=for comment
DO NOT EDIT. This Pod was generated by Swim v0.1.46.
See http://github.com/ingydotnet/swim-pm#readme

=encoding utf8

=head1 NAME

YAML - YAML Ain't Markup Language™

=head1 VERSION

This document describes L<YAML> version B<1.30>.

=head1 NOTE

This module has been released to CPAN as L<YAML::Old>, and soon YAML.pm will
be changed to just be a frontend interface module for all the various Perl
YAML implementation modules, including YAML::Old.

If you want robust and fast YAML processing using the normal Dump/Load API,
please consider switching to L<YAML::XS>. It is by far the best Perl module
for YAML at this time. It requires that you have a C compiler, since it is
written in C.

If you really need to use this version of YAML.pm it will always be available
as YAML::Old.

The rest of this documentation is left unchanged, until YAML.pm is switched
over to the new UI-only version.


    use YAML;

    # Load a YAML stream of 3 YAML documents into Perl data structures.
    my ($hashref, $arrayref, $string) = Load(<<'...');
    name: ingy       # A Mapping
    age: old
    weight: heavy
    # I should comment that I also like pink, but don't tell anybody.
    favorite colors:
      - red
      - green
      - blue
    - Clark Evans    # A Sequence
    - Oren Ben-Kiki
    - Ingy döt Net
    --- >            # A Block Scalar
    You probably think YAML stands for "Yet Another Markup Language". It
    ain't! YAML is really a data serialization language. But if you want
    to think of it as a markup, that's OK with me. A lot of people try
    to use XML as a serialization format.

    "YAML" is catchy and fun to say. Try it. "YAML, YAML, YAML!!!"

    # Dump the Perl data structures back into YAML.
    print Dump($string, $arrayref, $hashref);

    # YAML::Dump is used the same way you'd use Data::Dumper::Dumper
    use Data::Dumper;
    print Dumper($string, $arrayref, $hashref);

    Since version 1.25 YAML.pm supports trailing comments.


The YAML.pm module implements a YAML Loader and Dumper based on the YAML 1.0
specification. L<http://www.yaml.org/spec/>

YAML is a generic data serialization language that is optimized for human
readability. It can be used to express the data structures of most modern
programming languages. (Including Perl!!!)

For information on the YAML syntax, please refer to the YAML specification.



=item YAML is readable for people.

It makes clear sense out of complex data structures. You should find that YAML
is an exceptional data dumping tool. Structure is shown through indentation,
YAML supports recursive data, and hash keys are sorted by default. In
addition, YAML supports several styles of scalar formatting for different
types of data.

=item YAML is editable.

YAML was designed from the ground up to be an excellent syntax for
configuration files. Almost all programs need configuration files, so why
invent a new syntax for each one? And why subject users to the complexities of
XML or native Perl code?

=item YAML is multilingual.

Yes, YAML supports Unicode. But I'm actually referring to programming
languages. YAML was designed to meet the serialization needs of Perl, Python,
Ruby, Tcl, PHP, Javascript and Java. It was also designed to be interoperable
between those languages. That means YAML serializations produced by Perl can
be processed by Python.

=item YAML is taint safe.

Using modules like Data::Dumper for serialization is fine as long as you can
be sure that nobody can tamper with your data files or transmissions. That's
because you need to use Perl's C<eval()> built-in to deserialize the data.
Somebody could add a snippet of Perl to erase your files.

YAML's parser does not need to eval anything.

=item YAML is full featured.

YAML can accurately serialize all of the common Perl data structures and
deserialize them again without losing data relationships. Although it is not
100% perfect (no serializer is or can be perfect), it fares as well as the
popular current modules: Data::Dumper, Storable, XML::Dumper and Data::Denter.

YAML.pm also has the ability to handle code (subroutine) references and
typeglobs. (Still experimental) These features are not found in Perl's other
serialization modules.

=item YAML is extensible.

The YAML language has been designed to be flexible enough to solve it's own
problems. The markup itself has 3 basic construct which resemble Perl's hash,
array and scalar. By default, these map to their Perl equivalents. But each
YAML node also supports a tagging mechanism (type system) which can cause that
node to be interpreted in a completely different manner. That's how YAML can
support object serialization and oddball structures like Perl's typeglob.



