=encoding utf8

=head1 TITLE

Synopsis 12: Objects

=head1 AUTHORS

    Larry Wall <larry@wall.org>

=head1 VERSION

    Created: 27 Oct 2004

    Last Modified: 5 Nov 2010
    Version: 111

=head1 Overview

This synopsis summarizes Apocalypse 12, which discusses object-oriented
programming.

=head1 Classes

A class is a module declared with the C<class> keyword.  As with
modules, the public storage, interface, and name of the class is
represented by a package and its name, which is usually (but not
necessarily) a global name.

Taken as an object, a class represents all of the possible values of
its type, and the class object can thus be used as a proxy for any
"real" object of that type in calculating what a generic object of
that type can do.  The class object is an object, but it is not a
Class, because there is no mandatory Class class in Perl 6.  We wish
to support both class-based and prototype-based OO programming.
So all metaprogramming is done through the current object's C<HOW>
object, which can delegate metaprogramming to any metamodel it likes.
However, by default, objects derived from C<Mu> support a fairly
standard class-based model.

There are two basic class declaration syntaxes:

    class Foo;          # rest of file is class definition
    has $.foo;

    class Bar { has $.bar }     # block is class definition

The first form is allowed only as the first declaration in a compilation
unit (that is, file or eval string).

If the class body begins with a statement whose main operator is a
single C<< prefix:<...> >> (yada) listop, the class name is introduced
without a definition, and a second declaration of that class in the
same scope does not complain about redefinition.  (Statement modifiers
are allowed on such a C<...> operator.)  Thus you may
forward-declare your classes:

    class A {...}     # introduce A as a class name without definition
    class B {...}     # introduce B as a class name without definition

    my A $root .= new(:a(B));

    class A {
        has B $.a;
    }

    class B {
        has A $.b;
    }

As this example demonstrates, this allows for mutually recursive class
definitions (though, of course, it can't allow recursive inheritance).

It is also possible to extend classes via the C<augment> declarator,
but that is considered somewhat antisocial and should not be used
for forward declarations.

[Conjecture: we may also allow the C<proto> and C<multi> declarator modifiers
on class definitions to explicitly declare classes with multiple bodies
participating in a single definition intentionally.]

A named class declaration can occur as part of an expression, just like
named subroutine declarations.

Classes are primarily for instance management, not code reuse.
Consider using roles when you simply want to factor out
common code.

Perl 6 supports multiple inheritance, anonymous classes, and autoboxing.

All public method calls are "virtual" in the C++ sense.  More
surprisingly, any class name mentioned in a method is also considered
virtual, that is, polymorphic on the actual type of the object.

You may derive from any built-in type, but the derivation of a low-level
type like C<int> may only add behaviors, not change the representation.
Use composition and/or delegation to change the representation.

Since there are no barewords in Perl 6, bare class names must be
predeclared.  You can predeclare a stub class and fill it in later
just as you would a subroutine.

You can force interpretation of a name as a class or type name using
the C<::> prefix.  In an rvalue context the C<::> prefix is a no-op,
but in a declarational context, it binds a new type name within the
declaration's scope along with anything else being declared by the declaration.

Without a C<my> or other scoping declarator, a bare C<class>
declarator declares an C<our> declarator, that is, a name within
the current package.  Since class files begin parsing in the
C<GLOBAL> package, the first class declaration in the file installs
itself as a global name, and subsequent declarations then install
themselves into the current class rather than the global package.

Hence, to declare an inner class in the current package (or module, or
class), use C<our class> or just C<class>.  To declare a lexically
scoped class, use C<my class>.  Class names are always searched
for from innermost scopes to outermost.  As with an initial C<::>,
the presence of a C<::> within the name does not imply globalness
(unlike in Perl 5).  So the outward search can look in children
of the searched namespaces.

Class traits are set using C<is>:

    class MyStruct is rw {...}

An "isa" is just a trait that happens to be another class:

    class Dog is Mammal {...}

MI is specified with multiple C<is> modifiers:

    class Dog is Mammal is Pet {...}

Roles use C<does> instead of C<is>:

    class Dog is Mammal does Pet {...}

You may put these inside as well by use of the C<also> declarator:

    class Dog {
        also is Mammal;
        also does Pet;
        ...
    }

(However, the C<also> declarator is primarily intended for use
in roles, to distinguish class traits that might not be properly
understood as generic when placed in the role header, which tends to
communicate the false impression that the trait in question is to be
applied directly to the role rather than to the composed class.)

Every object (including any class-based object) delegates to an instance
of its metaclass.  You can get at the metaclass of any object via the
C<HOW> method, which returns an instance of the metaclass.  A "class"
object is just considered an "empty" instance in Perl 6, more properly
called a "prototype" or "generic" object, or just "type object".
Perl 6 doesn't really have any classes named C<Class>.  Types of all
kinds are instead named via these undefined type objects, which are
considered to have exactly the same type as an instantiated version of
themsleves.  But such type objects are inert, and do not manage the
state of class instances.

The actual object that manages instances is the metaclass object pointed
to by the C<HOW> syntax.  So when you say "C<Dog>", you're referring to
both a package and a type object, the latter of which points to the
object representing the class via C<HOW>.  The type object
differs from an instance object not by having a different
type but rather in the extent to which it is defined.  Some objects
may tell you that they are defined, while others may tell you that
they are undefined.  That's up to the object, and depends on how the
metaclass chooses to dispatch the C<.defined> method.

The notation C<^Dog> is syntactic sugar for C<Dog.HOW()>, so C<^> can be
considered the "class" sigil when you want to talk about the current
metaclass instance.

Classes are open and non-final by default, but may easily be closed
or finalized not by themselves but by the entire application, provided
nobody issued an explicit compile-time request that the class stay open
or non-final.  (Or a site policy could close any applications that use
the policy.)  Platforms that do dynamic loading of sub-applications
probably don't want to close or finalize classes wholesale, however.

Roles take on some of the compile-time function of closed classes,
so you should probably use those instead anyway.

A private class can be declared using C<my>; most privacy issues are
handled with lexical scoping in Perl 6.  The fact that importation
is lexical by default also means that any names your class imports
are also private by default.

Class declarations (in particular, role composition) are strictly
compile time statements.  In particular, if a class declaration appears
inside a nested scope, the class declaration is constrained to compose
in exactly the same way on any possible execution.  All named roles and
superclasses must be bound as non-rebindable readonly values; any
parameters to traits will be evaluated only in a non-cloning context.
Names bound by the class declaration are made non-rebindable and read
only so they may be used as superclasses.

In an anonymous class declaration, C<::> by itself may represent the
anonymous class name if desired:

    class {...}                # ok
    class is Mammal {...}      # WRONG
    class :: is Mammal {...}   # ok
    class { is Mammal; ...}    # also ok

=head1 Methods

Methods are routines declared in a class with the C<method> keyword:

    method doit ($a, $b, $c) { ... }
    method doit ($self: $a, $b, $c) { ... }
    method doit (MyName $self: $a, $b, $c) { ... }
    method doit (::?CLASS $self: $a, $b, $c) { ... }

Declaration of the invocant is optional.  You may always access the
current invocant using the keyword C<self>.  You need not declare the
invocant's type, since the lexical class of the invocant is known in any
event because methods must be declared in the class of the invocant,
though of course the actual (virtual) type may be a derived type of
the lexical type.  You could declare a more restrictive type, but
that would probably be a bad thing for proper polymorphism.  You may
explicitly type the invocant with the lexical type, but any check for
that will be optimized away.  (The current lexically-determined class
may always be named as C<::?CLASS> even in anonymous classes or roles.)

To mark an explicit invocant, just put a colon after it:

    method doit ($x: $a, $b, $c) { ... }

If you declare an explicit invocant for an Array type using an array variable,
you may use that directly in list context to produce its elements

    method push3 (@x: $a, $b, $c) { ... any(@x) ... }

Note that the C<self> function is not context sensitive and thus always
returns the current object as a single item even in list context.
Hence if your current object happens to be an array but you did not
declare it with an explicit array variable, you need to explicitly
access the elements of the array somehow:

    any(self)     # WRONG
    any(self[])   # okay
    any(@(self))  # okay
    any(@self)    # WRONG unless you declared @self yourself

Private methods are declared using C<!>:

    method !think (Brain $self: $thought)

(Such methods are completely invisible to ordinary method calls, and are
in fact called with a different syntax that uses C<!> in place of the C<.>
character.  See below.)

Unlike with most other declarations, C<method> declarations do not
default to C<our> semantics, or even C<my> semantics, but rather
C<has> semantics.  So instead of installing a symbol into a lexical
or package symbol table, they merely install a public or private
method in the current class or role via calls to its metaobject.
(Likewise for C<submethod> declarations--see L</Submethods> below.)

Use of an explicit C<has> declarator has no effect on the declaration.
You may install additional aliases to the method in the lexical scope
using C<my> or in the current package using C<our>.  These aliases
are named with C<&foo> notation and return a C<Routine> object that
may be called as a subroutine, in which case you must supply the
expected invocant as the first argument.

To call an ordinary method with ordinary method-dispatch semantics,
use either the dot notation or indirect object notation:

    $obj.doit(1,2,3)
    doit $obj: 1,2,3

Indirect object notation now requires a colon after the invocant,
even if there are no arguments after the colon:

    $handle.close;
    close $handle:;

To reject method call and only consider subs, simply omit the colon
from the invocation line:

    close($handle);
    close $handle;

However, here the built-in B<IO> class defines C<method close () is export>,
which puts a C<multi sub close (IO)> in scope by default.  Thus if the
C<$handle> evaluates to an C<IO> object, then the two subroutine calls above
are still translated into method calls.

Dot notation can omit the invocant if it's in C<$_>:

    .doit(1,2,3)

Note that there is no corresponding notation for private methods.

    !doit(1,2,3)        # WRONG, would be parsed as not(doit(1,2,3))
    self!doit(1,2,3)    # okay

There are several forms of indirection for the method name.  You can
replace the identifier with a quoted string, and it will be evaluated
as a quote and then the result of that is used as the method name.

    $obj."$methodname"(1,2,3)   # use contents of $methodname as method name
    $obj.'$methodname'(1,2,3)   # no interpolation; call method with $ in name!

    $obj!"$methodname"()          # indirect call to private method name

As an aid to catching Perl 5 brainos, this quoted form always requires
a parenthesized argument list to distinguish it from code that looks
like a Perl 5 concatenation.

