``````=encoding utf8

=head1 NAME

Math::Bacovia - Symbolic math library with support for alternative representations.

=head1 VERSION

Version 0.04

=head1 SYNOPSIS

B<Math::Bacovia> is an experimental symbolic math library, with support for alternative representations, simplification of expressions and numerical evaluation.

use 5.014;
use Math::Bacovia qw(:all);

my \$x = Symbol('x');
my \$y = Symbol('y');

say \$x+\$y;               #=> Sum(Symbol("x"), Symbol("y"))
say \$x-\$y;               #=> Difference(Symbol("x"), Symbol("y"))
say \$x*\$y;               #=> Product(Symbol("x"), Symbol("y"))
say \$x/\$y;               #=> Fraction(Symbol("x"), Symbol("y"))

say \$x**\$y;              #=> Power(Symbol("x"), Symbol("y"))

say Log(\$x);             #=> Log(Symbol("x"))
say Log(\$x)+Log(\$y);     #=> Log(Product(Symbol("x"), Symbol("y")))

say Exp(\$x);             #=> Exp(Symbol("x"))
say Exp(\$x)*Exp(\$y);     #=> Exp(Sum(Symbol("x"), Symbol("y")))

say "\n=> Sum:";
my \$sum = Fraction(0, 1);

for my \$n (1..10) {
\$sum += Fraction(1, \$n);
}
say \$sum;                     #=> Fraction(10628640, 3628800)
say \$sum->numeric;            #=> 7381/2520

say "\n=> Product:";
my \$prod = Product();

for my \$n (1..3) {
\$prod *= Exp(Fraction(1, \$n));
}

say \$prod->pretty;            #=> (exp(1) * exp(1/2) * exp(1/3))
say \$prod->simple->pretty;    #=> exp(11/6)
say \$prod->numeric;           #=> 6.25470095193632871640207...

say "\n=> Alternative representations:";
say join ', ', Power(3, 5)->alternatives(full => 1);   #=> Power(3, 5), Exp(Product(Log(3), 5)), 243

=head1 TYPES

The types supported by this library are described bellow:

=head2 Symbol(name, value=undef)

Represents a symbolic value. Optionally, it can have a numerical value (or any other value).

=head2 Number(value)

Represents a numerical value.

=head2 Fraction(numerator, denominator)

Represents a symbolic fraction.

=head2 Difference(minuend, subtrahend)

Represents a symbolic difference.

=head2 Power(base, power)

Represents a symbolic exponentiation in a symbolic base.

=head2 Log(x)

Represents the natural logarithm of a symbolic value.

=head2 Exp(x)

Represents the natural exponentiation of a symbolic value.

=head2 Sum(a, b, c, ...)

Represents a summation of an arbitrary (finite) number of symbolic values.

=head2 Product(a, b, c, ...)

Represents a product of an arbitrary (finite) number of symbolic values.

=head1 EXPORT

Importing a name from B<Math::Bacovia> can be done using the following syntax:

use Math::Bacovia qw(Fraction);     # imports the Fraction() function

=head2 i / e / pi / tau

B<Math::Bacovia> also provides a small list of useful constants which can be imported:

i      the imaginary unit                sqrt(-1)
e      the e mathematical constant       Exp(1)
pi     the PI mathematical constant      Log(-1) * -sqrt(-1)
tau    the TAU mathmematical constant    Log(-1) * -sqrt(-1) * 2

For importing a constant, the same syntax can be used as in importing a function:

use Math::Bacovia qw(i tau);

By specifying the B<:all> special keyword, B<Math::Bacovia> will export all the provided functions and constants.

use Math::Bacovia qw(:all);

Nothing is exported by default.

=head1 METHODS

This section describes the special methods provided by Math::Bacovia.