This module, YAML.pm, is really just the interface module for YAML modules
written in Perl. The basic interface for YAML consists of two functions:
C<Dump> and C<Load>. The real work is done by the modules L<YAML::Dumper> and

Different YAML module distributions can be created by subclassing YAML.pm and
YAML::Loader and YAML::Dumper. For example, YAML-Simple consists of
YAML::Simple YAML::Dumper::Simple and YAML::Loader::Simple.

Why would there be more than one implementation of YAML? Well, despite
YAML's offering of being a simple data format, YAML is actually very deep
and complex. Implementing the entirety of the YAML specification is a
daunting task.

For this reason I am currently working on 3 different YAML implementations.


=item YAML

The main YAML distribution will keeping evolving to support the entire YAML
specification in pure Perl. This may not be the fastest or most stable module
though. Currently, YAML.pm has lots of known bugs. It is mostly a great tool
for dumping Perl data structures to a readable form.

=item YAML::Tiny

The point of YAML::Tiny is to strip YAML down to the 90% that people use most
and offer that in a small, fast, stable, pure Perl form. YAML::Tiny will
simply die when it is asked to do something it can't.

=item YAML::Syck

C<libsyck> is the C based YAML processing library used by the Ruby programming
language (and also Python, PHP and Pugs). YAML::Syck is the Perl binding to
C<libsyck>. It should be very fast, but may have problems of its own. It will
also require C compilation.

NOTE: Audrey Tang has actually completed this module and it works great and is
      10 times faster than YAML.pm.


In the future, there will likely be even more YAML modules. Remember, people
other than Ingy are allowed to write YAML modules!


YAML is completely OO under the hood. Still it exports a few useful top level
functions so that it is dead simple to use. These functions just do the OO
stuff for you. If you want direct access to the OO API see the documentation
for YAML::Dumper and YAML::Loader.

=head2 Exported Functions

The following functions are exported by YAML.pm by default. The reason they
are exported is so that YAML works much like Data::Dumper. If you don't want
functions to be imported, just use YAML with an empty import list:

    use YAML ();


=item Dump(list-of-Perl-data-structures)

Turn Perl data into YAML. This function works very much like
Data::Dumper::Dumper(). It takes a list of Perl data structures and dumps them
into a serialized form. It returns a string containing the YAML stream. The
structures can be references or plain scalars.

=item Load(string-containing-a-YAML-stream)

Turn YAML into Perl data. This is the opposite of Dump. Just like Storable's
thaw() function or the eval() function in relation to Data::Dumper. It parses
a string containing a valid YAML stream into a list of Perl data structures.


=head2 Exportable Functions

These functions are not exported by default but you can request them in an
import list like this:

    use YAML qw'freeze thaw Bless';


=item freeze() and thaw()

Aliases to Dump() and Load() for Storable fans. This will also allow YAML.pm
to be plugged directly into modules like POE.pm, that use the freeze/thaw API
for internal serialization.

=item DumpFile(filepath, list)

Writes the YAML stream to a file instead of just returning a string.

=item LoadFile(filepath)

Reads the YAML stream from a file instead of a string.

=item Bless(perl-node, [yaml-node | class-name])

Associate a normal Perl node, with a yaml node. A yaml node is an object tied
to the YAML::Node class. The second argument is either a yaml node that you've
already created or a class (package) name that supports a C<yaml_dump()>
function. A C<yaml_dump()> function should take a perl node and return a yaml
node. If no second argument is provided, Bless will create a yaml node. This
node is not returned, but can be retrieved with the Blessed() function.