Within an interpolation, the double-quoted form may not contain
whitespace.  This does what the user expects in the common case of
a quoted string ending with a period:

    say "Foo = $foo.";

If you really want to call a method with whitespace, you may work
around this restriction with a closure interpolation:

    say "Foo = {$foo."a method"()}";  # OK

[Note: to help catch the mistaken use of C<< infix:<.> >> as a string
concatenation operator, Perl 6 will warn you about "useless use of
quotes" at compile time if the string inside quotes is an identifier.
(It does not warn about non-identifier strings, but such strings are
likely to produce missing method errors at run time in any case.)
Also, if there is whitespace around an intended C<.> concatenation,
it cannot be parsed as a method call at all; instead it fails at
compile time because standard Perl 6 has a pseudo C<< infix:<.> >> operator
that always fails at compile time.]

For situations where you already have a method located, you
can use a simple scalar variable in place of method name:

    $methodobj = $foo ?? &bar !! &baz;
    $obj.$methodobj(1,2,3)

or more succinctly but less readably:

    $obj.$($foo ?? &bar !! &baz)(1,2,3)

The variable must contain a C<Callable> object (usually of type C<Code>),
that is, a closure of some sort.  Regardless of whether the closure was
defined as a method or a sub or a block, the closure is called directly
without any class dispatch; from the closure's point of view, however,
it is always called as a method, with the object as its first argument,
and the rest of the arguments second, third, and so on.   For instance, such
a closure may be used to abstract a "navigational" path through a
data structure without specifying the root of the path till later:

    $locator = -> $root, $x, $y { $root.<foo>[$x]<bar>{$y}[3] }
    $obj.$locator(42,"baz")  # $obj<foo>[42]<bar><baz>[3]

    $locator = { .<here> }
    $obj.$locator            # $obj<here>

As a convenient form of documentation, such a closure may also be written
in the form of an anonymous method:

    $locator = method ($root: $x, $y) { $root.<foo>[$x]<bar>{$y}[3] }
    $obj.$locator(42,"baz")  # $obj<foo>[42]<bar><baz>[3]

    $locator = method { self.<here> }
    $obj.$locator            # $obj<here>

Note however that, like any anonymous closure, an anonymous method
can only be dispatched to directly, like a sub.  You may, of course,
bind an anonymous method to the name of a method in a class's public
interface, in which case it is no longer anonymous, and may be
dispatched to normally via the class.  (And in fact, when the normal
method dispatcher is calling individual candidates in its candidate
list, it calls each candidate as a sub, not as a method, or you'd
end up with recursive dispatchers.)  But fundamentally, there's
no such thing as a method closure.  The C<method> declarator on an
anonymous method has the primary effect of making the declaration
of the invocant optional.  (It also makes it an official C<Routine>
that can be returned from, just as if you'd used C<sub> to declare it.)

Instead of a scalar variable, an array variable may also be used:

    $obj.@candidates(1,2,3)

As with the scalar variant, string method names are not allowed, only
C<Callable> objects, The list is treated as a list of candidates to
call.  After the first successful call the rest of the candidates are
discarded.  Failure of the current candidate is indicated by calling
C<nextwith> or C<nextsame> (see L</Calling sets of methods> below).

Note also that the

    $obj.$candidates(1,2,3)

form may dispatch to a list of candidates if C<$candidates> is either
a list or a special C<Code> object representing a partial dispatch to a
list of candidates.  If C<$candidates> (or any element of C<@candidates>)
is an iterable object it is expanded out recursively until C<Callable>
candidates are found.  The call fails if it hits a candidate that is
not C<Callable>, C<Iterable>, or C<List>.

Another form of indirection relies on the fact that operators are named
using a variant on pair notation, which gives you these forms:

    $x.infix:[$op]($y)
    $x.prefix:[$op]
    $x.postfix:[$op]

Generally you see these with the literal angle bracket form of subscript:

    $a.infix:<*>($b)      # equivalent to $a * $b
    $a.prefix:<++>        # equivalent to ++$a
    $a.postfix:<++>       # equivalent to $a++

If you omit the syntactic category, the call will be dispatched according
to the number of arguments either as "prefix" or as "infix":

    $a.:<+>($b)           # equivalent to $a + $b
    $a.:<++>              # equivalent to ++$a
    $a.:<!>               # equivalent to !$a
    @a.:<[*]>             # equivalent to [*] @a

But it's probably better to spell out the syntactic category when
the actual operator is not obvious:

    $x.infix:[$op]($y)
    $x.prefix:[$op]

You must use a special syntax to call a private method:

    $mybrain!think($pinky)
    self!think($pinky)

For a call on your own private method, you may also use the attribute-ish
form:

    $!think($pinky)     # short for $(self!think($pinky))

Parentheses (or a colon) are required on the dot/bang notations if there
are any arguments (not counting adverbial arguments).  There may be
no space between the method name and the left parenthesis unless you
make use of "unspace":

    .doit       # okay, no arguments
    .doit()     # okay, no arguments
    .doit ()    # ILLEGAL (two terms in a row)
    .doit\ ()   # okay, no arguments, same as .doit() (unspace form)

Note that the named method call forms are special and do not use the dot
form of postfix.  If you attempt to use the postfix operator form, it
will assume you want to call the method with no arguments and then call
the result of I<that>:

    .doit.()    # okay, no arguments *twice*, same as .doit().()
    .doit\ .()  # okay, no arguments *twice*, same as .doit.().() (unspace form)

However, you can turn any of the named forms above into a list
operator by appending a colon:

    .doit: 1,2,3        # okay, three arguments
    .doit(1): 2,3       # okay, one argument plus list
    .doit (): 1,2,3     # ILLEGAL (two terms in a row)

In particular, this allows us to pass a final closure in addition to the
"normal" arguments:

    .doit: { $^a <=> $^b }              # okay
    .doit(): { $^a <=> $^b }            # okay
    .doit(1,2,3): { $^a <=> $^b }       # okay

Normally a space is required after the colon to disambiguate what
follows from a pair that extends the previous name.  However,
names may not be extended with the C<:{}> pair notation, and therefore
it is allowed to drop the space after the colon if the first argument
to the method is a closure.  Hence, any of the above may be written
without the space after the colon:

    .doit:{ $^a <=> $^b }              # okay
    .doit():{ $^a <=> $^b }            # okay
    .doit(1,2,3):{ $^a <=> $^b }       # okay

These are parsed as there were a space there, so the argument list may
continue if the closure is followed by a comma.

In case of ambiguity between indirect object notation and dot form,
the nearest thing wins:

    dothis $obj.dothat: 1,2,3

means

    dothis ($obj.dothat(1,2,3))

and you must say

    dothis ($obj.dothat): 1,2,3

or

    $obj.dothat.dothis: 1,2,3

if you mean the other thing.

Also note that if any term in a list is a bare closure or pointy
sub, it will be considered to be the final argument of its list
unless the closure's right curly is followed immediately by comma
or colon.  In particular, a method call does *not* extend
the list, so you can say:

    @list.grep: { $_ % 2 }.map: { $_ - 1 }.say

and that will be taken as equivalent to

    @list.grep({ $_ % 2 }).map({ $_ - 1 }).say

Since the colon does not require a space in this case, and it looks
slightly odd there anyway, it may be clearer to omit the space to make
the method calls on the right look more like they attach to the term
on the left in one cascade of method calls:

    @list.grep:{ $_ % 2 }.map:{ $_ - 1 }.say

Methods (and subs) may be declared as lvalues with C<is rw>.  You can
use an argumentless C<rw> method anywhere you can use a variable,
including in C<temp> and C<let> statements.  (In fact, you can use an
C<rw> method with arguments as a variable as long as the arguments are
used only to identify the actual value to change, and don't otherwise
have strange side effects that differ between rvalue and lvalue usage.
Setter methods that expect the new value as an argument do not fall
into the well-behaved category, however.)

Method calls on mutable scalars always go to the object contained in
the scalar (autoboxing value types as necessary):

    $result = $object.doit();
    $length = "mystring".codes;

Method calls on non-scalar variables just calls the C<Array>, C<Hash>
or C<Code> object bound to the variable:

    $elems = @array.elems;
    @keys  = %hash.keys;
    $sig   = &sub.signature;

Use the prefix C<VAR> macro on a scalar variable to get at its
underlying C<Scalar> object:

    if VAR($scalar).readonly {...}

C<VAR> is a no-op on a non-scalar variables and values:

    VAR(1);     # 1
    VAR(@x);    # @x

There's also a corresponding C<< postfix:<.VAR> >> macro that can be used
as if it were a method:

    if $scalar.VAR.readonly {...}

(But since it's a macro, C<VAR> is not dispatched as a real method.
To dispatch to a real C<.VAR> method, use the indirect C<$obj."VAR">
form.)

You can also get at the container through the appropriate symbol table:

    if MY::<$scalar>.readonly {...}

=head1 Class methods

Other OO languages give you the ability to declare "class" methods that
either don't need or actively prohibit calls on instances.  Perl 6 gives
you a choice.  If you declare an ordinary method, it can function as a
"class" method when you pass it a type object such as "C<Dog>" regardless
of how defined the prototype object is, as long as the method body doesn't
try to access any information that is undefined in the current instance.

Alternately, you can associate a method with the current metaclass instance,
which as a singleton object knows your package, and can function as a
more traditional "class" method:

    our $count;
    method ^count { return $count }

Such a I<metaclass method> is always delegated to the C<HOW> object
just as methods like C<.does> are, so it's possible to call this as
C<Dog.count> or C<$dog.count>.  However, best practice is probably to
call such a class method as C<Dog.^count> or C<$dog.^count> to make it
clear that it's in its own namespace separate from ordinary methods, and
so that your class method cannot be accidentally overridden by an
ordinary method in a subclass--presuming you don't want to allow for
that possibility.

=head1 Submethods

Submethods are for declaring infrastructural methods that shouldn't
be inherited by subclasses, such as initializers:

    submethod BUILD ($arg) {
        $.attr = $arg;
    }

Apart from the keyword, submethod declaration and call syntax is
identical to method syntax.  You may mix methods and submethods of
the same name within the class hierarchy, but only the methods are
visible to derived classes via inheritance.  A submethod is called
only when a method call is dispatched directly to the current class.

Conjecture: in order to catch spelling errors it is a compile-time
warning to define a submethod in any class that does not inherit the
corresponding method name from some base class.  More importantly, this
would help safeguard Liskov substitutability. (But note that the
standard C<Mu> class already supplies a default C<BUILD> and C<new>.)

=head1 Attributes

Attributes are stored in an opaque datatype, not in a hash.  Not even
the class has to care how they're stored, since they're declared much like
ordinary variables.  Instead of C<my>, use C<has>:

    class Dog is Mammal {
        has $.name = "fido";
        has $.tail is rw;
        has @.legs;
        has $!brain;
        ...
    }

Public attributes have a secondary sigil of "dot", indicating
the automatic generation of an accessor method of the same name.
Private attributes use an exclamation to indicate that no public accessor is
generated.

        has $!brain;

The "true name" of the private variable always has the exclamation, but
much like with C<our> variables, you may declare a lexically scoped alias
to the private variable by saying:

        has $brain;     # also declares $!brain;

As with the C<!> declaration, no accessor is generated.