=head2 inv

1 / \$x
\$x->inv

Multiplicative inverse of C<x>, defined as:

Fraction(1, \$x)

=head2 neg

-\$x
\$x->neg

Additive inverse of C<x>, defined as:

Difference(0, \$x)

=head2 add

\$x + \$y
\$x->add(\$y)

Summation of C<x> and C<y>, defined as:

Sum(\$x, \$y)

=head2 sub

\$x - \$y
\$x->sub(\$y)

Difference of C<x> from C<y>, defined as:

Difference(\$x, \$y)

=head2 mul

\$x * \$y
\$x->mul(\$y)

Product of C<x> and C<y>, defined as:

Product(\$x, \$y)

=head2 div

\$x / \$y
\$x->div(\$y)

Fraction C<x> over C<y>, defined as:

Fraction(\$x, \$y)

=head2 pow

\$x ** \$y
\$x->pow(\$y)

C<x> to the power C<y>, defined as:

Power(\$x, \$y)

=head2 sqrt

sqrt(\$x)
\$x->sqrt

Square root of C<x>, defined as:

\$x ** Fraction(1, 2)

=head2 log

log(\$x)
\$x->log

Natural logarithm of C<x>, defined as:

Log(\$x)

=head2 exp

exp(\$x)
\$x->exp

Natural exponentiation of C<x>, defined as:

Exp(\$x)

=head2 int

int(\$x)
\$x->int

Evaluates C<x> numerically and truncates the result to an integer, returing a L<Math::AnyNum> object.

It may return C<NaN> when this conversion is not possible.

Defined as:

\$x->numeric->int

=head1 TRIGONOMETRIC METHODS

=head2 sin / sinh / asin / asinh

sin(\$x)
\$x->sin
\$x->sinh
\$x->asin
\$x->asinh

Sine, hyperbolic sine, inverse sine and inverse hyperbolic sine.

=head2 cos / cosh / acos / acosh

cos(\$x)
\$x->cos
\$x->cosh
\$x->acos
\$x->acosh

Cosine, hyperbolic cosine, inverse cosine and inverse hyperbolic cosine.

=head2 tan / tanh / atan / atanh

\$x->tan
\$x->tanh
\$x->atan
\$x->atanh

Tangent, hyperbolic tangent, inverse tangent and inverse hyperbolic tangent.

=head2 cot / coth / acot / acoth

\$x->cot
\$x->coth
\$x->acot
\$x->acoth

Cotangent, hyperbolic cotangent, inverse cotangent and inverse hyperbolic cotangent.

=head2 sec / sech / asec / asech

\$x->sec
\$x->sech
\$x->asec
\$x->asech

Secant, hyperbolic secant, inverse secant and inverse hyperbolic secant.

=head2 csc / csch / acsc / acsch

\$x->csc
\$x->csch
\$x->acsc
\$x->acsch

Cosecant, hyperbolic cosecant, inverse cosecant and inverse hyperbolic cosecant.

=head2 atan2

atan2(\$x, \$y)
\$x->atan2(\$y)

The arc tangent of C<x> and C<y>, defined as:

atan2(x, y) = -i * log((y + x*i) / sqrt(x^2 + y^2))

=head1 SPECIAL METHODS

Each type provided by B<Math::Bacovia> includes the same set of methods, defined bellow:

=head2 alternatives

\$x->alternatives(%opt)

This method uses common mathematical identities to create symbolically equivalent expressions from the self-expression.

Example:

say for Exp(Log(Fraction(1,3)) * 2)->alternatives;

Output:

Exp(Product(2, Log(Fraction(1, 3))))
Power(Fraction(1, 3), 2)
Exp(Product(2, Log(1/3)))
Power(1/3, 2)

The options supported by this method are:

log  => 1,    # will try to generate logarithmic alternatives
full => 1,    # will try to generate more alternatives (it may be slow)

Example:

say for Power(3, 5)->alternatives(full => 1);

Output:

Power(3, 5)
Exp(Product(Log(3), 5))
243

B<WARNING:> The number of alternative representations grows exponentially! For non-trivial expressions,
this process may take a very long time and use lots of memory. In combination with the B<full> option
(set to a true value), the returned list may contain hundreds or even thousands of alternative representations.

=head2 simple

\$x->simple(%opt)

Returns a simplification of the self-expression, taking the same options as the C<alternatives()> method.

say Exp(Log(Log(Exp(Exp(Log(Symbol('x')))))))->simple;

Output:

Symbol("x")

The simplification of an expression is done by generating the list of
alternative representations for it, then selecting the shortest expression from this list.