Here's an example of how to use Bless. Say you have a hash containing three
keys, but you only want to dump two of them. Furthermore the keys must be
dumped in a certain order. Here's how you do that:

    use YAML qw(Dump Bless);
    $hash = {apple => 'good', banana => 'bad', cauliflower => 'ugly'};
    print Dump $hash;
    Bless($hash)->keys(['banana', 'apple']);
    print Dump $hash;


    apple: good
    banana: bad
    cauliflower: ugly
    banana: bad
    apple: good

Bless returns the tied part of a yaml-node, so that you can call the
YAML::Node methods. This is the same thing that YAML::Node::ynode() returns.
So another way to do the above example is:

    use YAML qw(Dump Bless);
    use YAML::Node;
    $hash = {apple => 'good', banana => 'bad', cauliflower => 'ugly'};
    print Dump $hash;
    $ynode = ynode(Blessed($hash));
    $ynode->keys(['banana', 'apple']);
    print Dump $hash;

Note that Blessing a Perl data structure does not change it anyway. The
extra information is stored separately and looked up by the Blessed node's
memory address.

=item Blessed(perl-node)

Returns the yaml node that a particular perl node is associated with (see
above). Returns undef if the node is not (YAML) Blessed.



YAML options are set using a group of global variables in the YAML namespace.
This is similar to how Data::Dumper works.

For example, to change the indentation width, do something like:

    local $YAML::Indent = 3;

The current options are:


=item DumperClass

You can override which module/class YAML uses for Dumping data.

=item LoadBlessed (since 1.25)

Default is undef (false)

The default was changed in version 1.30.

When set to true, YAML nodes with special tags will be automatocally blessed
into objects:

    - !perl/hash:Foo::Bar
        foo: 42

When loading untrusted YAML, you should disable this option by setting it to
C<0>. This will also disable setting typeglobs when loading them.

You can create any kind of object with YAML. The creation itself is not the
critical part. If the class has a C<DESTROY> method, it will be called once
the object is deleted. An example with File::Temp removing files can be found
at L<https://bugs.debian.org/cgi-bin/bugreport.cgi?bug=862373>

=item LoaderClass

You can override which module/class YAML uses for Loading data.

=item Indent

This is the number of space characters to use for each indentation level when
doing a Dump(). The default is 2.

By the way, YAML can use any number of characters for indentation at any
level. So if you are editing YAML by hand feel free to do it anyway that looks
pleasing to you; just be consistent for a given level.

=item SortKeys

Default is 1. (true)

Tells YAML.pm whether or not to sort hash keys when storing a document.

YAML::Node objects can have their own sort order, which is usually what you
want. To override the YAML::Node order and sort the keys anyway, set
SortKeys to 2.

=item Stringify

Default is 0. (false)

Objects with string overloading should honor the overloading and dump the
stringification of themselves, rather than the actual object's guts.

=item Numify

Default is 0. (false)

Values that look like numbers (integers, floats) will be numified when loaded.

=item UseHeader

Default is 1. (true)

This tells YAML.pm whether to use a separator string for a Dump operation.
This only applies to the first document in a stream. Subsequent documents must
have a YAML header by definition.

=item UseVersion

Default is 0. (false)

Tells YAML.pm whether to include the YAML version on the separator/header.

    --- %YAML:1.0

=item AnchorPrefix

Default is ''.

Anchor names are normally numeric. YAML.pm simply starts with '1' and
increases by one for each new anchor. This option allows you to specify a
string to be prepended to each anchor number.

=item UseCode

Setting the UseCode option is a shortcut to set both the DumpCode and LoadCode
options at once. Setting UseCode to '1' tells YAML.pm to dump Perl code
references as Perl (using B::Deparse) and to load them back into memory using
eval(). The reason this has to be an option is that using eval() to parse
untrusted code is, well, untrustworthy.

=item DumpCode

Determines if and how YAML.pm should serialize Perl code references. By
default YAML.pm will dump code references as dummy placeholders (much like
Data::Dumper). If DumpCode is set to '1' or 'deparse', code references will be
dumped as actual Perl code.

=item LoadCode

LoadCode is the opposite of DumpCode. It tells YAML if and how to
deserialize code references. When set to '1' or 'deparse' it will use
C<eval()>. Since this is potentially risky, only use this option if you know
where your YAML has been.

LoadCode must be enabled also to use the feature of evaluating typeglobs
(because with the typeglob feature you would be able to set the variable
C<$YAML::LoadCode> from a YAML file).

