname/Changes: $!\n";

warn "Writing $ext$modpname/MANIFEST\n";
open(MANI, '>', 'MANIFEST') or die "Can't create MANIFEST: $!";
my @files = grep { -f } (<*>, <t/*>, <$fallbackdirname/*>, <$modpmdir/*>);
if (!@files) {
  eval {opendir(D,'.');};
  unless ($@) { @files = readdir(D); closedir(D); }
if (!@files) { @files = map {chomp && $_} `ls`; }
if ($^O eq 'VMS') {
  foreach (@files) {
    # Clip trailing '.' for portability -- non-VMS OSs don't expect it
    # Fix up for case-sensitive file systems
    s/$modfname/$modfname/i && next;
    $_ = "\U$_" if $_ eq 'manifest' or $_ eq 'changes';
    $_ = 'Makefile.PL' if $_ eq 'makefile.pl';
print MANI join("\n",@files), "\n";
close MANI;

close OUT or die "Can't close $file: $!";
chmod 0755, $file or die "Can't reset permissions for $file: $!\n";
exec("$Config{'eunicefix'} $file") if $Config{'eunicefix'} ne ':';
chdir $origdir;