package MARC::Record;

=head1 NAME

MARC::Record - Perl extension for handling MARC records


use strict;
use warnings;
use integer;

use vars qw( $ERROR );

use MARC::Field;
use Carp qw(croak carp);

=head1 VERSION

Version 2.0.7


use vars qw( $VERSION );
$VERSION = '2.0.7';

use Exporter;
use vars qw( @ISA @EXPORTS @EXPORT_OK );
@ISA = qw( Exporter );
@EXPORTS = qw();

use vars qw( $DEBUG ); $DEBUG = 0;

use constant LEADER_LEN => 24;


Module for handling MARC records as objects.  The file-handling stuff is
in MARC::File::*.


Any errors generated are stored in C<$MARC::Record::ERROR>.
Warnings are kept with the record and accessible in the C<warnings()> method.


=head2 new()

Base constructor for the class.  It just returns a completely empty record.
To get real data, you'll need to populate it with fields, or use one of
the MARC::File::* modules to read from a file.


sub new {
    my $class = shift;
    my $self = {
        _leader => ' ' x 24,
        _fields => [],
        _warnings => [],
    return bless $self, $class;
} # new()

=head2 new_from_usmarc( $marcblob [, \&filter_func($tagno,$tagdata)] )

This is a wrapper around C<MARC::File::USMARC::decode()> for compatibility with
older versions of MARC::Record.

The C<wanted_func()> is optional.  See L<MARC::File::USMARC>::decode for details.


sub new_from_usmarc {
    my $blob = shift;
    $blob = shift if (ref($blob) || ($blob eq "MARC::Record"));

    require MARC::File::USMARC;

    return MARC::File::USMARC::decode( $blob, @_ );


Following are a number of convenience methods for commonly-retrieved
data fields.  Please note that they each return strings, not MARC::Field
objects.  They return empty strings if the appropriate field or subfield
is not found.  This is as opposed to the C<field()>/C<subfield()> methods
which return C<undef> if something's not found.  My assumption is that
these methods are used for quick & dirty reports and you don't want to
mess around with noting if something is undef.

Also note that no punctuation cleanup is done.  If the 245a is
"Programming Perl / ", then that's what you'll get back, rather than
"Programming Perl".

=head2 title()

Returns the title from the 245 tag.


sub title {
    my $self = shift;

    my $field = $self->field(245);
    return $field ? $field->as_string : "";

=head2 title_proper()

Returns the title proper from the 245 tag, subfields a, n and p.


sub title_proper {
    my $self = shift;

    my $field = $self->field(245);

    if ( $field ) {
        return $field->as_string('anp');
    } else {
        return "";

=head2 author()

Returns the author from the 100, 110 or 111 tag.


sub author {
    my $self = shift;

    my $field = $self->field('100|110|111');
    return $field ? $field->as_string : "";

=head2 edition()

Returns the edition from the 250 tag, subfield a.


sub edition {
    my $self = shift;

    my $str = $self->subfield(250,'a');
    return defined $str ? $str : "";

=head2 publication_date()

Returns the publication date from the 260 tag, subfield c.


sub publication_date {
    my $self = shift;

    my $str = $self->subfield(260,'c');
    return defined $str ? $str : "";


=head2 fields()

Returns a list of all the fields in the record. The list contains
a MARC::Field object for each field in the record.


sub fields {
    my $self = shift;
    return @{$self->{_fields}};

=head2 field( I<tagspec(s)> )

Returns a list of tags that match the field specifier, or an empty
list if nothing matched.  In scalar context, returns the first
matching tag, or undef if nothing matched.

The field specifier can be a simple number (i.e. "245"), or use the "."
notation of wildcarding (i.e. subject tags are "6..").


my %field_regex;

sub field {
    my $self = shift;
    my @specs = @_;

    my @list = ();
    for my $tag ( @specs ) {
        my $regex = $field_regex{ $tag };

        # Compile & stash it if necessary
        if ( not defined $regex ) {
            $regex = qr/^$tag$/;
            $field_regex{ $tag } = $regex;
        } # not defined

        for my $maybe ( $self->fields ) {
            if ( $maybe->tag =~ $regex ) {
                return $maybe unless wantarray;

                push( @list, $maybe );
            } # if
        } # for $maybe
    } # for $tag

    return unless wantarray;
    return @list;

=head2 subfield( $tag, $subfield )

Shortcut method for getting just a subfield for a tag.  These are equivalent:

  my $title = $marc->field('245')->subfield("a");
  my $title = $marc->subfield('245',"a");

If either the field or subfield can't be found, C<undef> is returned.


sub subfield {
    my $self = shift;
    my $tag = shift;
    my $subfield = shift;

    my $field = $self->field($tag) or return;
    return $field->subfield($subfield);
} # subfield()