=item Preserve

When set to true, this option tells the Loader to load hashes into YAML::Node
objects. These are tied hashes. This has the effect of remembering the key
order, thus it will be preserved when the hash is dumped again. See
L<YAML::Node> for more information.

=item UseBlock

YAML.pm uses heuristics to guess which scalar style is best for a given node.
Sometimes you'll want all multiline scalars to use the 'block' style. If so,
set this option to 1.

NOTE: YAML's block style is akin to Perl's here-document.

=item UseFold (Not supported anymore since v0.60)

If you want to force YAML to use the 'folded' style for all multiline scalars,
then set $UseFold to 1.

NOTE: YAML's folded style is akin to the way HTML folds text, except smarter.

=item UseAliases

YAML has an alias mechanism such that any given structure in memory gets
serialized once. Any other references to that structure are serialized only as
alias markers. This is how YAML can serialize duplicate and recursive

Sometimes, when you KNOW that your data is nonrecursive in nature, you may
want to serialize such that every node is expressed in full. (ie as a copy
of the original). Setting $YAML::UseAliases to 0 will allow you to do
this. This also may result in faster processing because the lookup
overhead is by bypassed.

THIS OPTION CAN BE DANGEROUS. B<If> your data is recursive, this option
B<will> cause Dump() to run in an endless loop, chewing up your computers
memory. You have been warned.

=item CompressSeries

Default is 1.

Compresses the formatting of arrays of hashes:

      foo: bar
      bar: foo


    - foo: bar
    - bar: foo

Since this output is usually more desirable, this option is turned on
by default.

=item QuoteNumericStrings

Default is 0. (false)

Adds detection mechanisms to encode strings that resemble numbers with
mandatory quoting.

This ensures leading that things like leading/trailing zeros and other
formatting are preserved.



YAML is a full featured data serialization language, and thus has its own

It is important to remember that although YAML is heavily influenced by Perl
and Python, it is a language in its own right, not merely just a
representation of Perl structures.

YAML has three constructs that are conspicuously similar to Perl's hash,
array, and scalar. They are called mapping, sequence, and string respectively.
By default, they do what you would expect. But each instance may have an
explicit or implicit tag (type) that makes it behave differently. In this
manner, YAML can be extended to represent Perl's Glob or Python's tuple, or
Ruby's Bigint.


=item stream

    A YAML stream is the full sequence of Unicode characters that a YAML
    parser would read or a YAML emitter would write. A stream may contain
    one or more YAML documents separated by YAML headers.

    a: mapping
    foo: bar
    - a
    - sequence

=item document

A YAML document is an independent data structure representation within a
stream. It is a top level node. Each document in a YAML stream must begin with
a YAML header line. Actually the header is optional on the first document.

    This: top level mapping
        - a
        - YAML
        - document

=item header

A YAML header is a line that begins a YAML document. It consists of three
dashes, possibly followed by more info. Another purpose of the header line is
that it serves as a place to put top level tag and anchor information.

    --- !recursive-sequence &001
    - * 001
    - * 001

=item node

A YAML node is the representation of a particular data structure. Nodes may
contain other nodes. (In Perl terms, nodes are like scalars. Strings,
arrayrefs and hashrefs. But this refers to the serialized format, not the in-
memory structure.)

=item tag

This is similar to a type. It indicates how a particular YAML node
serialization should be transferred into or out of memory. For instance a
Foo::Bar object would use the tag 'perl/Foo::Bar':

    - !perl/Foo::Bar
        foo: 42
        bar: stool

=item collection

A collection is the generic term for a YAML data grouping. YAML has two types
of collections: mappings and sequences. (Similar to hashes and arrays)

=item mapping

A mapping is a YAML collection defined by unordered key/value pairs with
unique keys. By default YAML mappings are loaded into Perl hashes.

    a mapping:
        foo: bar
        two: times two is 4

=item sequence

A sequence is a YAML collection defined by an ordered list of elements. By
default YAML sequences are loaded into Perl arrays.

    a sequence:
        - one bourbon
        - one scotch
        - one beer

=item scalar

A scalar is a YAML node that is a single value. By default YAML scalars are
loaded into Perl scalars.

    a scalar key: a scalar value

YAML has many styles for representing scalars. This is important because
varying data will have varying formatting requirements to retain the optimum
human readability.