And any later references to the private variable within the same block
may either use or omit the exclamation, as you wish to emphasize or
ignore the privacy of the variable.  Outside the block, you must use
the C<!> form.  If you declare with the C<!> form, you must use that
form consistently everywhere.  If you declare with the C<.> form, you
also get the private C<!> form as a non-virtual name for the actual
storage location, and you may use either C<!> or C<.> form anywhere
within the class, even if the class is reopened.  Outside the class
you must use the public C<.> form, or rely on a method call (which
can be a private method call, but only for trusted classes).

For public attributes, some traits are copied to the accessor method.
The C<rw> trait causes the generated accessor to be declared C<rw>,
making it an lvalue method.  The default is a read-only accessor.

If you declare the class as C<rw>, then all the class's attributes
default to C<rw>, much like a C struct.

You may write your own accessors to override any or all of the
autogenerated ones.

The attribute variables may be used within instance methods to refer
directly to the attribute values.  Outside the instance methods, the
only access to attributes is through the accessors since an object has
to be specified.  The dot form of attribute variables may be used in
derived classes because the dot form always implies a virtual accessor
call.  Every I<dot> declaration also declares a corresponding private
I<exclamation> storage location, and the exclamation form may be used
only in the actual class, not in derived classes.  Reference to the
internal storage location via C<$!foo> should generally be restricted
to submethods.  Ordinary methods should stick to the C<$.foo> form.

In fact, within submethods, use of the C<$.foo> form on attributes
that are available as C<$!foo> (that is, that are declared directly
by this class) is illegal and produces a dire compile-time warning
(which may be suppressed).  Within a submethod the C<$.foo> form may
only be used on attributes from parent classes, because only the parent
classes' part of the object is guaranteed to be in a consistent state
(because C<BUILDALL> call's the parent classes' C<BUILD> routines
first).  If you attempt to get around this by declaring C<BUILD> as
a method rather than a submethod, that will also be flagged as a dire
(but suppressible) compile-time warning.  (It is I<possible> to define
an inheritable C<BUILD> routine if you have access to all the metadata
for the current class, but it's not easy, and it certainly doesn't
happen by accident just because you change C<submethod> to C<method>.)

Because C<$.foo>, C<@.foo>, C<%.foo>, C<&.foo> are just shorthands of
C<self.foo> with different contexts, the class does not need to declare
any of those as an attribute -- a C<method foo> declaration can work
just as well.

As with the normal method call forms, only dotless parentheses may
contain arguments.  If you use the C<.()> form it will perform an extra
level of indirection after the method call:

    self.foo(1,2,3);    # a regular method call
    self.foo.(1,2,3);   # self.foo().(1,2,3), call .() on closure returned by .foo
    $.foo(1,2,3);       # calls self.foo under $ context
    $.foo.(1,2,3);      # $.foo().(1,2,3), call .() on closure returned by .foo
    &.foo(1,2,3);       # calls self.foo under & context
    &.foo.(1,2,3);      # &.foo().(1,2,3), call .() on closure returned by .foo

Pseudo-assignment to an attribute declaration specifies the default
value.  The value on the right is treated as an implicit closure and
evaluated at object build time, that is, when the object is being
constructed, not when class is being composed.  To refer to a value
computed at compilation or composition time, you can either use a
temporary or a temporal block of some sort:

    has $.r = rand;     # each object gets different random value

    constant $random = rand;
    has $.r = $random;  # every object gets same value

    has $.r = BEGIN { rand };
    has $.r = INIT { rand };
    has $.r = ENTER { rand };
    has $.r = FIRST { rand };
    has $.r = constant $myrand = rand;

When it is called at C<BUILD> time, the topic of the implicit closure
will be the attribute being initialized, while "self" refers to the
entire object being initialized.  The closure will be called at the
end of the C<BUILD> only if the attribute is not otherwise initialized
in either the signature or the body of the C<BUILD>.  The closure
actually defines the body of an anonymous method, so C<self> is available
with whatever attributes are constructed by that point in time (including
all parent attributes).  The initializers are run in order of declaration
within the class, so a given initializer may refer back to an attribute
defined in a preceding C<has> declaration.

Class attributes are declared with either C<my> or C<our>.  The only
difference from ordinary C<my> or C<our> variables is that an accessor
is generated according to the secondary sigil:

    our $.count;        # generates a public read-only .count accessor
    our %!cache is rw;  # generates no public accessor
    my  $.count;        # generates a public read-only .count accessor
    my  %!cache is rw;  # generates no public accessor

=head1 Construction and Initialization

All classes inherit a default C<new> constructor from C<Mu>.  It
expects all arguments to be named parameters initializing attributes of
the same name.  You may write your own C<new> to override the default,
or write constructors with any other name you like.  As in Perl 5,
a constructor is any routine that calls C<bless>.  Unlike in Perl 5,
you call it as a method on the class object (though any object may be
used as a class object), passing the candidate as the first argument.
To bless a hash as in Perl 5, say:

    $object = $class.bless({k1 => $v1, k2 => $v2, ...});

However, the normal way to create a candidate to bless is by calling
C<CREATE> (which by default creates an opaque object):

    $object = $class.bless($class.CREATE(), k1 => $v1, k2 => $v2, ...)
    $object = $class.bless($class.CREATE(), :k1($v1), :k2($v2), ...)  # same

Alternatively, you can pass C<Whatever> and have C<bless> call CREATE
for you.

    $object = $class.bless(*, k1 => $v1, k2 => $v2, ...)

In addition to the candidate positional argument, C<bless> also
allows one or more positional arguments representing autovivifying
type objects.  Such an object looks like a type name followed by a
hash subscript (see "Autovivifying objects" below).  These are used
to initialize superclasses.

Other than the candidate object and any autovivifying type objects,
all arguments to C<bless> must be named arguments, not positional.
Hence, the main purpose of custom constructors is to turn positional
arguments into named arguments for C<bless>.  The C<bless> method
allows an object to be used for its class invocant.  (Your constructor
need not allow this).  In any case, the object is not used as a prototype.
Use C<.clone> instead of C<.bless> if that's what you mean.

Any named arguments to C<bless> are automatically passed to the
C<CREATE> and C<BUILD> routines.  If you wish to pass special options
to the C<CREATE> routine (such as an alternate representation),
call C<CREATE> yourself and then pass the resulting candidate to C<.bless>:

    my $candidate = $class.CREATE(:repr<P6opaque>);
    $object = $class.bless($candidate, :k1($v1), :k2($v2))

For the built-in default C<CREATE> method, C<P6opaque> is the default
representation.  Other possibilities are C<P6hash>, C<P5hash>,
C<P5array>, C<PyDict>, C<Cstruct>, etc.

The C<bless> function automatically calls all appropriate C<BUILD>
routines by calling the C<BUILDALL> routine for the current class,
which initializes the object in least-derived to most-derived order.
C<DESTROY> and C<DESTROYALL> work the same way, only in reverse.

The default C<BUILD> and C<BUILDALL> are inherited from C<Mu>,
so you need to write initialization routines only if you wish to
modify the default behavior.  The C<bless> function automatically
passes the appropriate argument list to the C<BUILD> of its various
parent classes.  If the type of the parent class corresponds to one
of the type objects passed to bless, that type object's argument
list is used.  Otherwise all the arguments to bless are passed to
the parent class's C<BUILD>.  For the final C<BUILD> of the current
object, all the arguments to C<bless> are passed to the C<BUILD>, so
it can deal with any type objects that need special handling.  (It is
allowed to pass type objects that don't correspond to any parent class.)

    class Dog is Animal {...}
    my $pet = Dog.new( :name<Fido>, Animal{ :blood<warm>, :legs(4) } );

Here we are using an autovivifying C<Animal> type object to specify what
the arguments to C<Animal>'s C<BUILD> routine should look like.  (It does
not actually autovivify an C<Animal> apart from the one being created.)

You can clone an object, changing some of the attributes:

    $newdog = $olddog.clone(:trick<RollOver>);

You can write your own C<BUILD> submethod to control initialization.
If you name an attribute as a parameter, that attribute is initialized
directly, so

    submethod BUILD ($!tail, $!legs) {}

is equivalent to

    submethod BUILD ($tail is copy, $legs is copy) {
        $!tail := $tail;
        $!legs := $legs;
    }

Whether you write your own C<BUILD> or not, at the end of the C<BUILD>,
any default attribute values are implicitly copied into any attributes
that haven't otherwise been initialized.  Note that the default C<BUILD>
will only initialize public attributes; you must write your own C<BUILD>
(as above) in order to present private attributes as part of your
initialization API.

=head1 Mutating methods

You can call an in-place mutator method like this:

    @array .= sort;

One handy place for an in-place mutator is to call a constructor on a
variable of a known type:

    my Dog $spot .= new(:tail<LONG>, :legs<SHORT>);

=head1 Calling sets of methods

For any method name, there may be some number of candidate methods
that could handle the request: typically, inherited methods or
multi variants.  The ordinary "dot" operator dispatches
to a method in the standard fashion.  There are also "dot" variants
that call some number of methods with the same name:

    $object.meth(@args)   # calls one method or dies
    $object.?meth(@args)  # calls method if there is one, otherwise Nil
    $object.*meth(@args)  # calls all methods (0 or more)
    $object.+meth(@args)  # calls all methods (1 or more)

The method name may be quoted when disambiguation is needed:

    $object."+meth"(@args)
    $object.'VAR'(@args)

As with ordinary calls, the identifier supplying the literal method
name may be replaced with an interpolated quote to specify the method
name indirectly.  It may also be replaced with an array to specify
the exact list of candidates to be considered:

    my @candidates := $object.WALK(:name<foo>, :breadth, :omit($?CLASS));
    $object.*@candidates(@args);

The C<WALK> method takes these arguments:

    :canonical      # canonical dispatch order
    :ascendant      # most-derived first, like destruction order
    :descendant     # least-derived first, like construction order
    :preorder       # like Perl 5 dispatch
    :breadth        # like multi dispatch

    :super              # only immediate parent classes
    :name<name>         # only classes containing named method declaration
    :omit(Selector)     # only classes that don't match selector
    :include(Selector)  # only classes that match selector

Any method can defer to the next candidate method in the list by
the special functions C<callsame>, C<callwith>, C<nextsame>, and
C<nextwith>.  The "same" variants reuse the original argument list
passed to the current method, whereas the "with" variants allow a
new argument list to be substituted for the rest of the candidates.
The "call" variants dispatch to the rest of the candidates and return
their values to the current method for subsequent processing, whereas
while the "next" variants don't return, but merely defer to the rest
of the candidate list:

    callsame;           # call with the original arguments (return here)
    callwith();         # call with no arguments (return here)
    callwith(1,2,3);    # call with a new set of arguments (return here)
    nextsame;           # redispatch with the original arguments (no return)
    nextwith();         # redispatch with no arguments (no return)
    nextwith(1,2,3);    # redispatch with a new set of arguments (no return)

For dispatches using C<.> and C<.?>, the return value is the
C<Capture> returned by the first method completed without deferring.
(Such a return value may in fact be failure, but it still counts as a
successful call from the standpoint of the dispatcher.)  Likewise the
return value of C<.*> and C<.+> is a list of C<Captures> returned by
those methods that ran to completion without deferring to next method.