=for internal


sub _all_parms_are_fields {
    for ( @_ ) {
        return 0 unless UNIVERSAL::isa($_, 'MARC::Field');
    return 1;

=head2 append_fields( @fields )

Appends the field specified by C<$field> to the end of the record.
C<@fields> need to be MARC::Field objects.

    my $field = MARC::Field->new('590','','','a' => 'My local note.');

Returns the number of fields appended.


sub append_fields {
    my $self = shift;

    _all_parms_are_fields(@_) or croak('Arguments must be MARC::Field objects');

    push(@{ $self->{_fields} }, @_);
    return scalar @_;

=head2 insert_fields_before( $before_field, @new_fields )

Inserts the field specified by C<$new_field> before the field C<$before_field>.
Returns the number of fields inserted, or undef on failures.
Both C<$before_field> and all C<@new_fields> need to be MARC::Field objects.
If they are not an exception will be thrown.

    my $before_field = $record->field('260');
    my $new_field = MARC::Field->new('250','','','a' => '2nd ed.');


sub insert_fields_before {
    my $self = shift;

        or croak('All arguments must be MARC::Field objects');

    my ($before,@new) = @_;

    ## find position of $before
    my $fields = $self->{_fields};
    my $pos = 0;
    foreach my $f (@$fields) {
        last if ($f == $before);

    ## insert before $before
    if ($pos >= @$fields) {
        $self->_warn("Couldn't find field to insert before");
    return scalar @new;


=head2 insert_fields_after( $after_field, @new_fields )

Identical to C<insert_fields_before()>, but fields are added after
C<$after_field>. Remember, C<$after_field> and any new fields must be
valid MARC::Field objects or else an exception will be thrown.


sub insert_fields_after {
    my $self = shift;

    _all_parms_are_fields(@_) or croak('All arguments must be MARC::Field objects');
    my ($after,@new) = @_;

    ## find position of $after
    my $fields = $self->{_fields};
    my $pos = 0;
    my $found = 0;
    foreach my $f (@$fields) {
        if ($f == $after) {
            $found = 1;

    ## insert after $after
    unless ($found) {
        $self->_warn("Couldn't find field to insert after");
    return scalar @new;

=head2 insert_fields_ordered( @new_fields )

Will insert fields in strictly numerical order. So a 008 will be filed
after a 001 field. See C<insert_grouped_field()> for an additional ordering.


sub insert_fields_ordered {
    my ( $self, @new ) = @_;

        or croak('All arguments must be MARC::Field objects');

    ## go through each new field
    NEW_FIELD: foreach my $newField ( @new ) {

        ## find location before which it should be inserted
        EXISTING_FIELD: foreach my $field ( @{ $self->{_fields} } ) {
            if ( $field->tag() >= $newField->tag() ) {
                $self->insert_fields_before( $field, $newField );
                next NEW_FIELD;

        ## if we fell through then this new field is higher than
        ## all the existing fields, so we append.
        $self->append_fields( $newField );

    return( scalar( @new ) );

=head2 insert_grouped_field( $field )

Will insert the specified MARC::Field object into the record in grouped
order and return true (1) on success, and false (undef) on failure.

    my $field = MARC::Field->new( '510', 'Indexed by Google.' );
    $record->insert_grouped_field( $field );

For example, if a '650' field is inserted with C<insert_grouped_field()>
it will be inserted at the end of the 6XX group of tags. After discussion
most people wanted the ability to add a new field to the end of the
hundred group where it belonged. The reason is that according to the MARC
format, fields within a record are supposed to be grouped by block
(hundred groups). This means that fields may not necessarily be in tag


sub insert_grouped_field {
    my ($self,$new) = @_;
    _all_parms_are_fields($new) or croak('Argument must be MARC::Field object');

    ## try to find the end of the field group and insert it there
    my $limit = int($new->tag() / 100);
    my $found = 0;
    foreach my $field ($self->fields()) {
        if ( int($field->tag() / 100) > $limit ) {
            $found = 1;

    ## if we couldn't find the end of the group, then we must not have
    ## any tags this high yet, so just append it
    if (!$found) {



=head2 delete_fields( $field )

Deletes a given list of MARC::Field objects from the the record.

