# $Id: AcceptLanguage.pm,v 1.8 2004/05/14 21:40:03 cgilmore Exp $
#
# Author          : Christian Gilmore
# Created On      : Wed Sep 25 17:10:19 CDT 2002
#
# PURPOSE
#     Matches language preference to available languages.
#
###############################################################################
#
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# Package name
package I18N::AcceptLanguage;


# Required packages
use 5.006001;
use strict;
use warnings;
use vars qw($VERSION);


# Global variables
$VERSION = '1.04';


###############################################################################
###############################################################################
# new: class object initialization
###############################################################################
###############################################################################
sub new {
  my $self = shift;
  my $type = ref($self) || $self;
  my $obj = bless {}, $type;
  my %arg = @_;

  $obj->debug($arg{debug} || 0);
  $obj->defaultLanguage($arg{defaultLanguage} || '');
  defined $arg{strict} ? $obj->strict($arg{strict}) : $obj->strict(1);

  return $obj;
}

###############################################################################
###############################################################################
# debug: get/set method for debug messages
###############################################################################
###############################################################################
sub debug {
  my $acceptor = shift;

  $acceptor->{debug} = shift if @_;
  return $acceptor->{debug};
}

###############################################################################
###############################################################################
# defaultLanguage: get/set method for the server default language
###############################################################################
###############################################################################
sub defaultLanguage {
  my $acceptor = shift;

  $acceptor->{defaultLanguage} = shift if @_;
  return $acceptor->{defaultLanguage};
}

###############################################################################
###############################################################################
# strict: get/set method for strict protocol conformance
###############################################################################
###############################################################################
sub strict {
  my $acceptor = shift;

  $acceptor->{strict} = shift if @_;
  return $acceptor->{strict};
}

###############################################################################
###############################################################################
# accepts: determines what the highest priority commonly known language
#   between client and server is.
###############################################################################
###############################################################################
sub accepts {
  my ($acceptor, $clientPreferences, $supportedLanguages) = @_;

  # Basic sanity check
  if (not $clientPreferences or ref($supportedLanguages) ne 'ARRAY') {
    return $acceptor->defaultLanguage();
  }

  # There should be no whitespace anways, but a cleanliness/sanity check
  $clientPreferences =~ s/\s//g;
  print "Client preferences are $clientPreferences\n" if $acceptor->debug();

  # Prepare the list of client-acceptable languages
  my @languages = ();
  foreach my $tag (split(/,/, $clientPreferences)) {
    my ($language, $quality) = split(/\;/, $tag);
    $quality =~ s/^q=//i if $quality;
    $quality = 1 unless $quality;
    next if $quality <= 0;
    # We want to force the wildcard to be last
    $quality = 0 if ($language eq '*');
    # Pushing lowercase language here saves processing later
    push(@languages, { quality => $quality,
		       language => $language,
		       lclanguage => lc($language) });
  }

  # Prepare the list of server-supported languages
  my %supportedLanguages = ();
  my %secondaryLanguages = ();
  foreach my $language (@$supportedLanguages) {
    print "Added language $language (lower-cased) to supported hash\n"
      if $acceptor->debug();
    $supportedLanguages{lc($language)} = $language;
    if ($language =~ /^([^-]+)-?/) {
      print "Added language $1 (lower-cased) to secondary hash\n"
	if $acceptor->debug();
      $secondaryLanguages{lc($1)} = $language;
    }
  }

  # Reverse sort the list, making best quality at the front of the array
  @languages = sort { $b->{quality} <=> $a->{quality} } @languages;

  my $secondaryMatch = '';
  foreach my $tag (@languages) {
    print "Matching ", $tag->{lclanguage}, "\n" if $acceptor->debug();
    if (exists($supportedLanguages{$tag->{lclanguage}})) {
      # Client en-us eq server en-us
      print "Returning language ", $supportedLanguages{$tag->{language}}, "\n"
	if $acceptor->debug();
      return $supportedLanguages{$tag->{language}}
	if exists($supportedLanguages{$tag->{language}});
      return $supportedLanguages{$tag->{lclanguage}};
    } elsif (exists($secondaryLanguages{$tag->{lclanguage}})) {
      # Client en eq server en-us
      print "Returning language ", $secondaryLanguages{$tag->{language}}, "\n"
	if $acceptor->debug();
      return $secondaryLanguages{$tag->{language}}
	if exists($secondaryLanguages{$tag->{language}});
      return $supportedLanguages{$tag->{lclanguage}};
    } elsif (!($acceptor->strict()) &&
	     $tag->{lclanguage} =~ /^([^-]+)-/ &&
	     exists($secondaryLanguages{$1}) &&
	     $secondaryMatch eq '') {
      # Client en-gb eq server en-us
      print "Setting supported secondaryMatch of $1 for ", $tag->{lclanguage}, "\n"
	if $acceptor->debug();
      $secondaryMatch = $secondaryLanguages{$1};
    } elsif ($tag->{lclanguage} =~ /^([^-]+)-/ &&
	     exists($secondaryLanguages{$1}) &&
	     $secondaryMatch eq '') {
      # Client en-us eq server en
      print "Setting secondary secondaryMatch of $1 for ", $tag->{lclanguage}, "\n"
	if $acceptor->debug();
      $secondaryMatch = $supportedLanguages{$1};
    } elsif ($tag->{lclanguage} eq '*') {
      # * matches every language not already specified.
      # It doesn't care which we pick, so let's pick the default,
      # if available, then the first in the array.
      print "Setting default for *\n" if $acceptor->debug();
      return $acceptor->defaultLanguage() if $acceptor->defaultLanguage();
      return $supportedLanguages->[0];
    }
  }