It is also possible to trim the candidate list so that the current
call is considered the final candidate.  (This is implicitly the case
already for the dispatch variants that want a single successful call.)
For the multiple call variants, C<lastcall> will cause the dispatcher
to throw away the rest of the candidate list, and the subsequent
return from the current method will produce the final C<Capture>
in the returned list.  (If you were already on the last call of the
candidate list, no candidates are thrown away, only the list.  So
you can't accidentally throw away the wrong list by running off the
end, since the candidate list is ordinarily not thrown away by the
dispatcher until after the last call.)

Since it's possible to be dispatching within more than one candidate
list at a time, these control flow calls are defined to apply only to
the dynamically innermost dispatcher.  If, for instance, you have a
single dispatch to a C<proto> method that then calls into a multiple
dispatch on the C<multi> methods within a class, C<nextsame> within
one of those C<multi>s would go to the next best C<multi>
method within the class, not the next method candidate in the original
single dispatch.  This is not a bad limitation, since dispatch loops
are dynamically scoped; to get to the outermost lists you can "pop"
unwanted candidate lists using C<lastcall>:

    lastcall; nextsame;  # call next in grandparent dispatcher loop

[Conjecture: if necessary, C<lastcall> could have an argument
or invocant to specify which kind of a dispatch loop we think
we're throwing away, in case we're not sure about our context.
This confusion could arise since we use C<nextsame> semantics at
least three different ways: single dispatch, multiple dispatch,
and routine wrapper dispatch.]

=head1 Parallel dispatch

Any of the method call forms may be turned into a hyperoperator by
treating the method call as a postfix:

    @object».meth(@args)   # calls one method on each
    @object».?meth(@args)  # calls method if there is one on each
    @object».*meth(@args)  # calls all methods (0 or more) on each
    @object».+meth(@args)  # calls all methods (1 or more) on each
    @object».=meth(@args)  # calls mutator method on each
    @object»!meth(@args)   # calls private method on each

The return value is a list with exactly the same number of elements
as C<@object>.  Each such return value is a C<Parcel> or C<List> of C<Parcel>
as specified above for the non-hyper "dot" variants.

Hyperoperators treat a junction as a scalar value, so saying:

    $junction».meth(@args);

is just like:

    $junction.meth(@args);

As with other forms of method call, the "meth" above may be replaced
with a quoted string or variable to do various forms of indirection.

Note that, as with any hyper operator, the methods may be evaluated
in any order (although the method results are always returned in the
same order as the list of invocants).  Use an explicit loop if you
want to do something with ordered side effects, such as I/O.

=head1 Multisubs and Multimethods

The "long name" of a subroutine or method includes the type
signature of its invocant arguments.  The "short name" doesn't.

If you put C<multi> in front of any sub declaration, it allows
multiple long names to share a short name, provided all of them are
declared C<multi>, or there is a single prior or outer C<proto> in
the same file that causes all unmarked subs to default to multi in
that lexical scope.  If a sub is not marked with C<multi> and it is
not governed within that same file by a C<proto> of the same short
name, it is considered unique, an I<only> sub.  (An imported C<proto>
can function as such a governing declaration.)

For method declaratoins, the C<proto>, C<multi>, and C<only>
declarations work similarly but not identically.  The explicit
declarations work the same, except that calculation of of governance
and candidate sets proceeds via the inheritance tree rather than via
lexical scoping.  The other difference is that a proto method of a
given short name forcing all unmarked method declarations to assume
multi in all subclasses regardless of which file they are declared in,
unless explicitly overridden via C<only method>.

An C<only> sub (or method) doesn't share with anything outside of it
or declared prior to it.  Only one such sub (or method) can inhabit a
given namespace (lexical scope or class), and it hides any outer subs
(or less-derived methods) of the same short name.  It is illegal for
a C<multi> or C<proto> declaration to share the same scope with an
C<only> declaration of the same short name.

Since they come from a different file, the default C<proto>
declarations provided by Perl from the setting scope do I<not>
automatically set the defaults in the user's scope unless explicitly
imported, so a C<sub> declaration there that happens to be the same
as a setting C<proto> is considered C<only> unless explicitly marked
C<multi>.  (This allows us to add new C<proto> declarations in the
setting without breaking the user's old code.)  In the absence of
such an explicit C<sub> declaration, however, the C<proto> from the
innermost outer lexical scope is used by the compiler in the analysis
of any calls to that short name.  (Since only list operators may be
post-declared, as soon as the compiler sees a non-listop operator it
is free to apply the setting's C<proto> since any user-defined C<only>
version of it must of necessity be declared or imported earlier in
the user's file or not at all.)

A C<proto> always functions as a dispatcher around any C<multi>s
declared after it in the same scope, More specifically, it is the
generic prototype of a dispatcher, which must be instantiated anew
in each scope that has a different candidate list.  (This works
much like type punning from roles to classes.  Or you can think of
this dispatcher as a currying of the proto's code with the candidate
list appropriate to the scope.)  For the sake of discussion, let us
say that there is a declarator equivalent to C<only> that is instead
spelled C<dispatch>.  Generally a user never writes a C<dispatch> sub
(it might not even be allowed); a C<dispatch> is always instantiated
from the governing C<proto>.  A new C<dispatch> sub or method is
autogenerated in any scope that contains C<multi> declarations.
Since C<dispatch> is nearly identical to C<only>, saying C<&foo>
always refers to the innermost visible C<dispatch> or C<only> sub,
never to a C<proto> or C<multi>.  Likewise, C<$obj.can('foo')> will
return the most-derived C<dispatch> or C<only> method.

Within its scope, the signature of a C<proto> also nails down the presumed
order and naming of positional parameters, so that any call to that
short name with named arguments in that scope can presume to rearrange
those arguments into positional parameters based on that information.
(Unrecognized names remain named arguments.)  Any other type information
or traits attached to the C<proto> may also be passed along to the
routines within its scope, so a C<proto> definition can be used to factor
out common traits.  This is particularly useful for establishing
grammatical categories in a grammar by declaring a C<proto> C<token>
or C<proto> C<rule>.  (Perl 6's grammar does this, for instance.)

You can have multiple C<multi> variables of the same name in the
same scope, and they all share the same storage location and type.
These are declared by one C<proto> declaration at the top, in which case
you may leave the C<multi> implicit on the rest of the declarations in
the same scope.  You might do this when you suspect you'll have multiple
declarations of the same variable name (such code might be produced by a
macro or by a code generator, for instance) and you wish to suppress any
possible warnings about redefinition.

In contrast, C<multi> routines can have only one instance of the long
name in any namespace, and that instance hides any outer (or less-derived)
routines with the same long name.  It does not hide any routines with
the same short name but a different long name.  In other words, C<multi>s
with the same short name can come from several different namespaces
provided their long names differ and their short names aren't hidden
by an C<only> or C<proto> declaration in some intermediate scope.

When you call a routine with a particular short name, if there are
multiple visible long names, they are all considered candidates.
They are sorted into an order according to how close the run-time types
of the arguments match up with the declared types of the parameters of
each candidate.  The best candidate is called, unless there's a tie,
in which case the tied candidates are redispatched using any additional
tiebreaker strategies (see below).  For the purpose of this nominal typing,
no constrained type is considered to be a type name; instead the
constrained type is unwound into its base type plus constraint.  Only the
base type upon which the constrained type is based is considered for the
nominal type match (along with the fact that it is constrained).  That
is, if you have a parameter:

    subset Odd of Int where { $_ % 2 }
    proto foo {*}
    multi foo (Odd $i) {...}

it is treated as if you'd instead said:

    multi foo (Int $i where { $_ % 2 }) {...}

Any constrained type is considered to have a base type that is "epsilon"
narrower than the corresponding unconstrained type.  The compile-time
topological sort takes into account the presence of at least one
constraint, but nothing about the number or nature of any additional
constraints.  If we think of Int' as any constrained version of Int,
then Int' is always tighter nominally than Int.  (Int' is a meta-notation,
not Perl 6 syntax.)

The order in which candidates are considered is defined by a
topological sort based on the "type narrowness" of each candidate's
long name, where that in turn depends on the narrowness of each
parameter that is participating.  Identical types are considered tied.
Parameters whose types are not comparable are also considered tied.
A candidate is considered narrower than another candidate if at least
one of its parameters is narrower and all the rest of its parameters
are either narrower or tied.  Also, if the signature has any additional
required parameters not participating in the long name, the signature
as a whole is considered epsilon tighter than any signature without
extra parameters.  In essence, the remaining arguments are added to
the longname as if the user had declared a capture parameter to bind
the rest of the arguments, and that capture parameter has a constraint
that it must bind successfully to the additional required parameters.
All such signatures within a given rank are considered equivalent,
and subject to tiebreaker A below.

This defines the partial ordering of all the candidates.  If the
topological sort detects a circularity in the partial ordering,
all candidates in the circle are considered tied.  A warning will be
issued at C<CHECK> time if this is detected and there is no suitable
tiebreaker that could break the tie.

There are two tiebreaking modes, in increasing order of desperation:

    A) run-time constraint processing
    B) use of a candidate marked with "is default"

In the absence of any constraints, ties in the nominal typing
immediately failover to tiebreaker B; if not resolved by B,
they warn at compile time about an ambiguous dispatch.

If there are any tied candidates with constraints, it follows from our
definitions above that all of them are considered to be constrained.
In the presence of longname parameters with constraints, or the
implied constraint of extra required arguments, tiebreaker A is
applied.  Candidates which are tied nominally but have constraints
are considered to be a completely different situation, insofar as it
is assumed the user knows exactly why each candidate has the extra
constraints it has.  Thus, constrained signatures are considered to
be much more like a switch defined by the user.  So for tiebreaker
A the candidates are simply called in the order they were declared,
and the first one that successfully binds (and completes without
calling nextsame or nextwith) is considered the winner, and all the
other tied candidates are ignored.  If all the constrained
candidates fail, we throw out the rank of constrained variants and
proceed to the next tighter rank, which may consist of the
unconstrained variants without extra arguments.

For ranks that are not decided by constraint (tiebreaker A),
tiebreaker B is used: only candidates marked with the C<default>
trait are considered, and the best matching default routine is used.
If there are no default routines, or if two or more of the defaults
are tied for best, the dispatch fails.