=item plain scalar

A plain scalar is unquoted. All plain scalars are automatic candidates for
"implicit tagging". This means that their tag may be determined automatically
by examination. The typical uses for this are plain alpha strings, integers,
real numbers, dates, times and currency.

    - a plain string
    - -42
    - 3.1415
    - 12:34
    - 123 this is an error

=item single quoted scalar

This is similar to Perl's use of single quotes. It means no escaping except
for single quotes which are escaped by using two adjacent single quotes.

    - 'When I say ''\n'' I mean "backslash en"'

=item double quoted scalar

This is similar to Perl's use of double quotes. Character escaping can be

    - "This scalar\nhas two lines, and a bell -->\a"

=item folded scalar

This is a multiline scalar which begins on the next line. It is indicated by a
single right angle bracket. It is unescaped like the single quoted scalar.
Line folding is also performed.

    - >
     This is a multiline scalar which begins on
     the next line. It is indicated by a single
     carat. It is unescaped like the single
     quoted scalar. Line folding is also

=item block scalar

This final multiline form is akin to Perl's here-document except that (as in
all YAML data) scope is indicated by indentation. Therefore, no ending marker
is required. The data is verbatim. No line folding.

    - |
        QTY  DESC          PRICE  TOTAL
        ---  ----          -----  -----
          1  Foo Fighters  $19.95 $19.95
          2  Bar Belles    $29.95 $59.90

=item parser

A YAML processor has four stages: parse, load, dump, emit.

A parser parses a YAML stream. YAML.pm's Load() function contains a parser.

=item loader

The other half of the Load() function is a loader. This takes the information
from the parser and loads it into a Perl data structure.

=item dumper

The Dump() function consists of a dumper and an emitter. The dumper walks
through each Perl data structure and gives info to the emitter.

=item emitter

The emitter takes info from the dumper and turns it into a YAML stream.

NOTE: In YAML.pm the parserI<loader and the dumper>emitter code are currently
      very closely tied together. In the future they may be broken into
      separate stages.


For more information please refer to the immensely helpful YAML specification
available at L<http://www.yaml.org/spec/>.


The L<YAML::Shell> distribution provides script called 'ysh', the YAML shell.
ysh provides a simple, interactive way to play with YAML. If you type in Perl
code, it displays the result in YAML. If you type in YAML it turns it into
Perl code.

To run ysh, (assuming you installed it along with YAML.pm) simply type:

    ysh [options]

Please read the C<ysh> documentation for the full details. There are lots
of options.


If you find a bug in YAML, please try to recreate it in the YAML Shell with
logging turned on ('ysh -L'). When you have successfully reproduced the bug,
please mail the LOG file to the author (ingy@cpan.org).

WARNING: This is still B<ALPHA> code. Well, most of this code has been around
for years...

BIGGER WARNING: YAML.pm has been slow in the making, but I am committed to
having top notch YAML tools in the Perl world. The YAML team is close to
finalizing the YAML 1.1 spec. This version of YAML.pm is based off of a very
old pre 1.0 spec. In actuality there isn't a ton of difference, and this
YAML.pm is still fairly useful. Things will get much better in the future.


L<http://lists.sourceforge.net/lists/listinfo/yaml-core> is the mailing list.
This is where the language is discussed and designed.

L<http://www.yaml.org> is the official YAML website.

L<http://www.yaml.org/spec/> is the YAML 1.2 specification.

L<http://yaml.kwiki.org> is the official YAML wiki.

=head1 SEE ALSO


=item * L<YAML::XS>


=head1 AUTHOR

Ingy döt Net <ingy@cpan.org>


Copyright 2001-2020. Ingy döt Net.

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
the same terms as Perl itself.

See L<http://www.perl.com/perl/misc/Artistic.html>