package LWP::MediaTypes;

require Exporter;
@ISA = qw(Exporter);
@EXPORT = qw(guess_media_type media_suffix);
@EXPORT_OK = qw(add_type add_encoding read_media_types);
our $VERSION = '6.04';

use strict;
use Scalar::Util qw(blessed);
use Carp qw(croak);

# note: These hashes will also be filled with the entries found in
# the 'media.types' file.

my %suffixType = (
    'txt'   => 'text/plain',
    'html'  => 'text/html',
    'gif'   => 'image/gif',
    'jpg'   => 'image/jpeg',
    'xml'   => 'text/xml',

my %suffixExt = (
    'text/plain' => 'txt',
    'text/html'  => 'html',
    'image/gif'  => 'gif',
    'image/jpeg' => 'jpg',
    'text/xml'   => 'xml',

#XXX: there should be some way to define this in the media.types files.
my %suffixEncoding = (
    'Z'   => 'compress',
    'gz'  => 'gzip',
    'hqx' => 'x-hqx',
    'uu'  => 'x-uuencode',
    'z'   => 'x-pack',
    'bz2' => 'x-bzip2',


sub guess_media_type
    my($file, $header) = @_;
    return undef unless defined $file;

    my $fullname;
    if (ref $file) {
        croak("Unable to determine filetype on unblessed refs") unless blessed($file);
        if ($file->can('path')) {
            $file = $file->path;
        elsif ($file->can('filename')) {
            $fullname = $file->filename;
        else {
            $fullname = "" . $file;
    else {
	$fullname = $file;  # enable peek at actual file

    my @encoding = ();
    my $ct = undef;
    for (file_exts($file)) {
	# first check this dot part as encoding spec
	if (exists $suffixEncoding{$_}) {
	    unshift(@encoding, $suffixEncoding{$_});
	if (exists $suffixEncoding{lc $_}) {
	    unshift(@encoding, $suffixEncoding{lc $_});

	# check content-type
	if (exists $suffixType{$_}) {
	    $ct = $suffixType{$_};
	if (exists $suffixType{lc $_}) {
	    $ct = $suffixType{lc $_};

	# don't know nothing about this dot part, bail out
    unless (defined $ct) {
	# Take a look at the file
	if (defined $fullname) {
	    $ct = (-T $fullname) ? "text/plain" : "application/octet-stream";
	else {
	    $ct = "application/octet-stream";

    if ($header) {
	$header->header('Content-Type' => $ct);
	$header->header('Content-Encoding' => \@encoding) if @encoding;

    wantarray ? ($ct, @encoding) : $ct;

sub media_suffix {
    if (!wantarray && @_ == 1 && $_[0] !~ /\*/) {
	return $suffixExt{lc $_[0]};
    my(@type) = @_;
    my(@suffix, $ext, $type);
    foreach (@type) {
	if (s/\*/.*/) {
	    while(($ext,$type) = each(%suffixType)) {
		push(@suffix, $ext) if $type =~ /^$_$/i;
	else {
	    my $ltype = lc $_;
	    while(($ext,$type) = each(%suffixType)) {
		push(@suffix, $ext) if lc $type eq $ltype;
    wantarray ? @suffix : $suffix[0];

sub file_exts
    require File::Basename;
    my @parts = reverse split(/\./, File::Basename::basename($_[0]));
    pop(@parts);        # never consider first part

sub add_type
    my($type, @exts) = @_;
    for my $ext (@exts) {
	$ext =~ s/^\.//;
	$suffixType{$ext} = $type;
    $suffixExt{lc $type} = $exts[0] if @exts;

sub add_encoding
    my($type, @exts) = @_;
    for my $ext (@exts) {
	$ext =~ s/^\.//;
	$suffixEncoding{$ext} = $type;

sub read_media_types
    my(@files) = @_;

    local($/, $_) = ("\n", undef);  # ensure correct $INPUT_RECORD_SEPARATOR

    my @priv_files = ();
    push(@priv_files, "$ENV{HOME}/.media.types", "$ENV{HOME}/.mime.types")
	if defined $ENV{HOME};  # Some doesn't have a home (for instance Win32)

    # Try to locate "media.types" file, and initialize %suffixType from it
    my $typefile;
    unless (@files) {
	@files = map {"$_/LWP/media.types"} @INC;
	push @files, @priv_files;
    for $typefile (@files) {
	open(TYPE, $typefile) || next;
	while (<TYPE>) {
	    next if /^\s*#/; # comment line
	    next if /^\s*$/; # blank line
	    s/#.*//;         # remove end-of-line comments
	    my($type, @exts) = split(' ', $_);
	    add_type($type, @exts);



=head1 NAME

LWP::MediaTypes - guess media type for a file or a URL


 use LWP::MediaTypes qw(guess_media_type);
 $type = guess_media_type("/tmp/foo.gif");


This module provides functions for handling media (also known as
MIME) types and encodings.  The mapping from file extensions to media
types is defined by the F<media.types> file.  If the F<~/.media.types>
file exists it is used instead.
For backwards compatibility we will also look for F<~/.mime.types>.

The following functions are exported by default:

=over 4

=item guess_media_type( $filename )

=item guess_media_type( $uri )

=item guess_media_type( $filename_or_object, $header_to_modify )

This function tries to guess media type and encoding for a file or objects that
support the a C<path> or C<filename> method, eg, L<URI> or L<File::Temp> objects.
When an object does not support either method, it will be stringified to
determine the filename.
It returns the content type, which is a string like C<"text/html">.
In array context it also returns any content encodings applied (in the
order used to encode the file).  You can pass a URI object
reference, instead of the file name.

If the type can not be deduced from looking at the file name,
then guess_media_type() will let the C<-T> Perl operator take a look.
If this works (and C<-T> returns a TRUE value) then we return
I<text/plain> as the type, otherwise we return
I<application/octet-stream> as the type.

The optional second argument should be a reference to a HTTP::Headers
object or any object that implements the $obj->header method in a
similar way.  When it is present the values of the
'Content-Type' and 'Content-Encoding' will be set for this header.

=item media_suffix( $type, ... )

This function will return all suffixes that can be used to denote the
specified media type(s).  Wildcard types can be used.  In a scalar
context it will return the first suffix found. Examples:

  @suffixes = media_suffix('image/*', 'audio/basic');
  $suffix = media_suffix('text/html');


The following functions are only exported by explicit request:

=over 4

=item add_type( $type, @exts )

Associate a list of file extensions with the given media type.

    add_type("x-world/x-vrml" => qw(wrl vrml));

=item add_encoding( $type, @ext )

Associate a list of file extensions with an encoding type.

 add_encoding("x-gzip" => "gz");

=item read_media_types( @files )

Parse media types files and add the type mappings found there.




Copyright 1995-1999 Gisle Aas.

This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.