Ordinarily all the parameters of a multi sub are considered for dispatch.
Here's a declaration for an integer range operator with two parameters
in its long name:

    multi sub infix:<..>(Int $min, Int $max) {...}

Sometimes you want to have parameters that aren't counted as part of the
long name.  For instance, if you want to allow an optional "step" parameter
to your range operator, but not consider it for multi dispatch, then put a
double semicolon instead of a comma before it:

    multi sub infix:<..>(Int $min, Int $max;; Int $by = 1) {...}

The double semicolon, if any, determines the complete long name of
a C<multi>.  (In the absence of that, a double semicolon is assumed
after the last declared argument, but before any return signature.)
Note that a call to the routine must still be compatible with
subsequent arguments.

Note that the C<$by> is not a required parameter, so doesn't impose
the kind of constraint that allows tiebreaker A.  If the default
were omitted, it would be a required parameter, and subject to tiebreaker A.
Likewise an ordinary named parameter does not participate as a tiebreaker,
but you can mark named parameters as required to effectively make
a switch based on named binding:

    multi foo (Int $a;; :$x!) {...}     # constrained
    multi foo (Int $a;; :$y!) {...}     # constrained
    multi foo (Int $a;; :$z!) {...}     # constrained

    multi foo (Int $a;; *%_) {...}      # unconstrained

The first three are dispatched under tiebreaker A as a constrained
rank.  If none of them can match, the final one is dispatched as
an unconstrained rank, since C<*%_> is not considered a required
parameter.

Likewise, constrained types sort before unconstrained:

    multi bar (Even $a) {...}   # constrained
    multi bar (Odd $a) {...}    # constrained

    multi bar (Int $a) {...}    # unconstrained

And values used as subset types also sort first, and are dispatched
on a first-to-match basis:

    multi baz (0) {...}         # constrained
    multi baz (1) {...}         # constrained

    multi baz (Int $x) {...}    # unconstrained

If some of the constrained candidates come by import from other modules,
they are all considered to be declared at the point of importation
for purposes of tiebreaking; subsequent tiebreaking is provided by
the original order in the used module.

[Conjecture: However, a given C<multi> may advertise multiple long names,
some of which are shorter than the complete long name.  This is done
by putting a semicolon after each advertised long name (replacing
the comma, if present).  A semicolon has the effect of inserting two
candidates into the list.  One of them is inserted with exactly the
same types, as if the semicolon were a comma.  The other is inserted
as if all the types after the semicolon were of type C<Any>, which puts
it later in the list than the narrower actual candidate.  This merely
determines its sort order; the candidate uses its real type signature
if the dispatcher gets to it after rejecting all earlier entries on the
candidate list.  If that set of delayed candidates also contains ties,
then additional semicolons have the same effect within that sublist
of ties.  Note, however, that semicolon is a no-op if the types after
it are all C<Any>.  (As a limiting case, putting a semicolon after
every parameter produces dispatch semantics much like Common Lisp.
And putting a semicolon after only the first argument is much like
ordinary single-dispatch methods.)  Note: This single-semicolon syntax
is merely to be considered reserved until we understand the semantics
of it, and more importantly, the pragamatics of it (that is, whether
it has any valid use case).  Until then only the double-semicolon
form will be implemented in the standard language.]

A C<method> or C<submethod> doesn't ordinarily participate in any
subroutine-dispatch process. However, they can be made to do so if
prefixed with a C<my> or C<our> declarator.

=head2 Method call vs. Subroutine call

The caller indicates whether to make a method call or subroutine
call by the call syntax.  The "dot" form and the indirect object form
default to method calls.  All other prefix calls default to subroutine calls.
This applies to prefix unary operators as well:

    !$obj;  # same as $obj.prefix:<!>

A method call considers only methods (including multi-methods and submethods)
from the class hierarchy of its invocant, and fails if none is found.  The
object in question is in charge of interpreting the meaning of the method
name, so if the object is a foreign object, the name will be interpreted
by that foreign runtime.

A subroutine call considers only visible subroutines (including
submethods) of that name.  The object itself has no say in the
dispatch; the subroutine dispatcher considers only the types the
arguments involved, along with the name.  Hence foreign objects passed
to subroutines are forced to follow Perl semantics (to the extent
foreign types can be coerced into Perl types, otherwise they fail).

There is no fail-over either from subroutine to method dispatch or
vice versa.  However, you may use C<is export> on a method
definition to make it available also as a C<multi> sub.  As with indirect
object syntax, the first argument is still always the invocant,
but the export allows you to use a comma after the invocant instead of
a colon, or to omit the colon entirely in the case of a method with
no arguments other than the invocant.  Many standard methods (such
as C<IO::close> and C<Array::push>) are automatically exported to the
C<CORE> namespace by default.  For other exported methods, you will not
see the C<multi> sub definition unless you C<use> the class in your scope,
which will import the C<proto> (and associated C<multi> subs) lexically,
after which you can call it using normal subroutine call syntax.

In the absence of an explicit type on the method's invocant, the
exported C<multi> sub's first argument is implicitly constrained to
match the class in which it was defined or composed, so for instance
the C<multi> version of C<close> requires its first argument to be of
type C<IO> or one of its subclasses.  If the invocant is explicitly
typed, that will govern the type coverage of the corresponding C<multi>'s
first argument, whether that is more specific or more general than
the class's invocant would naturally be.  (But be aware that if it's
more specific than C<::?CLASS>, the binding may reject an otherwise
valid single dispatch as well as a multi dispatch.)  In any case,
it does no good to overgeneralize the invocant if the routine itself
cannot handle the broader type.  In such a situation you must write
a wrapper to coerce to the narrower type.

=head1 Multi dispatch

Multi submethods work just like multi methods except they are constrained
to an exact type match on the invocant, just as ordinary submethods are.

Perl 6.0.0 is not required to support multiple dispatch on named
parameters, only on positional parameters.  Note however that any
dispatcher derived from C<proto> will map named arguments to known
declared positional parameters and call the C<multi> candidates with
positionals for those arguments rather than named arguments.

Within a multiple dispatch, C<nextsame> means to try the next best
match, or next best default in case of tie.

Attributes are tied to a particular class definition, so a multi method
can only directly access the attributes of a class it's defined within
when the invocant is the "self" of that attribute.
However, it may call the private attribute accessors from a different
class if that other class has indicated that it trusts the class the
multi method is defined in:

    class MyClass {
        trusts YourClass;
        ...
    }

The trust really only applies to C<MyClass>, not to possible subclasses
thereof.

The syntax for calling back to C<MyClass> is C<$obj!MyClass::meth()>.
Note that private attribute accessors are always invoked directly,
never via a dispatcher, since there is never any question about which
object is being referred to.  Hence, the private accessor notation
may be aggressively inlined for simple attributes, and no simpler
notation is needed for accessing another object's private attributes.

The C<sub> keyword is optional immediately after a C<proto>, C<multi>,
or C<only> keyword.

A C<proto> declaration may not occur after a C<multi> declaration in the
same scope.

=head1 Delegation

Delegation lets you pretend that some other object's methods are your own.
Delegation is specified by a C<handles> trait verb with an argument
specifying one or more method names that the current object and the
delegated object will have in common:

    has $tail handles 'wag';

Since the method name (but nothing else) is known at class construction
time, the following C<.wag> method is autogenerated for you:

    method wag (|$args) { $!tail.wag(|$args) }

You can specify multiple method names:

    has $.legs handles <walk run lope shake lift>;

It's illegal to call the outer method unless the attribute
has been initialized to an object of a type supporting the method,
such as by:

    has Tail $.tail handles 'wag' .= new(|%_);

Note that putting a C<Tail> type on the attribute does not necessarily
mean that the method is always delegated to the C<Tail> class.
The dispatch is still based on the I<run-time> type of the object,
not the declared type.

Any other kind of argument to C<handles> is considered to be a
smartmatch selector for method names.  So you can say:

    has $.fur is rw handles /^get_/;

If you say

    has $.fur is rw handles Groomable;

then you get only those methods available via the C<Groomable> role
or class.  To delegate everything, use the C<Whatever> matcher:

    has $the_real_me handles *;

Wildcard matches are evaluated only after it has been determined that
there's no exact match to the method name anywhere.  When you have
multiple wildcard delegations to different objects, it's possible
to have a conflict of method names.  Wildcard method matches are
evaluated in order, so the earliest one wins.  (Non-wildcard method
conflicts can be caught at class composition time.)

If, where you would ordinarily specify a string, you put a pair, then
the pair maps the method name in this class to the method name in the
other class.  If you put a hash, each key/value pair is treated as
such a mapping.  Such mappings are not considered wildcards.

    has $.fur handles { :shakefur<shake>, :scratch<get_fleas> };

You I<can> do a wildcard renaming, but not with pairs.  Instead do smartmatch
with a substitution:

    has $.fur handles (s/^furget_/get_/);

Ordinarily delegation is based on an attribute holding an object, but it can
also be based on the return value of a method:

    method select_tail handles <wag hang> {...}

=head1 Types and Subtypes

The type system of Perl consists of roles, classes, and subtypes.
You can declare a subtype like this:

    my subset Str_not2b of Str where /^[isnt|arent|amnot|aint]$/;

or this:

    my Str subset Str_not2b where /^[isnt|arent|amnot|aint]$/;

An anonymous subtype looks like this:

    Str where /^[isnt|arent|amnot|aint]$/;

A C<where> clause implies future smartmatching of some kind: the as-yet
unspecified object of the type on the left must match the selector on
the right.  Our example is roughly equivalent to this closure:

    { $_.does(Str) and $_ ~~ /^[isnt|arent|amnot|aint]$/; }

except that a subtype knows when to call itself.

A subtype is not a subclass.  Subclasses add capabilities, whereas
a subtype adds constraints (takes away capabilites).  A subtype is
primarily a handy way of sneaking smartmatching into multiple dispatch.
Just as a role allows you to specify something more general than a
class, a subtype allows you to specify something more specific than
a class.  A subtype specifies a subset of the values that the original
type specified, which is why we use the C<subset> keyword for it.

While subtypes are primarily intended for restricting parameter types
for multiple dispatch, they also let you impose preconditions on
assignment.  If you declare any container with a subtype,
Perl will check the constraint against any value you might try to
bind or assign to the container.

    subset Str_not2b of Str where /^[isnt|arent|amnot|aint]$/;
    subset EvenNum   of Num where { $^n % 2 == 0 }

    my Str_not2b $hamlet;
    $hamlet = 'isnt';   # Okay because 'isnt' ~~ /^[isnt|arent|amnot|aint]$/
    $hamlet = 'amnt';   # Bzzzzzzzt!   'amnt' !~~ /^[isnt|arent|amnot|aint]$/

    my EvenNum $n;
    $n = 2;             # Okay
    $n = -2;            # Okay
    $n = 0;             # Okay
    $n = 3;             # Bzzzzzzzt

It's legal to base one subtype on another; it just adds an additional
constraint.  That is, it's a subset of a subset.