    # delete all note fields
    my @notes = $record->field('5..');

delete_fields() will return the number of fields that were deleted.


sub delete_fields {
    my $self = shift;
    _all_parms_are_fields(@_) or croak('Arguments must be MARC::Field object');
    my @fields = @{$self->{_fields}};
    my $original_count = @fields;

    foreach my $deleter (@_) {
        @fields = grep { $_ != $deleter } @fields;
    $self->{_fields} = \@fields;

    return $original_count - @fields;

=head2 delete_field()

Same thing as delete_fields() but only expects a single MARC::Field to be passed
in. Mainly here for backwards compatibility.


sub delete_field {
    return delete_fields(@_);

=head2 as_usmarc()

This is a wrapper around C<MARC::File::USMARC::encode()> for compatibility with
older versions of MARC::Record.


sub as_usmarc {
    my $self = shift;

    require MARC::File::USMARC;

    return MARC::File::USMARC::encode( $self );

=head2 as_formatted()

Returns a pretty string for printing in a MARC dump.


sub as_formatted {
    my $self = shift;

    my @lines = ( "LDR " . ($self->{_leader} || "") );
    for my $field ( @{$self->{_fields}} ) {
            push( @lines, $field->as_formatted() );

    return join( "\n", @lines );
} # as_formatted

=head2 leader()

Returns the leader for the record.  Sets the leader if I<text> is defined.
No error checking is done on the validity of the leader.


sub leader {
    my $self = shift;
    my $text = shift;

    if ( defined $text ) {
        (length($text) eq 24)
            or $self->_warn( "Leader must be 24 bytes long" );
        $self->{_leader} = $text;
    } # set the leader

    return $self->{_leader};
} # leader()

=head2 encoding()

A method for getting/setting the encoding for a record. The encoding for a
record is determined by position 09 in the leader, which is blank for MARC-8
encoding, and 'a' for UCS/Unicode. encoding() will return a string, either 
'MARC-8' or 'UTF-8' appropriately. 

If you want to set the encoding for a MARC::Record object you can use the
string values:

    $record->encoding( 'UTF-8' );

NOTE: MARC::Record objects created from scratch have an a default encoding
of MARC-8, which has been the standard for years...but many online catlogs
and record vendors are migrating to UTF-8.

WARNING: you should be sure your record really does contain valid UTF-8 data
when you manually set the encoding. 


sub encoding {
    my ($self,$arg) = @_;
    # we basically report from and modify the leader directly
    my $leader = $self->leader();

    # when setting
    if ( defined($arg) ) {
        if ( $arg =~ /UTF-?8/i ) { 
            substr($leader,9,1) = 'a';
        elsif ( $arg =~ /MARC-?8/i ) {
            substr($leader,9,1) = ' ';

    return substr($leader,9,1) eq 'a' ? 'UTF-8' : 'MARC-8';

=head2 set_leader_lengths( $reclen, $baseaddr )

Internal function for updating the leader's length and base address.


sub set_leader_lengths {
    my $self = shift;
    my $reclen = shift;
    my $baseaddr = shift;
    if ($reclen > 99999) {
        carp( "Record length of $reclen is larger than the MARC spec allows (99999 bytes)." );
        $reclen = 99999;
    substr($self->{_leader},0,5)  = sprintf("%05d",$reclen);
    substr($self->{_leader},12,5) = sprintf("%05d",$baseaddr);
    # MARC21 defaults:
    substr($self->{_leader},10,2) = '22';
    substr($self->{_leader},20,4) = '4500';

=head2 clone()

The C<clone()> method makes a copy of an existing MARC record and returns
the new version.  Note that you cannot just say:

    my $newmarc = $oldmarc;

This just makes a copy of the reference, not a new object.  You must use
the C<clone()> method like so:

    my $newmarc = $oldmarc->clone;

You can also specify field specs to filter down only a
certain subset of fields.  For instance, if you only wanted the
title and ISBN tags from a record, you could do this:

    my $small_marc = $marc->clone( 245, '020' );

The order of the fields is preserved as it was in the original record.


sub clone {
    my $self = shift;
    my @keeper_tags = @_;

    # create a new object of whatever type we happen to be
    my $class = ref( $self );
    my $clone = $class->new();

    $clone->{_leader} = $self->{_leader};

    my $filtered = @keeper_tags ? [$self->field( @keeper_tags )] : undef;

    for my $field ( $self->fields() ) {
        if ( !$filtered || (grep {$field eq $_} @$filtered ) ) {
            $clone->append_fields( $field->clone );

    # XXX FIX THIS $clone->update_leader();

    return $clone;

=head2 warnings()

Returns the warnings (as a list) that were created when the record was read.
These are things like "Invalid indicators converted to blanks".

    my @warnings = $record->warnings();

The warnings are items that you might be interested in, or might
not.  It depends on how stringently you're checking data.  If
you're doing some grunt data analysis, you probably don't care.

A side effect of calling warnings() is that the warning buffer will
be cleared.


sub warnings {
    my $self = shift;
    my @warnings = @{$self->{_warnings}};
    $self->{_warnings} = [];
    return @warnings;

=head2 add_fields()

C<add_fields()> is now deprecated, and users are encouraged to use
C<append_fields()>, C<insert_fields_after()>, and C<insert_fields_before()>
since they do what you want probably. It is still here though, for backwards

C<add_fields()> adds MARC::Field objects to the end of the list.  Returns the
number of fields added, or C<undef> if there was an error.

There are three ways of calling C<add_fields()> to add data to the record.

=over 4

=item 1 Create a MARC::Field object and add it

  my $author = MARC::Field->new(
                100, "1", " ", a => "Arnosky, Jim."
  $marc->add_fields( $author );

=item 2 Add the data fields directly, and let C<add_fields()> take care of the objectifying.

        245, "1", "0",
                a => "Raccoons and ripe corn /",
                c => "Jim Arnosky.",

=item 3 Same as #2 above, but pass multiple fields of data in anonymous lists

        [ 250, " ", " ", a => "1st ed." ],
        [ 650, "1", " ", a => "Raccoons." ],



sub add_fields {
    my $self = shift;

    my $nfields = 0;
    my $fields = $self->{_fields};

    while ( my $parm = shift ) {
        # User handed us a list of data (most common possibility)
        if ( ref($parm) eq "" ) {
            my $field = MARC::Field->new( $parm, @_ )
                    or return _gripe( $MARC::Field::ERROR );
            push( @$fields, $field );
            last; # Bail out, we're done eating parms

        # User handed us an object.
        } elsif ( UNIVERSAL::isa($parm, 'MARC::Field') ) {
            push( @$fields, $parm );

        # User handed us an anonymous list of parms
        } elsif ( ref($parm) eq "ARRAY" ) {
            my $field = MARC::Field->new(@$parm)
                or return _gripe( $MARC::Field::ERROR );
            push( @$fields, $field );

        } else {
            croak( "Unknown parm of type", ref($parm), " passed to add_fields()" );
        } # if

    } # while

    return $nfields;

# NOTE: _warn is an object method
sub _warn {
    my $self = shift;
    push( @{$self->{_warnings}}, join( "", @_ ) );
    return( $self );

# NOTE: _gripe is NOT an object method
sub _gripe {
    $ERROR = join( "", @_ );

    warn $ERROR;





A brief discussion of why MARC::Record is done the way it is:

=over 4

=item * It's built for quick prototyping

One of the areas Perl excels is in allowing the programmer to
create easy solutions quickly.  MARC::Record is designed along
those same lines.  You want a program to dump all the 6XX
tags in a file?  MARC::Record is your friend.

=item * It's built for extensibility

Currently, I'm using MARC::Record for analyzing bibliographic
data, but who knows what might happen in the future?  MARC::Record
needs to be just as adept at authority data, too.

=item * It's designed around accessor methods

I use method calls everywhere, and I expect calling programs to do
the same, rather than accessing internal data directly.  If you
access an object's hash fields on your own, future releases may
break your code.

=item * It's not built for speed

One of the tradeoffs in using accessor methods is some overhead
in the method calls.  Is this slow?  I don't know, I haven't measured.
I would suggest that if you're a cycle junkie that you use to check to see where your bottlenecks are, and then
decide if MARC::Record is for you.



L<MARC::Field>, L<MARC::Batch>, L<MARC::File::XML>, L<MARC::Charset>, 

=head1 SEE ALSO

=over 4

=item * perl4lib (L<>)

A mailing list devoted to the use of Perl in libraries.

=item * Library Of Congress MARC pages (L<>)

The definitive source for all things MARC.

=item * I<Understanding MARC Bibliographic> (L<>)

Online version of the free booklet.  An excellent overview of the MARC format.  Essential.

=item * Tag Of The Month (L<>)

Follett Software Company's
(L<>) monthly discussion of various MARC tags.


=head1 TODO

=over 4

=item * Incorporate in the distribution.

Combine and MARC::* into one distribution.

=item * Podify

=item * Allow regexes across the entire tag

Imagine something like this:

  my @sears_headings = $marc->tag_grep( qr/Sears/ );

(from Mike O'Regan)

=item * Insert a field in an arbitrary place in the record

=item * Modifying an existing field



Please feel free to email me at C<< <> >>.  I'm glad
to help as best I can, and I'm always interested in bugs, suggestions
and patches.

An excellent place to look for information, and get quick help, is from
the perl4lib mailing list.  See L<> for more
information about this list, and other helpful MARC information.

The MARC::Record development team uses the RT bug tracking system at
L<>.  If your email is about a bug or suggestion,
please report it through the RT system.  This is a huge help for the
team, and you'll be notified of progress as things get fixed or updated.
If you prefer not to use the website, you can send your bug to C<<
<> >>

=head1 IDEAS

Ideas are things that have been considered, but nobody's actually asked for.

=over 4

=item * Create multiple output formats.

These could be ASCII or MarcMaker.


=head1 LICENSE

This code may be distributed under the same terms as Perl itself.

Please note that these modules are not products of or supported by the
employers of the various contributors to the code.

=head1 AUTHORS

=over 4

=item * Andy Lester 

=item * Mike O'Regan

=item * Ed Summers

=item * Mike Rylander

=item * Galen Charlton