This approach works pretty well even on relatively complex expressions, such as:

say Log(Symbol('x'))->cosh->simple->pretty;     #=> ((1 + x^2)/(2 * x))

However, the returned simplified expression is not guaranteed to always be "optimal". In some cases, calling the C<simple()>
method on an already simplified expression, the simplified expression may get simplified even further:

\$x->simple(full => 1)->simple(full => 1);

B<WARNING:> On long expressions, this process may take a very long time and use lots of memory.

=head2 expand

\$x->expand(%opt)

Returns an expanded version of the self-expression, taking the same options as the C<alternatives()> method.

say Power(Fraction(5, 7), Fraction(1, 3))->expand(full => 1);

Output:

Exp(Product(Log(Fraction(5, 7)), Fraction(1, 3)))

The expansion of an expression is done by generating the list of
alternative representations for it, then selecting the longest expression from this list.

B<WARNING:> On long expressions, this process may take a very long time and use lots of memory.

=head2 numeric

\$x->numeric

Evaluates the self-expression numerically and returns the result as a L<Math::AnyNum> object.

Example:

my \$x = Symbol('x', 13);
my \$expr = (\$x**2 - \$x + 41);

say \$expr->numeric;   #=> 197

=head2 pretty

\$x->pretty

Returns a human-readable stringification of the self-expression.

Example:

say Power(3, Log(Fraction(1, 2)))->pretty;    #=> 3^log(1/2)

=head1 SEE ALSO

For a detailed documentation of each class, please see:

=over 4

=item * L<Math::Bacovia::Fraction>

=item * L<Math::Bacovia::Difference>

=item * L<Math::Bacovia::Power>

=item * L<Math::Bacovia::Log>

=item * L<Math::Bacovia::Exp>

=item * L<Math::Bacovia::Sum>

=item * L<Math::Bacovia::Product>

=item * L<Math::Bacovia::Number>

=item * L<Math::Bacovia::Symbol>

=back

=head1 AUTHOR

Daniel Șuteu, C<< <trizen at protonmail.com> >>

=head1 BUGS

Please report any bugs or feature requests to L<https://github.com/trizen/Math-Bacovia>.
I will be notified, and then you'll automatically be notified of progress on your bug as I make changes.

=head1 SUPPORT

You can find documentation for this module with the perldoc command.

perldoc Math::Bacovia

You can also look for information at:

=over 4

=item * AnnoCPAN: Annotated CPAN documentation

L<http://annocpan.org/dist/Math-Bacovia>

=item * CPAN Ratings

L<http://cpanratings.perl.org/d/Math-Bacovia>

=item * Search CPAN

L<http://search.cpan.org/dist/Math-Bacovia/>

=item * GitHub

L<https://github.com/trizen/Math-Bacovia>

=back

=head1 LICENSE AND COPYRIGHT

Copyright 2017-2018 Daniel Șuteu.

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
under the terms of the the Artistic License (2.0). You may obtain a
copy of the full license at:

L<http://www.perlfoundation.org/artistic_license_2_0>

Any use, modification, and distribution of the Standard or Modified
Versions is governed by this Artistic License. By using, modifying or
distributing the Package, you accept this license. Do not use, modify,
or distribute the Package, if you do not accept this license.

If your Modified Version has been derived from a Modified Version made
by someone other than you, you are nevertheless required to ensure that
your Modified Version complies with the requirements of this license.

This license does not grant you the right to use any trademark, service
mark, tradename, or logo of the Copyright Holder.

This license includes the non-exclusive, worldwide, free-of-charge
patent license to make, have made, use, offer to sell, sell, import and
otherwise transfer the Package with respect to any patent claims
licensable by the Copyright Holder that are necessarily infringed by the
Package. If you institute patent litigation (including a cross-claim or
counterclaim) against any party alleging that the Package constitutes
direct or contributory patent infringement, then this Artistic License
to you shall terminate on the date that such litigation is filed.

Disclaimer of Warranty: THE PACKAGE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDER
AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS' AND WITHOUT ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES.
THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
PURPOSE, OR NON-INFRINGEMENT ARE DISCLAIMED TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY
YOUR LOCAL LAW. UNLESS REQUIRED BY LAW, NO COPYRIGHT HOLDER OR
CONTRIBUTOR WILL BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THE PACKAGE,
EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

=cut
``````