You can use an anonymous subtype in a signature:

    sub check_even (Num where { $^n % 2 == 0 } $even) {...}

That's a bit unwieldy, but by the normal type declaration rules you
can turn it around to get the variable out front:

    sub check_even ($even of Num where { $^n % 2 == 0 }) {...}

and just for convenience we also let you write it:

    sub check_even (Num $even where { $^n % 2 == 0 }) {...}

since all the type constraints in a signature parameter are just
anded together anyway.

You can leave out the block when matching against a literal value of some
kind:

    proto sub fib (Int $) {*}
    multi sub fib (Int $n where 0|1) { return $n }
    multi sub fib (Int $n) { return fib($n-1) + fib($n-2) }

In fact, you can leave out the C<where> declaration altogether:

    multi sub fib (0) { return 0 }
    multi sub fib (1) { return 1 }
    multi sub fib (Int $n) { return fib($n-1) + fib($n-2) }

Subtype constraints are used as tiebreakers in multiple dispatch:

    use Rules::Common :profanity;

    multi sub mesg ($mesg of Str where /<profanity>/ is copy) {
        $mesg ~~ s:g/<profanity>/[expletive deleted]/;
        print $MESG_LOG: $mesg;
    }

    multi sub mesg ($mesg of Str) {
        print $MESG_LOG: $mesg;
    }

For multi dispatch, a long name with a matching constraint is preferred over
an equivalent one with no constraint.  So the first C<mesg> above is
preferred if the constraint matches, and otherwise the second is
preferred.

To export a subset type, put the export trait just before the C<where>:

    subset Positive of Int is export where * > 0;

=head2 Abstract vs Concrete types [Conjectural]

For any named type, certain other subset types may automatically be derived
from it by appending an appropriate adverbial to its name:

    Int:_       Allow either defined or undefined Int values
    Int:U       Allow only undefined (abstract) Int values
    Int:D       Allow only defined (concrete) Int values

That is, these are equivalent:

    Int:U       Int:_ where !*.defined
    Int:D       Int:_ where *.defined

In standard Perl 6, C<Int> is always assumed to mean C<Int:_>, but
this default may be changed within a lexical scope by various pragmas.
In particular,

    use parameters :D;

will cause non-invocant parameters to default to C<:D>, while

    use invocant :D;

will do the same for the invocant parameter.  In such lexical
scopes you may use the C<:_> form to get back to the standard behavior.
Conjecturally,

    use variables :D;

would do the same for types used in variable declarations.

=head2 Multiple constraints

[Conjecture: This entire section is considered a guess at our
post-6.0.0 direction.  For 6.0.0 we will allow only a single constraint
before the variable, and post constraints will all be considered
"epsilon" narrower than the single type on the left.  The single
constraint on the left may, however, be a value like 0 or a named
subset type.  Such a named subset type may be predeclared with an
arbitrarily complex C<where> clause; for 6.0.0 any structure type
information inferrable from the C<where> clause will be ignored,
and the declared subset type will simply be considered nominally
derived from the C<of> type mentioned in the same declaration.]

More generally, a parameter can have a set of constraints, and
the set of constraints defines the formal type of the parameter,
as visible to the signature.  (No one constraint is privileged as
the storage type of the actual argument, unless it is a native type.)
All constraints are considered in type narrowness.
That is, these are equivalently narrow:

    Foo Bar @x
    Bar Foo @x

The constraint implied by the sigil also counts as part of the official type.
The sigil is actually a constraint on the container, so the actual
type of the parameter above is something like:

    Positional[subset :: of Any where Foo & Bar }]

Static C<where> clauses also count as part of the official type.
A C<where> clause is considered static if it can be applied to
the types to the left of it at compile time to produce a known finite set
of values.  For instance, a subset of an enum type is a static set
of values.  Hence

    Day $d where 'Mon'..'Fri'

is considered equivalent to

    subset Weekday of Day where 'Mon'..'Fri';
    Weekday $d

Types mentioned in a dynamic C<where> class are not considered part of
the official type, except insofar as the type includes the notion: "is
also constrained by a dynamic C<where> clause", which narrows it by
epsilon over the equivalent type without a C<where> clause.

    Foo Bar @x              # type is Foo & Bar & Positional
    Foo Bar @x where Baz    # slightly tighter than Foo Bar Positional

The set of constraints for a parameter creates a subset type that implies
some set of allowed values for the parameter.  The set of allowed values
may or may not be determinable at compile time.  When the set of allowed
values is determinable at compile time, we call it a static subtype.

Type constraints that resolve to a static subtype (that is, with a
fixed set of elements knowable (if not known) at compile time) are
considered to be narrower than type constraints that involve run-time
calculation, or are otherwise intractable at compile time.
Note that all values such as 0 or "foo" are considered
singleton static subtypes.  Singleton values are considered narrower
than a subtype with multiple values, even if the subtype contains
the value in question.  This is because, for enumerable types, type
narrowness is defined by doing set theory on the set of enumerated values.

So assuming:

    my enum Day ['Sun','Mon','Tue','Wed','Thu','Fri','Sat'];
    subset Weekday of Day where 'Mon' .. 'Fri'; # considered static
    subset Today of Day where *.today;

we have the following pecking order:

    Parameter                   # Set of possible values
    =========                   ========================
    Int $n                      # Int

    Int $n where Today          # Int plus dynamic where
    Int $n where 1 <= * <= 5    # Int plus dynamic where

    Day $n                      # 0..6

    Day $n where Today          # 0..6 plus dynamic where

    Day $n where 1 <= * <= 5    # 1..5
    Int $n where Weekday        # 1..5
    Day $n where Weekday        # 1..5
    Weekday $n                  # 1..5

    Tue                         # 2

Note the difference between:

    Int $n where 1 <= * <= 5    # Int plus dynamic where
    Day $n where 1 <= * <= 5    # 1..5

The first C<where> is considered dynamic not because of the nature
of the comparisons but because C<Int> is not finitely enumerable.
Our C<Weekday> subset type can calculate the set membership at compile
time because it is based on the C<Day> enum, and hence is considered
static despite the use of a C<where>.  Had we based C<Weekday> on
C<Int> it would have been considered dynamic.  Note, however, that
with "anded" constraints, any enum type governs looser types, so

    Int Day $n where 1 <= * <= 5

is considered static, since C<Day> is an enum, and cuts down the
search space.

The basic principle we're trying to get at is this: in comparing
two parameter types, the narrowness is determined by the subset
relationships on the sets of possible values, not on the names of
constraints, or the method by which those constraints are specified.
For practical reasons, we limit our subset knowledge to what can be
easily known at compile time, and consider the presence of one or
more dynamic constraints to be epsilon narrower than the same set of
possible values without a dynamic constraint.

As a first approximation for 6.0.0, subsets of enums are static,
and other subsets are dynamic.  We may refine this in subsequent
versions of Perl.

=head1 Enumerations

An enumeration is a type that facilitates the use of a set of symbols to
represent a set of constant values.  Its most obvious use is the translation
of those symbols to their corresponding values.  Each enumeration association
is a constant pair known as an I<enum>, which is of type C<Enum>.
Each enum associates an I<enum key> with an I<enum value>.  Semantically
therefore, an enumeration operates like a constant hash, but since it uses a
package C<Stash> to hold the entries, it presents itself to the
user's namespace as a typename package containing a set of constant
declarations.  That is,

    enum E <a b c>;

is largely syntactic sugar for:

    package E {
        constant a = 0;
        constant b = 1;
        constant c = 2;
    }

(However, the C<enum> declaration supplies extra semantics.)

Such constant declarations allow the use of the declared names to
stand in for the values where a value is desired.  In addition, since
a constant declaration introduces a name that behaves as a subtype
matching a single value, the enum key can function as a typename in
certain capacities where a typename is required.  The name of the
enumeration as a whole is also considered a typename, and may be
used to represent the set of values.  (Note that when we wish to
verbally distinguish the enumeration as a whole from each individual
enum pair, we use the long term "enumeration" for the former, despite
the fact that it is declared using the C<enum> keyword.)

In the C<enum> declaration, the keys are specified as a parenthesized
list, or an equivalent angle bracket list:

    my enum Day ('Sun','Mon','Tue','Wed','Thu','Fri','Sat');
    my enum Day <Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat>;

The values are generated implicitly by default, but may be also be
specified explicitly.  If the first value is unspecified, it defaults
to 0.  To specify the first value, use pair notation (see below).

If the declared enumeration typename begins with an uppercase letter,
the enum values will be derived from C<Int> or C<Str> as appropriate.
If the enumeration typename is lowercase, the enumeration is assumed
to be representing a set of native values, so the default value type
is C<int> or C<buf>.

The base type can be specified if desired:

    my bit enum maybe <no yes>;
    my Int enum day ('Sun','Mon','Tue','Wed','Thu','Fri','Sat');
    our enum day of uint4 <Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat>;

The declared base type automatically distributes itself to the individual
constant values.  For non-native types, the enum objects are guaranteed
only to be derived from and convertible to the specified type.  The
actual type of the enum object returned by using the symbol is the
enumeration type itself.

    Fri.WHAT    # Day, not Int.
    +Fri        # 5
    Fri.Numeric # 5
    Fri ~~ Int  # True, because derived from Int
    Fri.perl    # 'Day::Fri'
    ~Fri        # 'Fri'
    Fri.Stringy # 'Fri'
    Fri.Str     # 'Day::Fri' (used by say/print)
    Fri.key     # 'Fri'
    Fri.value   # 5
    Fri.pair    # :Fri(5)
    Fri.kv      # 'Fri', 5
    Fri.defined # True

Other than that, number valued enums act just like numbers, while
string valued enums act just like strings.  C<Fri.so> is true
because its value is 5 rather than 0.  C<Sun.so> is false.

Enums based on native types may be used only for their value, since a
native value doesn't know its own type.