  # No primary matches. Secondary? (ie, en-us requested and en supported)
  print "Testing for secondaryMatch\n" if $acceptor->debug();
  return $secondaryMatch if $secondaryMatch;

  # No matches. Let's return the default, if set.
  print "Returning default, if any\n" if $acceptor->debug();
  return $acceptor->defaultLanguage();
}

1;

__END__

###############################################################################
###############################################################################
# Documentation - try 'pod2text AcceptLanguage.pm'
###############################################################################
###############################################################################

=head1 NAME

I18N::AcceptLanguage - Matches language preference to available
languages

=head1 SYNOPSIS

  use I18N::AcceptLanguage;

  my $supportedLanguages = [( 'en-us', 'fr' )];

  my $acceptor = I18N::AcceptLanguage->new();
  my $language = $acceptor->accepts($ENV{HTTP_ACCEPT_LANGUAGE},
                                    $supportedLanguages);

=head1 DESCRIPTION

B<I18N::AcceptLanguage> matches language preference to available
languages per rules defined in RFC 2616, section 14.4: HTTP/1.1 -
Header Field Definitions - Accept-Language.

=head1 PUBLIC METHODS

=over 2

=item accepts( CLIENT_PREFERENCES, SUPPORTED_LANGUAGES )

Returns the highest priority common language between client and
server. If no common language is found, the defaultLanguage is
returned. If defaultLanuage is also not set, an empty string is
returned. The method expects two arguments:

=over 2

=item CLIENT_PREFERENCES

A string in the same format defined in RFC 2616, quoted here:

  1#( ( ( 1*8ALPHA *( "-" 1*8ALPHA ) ) | "*" ) [ "'" "q" "=" qvalue ] )

Examples:

  da, en-gb;q=0.8, en;q=0.7

  en-us, ja, *

=item SUPPORTED_LANGUAGES

A reference to a list of language ranges supported by the server.

=back

=item new( [ OPTIONS ] )

Returns a new I18N::AcceptLanguage object. The method accepts the
following key/value pair options:

=over 2

=item debug

A boolean set to either 0 or 1. When set to 1, debug messages will be
printed to STDOUT. The value of debug defaults to 0.

=item defaultLanguage

A string representing the server's default language choice. The value
of defaultLanguage defaults to an empty string.

=item strict

A boolean set to either 0 or 1. When set to 1, the software strictly
conforms to the protocol specification. When set to 0, the software
will perform a secondary, aggressive language match regardless of
country (ie, a client asking for only en-gb will get back en-us if the
server does not accept en-gb or en but does accept en-us). The last
matching language in the supported languages list will be chosen. The
value of strict defaults to 1.

=back

=back

=head1 PRIVATE METHODS

=over 2

=item debug( [ BOOLEAN ] )

A get/set method that returns the value of debug, set by the optional
method argument.

=item defaultLanguage( [ LANGUAGE ] )

A get/set method that returns the value of defaultLanguage, set by the
optional method argument.

=item strict( [ BOOLEAN ] )

A get/set method that returns the value of strict, set by the optional
method argument.

=back

=head1 NOTES

=over 2

=item Case Sensitivity

Language matches are done in a case-insensitive manner but results are
case-sensitive to the value found in the SUPPORTED_LANGUAGES list.

=back

=head1 AVAILABILITY

This module is available on CPAN worldwide and requires perl version
5.6.1 or higher be installed.

=head1 AUTHORS

Christian Gilmore <cag@us.ibm.com>

=head1 SEE ALSO

RFC 2616

=head1 COPYRIGHT

Copyright (C) 2003, 2004 International Business Machines Corporation
and others. All Rights Reserved.

This module is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
modify it under the terms of the IBM Public License.

=cut