Since methods on native types delegate to their container's type,
a variable typed with a native type will know which method to call:

    my day $d = 3;
    $d.key     # returns "Wed"

Such declarational forms are not always convenient; to translate
native enum values back to their names operationally, you can pull
out the enum type's C<EnumMap> and invert it:

    constant %dayname := Day.enums.invert;
    %dayname{3} # Wed

The enumeration type itself is an undefined type object, but supplies
convenient methods:

    Day.defined # False
    3 ~~ Day    # True, using Day as a subset of Int
    Day.enums   # map of key/value pairs

The C<.enums> method returns an C<EnumMap> that may be used either as
a constant hash value or as a list of pairs:

    my enum CoinFace <Heads Tails>;
    CoinFace.enums.keys       # ('Heads', 'Tails')
    CoinFace.enums.values     # (0, 1)
    CoinFace.enums.kv         # ('Heads', 0, 'Tails', 1)
    CoinFace.enums.invert     # (0 => 'Heads', 1 => 'Tails')
    CoinFace.enums.[1]        # Tails => 1

The enumeration typename itself may be used as a coercion operator from either
the key name or a value.   First the argument is looked up as a key;
if that is found, the enum object is returned.  If the key name lookup
fails, the value is looked up using an inverted mapping table (which
might have dups if the mapping is not one-to-one):

    Day('Tue')           # Tue constant, found as key
    Day::('Tue')         # (same thing)

    Day(3)               # Wed constant, found as value
    Day.enums.invert{3}  # (same thing)

An anonymous C<enum> just makes sure each string turns into a pair with
sequentially increasing values, so:

    %e = enum < ook! ook. ook? >;

is equivalent to:

    %e = ();
    %e<ook!> = 0;
    %e<ook.> = 1;
    %e<ook?> = 2;

The return value of an anonymous enumeration is an C<EnumMap>.  The
C<enum> keyword is still a declarator here, so the list is evaluated at
compile time.  Use a coercion to C<EnumMap> to get a run-time map.

The enumeration composer inspects list values for pairs, where the value
of the pair sets the next value explicitly.  Non-pairs C<++> the
previous value.  (Str and buf types increment like Perl 5 strings.)
Since the C<«...»> quoter automatically recognizes
pair syntax along with interpolations, we can simply say:

    my enum DayOfWeek «:Sun(1) Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat»;

    our Str enum Phonetic «:Alpha<A> Bravo Charlie Delta
                            Echo Foxtrot Golf Hotel India Juliet
                            Kilo Lima Mike November Oscar Papa
                            Quebec Romeo Sierra Tango Uniform
                            Victor Whiskey X-ray Yankee Zulu»;

    enum roman (i => 1,   v => 5,
                x => 10,  l => 50,
                c => 100, d => 500,
                m => 1000);

    my Item enum hex «:zero(0) one two three four five six seven eight nine
                      :ten<a> eleven twelve thirteen fourteen fifteen»;

Note that enumeration declaration evaluates its list at compile time, so
any interpolation into such a list may not depend on run-time values.
Otherwise enums wouldn't be constants.  (If this isn't what you want,
try initializing an ordinary declaration using C<::=> to make a scoped
readonly value.)

You may import enum types; only non-colliding symbols are imported.
Colliding enum keys are hidden and must be disambiguated with the
type name.  Any attempt to use the ambiguous name will result in a fatal
compilation error.  (All colliding values are hidden, not just the new one,
or the old one.)  Any explicit sub or type definition hides all imported
enum keys of the same name but will produce a warning unless
C<is redefined> is included.

Since non-native C<Enum> values know their enumeration type, they may be
used to name a desired property on the right side of a C<but> or C<does>.
So these:

    $x = "Today" but Tue;
    $y does True;

expand to:

    $x = "Today" but Day::Tue;
    $y does Bool::True;

The C<but> and C<does> operators expect a role on their right side.
An enum type is not in itself a role type; however, the C<but>
and C<does> operators know that when a user supplies an enum type,
it implies the generation of an anonymous mixin role that creates an
appropriate accessor, read-write if an attribute is being created, and
read-only otherwise.  It depends on whether you mix in the whole
or a specific enum or the whole enumeration:

    $x = "Today" but Tue;       # $x.Day is read-only
    $x = "Today" but Day;       # $x.Day is read-write

Mixing in a specific enum object implies only the readonly accessor.

    $x = "Today" but Tue;

really means something like:

    $x = "Today".clone;
    $x does anon role { method Day { Day::Tue } };

The fully qualified form does the same thing, and is useful
in case of enum collision:

    $x = "Today" but Day::Tue;

Note that the method name is still C<.Day>, however.  If
you wish to mix in colliding method names, you'll have to
mixin your own anonymous role with different method names.

Since an enumeration supplies the type name as a coercion, you can
also say:

    $x = "Today" but Day(Tue);
    $x = "Today" but Day(2);

After any of those

    $x.Day

returns C<Day::Tue> (that is, the constant object representing 2), and
both the general and specific names function as typenames in normal
constraint and coercion uses.  Hence,

    $x ~~ Day
    $x ~~ Tue
    $x.Day == Tue
    Day($x) == Tue
    $x.Tue

all return true, and

    $x.Wed
    $x.Day == Wed
    8 ~~ Day

all return false.

Mixing in the full enumeration type produces a read-write attribute:

    $x = "Today" but Day;       # read-write .Day

really means something like:

    $x = "Today".clone;
    $x does anon role { has Day $.Day is rw }

except that nothing happens if there is already a C<rw> attribute of that name.

Note that the attribute is not initialized.  If that is desired
you can supply a C<WHENCE> closure:

    $x = "Today" but Day{ :Day(Tue) }
    $x = "Today" but Day{ Tue }  # conjecturally, for "simple" roles

To add traits to an enumeration declaration, place them after the declared
name but before the list:

    enum Size is silly <regular large jumbo>;

To export an enumeration, place the export trait just before the list:

    enum Maybe is export <No Yes Dunno>;

To declare that an enumeration implies a particular role,
supply a C<does> in the same location

    enum Maybe does TristateLogic <No Yes Dunno>;

Two built-in enumerations are:

    our enum Bool does Boolean <False True>;
    our enum Taint does Tainting <Untainted Tainted>;

Note that C<Bool> and C<Taint> are not role names themselves but imply
roles, and the enum values are really subset types of C<Int>, though the
constant objects themselves know that they are of type C<Bool> or C<Taint>,
and can therefore be used correctly in multimethod dispatch.

You can call the low-level C<.Bool> coercion on any built-in type, because
all built-in types do the C<Boolean> role, which requires a C<.Bool> method.
Hence, there is a great difference between saying

        $x does Boolean;        # a no-op, since $x already does Boolean
        $x does Bool;           # create a $.Bool attribute, also does Boolean

Conditionals evaluate the truth of a boolean expression by testing
the return value of C<.Bool> like this:

    $obj.Bool != 0

Never compare a value to "C<True>".  Just use it
in a boolean context.  Well, almost never...

If you wish to be explicit about a boolean context, use the high-level
C<so> function or C<?> prefix operator, which are underlying based
on the C<.Bool> method.  Also, use these high level functions when you wish
to autothread junctions, since C<.Bool> forces collapse of a junction's
wavefunction.  (Similarly, C<.Str> forces stringification of the entire
junction, while prefix:<~> does not.)

Like other type names and constant names, enum keynames are parsed as
standalone tokens representing scalar values, and don't look for any
arguments.  Unlike type names but like constant names, enum keynames
return defined values.  Also unlike types and unlike the enum type as a
whole, individual keynames do not respond to C<.()> unless you mix in
C<Callable> somehow.  (That is, it makes no sense to coerce Wednesday
to Tuesday by saying C<Tue($wed)>.)  Enumerations may not be post-declared.

    our enum Maybe <OK FAIL>;
    sub OK is redefined {...}
    $x = OK;   # certainly the enum value
    $x = OK()  # certainly the function

Since there is an enum C<OK>, the function C<OK> may only be
called using parentheses, never in list operator form.  (If there is
a collision on two enum values that cancels them both, the function
still may only be called with parentheses, since the enum key
is "poisoned".)

Enumeration types (and perhaps certain other finite, enumerable types such
as finite ranges) define a C<.pick> method on the type object of
that type.  Hence:

    my enum CoinFace <Heads Tails>;
    CoinFace.pick

returns C<Heads> or C<Tails> with equal probability, and

    Month.pick(*)

will return the months in random order.  Presumably

    StandardPlayingCards.pick(5)

might return a Royal Flush, but a Full House is much
more likely.  It can never return Five Aces, since the pick
is done without replacement.  (If it I<does> return Five Aces,
it's time to walk away.  Or maybe run.)

To pick from the list of keynames or values, derive them via the
C<.enums> method described above.

=head1 Open vs Closed Classes

By default, all classes in Perl are non-final, which means
you can potentially derive from them.  They are also open, which means
you can add more methods to them, though you have to be explicit that
that is what you're doing:

    augment class Mu {
        method wow () { say "Wow, I'm in the Cosmic All." }
    }

Otherwise you'll get a class redefinition error.  (Also, to completely
replace a definition, use "C<supersede>" instead of "C<augment>"...but
don't do that, since the compiler may have already committed to
optimizations based on the old definition.)

In order to discourage casual misuse of these declarators, they are not
allowed on global classes unless you put a special declaration at the top:

    use MONKEY_TYPING;

For optimization purposes, Perl 6 gives the top-level application the
right to close and finalize classes by the use of C<oo>, a pragma for
selecting global semantics of the underlying object-oriented engine:

    use oo :closed :final;

This merely changes the application's default to closed and final,
which means that at the end of the main compilation (C<CHECK> time)
the optimizer is allowed to look for candidate classes to close or
finalize.  But anyone (including the main application) can request
that any class stay open or nonfinal, and the class closer/finalizer
must honor that.

    use class :open<Mammal Insect> :nonfinal<Str>

These properties may also be specified on the class definition:

    class Mammal is open {...}
    class Insect is open {...}
    class Str is nonfinal {...}

or by lexically scoped pragma around the class definition:

    {
        use class :open;
        class Mammal {...}
        class Insect {...}
    }
    {
        use class :nonfinal;
        class Str {...}
    }

There is I<no> syntax for declaring individual classes closed or final.
The application may only request that the optimizer close and finalize
unmarked classes.

=head1 Representations

By default Perl 6 assumes that all objects have a representation
of C<P6opaque>.  This may be overridden with a trait:

    class Mammal is repr(P6Hash) {...}

Whether implicit or explicit, the representation is considered to be
fixed for the class after declaration, and the optimizer is free to
optimize based on this guarantee.  It is illegal to create an object
of the same type with any other representation.  If you wish to allow
objects to be created with run-time specified representations, you
must specifically pessimize the class:

    class Mammal is repr(*) {...}

An C<augment> is allowed to do this as long as it is before the
main C<CHECK> time, at which point the compiler commits to its
optimization strategies.  Compilers are not required to support
run-time pessimizations (though they may).  Compilers may also generate
both optimal and pessimal code paths and choose which to run based
on run-time information, as long as correct semantics are maintained.

All non-native representations are required to support undefined type
objects that may contain unthrown exceptions (C<Failure> objects);
while this can be implemented using an alternate representation,
Perl 6 doesn't think of it that way.  All normal objects in Perl 6
may be used as a specific object (proper noun) if they are defined,
or as a generic object (common noun) whether or not they are defined.
You get this representation polymorphism for free independently of
the restriction above.

=head1 Interface Consistency

By default, all methods and submethods that do not declare an explicit
C<*%> parameter will get an implicit C<*%_> parameter declared for
them whether they like it or not.  In other words, all methods allow
unexpected named arguments, so that C<nextsame> semantics work
consistently.

If you mark a class "C<is hidden>", it hides the current class
from "C<nextsame>" semantics, and incidentally suppresses the
autogeneration of C<*%_> parameters.  Hidden classes may be visited
as C<SUPER::>, but not via "C<next>".

A similar effect can be achieved from the derived class by saying
C<hides Base> instead of C<is Base>.

=head1 Introspection

Metamethods for objects are named with interrogative pronouns in uppercase:

    WHAT        the type object of the type, .Str returns MyClass()
    WHICH       the object's identity value
    WHO         the package supporting the object, stringifies to long name
    WHERE       the memory address of the object
    HOW         the metaclass object: "Higher Order Workings"
    WHEN        (reserved for events?)
    WHY         (reserved for documentation?)
    WHENCE      autovivification closure

These may be used either as methods or as unary operators:

    $obj.WHAT   # method form of P5's ref
    WHAT $obj   # unary form of P5's ref

These are all actually macros, not true operators or methods.  If you get
a foreign object from another language and need to call its C<.WHERE> method,
you can say:

    $obj."WHERE"

And if you don't know the method name in advance, you'd be using the
variable form anyway:

    $obj.$somemeth

which also bypasses the macros.

For now Perl 6 reserves the right to change how all these macros
and the corresponding C<^> forms are defined in terms of each other.
In particular, the C<.^> forms will automatically supply the invocant
as the first argument to methods of the metaclass, while the other
forms require you to pass this explicitly.

Note that C<WHAT.Str> appends C<()> to the name to indicate emptiness.
Use C<.perl> to get the bare name from a type object.  Use one of
C<.Stringy>, C<< prefix:<~> >>, or C<< infix:<~> >> to get the Perl5ish
semantics of returning the empty string (with a warning) on any type
object.  (There is no "undef", in Perl 6; type objects provide typed
undefs instead.)

In general, use of these uppercased accessors in ordinary code should
be a red flag that Something Very Strange is going on.  (Hence the allcaps.)
Most code should use Perl 6's operators that make use of this information
implicitly.  For instance, instead of

    $obj.WHAT eq 'Dog()'
    $x.WHICH === $y.WHICH
    $obj.WHAT.bless(%args)

you usually just want:

    $obj ~~ Dog
    $x === $y
    $obj.bless(%args)

Every class has a C<HOW> function/method that lets you get at the
class's metaobject, which lets you get at all the metadata properties
for the class (or other metaobject protocol) implementing the objects
of the class:

    MyClass.methods()           # call MyClass's .methods method (error?)
    MyClass.HOW.methods($obj)       # get the method list of MyClass

The C<^> metasyntax is equivalent to C<.HOW>:

    MyClass.HOW.methods($obj)   # get the method list of MyClass
    ^MyClass.methods($obj)      # get the method list of MyClass
    MyClass.^methods()          # get the method list of MyClass

Each object of the class also has a C<.HOW> or C<.^> method:

    $obj.HOW.methods($obj);
    $obj.^methods();

(If you are using prototype-based OO rather than class-based, you must use
the object form, since every such object functions as its own class.)

Class traits may include:

    identifier  { :name<Dog> :auth<http://www.some.com/~jrandom> :ver<1.2.1> }
        name      Dog
        authority http://www.some.com/~jrandom
        version   v1.2.1
    author        Joe Random
    description   This class implements camera obscura.
    subject       optics, boxes
    language      ja_JP
    licensed      Artistic|GPL
    parents       list of parent classes
    roles         list of roles
    disambig      how to deal with ambiguous method names from roles
    repr          P6opaque, P6hash, P5hash, P5array, PyDict, Cstruct, etc.

These are for the standard Perl 6 Meta-Object Protocol, but other MOPs
may define other traits.  The identifier should probably be accessed
through the C<.WHO> object in any case, which may have its own object
methods depending on how type namespaces evolve over time.  Which of
these items are actually part of the C<.HOW> object and which are
delegated back to the package and prototype objects is up to the MOP.
(Note also that anonymous classes may have anonymous packages and
prototype objects, in which case stringification is not likely to
produce something of interest to non-gurus.)

The C<.^parents> method by default returns a flattened list of all
parents out to (but not including) C<Cool> or C<Any>,
sorted in MRO (dispatch) order. Other options are:

    :local              just returns the immediate parents
    :local($n)          return $n levels
    :excl               exclude Cool and Any (the default)
    :all                include Cool and Any
    :tree               the inheritance hierarchy as nested arrays

The C<.^methods> method returns method-descriptors containing:

    name                the name of the method
    signature           the parameters of the method
    as                  the coercion type of the method
    proto               whether this method governs a set of multi methods
    do                  the method body

The C<.^methods> method has a selector parameter that lets you
specify whether you want to see a flattened or hierarchical view,
whether you're interested in private methods, and so forth.

    :local              only methods defined in the current class
    :local($n)          out $n levels
    :excl               exclude Cool and Any (the default)
    :all                include Cool and Any
    :tree               methods by class structure (inheritance hierarchy)
    :private            include private methods

Note that, since introspection is primarily for use by the outside
world (the class already knows its own structure, after all), a set of
C<multi> methods are presented to be a single C<proto> method.  You need to
use C<.candidates> on that to break it down further.

The C<.^attributes> method returns a list of C<Attribute> objects
that have methods like these:

    name
    type
    scope
    rw
    private
    has-accessor
    build
    readonly
    get_value($obj)
    set_value($obj, $new_value)

Note that an C<Attribute> is not tied to a particular object of a type, but
rather to the type itself. Which is why C<get_value> and C<set_value> need to
receive the actual object as first positional parameter.

[Conjecture: if it's not feasible for a meta class or a representation to
implement C<set_value> and C<get_value>, it may die with an helpful error
message when these methods are called.]

C<set_value> and C<get_value> violate the privacy of attributes,
and thus should be used with care, and at the user's own risk.

C<.^attributes> also takes the parameters:

    :local              only methods defined in the current class
    :local($n)          out $n levels
    :excl               exclude Cool and Any (the default)
    :all                include Cool and Any
    :tree               attributes by class structure (inheritance hierarchy)

Strictly speaking, metamethods like C<.isa()>, C<.does()>, and C<.can()>
should be called through the meta object:

    $obj.HOW.can($obj, "bark")
    $obj.HOW.does($obj, Dog)
    $obj.HOW.isa($obj, Mammal)

or

    $obj.^can("bark")
    $obj.^does(Dog)
    $obj.^isa(Mammal)

But C<Any> gives you shortcuts to those:

    $obj.can("bark")
    $obj.does(Dog)
    $obj.isa(Mammal)

These, may, of course, be overridden in a subclass, so don't use the
short form unless you wish to allow for overrides.  In general, C<Any>
will delegate only those metamethods that read well when reasoning
about an individual object.  Infrastructural methods like C<.^methods>
and C<.^attributes> are not delegated, so C<$obj.methods> fails.

The smartmatch:

    $obj ~~ Dog

actually calls:

    $obj.HOW.does($obj, Dog)

which is true if C<$obj> either "does" or "isa" C<Dog> (or "isa"
something that "does" C<Dog>).  If C<Dog> is a subset, any additional
C<where> constraints must also evaluate true.

Unlike in Perl 5 where C<.can> returns a single C<Code> object,
Perl 6's version of C<.^can> returns a "WALK" iterator for a
set of routines that match the name, including all autoloaded and
wildcarded possibilities.  In particular, C<.^can> interrogates
any class package's C<CANDO> method for names that are to be considered
autoloadable methods in the class, even if they haven't been declared yet.
Role composition sometimes relies on this ability to determine whether
a superclass supplies a method of a particular name if it's required
and hasn't been supplied by the class or one of its roles.

The motivation for stopping at C<Cool> and C<Any> by default is that
the first derivation from one of those is really what the user thinks
of as the root class of the type hierarchy most of the time.  Methods
outside of that are really part of Perl 6's lexicon, recognizable
across all types.  Hence if you say, for exampe, C<$object.sort>
or C<$object.arctan>, you're invoking well-known cultural concepts
that tend to transcend the user's type hierarchy.  When the user
asks for $object.^methods, listing such methods by default is
rather irritating.

Note that when we say "C<Cool> and C<Any>" above, we really mean
those types as well as any types outside of them, such as C<Mu> or
C<Junction>.  But users should not generally be deriving from those
types anyway.

=head1 Autovivifying objects

The C<WHENCE> property of an object is its autovivifying closure.
Any undefined prototype object may carry such a closure that can
lazily create an object of the appropriate type.  When the closure
is eventually evaluated it is expected to return an argument list
corresponding to the arguments to a C<.bless> call.  For instance,
a C<CANDO> routine, instead of creating a C<Dog> object directly,
could instead return something like:

    Dog but WHENCE({ :name<Fido> })

which runs the closure if the object ever needs to be autovivified.
The closure can capture whatever initializers were available in the
original lexical scope.

The short form of the above is simply:

    Dog{ :name<Fido> }

This form is also lazily evaluated:

    my $dog = Dog{ :name<Fido> };
    defined $dog or say "doesn't exist";  # Fido doesn't exist
    $dog.wag()                            # Fido wags his tail

When the typename happens to be a role, autovivifying it involves
attempting to create a punned class of the same name as the role.
Whether this succeeds or not depends on whether the role is
sufficiently complete to serve as a class on its own.  Regardless of
whether such an attempt would succeed, it is always perfectly fine to
define a lazy type object for a role just as long as it's only ever
used as an argument to C<bless>, since C<bless> will only be using
its closure to construct the role's C<BUILD> arguments in the context
of the complete new class.  (Of course, an inconsistent or incomplete
class composition may subsequently fail, and in fact the incomplete
role autovivification mentioned above is likely to be implemented by
failing at the point of class composition.)

Note that when used as an argument to a method like C<bless>,
the type object is sufficiently lazy that autovivifying is done
only by the appropriate C<BUILD> routine.  It does not waste energy
creating a C<Dog> object when that object's attributes would later
have to be copied into the actual object.  (On top of which, such
an implementation would make it impossible to use type objects to
initialize incomplete roles.)

The object autovivification syntax works only for literal named types,
so any indirection must be written more explicitly:

    ::($dogproto){ :name<Fido> }
    $dogproto but WHENCE({ :name<Fido> })
    $dogproto.WHAT{ :name<Fido> }

Note that in contrast to this syntax, a lookup of a symbol in the C<Dog>
package requires a final C<::> before the subscript:

    Dog::{$varname}

=for vim:set expandtab sw=4: