package HTML::Template::Compiled;
our $VERSION = '1.003'; # VERSION
use Data::Dumper;
use Scalar::Util;
use constant D => $ENV{HTC_DEBUG} || 0;
use strict;
use warnings;
use Digest::MD5 qw/ md5_hex /;

use Carp;
use Fcntl qw(:seek :flock);
use File::Spec;
use File::Basename qw(dirname basename);
use HTML::Template::Compiled::Utils qw(:walkpath :log :escape &md5);
use HTML::Template::Compiled::Expression qw(:expressions);
use HTML::Template::Compiled::Compiler;
eval {
    require URI::Escape;
#eval {
#    require Encode;
#my $Encode = $@ ? 0 : 1;

use base 'Exporter';
our @EXPORT_OK = qw(&HTC);
use HTML::Template::Compiled::Parser qw(
use vars qw($__ix__);

use constant MTIME    => 0;
use constant CHECKED  => 1;
use constant LMTIME   => 2;
use constant LCHECKED => 3;

use constant DEBUG_COMPILED => 0b001;

use constant DEBUG_CACHE_FILE_MISS => 0b0001;
use constant DEBUG_CACHE_FILE_HIT  => 0b0010;
use constant DEBUG_CACHE_MEM_MISS  => 0b0100;
use constant DEBUG_CACHE_MEM_HIT   => 0b1000;

our $DEBUG = 0;

# options / object attributes
use constant PARAM => 0;

    my @map = (
        undef, qw(
          path md5_path filename file scalar filehandle
          file_cache cache_dir cache search_path
          loop_context case_sensitive global_vars
          debug debug_file objects perl out_fh default_escape
          filter formatter
          globalstack use_query parse_tree parser compiler includes
          plugins open_mode chomp expire_time strict warnings line_info
          args optimize

    for my $i ( 1 .. $#map ) {
        my $method = "_$map[$i]";
        my $get    = sub { return $_[0]->[$i] };
        my $set;
            $set = sub { $_[0]->[$i] = $_[1] };
        no strict 'refs';
        *{"get$method"} = $get;
        *{"set$method"} = $set;

# tired of typing?
sub HTC { __PACKAGE__->new(@_) }

sub new {
    my ( $class, %args ) = @_;
    D && $class->log("new()");
    # handle the "type", "source" parameter format (does anyone use it?)
    if ( exists $args{type} ) {
        exists $args{source} or $class->_error_no_source();
        $args{type} =~ m/^(?:filename|scalarref|arrayref|filehandle)$/
          or $class->_error_wrong_source();
        $args{ $args{type} } = $args{source};
        delete $args{type};
        delete $args{source};
    if (exists $args{filename}) {
        return $class->new_file($args{filename}, %args);
    elsif (exists $args{scalarref}) {
        return $class->new_scalar_ref($args{scalarref}, %args);
    elsif (exists $args{filehandle}) {
        return $class->new_filehandle($args{filehandle}, %args);
    elsif (exists $args{arrayref}) {
        return $class->new_array_ref($args{arrayref}, %args);
    croak("$class->new called with not enough arguments");

sub _error_no_query {
    my ($self) = @_;
    my $class = ref $self || $self;
    carp "You are using query() but have not specified that you want to use it"
    . " (specify with use_query => 1)";

sub _error_not_compiled {
    my ($self) = @_;
    my $class = ref $self || $self;
    carp "Template was not compiled yet";

sub _error_wrong_source {
    my ($self) = @_;
    my $class = ref $self || $self;
    croak("$class->new() : type parameter must be set to 'filename', "
        . "'arrayref', 'scalarref' or 'filehandle'!");

sub _error_no_source {
    my ($self) = @_;
    my $class = ref $self || $self;
    croak("$class->new() called with 'type' parameter set,"
       . " but no 'source'!");

sub _error_template_sources {
    my ($self) = @_;
    my $class = ref $self || $self;
        "$class->new called with multiple (or no) template sources specified!"
          . "A valid call to new() has exactly ne filename => 'file' OR exactly one"
          . " scalarref => \\\$scalar OR exactly one arrayref => \\\@array OR"
          . " exactly one filehandle => \*FH"

sub _error_empty_filename {
    my ($self) = @_;
    my $class = ref $self || $self;
    croak("$class->new called with empty filename parameter!");

sub new_from_perl {
    my ($class, %args) = @_;
    my $self = bless [], $class;
    D && $self->log("new(perl) filename: $args{filename}");

    $self->set_perl( $args{perl} );
    $self->set_filename( $args{filename} );
    my $md5path = md5_hex(@{ $args{path} || [] });
    $self->set_path( $args{path} );
    $self->set_md5_path( $md5path );
    $self->set_scalar( $args{scalarref} );

    unless ( $self->get_scalar ) {
        my $file =
          $self->createFilename( $self->get_path, \$self->get_filename );
    return $self;

sub new_file {
    my ($class, $filename, %args) = @_;
    my $self = bless [], $class;
    $args{path} = $self->build_path($args{path});
        if (!defined $filename or !length $filename);
    $args{filename} = $filename;
    if (exists $args{scalarref}
        || exists $args{arrayref} || exists $args{filehandle}) {
    $self->set_filename( $filename );
    my $md5path = md5_hex(@{ $args{path} || [] });
    $self->set_path( $args{path} );
    $self->set_md5_path( $md5path );
    if (my $t = $self->from_cache(\%args)) {
        return $t;
    return $self;

sub new_filehandle {
    my ($class, $filehandle, %args) = @_;
    my $self = bless [], $class;
    if (exists $args{scalarref}
        || exists $args{arrayref} || exists $args{filename}) {
    $args{filehandle} = $filehandle;
    $args{path} = $self->build_path($args{path});
    $self->set_filehandle( $args{filehandle} );
    $args{cache} = 0;
    my $md5path = md5_hex(@{ $args{path} || [] });
    $self->set_path( $args{path} );
    $self->set_md5_path( $md5path );
    if (my $t = $self->from_cache(\%args)) {
        return $t;
    return $self;

sub new_array_ref {
    my ($class, $arrayref, %args) = @_;
    if (exists $args{scalarref}
        || exists $args{filehandle} || exists $args{filename}) {
    my $scalarref = \( join '', @$arrayref );
    delete $args{arrayref};
    return $class->new_scalar_ref($scalarref, %args);

sub new_scalar_ref {
    my ($class, $scalarref, %args) = @_;
    my $self = bless [], $class;
    if (exists $args{arrayref}
        || exists $args{filehandle} || exists $args{filename}) {
    $args{scalarref} = $scalarref;
    $args{path} = $self->build_path($args{path});
    $self->set_scalar( $args{scalarref} );
    my $text = $self->get_scalar;
    my $md5  = md5($$text);
#    if ($args{cache} and !$md5) {
#        croak "For caching scalarrefs you need Digest::MD5";
#    }
    D && $self->log("md5: $md5");
    my $md5path = md5_hex(@{ $args{path} || [] });
    $self->set_path( $args{path} );
    $self->set_md5_path( $md5path );
    if (my $t = $self->from_cache(\%args)) {
        return $t;
    return $self;

sub init_includes {
    my ($self) = @_;
    my $includes = $self->get_includes;
    my $cache = $self->get_cache_dir||'';
    for my $fullpath (keys %$includes) {
        my ($path, $filename, $htc) = @{ $includes->{$fullpath} };
        D && $self->log("checking $fullpath ($filename) $htc?");
        # TODO check $cache
        $cache .= '-' . $self->get_md5_path;
        #warn __PACKAGE__.':'.__LINE__.": init_includes() $filename\n";
        if (not $htc or HTML::Template::Compiled::needs_new_check($cache||'',$filename, $self->get_expire_time)
        ) {
            $htc = $self->new_from_object($path,$filename,$fullpath,$cache);
        $includes->{$fullpath}->[2] = $htc;

sub build_path {
    my ($self, $path) = @_;
    unless (defined $path) {
        $path = [];
    elsif (!ref $path) {
        $path = [$path];
    defined $ENV{'HTML_TEMPLATE_ROOT'}
        and push @$path, $ENV{'HTML_TEMPLATE_ROOT'};
    return $path;

sub from_scratch {
    my ($self) = @_;
    D && $self->log("from_scratch filename=".$self->get_filename);
    my $fname = $self->get_filename;
    if ( defined $fname and !$self->get_scalar and !$self->get_filehandle ) {

        #D && $self->log("tried from_cache() filename=".$fname);
        my $file = $self->createFilename( $self->get_path, \$fname );
        D && $self->log("set_file $file ($fname)");
    elsif ( defined $fname ) {
    D && $self->log( "compiling... " . $self->get_filename );
    return $self;

sub from_cache {
    my ($self, $args) = @_;
    my $t;
    D && $self->log( "from_cache() filename=" . $self->get_filename );

    $args ||= {};
    my $plug = $args->{plugin} || [];
    my $debug = $self->get_debug || $args->{debug};
    # try to get memory cache
    if ( $self->get_cache ) {
        my $dir = $self->get_cache_dir;
        $dir = '' unless defined $dir;
        $dir .= '-' . $self->get_md5_path;
        my $fname  = $self->get_filename;
        $t = $self->from_mem_cache($dir,$fname, $args);
        if ($t) {
            if (@$plug) {
            if ($debug->{cache} & DEBUG_CACHE_MEM_HIT) {
                warn "### HTML::Template::Compiled Cache Debug ### MEM CACHE HIT: $fname\n";
            return $t;
#        warn __PACKAGE__.':'.__LINE__.": not in mem cache: $fname\n";
        if ($debug->{cache} & DEBUG_CACHE_MEM_MISS) {
            warn "### HTML::Template::Compiled Cache Debug ### MEM CACHE MISS: @{[ $self->get_filename ]}\n";
    D && $self->log( "from_cache() 2 filename=" . $self->get_filename );

    # not in memory cache, try file cache
    if ( $self->get_cache_dir ) {
        my $file = $self->get_scalar || $self->get_filehandle
            ? $self->get_filename
            : $self->createFilename( $self->get_path, \$self->get_filename );
        my $dir     = $self->get_cache_dir;
        if (defined $dir and not -d $dir) {
            croak "Cachedir '$dir' does not exist";
        $t = $self->from_file_cache($dir, $file);
        if ($t) {
            if (@$plug) {
            if ($debug->{cache} & DEBUG_CACHE_FILE_HIT) {
                warn "### HTML::Template::Compiled Cache Debug ### FILE CACHE HIT: @{[ $self->get_filename ]}\n";
            return $t;
        if ($debug->{cache} & DEBUG_CACHE_FILE_MISS) {
            warn "### HTML::Template::Compiled Cache Debug ### FILE CACHE MISS: @{[ $self->get_filename ]}\n";
    D && $self->log( "from_cache() 3 filename=" . $self->get_filename );

    my $cache;
    # {
    #   $cachedir => {
    #     $filename => $htc_object,
    my $times;

    sub needs_new_check {
        my ($dir, $fname, $expire_time) = @_;
        my $times  = $times->{$dir}->{$fname} or return 1;
        my $now = time;
        return 0 if $now - $times->{checked} < $expire_time;
        return 1;

    sub from_mem_cache {
        my ($self, $dir, $fname, $args) = @_;
        my $cached = $cache->{$dir}->{$fname};
        my $times  = $times->{$dir}->{$fname};
        D && $self->log("\$cached=$cached \$times=$times \$fname=$fname\n");
        if ( $cached && $self->uptodate($times, $args) ) {
            return $cached->clone;
        D && $self->log("no or old memcache");

    sub _debug_cache {
        my ($self) = @_;
        my $dir = $self->get_cache_dir;
        my $objects = $cache->{$dir};
        my $times = $times->{$dir};
        warn Data::Dumper->Dump([\$times], ['times']);
        my @keys = keys %$objects;
        warn Data::Dumper->Dump([\@keys], ['keys']);
    sub add_mem_cache {
        my ( $self, %times ) = @_;
        D && $self->stack(1);
        my $dir = $self->get_cache_dir;
        $dir = '' unless defined $dir;
        my @c = caller();
        $dir .= '-' . $self->get_md5_path;
        my $fname = $self->get_filename;
        D && $self->log( "add_mem_cache $fname" );
        my $clone = $self->clone;
        my @plugs = @{ $self->get_plugins || [] };
        for my $i (0 .. $#plugs) {
            if (ref $plugs[$i]) {
                if ($plugs[$i]->can('serialize')) {
                    $plugs[$i] = $plugs[$i]->serialize();
        $cache->{$dir}->{$fname} = $clone;
        $times->{$dir}->{$fname} = \%times;

    sub clear_cache {
        my $dir = $_[0]->get_cache_dir;

        # clear the whole cache
        $cache = {}, $times = {}, return unless defined $dir;

        # only specific directory
        $cache->{$dir} = {};
        $times->{$dir} = {};

    sub clear_filecache {
        my ( $self, $dir ) = @_;
        defined $dir
          or $dir = $self->get_cache_dir;
        return unless -d $dir;
        ref $self and $self->lock;
        opendir my $dh, $dir or die "Could not open '$dir': $!";
        my @files = grep { m/(\.pl|\.storable)$/ } readdir $dh;
        for my $file (@files) {
            my $file = File::Spec->catfile( $dir, $file );
            unlink $file or die "Could not delete '$file': $!";
        ref $self and $self->unlock;
        return 1;

    sub uptodate {
        my ( $self, $cached_times, $args ) = @_;
        return 1 if $self->get_scalar;
        my $expire_time = $self->get_expire_time;
        $expire_time = $args->{expire_time} unless defined $expire_time;
#         unless ($cached_times) {
#             my $dir = $self->get_cache_dir;
#             $dir = '' unless defined $dir;
#             my $fname  = $self->get_filename;
#             my $cached = $cache->{$dir}->{$fname};
#             $cached_times  = $times->{$dir}->{$fname};
#             return unless $cached;
#         }
        my $now = time;
        if ( $now - $cached_times->{checked} < $expire_time ) {
            return 1;
        else {
            my $file = $self->createFilename( $self->get_path, \$self->get_filename );
            #print STDERR "uptodate($file)\n";
            my @times = $self->_checktimes($file);
            if ( $times[MTIME] <= $cached_times->{mtime} ) {
                D && $self->log("uptodate template old");
                # set last check time to new value
                $cached_times->{checked} = $now;
                return 1;
        # template is not up to date, re-compile it
        return 0;


sub compile {
    my ($self) = @_;
    my ( $source, $compiled );
    my $compiler = $self->get_compiler;
    if ( my $file = $self->get_file and !$self->get_scalar ) {

        D && $self->log( "compile from file " . $file );
        die "Could not open '$file': $!" unless -f $file;
        my @times = $self->_checktimes($file);
        my $text  = $self->_readfile($file);
        my ( $source, $compiled ) = $compiler->compile( $self, $text, $file );
        $self->get_cache and $self->add_mem_cache(
            checked => time,
            mtime   => $times[MTIME],
        D && $self->log("compiled $file");

        if ( $self->get_cache_dir ) {
            D && $self->log("add_file_cache($file)");
                checked => time,
                mtime   => $times[MTIME],
    elsif ( my $text = $self->get_scalar ) {
        my $md5 = $self->get_filename;    # yeah, weird
        D && $self->log("compiled $md5");
        my ( $source, $compiled ) = $compiler->compile( $self, $$text, $md5 );
        if ( $self->get_cache_dir ) {
            D && $self->log("add_file_cache($file)");
                checked => time,
                mtime   => time,
    elsif ( my $fh = $self->get_filehandle ) {
        local $/;
        my $data = <$fh>;
        my ( $source, $compiled ) = $compiler->compile( $self, $data, '' );


sub add_file_cache {
    my ( $self, $source, %times ) = @_;
    my $cache    = $self->get_cache_dir;
    if (defined $cache and not -d $cache) {
        croak "Cachedir '$cache' does not exist";
    my $plfile   = $self->escape_filename( $self->get_file );
    my $filename = $self->get_filename;
    my $lmtime   = localtime $times{mtime};
    my $lchecked = localtime $times{checked};
    my $cachefile = "$cache/$plfile";
    D && $self->log("add_file_cache() $cachefile");
        require Storable;
        require B::Deparse;
        local $Storable::Deparse = 1;
        my $clone = $self->clone;
        my $v = $self->VERSION || '0.01';
        my $to_cache = {
            htc => $clone,
            version => $v,
            times => {
                mtime => $times{mtime},
                checked => $times{checked},
        Storable::store($to_cache, "$cachefile.storable");

sub get_plugin {
    my ($self, $class) = @_;
    for my $plug (@{ $self->get_plugins || [] }) {
        return $plug if (ref $plug || $plug) eq $class;

sub from_file_cache {
    my ($self, $dir, $file) = @_;
    D && $self->stack;
    D && $self->log("include file: $file");

    my $escaped = $self->escape_filename($file);
    my $req     = File::Spec->catfile( $dir, "$escaped.storable" );
    return unless -f $req;
    return $self->include_file($req);

sub include_file {
    my ( $self, $req ) = @_;
    D && $self->log("do $req");
    my $r;
    my $t;
        require Storable;
        require B::Deparse;
        local $Storable::Eval = 1;
        my $cache;
        eval {
            $cache = Storable::retrieve($req);
        #warn __PACKAGE__.':'.__LINE__.": error? $@\n";
        return if $@;
        my $cached_version = $cache->{version};
        $t = $cache->{htc};
        if (($t->VERSION || '0.01') ne $cached_version || !$t->uptodate( $cache->{times} )) {
            # is not uptodate
        my $plug = $t->get_plugins || [];
        $t->get_cache and $t->add_mem_cache(
            checked => $cache->{times}->{checked},
            mtime   => $cache->{times}->{mtime},
    return $t;

sub createFilename {
    my ( $self, $path, $filename_ref, $cwd ) = @_;
    my $filename = $$filename_ref;
    D && $self->log("createFilename($path,$filename)");
    D && $self->stack(1);
#warn __PACKAGE__.':'.__LINE__.": ---- createFilename($path, $$filename_ref, $cwd)\n";
    if ($path) {
        local $" = "\0";
        my $cached = $PATHS{"@$path"}->{$filename};
        return $cached if defined $cached;
    if ( !$path or
        (File::Spec->file_name_is_absolute($filename) &&
        -f $filename) ) {
        return $filename;
    else {
        D && $self->log( "file: " . File::Spec->catfile( $path, $filename ) );
        if ($path && @$path) {
            my @search = @$path;
            for ( @search ) {
                my $fp = File::Spec->catfile( $_, $filename );
                if (-f $fp) {
                    local $" = "\0";
                    $PATHS{"@$path"}->{$filename} = $fp;
                    return $fp;
            # not found in $path, try current template dir
            if (defined $cwd) {
                my $fp = File::Spec->catfile( $cwd, $filename );
                if (-f $fp) {
                    for my $p (@search) {
                        if ($fp =~ m{^\Q$p\E(.*)}) {
                            my $rest = $1;
                            my (undef, @p) = File::Spec->splitdir($rest);
                            $rest = File::Spec->catfile(@p);
                            $$filename_ref = $rest;
                            $PATHS{"@$path"}->{$rest} = $fp;
                    return $fp;
        elsif (-f $filename) {
            $PATHS{''}->{$filename} = $filename;
            return $filename;

        # TODO - bug with scalarref
        croak "'$filename' not found";

sub dump {
    my ( $self, $var ) = @_;
    require Data::Dumper;
    local $Data::Dumper::Indent   = 1;
    local $Data::Dumper::Sortkeys = 1;
    return Data::Dumper->Dump( [$var], ['DUMP'] );

sub dump_var {
    my ($class, $var, $varname) = @_;
    local $Data::Dumper::Terse = 0;
    local $Data::Dumper::Indent = 2;
    local $Data::Dumper::Purity = 0;
    local $Data::Dumper::Pad = "";
    local $Data::Dumper::Useqq = 0;
    local $Data::Dumper::Deepcopy = 0;
    local $Data::Dumper::Quotekeys = 1;
    local $Data::Dumper::Bless = 'bless';
    local $Data::Dumper::Pair = ' => ';
    local $Data::Dumper::Maxdep = 0;
    local $Data::Dumper::Useperl = 0;
    local $Data::Dumper::Sortkeys = 1;
    return Data::Dumper->Dump( [$var], [$varname] );

sub init_cache {
    my ($self, $args) = @_;
    my $cachedir = $args->{file_cache_dir};
    if ($args->{file_cache}) {
        $self->set_cache_dir($cachedir) if $args->{file_cache};
    $self->set_cache( exists $args->{cache} ? $args->{cache} : 1 );

sub init_args {
    my ($self, $args) = @_;

    if (exists $args->{cache_dir}) {
        # will soon be deprecated
        $args->{file_cache_dir} = delete $args->{cache_dir};
        unless (exists $args->{file_cache}) {
            # warn in future versions
            $args->{file_cache} = 1;

    if ($args->{plugin} and (ref $args->{plugin}) ne 'ARRAY') {
        $args->{plugin} = [$args->{plugin}];
    my $debug_cache_args = delete $args->{cache_debug} || 0;
    my $debug_cache = 0;
    if ($debug_cache_args) {
        unless (ref $debug_cache_args) {
            # no array ref, just a true value
        else {
            for my $opt (@$debug_cache_args) {
                if ($opt eq 'file_miss') {
                    $debug_cache |= DEBUG_CACHE_FILE_MISS;
                elsif ($opt eq 'file_hit') {
                    $debug_cache |= DEBUG_CACHE_FILE_HIT;
                elsif ($opt eq 'mem_miss') {
                    $debug_cache |= DEBUG_CACHE_MEM_MISS;
                elsif ($opt eq 'mem_hit') {
                    $debug_cache |= DEBUG_CACHE_MEM_HIT;
    # check deprecated
    for (qw(method_call deref formatter_path default_path formatter)) {
        if (exists $args->{$_}) {
            croak "Option $_ is deprecated, see documentation";
    if (exists $args->{dumper}) {
        croak "Option dumper is deprecated, use a plugin instead";

    my $debug_file = delete $args->{debug_file} || 0;
    my $debug_compiled = delete $args->{debug} ? 1 : 0;
    my $debug = 0;
    $debug |= DEBUG_COMPILED if $debug_compiled;

    $args->{debug} = {
        options => $debug,
        file    => $debug_file,
        cache   => $debug_cache,
    my %optimize = (
        initial_var  => 1,
        object_check => 0,
        root_hash    => 0,
        %{ $args->{optimize} || {} },

    %$args = (
        search_path_on_include => $SEARCHPATH,
        loop_context_vars      => 0,
        case_sensitive         => $CASE_SENSITIVE_DEFAULT,
#        debug_file             => 0,
        objects                => 'strict',
        out_fh                 => 0,
        global_vars            => 0,
        default_escape         => $DEFAULT_ESCAPE,
        default_path           => PATH_DEREF,
        use_query              => $DEFAULT_QUERY,
        #use_expressions        => 0,
        use_perl               => 0,
        open_mode              => '',
        no_includes            => 0,
        pre_chomp              => 0,
        post_chomp             => 0,
        expire_time            => $NEW_CHECK,
        strict                 => 1,
        optimize               => \%optimize,
#    return %defaults;

sub init {
    my ( $self, %args ) = @_;
    $self->set_loop_context(1) if $args{loop_context_vars};
    $self->set_case_sensitive( $args{case_sensitive} );
    $self->set_default_escape( $args{default_escape} );
    $self->set_default_path( $args{default_path} );
    $self->set_use_query( $args{use_query} );
    $self->set_chomp([$args{pre_chomp}, $args{post_chomp}]);
    $self->set_strict( $args{strict} );
    my $warnings = $args{warnings} || 0;
    unless ($warnings eq 1 or $warnings eq 'fatal') {
        $warnings = 0;
    my $line_info = 0;
    if ($args{line_info}) {
        $line_info = 1;
    #$self->set_use_expressions( $args{use_expressions} );
    if ($args{use_expressions}) {
        require HTML::Template::Compiled::Expr;
    $args{open_mode} = '' unless length $args{open_mode};
    if ($args{open_mode}) {
        $args{open_mode} =~ s/^[<>]//; # <:utf8
    $self->set_open_mode( $args{open_mode} );
    $self->set_search_path( $args{search_path_on_include} );
    if ( $args{filter} ) {
        require HTML::Template::Compiled::Filter;
            HTML::Template::Compiled::Filter->new( $args{filter} ) );
    $self->set_debug( $args{debug} );
    $self->set_debug_file( $args{debug_file} );
    $self->set_objects( $args{objects} );
    $self->set_out_fh( $args{out_fh} );
    $self->set_global_vars( $args{global_vars} );
    if (my $plugins = $args{plugin}) {
    my $compiler = $self->compiler_class->new;
    my $tagstyle = $args{tagstyle};
    my $parser;
    if (ref $tagstyle eq 'ARRAY') {
        # user specified named styles or regexes
        $parser = $self->parser_class->new(
            tagstyle        => $tagstyle,
            use_expressions => $args{use_expressions},
            strict          => $args{strict},
    $args{parser} = ${$args{parser}} if ref $args{parser} eq 'REF';
    if (UNIVERSAL::isa($args{parser}, 'HTML::Template::Compiled::Parser')) {
        $parser = $args{parser};
    unless ($parser) {
        $parser ||= $self->parser_class->default();
    $parser->set_chomp([$args{pre_chomp}, $args{post_chomp}]);
    if ($args{use_perl}) {
            HTML::Template::Compiled::Token::OPENING_TAG() => {
                PERL => [sub { 1 }],
    if ($args{no_includes}) {
        $parser->remove_tags(qw/ INCLUDE INCLUDE_VAR INCLUDE_STRING /);
    if (my $plugins = $self->get_plugins) {

    my %_plugins;
    sub load_plugins {
        my ($self, $plugins) = @_;
        for my $plug (@$plugins) {
            next if ref $plug;
            next if $_plugins{$plug};
            if ($plug =~ m/^::/) {
                $plug = "HTML::Template::Compiled::Plugin$plug";
            next if $_plugins{$plug};
            unless ($plug->can('register')) {
                eval "require $plug";
                if ($@) {
                    carp "Could not load plugin $plug\n";
            $_plugins{$plug} = 1;

sub init_plugins {
    my ($self, $plugins) = @_;
    my $parser = $self->get_parser;
    my $compiler = $self->get_compiler;
    for my $plug (@$plugins) {
        my $actions = $self->get_plugin_actions($plug);
        if (my $tagnames = $actions->{tagnames}) {
        if (my $escape = $actions->{escape}) {
            $compiler->add_escapes((ref $plug) || $plug, $escape);
        if (my $tags = $actions->{compile}) {

    my $classes = {};

    sub register {
        my ($class, $plugins) = @_;
        $plugins = [$plugins] unless ref $plugins eq 'ARRAY';
        for my $plug (@$plugins) {
            my $actions = $plug->register;
            my $plug_class = (ref $plug) || $plug;
            $classes->{ $plug_class} = $actions;
            HTML::Template::Compiled::Compiler->setup_escapes($plug_class, $actions->{escape}||{});

    sub get_plugin_actions {
        my ($self, $pclass) = @_;
        return $classes->{ref $pclass || $pclass};

sub _readfile {
    my ( $self, $file ) = @_;
    my $open_mode = $self->get_open_mode;
    open my $fh, "<$open_mode", $file or die "Cannot open '$file': $!";
    local $/;

sub get_code {
    return $_[0]->get_perl;

sub compile_early { 1 }

sub method_call { '.' }
sub deref { '.' }
sub formatter_path { '/' }

sub parser_class { 'HTML::Template::Compiled::Parser' }

sub compiler_class { 'HTML::Template::Compiled::Compiler' }

sub quote_file {
    defined(my $f = $_[1]) or return '';
    $f =~ s/'/\\'/g;
    return qq/'$f'/;

# this method gets a varname like 'var' or 'object.method'
# or 'hash.key' and makes valid perl code out of it that will
# be eval()ed later
# so assuming . is the character for dereferencing hashes the string
# hash.key (found inside <tmpl_var name="hash.key">) will be converted to
# '$t->get_var($P, $$C, 1, [PATH_DEREF, 'key'])'
# the get_var method walks the paths given through the data structure.
# $P is the parameter hash of the template, $C is a reference to the current
# parameter hash. the third argument to get_var is 'final'.
# <tmpl_var foo> is a 'final' path, and <tmpl_with foo> is not.
# so final means it's in 'print-context'.

# -------- warning, ugly code
# i'm trading maintainability for efficiency here

sub try_global {
    my ( $self, $walk, $path ) = @_;
    my $stack = $self->get_globalstack || [];
    #warn Data::Dumper->Dump([\$stack], ['stack']);
    for my $item ( $walk, reverse @$stack ) {
        if (my $code = UNIVERSAL::can($item, $path)) {
            my $r =  $code->($item);
            return $r;
        else {
            next unless exists $item->{$path};
            return $item->{$path};

    sub _walk_formatter {
        my ($self, $walk, $key, $global) = @_;
        my $ref = ref $walk;
        my $fm = $HTML::Template::Compiled::Formatter::formatter;
        my $sub = exists $fm->{$ref} ? $fm->{$ref}->{$key} : undef;
        my $stack = [];
        my $new_walk;
        if ($global) {
            $stack = $self->get_globalstack || [];
        for my $item ($walk, reverse @$stack) {
            #print STDERR "::::::: formatter $walk -> $key (sub=$sub)\n";
            if (defined $sub) {
                $new_walk = $sub->($walk);
            elsif (exists $item->{$key}) {
                #print STDERR "===== \$item->{$key} exists! '$item->{$key}'\n";
                $new_walk = $item->{$key};
            # try next item in stack
        #print STDERR "---- formatter $walk\n";
        return $new_walk;

	# ----------- still ugly code
    # not needed anymore
#    if (my $formatter = $self->get_formatter() and $final and my $ref = ref $walk) {
#        if (my $sub = $formatter->{$ref}->{''}) {
#            my $return = $sub->($walk,$self,$P);
#            return $return unless ref $return;
#        }
#    }
#	return $walk;

# end ugly code, phooey

# returns if the var is valid
# only allow '.', '/', '+', '-' and '_'
# fix 2007-07-23: HTML::Template allows every character
# although the documentation says it doesn't.
sub validate_var {
    return 1;
    #return $_[1] !~ tr{a-zA-Z0-9._[]/#-}{}c;

sub escape_filename {
    my ( $t, $f ) = @_;
    $f =~ s#([/:\\])#'%'.uc sprintf"%02x",ord $1#ge;
    return $f;

sub _checktimes {
    my $self = shift;
    D && $self->stack;
    my $filename = shift;
    my $mtime    = ( stat $filename )[9];

    #print STDERR "stat $filename = $mtime\n";
    my $checked  = time;
    my $lmtime   = localtime $mtime;
    my $lchecked = localtime $checked;
    return ( $mtime, $checked, $lmtime, $lchecked );

sub clone {
    my ($self) = @_;
    return bless [@$self], ref $self;

sub new_scalar_from_object {
    my ($self, $scalar) = @_;
    my $new = $self->clone;
    my $md5 = md5($scalar);
    $new = $new->from_scratch;
    return $new;
# create from existing object (TMPL_INCLUDE)
sub new_from_object {
    my ( $self, $path, $filename, $fullpath, $cache ) = @_;
    unless (defined $filename) {
        my ($file) = (caller(1))[3];
        croak "Filename is undef (in template $file)";
    my $new = $self->clone;
    D && $self->log("new_from_object($path,$filename,$fullpath,$cache)");
    #if ($fullpath) {
    #    $self->set_file($fullpath);
    my $md5path = md5_hex(@{ $path || [] });
    $new->set_md5_path( $md5path );
    if (my $cached = $new->from_cache($self->get_args)) {
        return $cached
    unless ($new->get_compiler) {
        my %args = %{ $self->get_args || {} };
    $new = $new->from_scratch;
    return $new;

sub prepare_for_cache {
    my ($self) = @_;
    my @plugs = @{ $self->get_plugins || [] };
    for my $i (0 .. $#plugs) {
        if (ref $plugs[$i]) {
            if ($plugs[$i]->can('serialize')) {
                $plugs[$i] = $plugs[$i]->serialize();
    my $includes = $self->get_includes;
    for my $fullpath (keys %$includes) {
        my ($path, $filename, $htc) = @{ $includes->{$fullpath} };
        $includes->{$fullpath} = [$path, $filename];

sub preload {
    my ( $class, $dir ) = @_;
    opendir my $dh, $dir or die "Could not open '$dir': $!";
    my @files = grep { m/\.pl|\.storable$/ } readdir $dh;
    closedir $dh;
    my $loaded = 0;
    for my $file (@files) {
        my $success = $class->include_file( File::Spec->catfile( $dir, $file ) );
        $loaded++ if $success;
    return scalar $loaded;

sub precompile {
    my ($class, %args) = @_;
    my $files = delete $args{filenames};
    return unless ref $files eq 'ARRAY';
    my @precompiled;
    for my $file (@$files) {
        my $htc = $class->new(%args,
            (ref $file eq 'SCALAR'
                ? 'scalarref'
                : ref $file eq 'ARRAY'
                ? 'arrayref'
                : ref $file eq 'GLOB'
                ? 'filehandle'
                : 'filename') => $file,
        push @precompiled, $htc,
    return \@precompiled;

sub clear_params {
    $_[0]->[PARAM] = ();

sub get_param {
    return $_[0]->[PARAM];

sub param {
    my $self = shift;
    if (!@_) {
        return $self->query();
        return UNIVERSAL::can($self->[PARAM],'can')
            ? $self->[PARAM]
            : $self->[PARAM]
                ? keys %{$self->[PARAM]}
                : ();
    my %p;
    if (@_ == 1) {
        if ( ref $_[0] ) {
            # feed a hashref or object
            if (ref $_[0] eq 'HASH') {
                # hash, no object
                %p = %{ $_[0] };
            else {
                $self->[PARAM] = $_[0];
        else {
            # query a parameter
            return $self->[PARAM]->{ $_[0] };
    else {
        %p = @_;

    if ( !$self->get_case_sensitive ) {
        my $lc = $self->lchash( {%p} );
        %p = %$lc;
    $self->[PARAM]->{$_} = $p{$_} for keys %p;

sub query {
    my ($self, $what, $tags) = @_;
    # param() no arguments should behave like query
    # query() is not activated by default, and
    # my %param = (); $htc->param(%param); should
    # *not* call query(). so we check if the user wants
    # a return value; that indicates that they wanted to
    # use query-like behaviour.
    return unless defined wantarray();
    #print STDERR "query(@_)\n";
    my $info = $self->get_parse_tree
        or do {
    unless (ref $info) {
        # not compiled yet!
    my $pointer = {children => $info};
    $tags = [] unless defined $tags;
    $tags = [$tags] unless ref $tags eq 'ARRAY';
    my $includes = $self->get_includes;
    my %include_info = map {
        $includes->{$_}->[1] => $includes->{$_}->[2]->get_parse_tree;
    } keys %{ $includes };
    for my $tag (@$tags) {
        my $value;
        my %includes = map {
            my $item = $pointer->{children}->{$_};
            ($item->{type} eq 'INCLUDE' and $include_info{$_})
                ? (%{$include_info{$_}})
                : ()
        } keys %{ $pointer->{children} };
        if (defined ($value = $pointer->{children}->{lc $tag})) {
            $pointer = $value;
        elsif (defined ($value = $includes{lc $tag})) {
            $pointer = $value;
        else {
    unless ($what) {
        my @return = map {
            my $item = $pointer->{children}->{$_};
            ($item->{type} eq 'INCLUDE' and $include_info{$_})
            ? (keys %{$include_info{$_}})
            : $_;
        } keys %{ $pointer->{children} };
        return @return;
    elsif ($what eq 'name') {
        my $type = $pointer->{type};
        return $type;
    elsif ($what eq 'loop') {
        if ($pointer->{type} eq 'LOOP') {
            my @return = map {
                my $item = $pointer->{children}->{$_};
                ($item->{type} eq 'INCLUDE' and $include_info{$_})
                ? (keys %{$include_info{$_}})
                : $_;
            } keys %{ $pointer->{children} };
            return @return;
        else { croak "error: (@$tags) is not a LOOP" }

# =head2 lchash
#   my $capped_href = $self->lchash(\%href);
# Input:
#     - hashref or arrayref of hashrefs
# Output: Returns a reference to a cloned data structure where all the keys are
# capped. 
# =cut

sub lchash {
    my ( $self, $data ) = @_;
    my $lc;
    if ( ref $data eq 'HASH' ) {
        for my $key ( keys %$data ) {
            my $uc_key = lc $key;
            my $val    = $self->lchash( $data->{$key} );
            $lc->{$uc_key} = $val;
    elsif ( ref $data eq 'ARRAY' ) {
        for my $item (@$data) {
            my $new = $self->lchash($item);
            push @$lc, $new;
    else {
        $lc = $data;
    return $lc;

sub output {
    my ( $self, $fh ) = @_;
    my $p = $self->[PARAM] || {};
    # if we only have an object as parameter
    $p = ref $p eq 'HASH'
        ? \% { $p }
        : $p;
    my $f = $self->get_file;
    $fh = \*STDOUT unless $fh;
    if ($DEBUG) {
        my $output;
        eval {
            $output = $self->get_perl()->( $self, $p, \$p, $fh );
        if ($@) {
            $LAST_EXCEPTION = $@;
            my $filename = $self->get_file;
            die "Error while executing '$filename': $@";
        return $output;
    else {
        $self->get_perl()->( $self, $p, \$p, $fh );

sub import {
    my ( $class, %args ) = @_;
    if ( $args{compatible} ) {
        carp "Usage of use option 'compatible' is deprecated";
    elsif ( $args{speed} ) {
        carp "Usage of use option 'speed' is deprecated";
        # default at the moment
    if (exists $args{short}) {
        carp "Usage of use option 'short' is deprecated";
        __PACKAGE__->export_to_level(1, scalar caller(), 'HTC');

sub var2expression {
    my ($self, $var) = @_;
    $var = $self->get_compiler->parse_var($self,
        var             => $var,
        method_call     => $self->method_call,
        deref           => $self->deref,
        formatter_path => $self->formatter_path,
    return $var;

sub ExpireTime {
    my ($class, $seconds) = @_;
    $NEW_CHECK = $seconds;

sub EnableSub {
    carp "Warning: Subref variables are not supported any more, use HTML::Template::Compiled::Classic instead";

sub CaseSensitive {
    my ($class, $bool) = @_;
    $CASE_SENSITIVE_DEFAULT = $bool ? 1 : 0;

sub SearchPathOnInclude {
    my ($class, $bool) = @_;
    $SEARCHPATH = $bool ? 1 : 0;

sub UseQuery {
    my ($class, $bool) = @_;
    $DEFAULT_QUERY = $bool ? 1 : 0;

sub pushGlobalstack {
    my $stack = $_[0]->get_globalstack;
    push @$stack, $_[1];

sub popGlobalstack {
    my $stack = $_[0]->get_globalstack;
    pop @$stack;

    my $lock_fh;

    sub lock {
        my $file = File::Spec->catfile( $_[0]->get_cache_dir, "lock" );
        unless ( -f $file ) {
            # touch
            open $lock_fh, '>', $file
              or croak "Could not open lockfile '$file' for writing: $!";
            close $lock_fh;
        open $lock_fh, '+<', $file
          or croak "Could not open lockfile '$file' for read/write: $!";
        flock $lock_fh, LOCK_EX;

    sub unlock {
        close $lock_fh;

    my $loaded = 0;
    my $error = 0;
    sub require_storable {
        return 1 if $loaded;
        return 0 if $error;
        eval {
            require Storable;
        if ($@) {
            $error = 1;
            return 0;
        eval "use B::Deparse 0.61";
        if ($@) {
            $error = 1;
            return 0;
        return 1;

sub debug_code {
    my ($self, $html) = @_;
    my $perl = $self->get_perl;
    require B::Deparse;
    my $deparse = B::Deparse->new("-p", "-sC");
    my $body = $deparse->coderef2text($perl);
    my $filename = $self->get_file;
    #warn __PACKAGE__.':'.__LINE__.$".Data::Dumper->Dump([\$body], ['body']);
    my $message = '';
    if ($LAST_EXCEPTION and $LAST_EXCEPTION =~ m/at (?:\(eval \d*\)|\S+) line (\d+)\./) {
        my $rline = $1;
        my $line = $rline;
        my @lines = split m#$/#, $body;
        if ($line > $#lines) {
            $line = $#lines;
        my $pre = $line > 0 ? join $/, @lines[0 .. $line - 1] : '';
        my $post = $line < $#lines ? join $/, @lines[$line + 1 .. $#lines] : '';
        my $error = "$/$/# ------------------- ERROR line $rline in template $filename -----------------$/";
        my $last = $LAST_EXCEPTION;
        $LAST_EXCEPTION =~ s#$/# #g;
        $error .= "# $last$/$lines[$line]$/";
        if ($html) {
            for ($pre, $error, $post) {
            $message = <<"EOM";
<table border="0" style="background-color: #eeeeee;"><tr><td><pre>$pre</pre></td></tr>
<tr><td style="background-color: #ffffff; color: #ff0000"><pre>$error</pre></td></tr>
        else {
            $message .= $pre;
            $message .= $error;
            $message .= $post;
    else {
        $message = $LAST_EXCEPTION;
    return $message;





=head1 NAME

HTML::Template::Compiled - Template System Compiles HTML::Template files to Perl code


  use HTML::Template::Compiled;
  # recommended options:
  # case_sensitive => 1
  # search_path_on_include => 1
  # use_query => 0
  # default_escape => 'HTML' # <-- HIGHLY RECOMMENDED

  # note that the following
  # use HTML::Template::Compiled speed => 1
  # is deprecated (can be problematic under persistent environments)

  # or for the biggest compatibility with HTML::Template
  # case_sensitive => 0
  # search_path_on_include => 0
  # use_query => 1
  # note that the following
  # use HTML::Template::Compiled compatible => 1;
  # is deprecated (can be problematic under persistent environments)

  # or use HTML::Template::Compiled::Classic

    my $htc = HTML::Template::Compiled->new(
        filename            => 'test.tmpl',
        case_sensitive      => 1,
        default_escape      => 'HTML',
        BAND => $name,
        ALBUMS => [
            { TITLE => $t1, YEAR => $y1 },
            { TITLE => $t2, YEAR => $y2 },
    print $htc->output;


  Or use different tag styles:
  Band: <%= BAND %>
  <%loop ALBUMS %>
  Title: <%= TITLE %> (<%= YEAR %>)
  <%/loop %>
  Band: [%= BAND %]
  [%loop ALBUMS %]
  Title: [%= TITLE %] ([%= YEAR %])
  [%/loop %]


HTML::Template::Compiled is a template system which can be used for
L<HTML::Template> templates with almost the same API. It
offers more flexible template delimiters, additional tags and features,
and by compiling the template into perl code it can run significantly faster
in persistent environments such as FastCGI or mod_perl.

The goal is to offer more features for flexibility but keep the basic syntax
as easy as it is.

Features at a glance:

=over 4

=item Dot notation for objects, hashes and arrays

=item Use expressions without any disadvantages like those in L<HTML::Template::Expr>

=item Write escaping plugins and plugins for new tags

=item Alternate delimiters, e.g. C<[%if %]> and C<< <%if %> >>

=item Avoid C<global_vars> option by using the C<SET_VAR> tag to create aliases.


=item Chomp newlines/whitespace


For a quick reference, see L<HTML::Template::Compiled::Reference>.

As the basic features work like in L<HTML::Template>, please get familiar
with its documentation before.

HTML::Template::Compiled (HTC) does not implement all features of
L<HTML::Template> (see L<"COMPATIBILITY">), and
it has got some additional features which are explained below:

See L<"BENCHMARKS"> for some examples on the performance. Since it depends
highly on the options used and on the template size there can be no general
statement on its performance.

You might want to use L<HTML::Template::Compiled::Lazy> for CGI environments
as it doesn't parse the template before calling output. But note that HTC::Lazy
isn't much tested, and I don't use it myself, so there's a lack of experience.
If you use it and have problems, please report.

HTC will use a lot of memory because it keeps all template objects in memory.
If you are on mod_perl, and have a lot of templates, you should preload them at server
startup to be sure that it is in shared memory. At the moment HTC is not fully tested for
keeping all data in shared memory (e.g. when a copy-on-write occurs),
but it seems like it's behaving well.
For preloading you can use

Generating code, writing it on disk and later eval() it can open security holes, for example
if you have more users on the same machine that can access the same files (usually an
http server running as 'www' or 'nobody'). See L<"SECURITY"> for details what you can
do to safe yourself.

NOTE: If you don't need any of the additional features listed below and if you don't
need the speed (in many cases it's probably not worth trading speed for memory), then
you might be better off with just using HTML::Template.

NOTE2: If you have any questions, bug reports, send them to me and not to Sam Tregar.
This module is developed by me at the moment, independently from HTML::Template, although
I try to get most of the tests from it passing for HTC. See L<"RESOURCES"> for
current information.


=over 4

=item TMPL_VAR






=item DEFAULT=...

=item C<__first__>, C<__last__>, C<__inner__>, C<__outer__>, C<__odd__>, C<__counter__>, C<__even__>

=item <!-- TMPL_VAR NAME=PARAM1 -->

=item case insensitive var names

use option case_sensitive => 0 to use this feature (slow down)

=item filters

=item vars that are subrefs - not implemented, only in HTML::Template::Compiled::Classic

=item scalarref, arrayref, filehandle

=item C<global_vars>

=item C<query>

Has a bug (doesn't return parameters in included files of included files).
I'm working on that.



What can HTC do for you additionally to HTML::Template?

=over 4

=item tag TMPL_ELSIF

No need to have cascading "if-else-if-else"s

=item tag TMPL_EACH

Iterate over a hash. See L<"TMPL_EACH">

=item tag TMPL_WITH

see L<"TMPL_WITH">

=item tag TMPL_WHILE


=item tag TMPL_SET_VAR

see L<"SET_VAR">

=item tag TMPL_USE_VARS

see L<"USE_VARS">



=item tag TMPL_WRAPPER

see L<"WRAPPER">

=item C<__index__>

Additional loop variable (C<__counter__ -1>)

=item C<__break__>

Additional loop variable (see L<"TMPL_LOOP">)

=item C<__filename__>, C<__filenameshort__> (since 0.91_001)

Insert the template filename for debugging:

    <%= __filename__ %>
    <%= __filenameshort__ %>

will turn out as:

See also option debug_file in L<"OPTIONS"> for adding the filename globally.



=item C<TMPL_PERL>

Include perl code in your template. See L<"RUNNING PERL WITH TMPL_PERL">

=item CHOMP

New in version 0.96_001, please report any bugs and send me suggestions.

You can set global chomp options in the constructor. These work like in

    my $htc = HTML::Template::Compiled->new(
        pre_chomp  => 0, # 0, 1, 2, 3, default 0
        post_chomp => 1, # 0, 1, 2, 3, default 0

Meaning of the values:
0: Don't chomp
1: remove only spaces in the line before or after the tag
2: remove all whitespaces before or after the tag, and replace with one space
3: remove all whitespaces before or after the tag

In the template you can change that feature by using PRE_CHOMP and POST_CHOMP

    <%= foo PRE_CHOMP=3 POST_CHOMP=1 %>

The experimental tags +..._chomp have been removed.

=item Generating perl code


=item better variable access

dot-notation for accessing hash values. See L<"EXTENDED VARIABLE ACCESS">

=item rendering objects

dot-notation for accessing object methods. See L<"RENDERING OBJECTS">

=item output to filehandle


=item Dynamic includes



Check for definedness instead of truth:

=item ALIAS

Set an alias for a loop variable. You can use the alias then with C<$alias>.
The syntax without the C<$> is also possible but not recommended any more.

For example, these two loops are functionally equivalent:

 <tmpl_loop foo>
   <tmpl_var _>
 </tmpl_loop foo>
 <tmpl_loop foo alias=current>
   <tmpl_var $current>
 </tmpl_loop foo>

This works with C<TMPL_LOOP> and C<TMPL_WHILE> at the moment.

You can also set aliases with the C<SET_VAR> tag. See L<"SET_VAR">

To use template parameters with a C<$> at the beginning (which is not
officially supported, but some are obviously using it), you can set:

    local $HTML::Template::Compiled::Compiler::DISABLE_NEW_ALIAS = 1;

This is only a temporary workaround and will be removed some day!

Note that you are also able to access variables with dollar signs like this:

    <tmpl_var _.$foo >

since underscore means current position in the parameter stash, and aliases
are only recognized at the beginning of a template var. But note that
dollar signs are still not officially supported.

=item Chained escaping


=item tagstyles

For those who like it (i like it because it is shorter than TMPL_), you
can use E<lt>% %E<gt> tags and the E<lt>%= tag instead of E<lt>%VAR (which will work, too):

 <%IF blah%>  <%= VARIABLE%>  <%/IF%>

Define your own tagstyles and/or deactivate predefined ones.
See L<"OPTIONS"> tagstyle.

=item pre_chomp, post_chomp

See L<"CHOMP">



There are some features of H::T that are missing or behaving different.
I'll try to list them here.


=over 4

=item die_on_bad_params

I don't think I'll implement that.

=item force_untaint

Not planned at the moment

=item vanguard_compatibility_mode

Not planned.

=item shared_cache, double_cache

Not planned at the moment

=item blind_cache

Not sure if I should implement. In HTC you have the possibility to
set the expire time of the templates (after that time in memory the
template file is rechecked if it has changed), so setting a very high
value for expire_time would have the same effect as blind_cache.
See L<"CACHING"> C<expire_time>

=item double_file_cache

If I understand correctly, in HT, this enables memory and file cache at
the same time. In HTC, this is not needed. If you use file_cache and cache,
both are used.

=item file_cache_dir_mode

Not planned. The cache dir must exist, and subdirectories are
not created at the moment.

=item cache_lazy_vars, cache_lazy_loops

Not planned at the moment (This would be for HTML::Template::Compiled::Classic,
since it implements code refs).

=item utf8

Might be added in the future, HTC already has C<open_mode>

=item various debug options

Might be implemented in the future

=item associate

Not planned.

=item max_includes

Not planned

=item die_on_missing_include




=over 4

=item case_sensitive

default is 1 (on).

Deactivate by passing option case_sensitive 0.

Note (again): this will slow down templating a lot (50%).

Explanation: This has nothing to do with C<TMPL_IF> or C<tmpl_if>. It's
about the variable names. With case_sensitive set to 1, the following
tags are different:

    <tmpl_var Foo> prints the value of hash key 'Foo'
    <tmpl_var fOO> prints the value of hash key 'fOO'

With case_sensitive set to 0, all your parameters passed to C<param()>
are converted to lowercase, and the following tags are the same:

    <tmpl_var Foo> prints the value of hash key 'foo'
    <tmpl_var fOO> prints the value of hash key 'foo'

=item subref variables

As of version 0.69, subref variables are not supported any more with
HTML::Template::Compiled. Use L<HTML::Template::Compiled::Classic>
(contained in this distribution) instead. It provides most features
of HTC.

=item search_path_on_include

Default: 0

In the HTML::Template documentation it says, if search_path_on_include
is set to 1, the paths of the path option are searched, while the default
behaviour is to look "only" in the current template directory.

It's not clear if it still searches in the current directory if set
to 1. I found out that it is not, so you cannot have both.

In HTML::Template::Compiled, search_path_on_include can have three values:
    0: search current template directory
    1: search paths specified
    2: search paths and current template directory.

=item open_mode

In HTC you should leave out the C<<> at the beginning.

If you want to have your templates read in utf-8, use

    open_mode => ':encoding(utf-8)',

as an option.

=item use_query

default is 0 (off). Set it via the option

=item Arrayrefs

At the moment this snippet

  <tmpl_if arrayref>true<tmpl_else>false</tmpl_if arrayref>

with this code:

    $htc->param(arrayref => []);

will print true in HTC and false in HTML::Template. In HTML::Template an
array is true if it has content, in HTC it's true if it (the reference) is
defined. I'll try to find a way to change that behaviour, though that might
be for the cost of speed.

As of L<HTML::Template::Compiled> 0.85 you can use this syntax:

    <tmpl_if arrayref# >true<tmpl_else>false</tmpl_if >

In L<HTML::Template::Compiled::Classic> 0.04 it works as in HTML::Template.

=item debug_cache

Additional to 0 or 1 it can take an array ref for debugging only specific
cache operations.


Note: the following is deprecated:

    To be compatible in all of the above options all use:
      use HTML::Template::Compiled compatible => 1;
    If you don't care about these options you should use
      use HTML::Template::Compiled speed => 1;

 which is the default but depending on user wishes that might change.


=over 4

=item class methods ExpireTime, EnableSub, CaseSensitive, SearchPathOnInclude, UseQuery

=item option formatter_path

=item tag USE_VARS, not needed anymore

=item option cache_dir (replaced by file_cache_dir)

=item options method_call, deref, default_path, dumper

=item import tags short, compatible, speed



Like in HTML::Template, you have C<ESCAPE=HTML>, C<ESCAPE=URL> and C<ESCAPE_JS>.
C<ESCAPE=HTML> will only escape '"&<>. If you want to escape more, use
Additionally you have C<ESCAPE=DUMP>, which by default will generate a Data::Dumper output.

You can also chain different escapings, like C<ESCAPE=DUMP|HTML>.

Additionally to ESCAPE=JS you have ESCAPE=IJSON which does not escape the
single quote.

=head2 INCLUDE

Additionally to


you can do an include of a template variable:

  <TMPL_INCLUDE_VAR NAME="file_include_var">
  $htc->param(file_include_var => "");

Using C<INCLUDE VAR="..."> is deprecated.

You can also include strings:

    inc: <%include_string foo %>

        foo => 'included=<%= bar%>',
        bar => 'real',

    inc: included=real

Note that included strings are not cached and cannot include files
or strings themselves.


With HTC, you have more control over how you access your template
parameters. An example:

  my %hash = (
    SELF => '/path/to/',
    LANGUAGE => 'de',
    BAND => 'Bauhaus',
    ALBUMS => [
      NAME => 'Mask',
      SONGS => [ { NAME => 'Hair of the Dog' }, ... ],
    INFO => {
      BIOGRAPHY => '...',
      LINK => '...'
    NAME => "Cool script",

Now in the TMPL_LOOP C<ALBUMS> you would like to access the path to
your script, stored in $hash{SELF}. in HTML::Template you have to set
the option C<global_vars>, so you can access C<$hash{SELF}> from
everywhere. Unfortunately, now C<NAME> is also global, which might not
a problem in this simple example, but in a more complicated template
this is impossible. With HTC, you wouldn't use C<global_vars> here, but
you can say:


to access the root element, and you could even say C<.INFO.BIOGRAPHY>
or C<ALBUMS[0].SONGS[0].NAME> (the latter has changed since version 0.79)


This is still in development, so I might change the API here.

Additionally to feeding a simple hash to HTC, you can feed it objects.
To do method calls you can also use '.' in the template.

  my $htc = HTML::Template::Compiled->new(

    VAR => "blah",
    OBJECT => bless({...}, "Your::Class"),

  <TMPL_VAR NAME="OBJECT.fullname">
  Name: <TMPL_VAR fullname>

C<fullname> will call the fullname method of your Your::Class object.

It's recommended to just use the default . value for methods and dereferencing.

I might stop supporting that you can set the values for method calls by setting
an option. Ideally I would like to have that behaviour changed only by inheriting.


Yes, templating systems are for separating code and templates. But
as it turned out to be implemented much easier than expressions i
decided to implement it. But expressions are also available with the option

Note: If you have templates that can be edited by untrustworthy persons then
you don't want them to include perl code.

So, how do you use the perl-tag? First, you have to set the option
C<use_perl> to C<1> when creating a template object.

Important note: don't use C<print> in the included code. Usually the
template code is concatenated and returned to your perl script.
To 'print' something out use

    __OUT__ 2**3;

This will be turned into something like

    $OUT .= 2**3;
    # or
    print $fh 2**3;

Important note 2: HTC does not parse Perl. if you use the
classic tag-delimiters like this:

    <tmpl_perl if (__CURRENT__->count > 42) { >

this will not work as it might seem. Use other delimiters

    <%perl if (__CURRENT__->count > 42) { %>


    <tmpl_loop list>
    <tmpl_perl unless (__INDEX__ % 3) { >
    <tmpl_perl } >
    </tmpl_loop list>

    # takes the current position of the parameter
    # hash, key 'foo' and multiplies it with 3
    <%perl __OUT__ __CURRENT__->{foo} * 3; %>

List of special keywords inside a perl-tag:

=over 4

=item __OUT__

Is turned into C<$OUT .=> or C<print $fh>

=item __HTC__

Is turned into the variable containing the current template object.

=item __CURRENT__

Turned into the variable containing the current position
in the parameter hash.

=item __ROOT__

Turned into the variable containing the parameter hash.

=item __INDEX__

Turned into the current index of a loop (starting with 0).



It's possible since version 0.69 to inherit from HTML::Template::Compiled.
It's just not documented, and internal method names might change in
the near future. I'll try to fix the API and document which methods
you can inherit.


=over 4

=item method_call

Default is C<sub method_call { '.' }>

=item deref

Default is C<sub deref { '.' }>

=item formatter_path

Deprecated, see L<HTML::Template::Compiled::Formatter> please.

=item compile_early

Define if every included file should be checked and parsed at compile time
of the including template or later when it is really used.

Default is C<sub compile_early { 1 }>

=item parser_class

Default is C<sub parser_class { 'HTML::Template::Compiled::Parser' }>

You can write your own parser class (which must inherit from
L<HTML::Template::Compiled::Parser>) and use this.

L<HTML::Template::Compiled::Lazy> uses this.



For printing out the contents of all the parameters you can do:


The special name C<_> gives you the current parameter and C<ESCAPE=DUMP>
will by default generate a Data::Dumper output of the
current variable, in this case it will dump out the contents of every
album in a loop. To correctly display that in html C<|HTML> will escape html

=head2 TMPL_WITH

If you have a deep leveled hash you might not want to always write 
THE.FULL.PATH.TO.YOUR.VAR. Jump to your desired level once and
then you need only one level. Compare:



Inside TMPL_WITH you can't reference parent nodes unless you're using global_vars.

=head2 TMPL_LOOP

The special name C<_> gives you the current parameter. In loops you can use it like this:

 <tmpl_loop foo>
  Current item: <tmpl_var _ >

Also you can give the current item an alias. See L<"ALIAS">.

The LOOP tag allows you to define a JOIN attribute:

 <tmpl_loop favourite_colors join=", ">
  <tmpl_var _ >

This will output something like C<blue, pink, yellow>.
This is easier than doing:

 <tmpl_loop favourite_colors>
 <tmpl_unless __first__>, </tmpl_unless>
  <tmpl_var _ >

The C<LOOP>, C<WHILE> and C<EACH> tags allow you to define a BREAK attribute:

 <tmpl_loop bingo break="3"> <tmpl_var _ ><if __break__>\n</if></tmpl_loop>

    $htc->param(bingo => [qw(X 0 _ _ X 0 _ _ X)]);


    X 0 _
    _ X 0
    _ _ X

So specifying BREAK=3 sets __break__ to 1 every 3rd loop iteration.

TMPL_LOOP expects an array reference, also if it is a method call. If
you want to iterate with TMPL_LOOP over a list from a method call, set
the attribute C<context=list>:

    <tmpl_loop object.list_method context=list>
        <tmpl_var _ >


Useful for iterating, for example over database resultsets.
The directive

  <tmpl_while resultset.fetchrow>
    <tmpl_var _.0>

will work like:
  while (my $row = $resultset->fetchrow) {
    print $row->[0];

So the special variable name _ is set to the current item returned
by the iterator.

You also can use L<"ALIAS"> here.

=head2 TMPL_EACH

Iterating over a hash. Internally it is not implemented as an each, so you
can also sort the output:

    Sorted alphanumerically by default (since 0.93):
        <tmpl_each letters >
            <tmpl_var __key__ >:<tmpl_var __value__>
        </tmpl_each letters >
    Sorted numerically:
        <tmpl_each numbers sort=num >
            <tmpl_var __key__ >:<tmpl_var __value__>
        </tmpl_each numbers >
    Not sorted:
        <tmpl_each numbers sort=0 >
            <tmpl_var __key__ >:<tmpl_var __value__>
        </tmpl_each numbers >
    Sorted alphanumerically:
        <tmpl_each letters sort=alpha >
            <tmpl_var __key__ >:<tmpl_var __value__>
        </tmpl_each letters >

You have to set the option C<loop_context_vars> to true to use
the special vars C<__key__> and C<__value__>.

If you want to iterate over a hash instead of a hashref (some
methods might return plain hashes instead of references and
TMPL_EACH expects a ref), then you can set C<context=list>:

    <tmpl_each object.hash_method context=list>
    <tmpl_var __key__ >

Since 1.000_001 you can also define by which variable you want to sort.
If you have a hash with hashes as values:

        letters => {
            1 => { letter =>'b' },
            2 => { letter =>'a' },
            3 => { letter =>'c' },
    <%each letters sort=alpha sortby="letter" %>
    <%set_var val value=__value__ %>
    <%= __key__ %> = <%= $val.letter %>

=head2 SET_VAR

Since 0.96_002

Sets a local variable to the value given in C<value> or C<expr>

    <tmpl_set foo expr=23>
    <tmpl_set name=bar expr=23>
    <tmpl_set boo>
    <tmpl_set oof expr="21*2">
    <tmpl_var $foo>
    <tmpl_var $bar>

C<value=..> behaves like a variable name from the parameter stash.
The variable name to set must match /[0-9a-z_]+/i

You can refer to an alias via C<$alias> or simply C<alias>. Note that
the latter syntax is not recommended any more since it can conflict
with parameters from the stash.

If you want to use aliases in includes, you need to use the C<$alias>

=head2 USE_VARS

deprecated. Was added in 0.96_004 to make it possible to use aliases
set with C<alias=...> or C<SET_VAR> in includes. Now you should rather
use the <$alias> syntax.

The following explanation is just there for history and will be removed
some time in the future. For now it still works.

Necessary if you want vars like SET_VAR and loop aliases from outside
in includes.
Before the first use in the include, add:

    <tmpl_use_vars foo,bar,boo >

so that the compiler recognizes them as user defined vars and not parameters
from the stash.
This statement is valid until the end of the template so you cannot
"overwrite" parameters of the stash locally.

=head2 WRAPPER

Since 0.97_005. Experimental. Please test.

Needs option C<loop_context_vars>.

Works similar to WRAPPER in Template-Toolkit.

Is similar to TMPL_INCLUDE, just that the included wrapper is wrapped
around the content. It can be used to avoid including head and foot separately.

    <tmpl_wrapper wrapper.html >
    content: some var: <tmpl_var foo >

In wrapper.html the special loop context var C<__wrapper__> is used for
the included content:

    <tmpl_var __wrapped__ >

Important notes:

If you are using C<out_fh> to print directly to a filehandle instead of
returning to a string, this feature might not be useful, since it is
appending the content inside of the wrapper to a string and prints it
when it comes to the end of the wrapper tag.
So if you are using C<out_fh> to avoid generating long strings in
memory, you should rather use TMPL_INCLUDE instead.

Also you need perl 5.8 or higher to use it in combination with out_fh.


For debugging purposes you can temporarily comment out regions:

  Wanted: <tmpl_var wanted>
    <tmpl_comment outer>
    this won't be printed
      <tmpl_comment inner>
        <tmpl_var unwanted>
      </tmpl_comment inner>
      <tmpl_var unwanted>
  </tmpl_comment outer>

  $htc->param(unwanted => "no thanks", wanted => "we want this");

The output is (whitespaces stripped):

  Wanted: we want this

HTC will ignore anything between COMMENT directives.
This is useful for debugging, and also for documentation inside the
template which should not be outputted.


Anything between


will not be recognized as template directives. Same syntax as TMPL_COMMENT.
It will output the content, though.


Anything between


will not be recognized as template directives. Same syntax as
L<"TMPL_NOPARSE">, but it will be HTML-Escaped. This can be
useful for debugging.


The SWITCH directive has the same syntax as VAR, IF etc.
The CASE directive takes a simple string or a comma separated list of strings.
Yes, without quotes. This will probably change! I just don't know yet
how it should look like. Suggestions?

With that directive you can do simple string comparisons.

 <tmpl_switch language>(or <tmpl_switch name=language>)
  <tmpl_case de>echt cool
  <tmpl_case en>very cool
  <tmpl_case es>superculo
  <tmpl_case fr,se>don't speak french or swedish
  <tmpl_case default>sorry, no translation for cool in language <%=language%> available
  <tmpl_case>(same as default)

It's also possible to specify the default with a list of other strings:

 <tmpl_case fr,default>

Note that the default case should always be the last statement before the
closing switch.

=head2 OPTIONS

As you can cache the generated perl code in files, some of the options are fixed; that means
for example if you set the option case_sensitive to 0 and the next time you call the same template
with case_sensitive 1 then this will be ignored. The options below will be marked as (fixed).

=over 4

=item path

Path to template files

=item search_path_on_include

Search the list of paths specified with C<path> when including a template.
Default is 0

See L<"DIFFERENT FEATURES"> for the additional possible value 2.

=item file_cache

Set to 1 if you want to use file caching and specify the path
with file_cache_dir.

=item file_cache_dir

Path to caching directory (you have to create it before)

=item cache_dir

Replaced by file_cache_dir like in L<HTML::Template>. Will be deprecated
in future versions.

=item cache

Is 1 by default. If set to 0, no memory caching is done. Only recommendable if
you have a dynamic template content (with scalarref, arrayre for example).

=item expire_time

Recheck template files on disk after C<expire_time> seconds. See L<"CACHING">

=item filename

Template to parse

=item scalarref

Reference to a scalar with your template content. It's possible to cache
scalarrefs, too, if you have Digest::MD5 installed. Note that your cache directory
might get filled with files from earlier versions. Clean the cache regularly.

Don't cache scalarrefs if you have dynamic strings. Your memory might get filled up fast!
Use the option

  cache => 0

to disable memory caching.

=item arrayref

Reference to array containing lines of the template content (newlines have
to be included)

=item filehandle

Filehandle which contains the template content. Note that HTC will not cache
templates created like this.

=item loop_context_vars (fixed)

Vars like C<__first__>, C<__last__>, C<__inner__>, C<__odd__>, C<__counter__>,
C<__index__>, C<__outer__>, C<__even__>

The variable C<__index__> works just like C<__counter__>, only that it starts
at 0 instead of 1.

=item global_vars (fixed)

If set to 1, every outer variable can be accessed from anywhere in the enclosing scope.

Default is 0.

Note that I don't recommend using global_vars. For referring to parameters
up in the stash you can use aliases via C<alias=...> or C<SET_VAR>.
See L<"ALIAS"> and L<"SET_VAR">.

If you still would like to be able to navigate up the parameter stash, you
have the following option:

If set to 2, you don't have global vars, but have the possibility to go
up the stack one level. Example:

 <tmpl_var ...key>

This will get you up 2 levels (remember: one dot means root in HTC) and access the 'key'

If set to 3 (C<3 == 1|2>) you have both, global vars and explicitly going up the stack.

So setting global_vars to 2 can save you from global vars but still allows you to
browse through the stack.

=item default_escape

  my $htc = HTML::Template::Compiled->new(
    default_escape => 'HTML', # or URL

Now everything will be escaped for HTML unless you explicitly specify C<ESCAPE=0> (no escaping)

=item strict (since 0.97_001)

Default: 1

If set to 0 unknown tags will be ignored and output verbatim:

    <TMPL_FOOBAR anything ... <TMPL_VAR valid>

=item line_info (fixed) (since 1.000_004)

Default: 0

  my $htc = HTML::Template::Compiled->new(
      line_info => 1, # default 0

If any runtime errors occur, line information will output the template
filename and line (instead of "eval" and the generated perl code line)

=item warnings (fixed) (since 1.000_004)

Default: 0

If set to 1, runtime warnings (like use of uninitialized value) will be
output to stderr.

If set to 'fatal', any runtime warning will cause the script to die.

=item no_includes (since 0.92)

Default is 0. If set to 1, the tags INCLUDE, INCLUDE_VAR and INCLUDE_STRING
will cause a template syntax error when creating. This can be useful when opening
untrusted templates, otherwise any file in the filesystem could be opened.

=item debug_file (fixed) (since 0.91_001)

Additionally to the context_vars __filename__ and __filenameshort__ you
can enable filename debugging globally.

If the option is set to 'start', at the start of every template will be added:
    <!-- start templates/path/filename.html -->

If set to 'end', at the end will be added:
    <!-- end templates/path/filename.html -->

If set to 'start,end', both comments will be added.

If set to 'start,short', 'end,short' or 'start,end,short' the path
to the templates will be stripped:
    <!-- start path/filename.html -->
    <!-- end path/filename.html -->

=item optimize (fixed) (since 1.001_001)

Hashref with compiler hints.

Every access to the parameter stash has to check if the current var is
an object or a hash. This allows you to use the same notation for hash accesses
and method calls without caring about the data.
But this is quite expensive. You can give the compiler hints:

        optimize => {
            initial_var  => 1, # defaults
            object_check => 0,
            root_hash    => 0,

=over 4

=item initial_var

Default: 1

Might become a default in the code itself and removed as an option. Report if
you have problems and set it to 0.
This is just a minor internal optimization for variable accesses like
C<[%= %]>

=item object_check

Default: 0

If you are in a loop and make several accesses to the same var, it always
checks if it is an object or not:

    [%loop threads %]
    [%= id %]
    [%= title %]
    [%= ctime %]
    [%/loop threads %]

If you set this to true, the check will be done at the beginning of the loop
and saved into a variable, so that subsequent accesses only use the check

If you only have one access in a loop, this might be unnecessary overhead.
Also, theoretically, a variable can change during calls.

In the most cases this option should be fine. I will set the default to 1
someday probably.

=item root_hash

It is possible to pass an object to param() instead of a hash.
So even every access to the root of the parameter stash has to check if
it is an object or a hashref.
In the most cases the parameter stash is a hashref. If you are sure that you
always have a parameter hash and activate this option, the compiler can
avoid this check.


=item objects (fixed) (since 0.91_001)

if set to true, you can use method calls like
    <%= object.method %>

Default is 'strict' (true).
If set to 'strict', the method will be called if we have an object, otherwise
it's treated as a hash lookup. If the method doesn't exist, it dies.
If set to 'nostrict', the method will be called only if the object 'can' do the
method, otherwise it will return undef (this will need Scalar::Util).
If set to 0, no method calls are allowed.

=item deref (fixed)

Deprecated. Please inherit and overwrite method 'deref'. See L<"INHERITANCE">

Define the string you want to use for dereferencing, default is C<.> at the

 <TMPL_VAR hash.key>

=item method_call (fixed)

Deprecated. Please inherit and overwrite method 'method_call'. See L<"INHERITANCE">

Define the string you want to use for method calls, default is . at
the moment:

 <TMPL_VAR object.method>

Don't use ->, though, like you could in earlier version. Var names can contain:
Numbers, letters, '.', '/', '+', '-' and '_', just like HTML::Template. Note that
if your var names contain dots, though, they will be treated as hash
dereferences. If you want literal dots, use L<HTML::Template::Compiled::Classic>
=item default_path (fixed)

Deprecated, see L<HTML::Template::Compiled::Formatter> please.

  my $htc = HTML::Template::Compiled->new(
         # default is PATH_DEREF
      => HTML::Template::Compiled::Utils::PATH_FORMATTER,

Is needed if you have an unqualified tmpl_var that should be resolved as
a call to your formatter, for example. Otherwise you have to call it
fully qualified. If your formatter_path is '/', you'd say tmpl_var C<_/method>.
With the option default_path you can make that the default, so you don't need
the C<_/>: C<tmpl_var method>. If you don't use formatters, don't care about
this option.

=item line_numbers

NOTE: This option does not exist any more; line numbers will always be reported.

For debugging: prints the line number of the wrong tag, e.g. if you have
a /TMPL_IF that does not have an opening tag.

=item case_sensitive (fixed)

default is 1, set it to 0 to use this feature like in HTML::Template. Note that
this can slow down your program a lot (50%).

=item dumper

This option is deprecated as of version 0.76. You must now use a plugin instead, like
L<HTML::Template::Compiled::Plugin::DHTML>, for example.

  my $t = HTML::Template::Compiled->new(
    dumper = sub { my_cool_dumper($_[0]) },

This will call C<my_cool_dumper()> on C<var>.

Alternatively you can use the DHTML plugin which is using C<Data::TreeDumper> and
C<Data::TreeDumper::Renderer::DHTML>. You'll get a  dumper like output which you can
collapse and expand, for example. See L<Data::TreeDumper> and L<Data::TreeDumper::Renderer::DHTML> for
more information.

  my $t = HTML::Template::Compiled->new(
    dumper = 'DHTML',
For an example see C<examples/dhtml.html>.

=item out_fh (fixed)

  my $t = HTML::Template::Compiled->new(
    out_fh => 1,
  $t->output($fh); # or output(\*STDOUT) or even output()

This option is fixed, so if you create a template with C<out_fh>, every
output of this template will print to a specified (or default C<STDOUT>) filehandle.

=item filter

Filter template code before parsing.

  my $t = HTML::Template::Compiled->new(
    filter => sub { myfilter( ${$_[0]} ) },
    # or
    filter => [ {
        sub => sub { myfilter( ${$_[0]} ) },
        format => 'scalar', # or array

=item tagstyle (fixed)

Specify which styles you want to use. This option takes an arrayref
with strings of named tagstyles or your own regexes.

At the moment there are the following named tagstyles builtin:

    # classic (active by default)
    <TMPL_IF foo><tmpl_var bar></TMPL_IF>

    # comment (active by default)
    <!-- TMPL_IF foo --><!-- TMPL_VAR bar --><!-- /TMPL_IF -->

    # asp (active by default)
    <%if foo%><%VAR bar%><%/if%>

    # php (not active by default)
    <?if foo?><?var bar?><?/if foo?>

    # tt (not active by default)
    [%if foo%][%var bar%][%/if foo%]

You deactivate a style by saying -stylename. You activate by saying

Define your own tagstyle by specifying regexes. For example
you want to use {C<{{if foo}}{{var bar}}{{/if foo}}>, then your
definition should be:

        qr({{), # start of opening tag
        qr(}}), # end of opening tag
        qr({{/), # start of closing tag
        qr(}}), # end of closing tag

NOTE: do not specify capturing parentheses in you regexes. If you
need parentheses, use C<(?:foo|bar)> instead of C<(foo|bar)>.

Say you want to deactivate asp-style, comment-style, activate php- and
tt-style and your own C<{{}} > style, then say:

    my $htc = HTML::Template::Compiled->new(
        tagstyle => [
            qw(-asp -comment +php +tt),
            [ qr({{), qr(}}), qr({{/), qr(}})],

=item use_expressions (since 0.91_003)

Set to 1 if you want to use expressions. The basic expressions work more or
less like in L<HTML::Template::Expr> - I took the parsing code from it and
used it with some minor changes - thanks to Sam Tregar.

    <%if expr="some.var > 3" %>It's grater than 3<%/if %>

But with expressions you can also use more complex navigation through the
template stash:

You can use object methods with parameters. While a
normal method call can only be called without parameters, like

    <%= %>

with expressions you can give it parameters:

    <%= expr="object.create_link('navi')" %>

Inside function and method calls, hash keys you also can use template
vars (array indices and hash keys since 0.96_003).

    <%= expr="{var}" %>
    <%= expr="{.another.var[123]}{'literal key'}" %>

It is only minimally tested yet, so use with care and please report any
bugs you find.

A useful example: Output a number of items with their prices formatted.

    my $nf = Number::Format->new(...);
    my $htc = HTML::Template::Compiled->new(
        filename => 'items.html',
        use_expressions => 1,
        items => [
            { size =>  50 * 1024 * 1024 * 1024, price => 49.95 },
            { size => 250 * 1024 * 1024 * 1024, price => 110.99 },
        nf => $nf,


    <%loop .items %>
    Size: <%= expr=".nf.format_bytes(size)" %>
    Price: <%= expr=".nf.format_price(price)" %>
    <%/loop %>

    Size: 50G
    Price: 49,95 EUR 
    Size: 250G
    Price: 110,99 EUR 

=item formatter

Deprecated, see L<HTML::Template::Compiled::Formatter> please.

With formatter you can specify how an object should be rendered. This is useful
if you don't want object methods to be called, but only a given subset of

  my $htc = HTML::Template::Compiled->new(
  formatter => {
    'Your::Class' => {
      fullname => sub {
        $_[0]->first . ' ' . $_[0]->last
      first => Your::Class->can('first'),
      last => Your::Class->can('last'),
  # $obj is a Your::Class object
  $htc->param(obj => $obj);
  # Template:
  # Fullname: <tmpl_var obj/fullname>

=item formatter_path (fixed)

Deprecated, see L<HTML::Template::Compiled::Formatter> please.

=item debug

If set to 1 you will get the generated perl code on standard error

=item use_query

Set it to 1 if you plan to use the query() method. Default is 0.

Explanation: If you want to use query() to collect information
on the template HTC has to do extra-work while compiling and
uses extra-memory, so you can choose to save HTC work by
setting use_query to 0 (default) or letting HTC do the extra
work by setting it to 1. If you would like 1 to be the default,
write me. If enough people write me, I'll think about it =)

=item use_perl

Set to 1 if you want to use the perl-tag. See L<"TMPL_PERL">. Default is 0.

=item cache_debug

Default: 0

You can debug hits and misses for file cache and memory cache:

    # debug all cache
    my $htc = HTML::Template::Compiled->new(
        cache_debug => 1,
    # only debug misses
    my $htc = HTML::Template::Compiled->new(
        cache_debug => [qw/ file_miss mem_miss /],

Possible values when passing an array ref: file_miss file_hit mem_miss mem_hit

Output looks similar to HTML::Template cache_debug and will be output
to STDERR via warn().


=head2 METHODS

=over 4

=item clear_cache ([DIR])

Class method. It will clear the memory cache either of a specified cache directory:


or all memory caches:


=item clear_filecache

Class- or object-method. Removes all generated perl files from a given directory.

  # clear a directory
  # clear this template's cache directory (and not one template file only!)

=item param

Works like in L<HTML::Template>.

=item query

Works like in L<HTML::Template>. But it is not activated by default. If you want
to use it, specify the use_query option.

=item preload

Class method. Will preload all template files from a given cachedir into memory. Should
be done, for example in a mod_perl environment, at server startup, so all templates
go into "shared memory"


If you don't do preloading in mod_perl, memory usage might go up if you have a lot
of templates.

Note: the directory is *not* the template directory. It should be the directory
which you give as the file_cache_dir option.

=item precompile

Class method. It will precompile a list of template files into the specified
cache directory. See L<"PRECOMPILE">.

=item clear_params

Empty all parameters.

=item debug_code (since 0.91_003)

If you get an error from the generated template, you might want to debug
the executed code. You can now call C<debug_code> to get the compiled code
and the line the error occurred. Note that the reported line might not be
the exact line where the error occurred, also look around the line.
The template filename reported does currently only report the main template,
not the name of an included template. I'll try to fix that.

    local $HTML::Template::Compiled::DEBUG = 1;
    my $htc = HTML::Template::Compiled->new(
        filename => 'some_file_with_runtime_error.html',
    eval {
        print $htc->output;
    if ($@) {
        # reports as text
        my $msg = $htc->debug_code;
        # reports as a html table
        my $msg_html = $htc->debug_code('html');

=item get_plugin

    my $plugin = $htc->get_plugin('Name::of::plugin');

Returns the plugin object of that classname. If the plugin is only a string
(the classname itself), it returns this string, so this method is only
useful for plugin objects.

=item var2expression

Useful for plugins. Parses a template var (C<name=""> and returns
the perl expression for the compiler.


=head1 EXPORT


=head1 CACHING

You create a template almost like in HTML::Template:

  my $t = HTML::Template::Compiled->new(
    path                => 'templates',
    loop_context_vars   => 1,
    filename            => 'test.html',
    # for testing without cache comment out
    file_cache          => 1,
    file_cache_dir      => "cache",

The next time you start your application and create a new template, HTC will read all generated
perl files, and a call to the constructor like above won't parse
the template, but just use the loaded code. If your template
file has changed, though, then it will be parsed again.

You can set the expire time of a template by passing the option

    expire_time => $seconds

Note that


are deprecated since they change a global variable which is then
visible in the whole process, so in persistent environments other apps
might be affected.

So an expire time of 600 seconds (default)
will check after 10 minutes if the tmpl file was modified. Set it to a
very high value will then ignore any changes, until you delete the
generated code.
For development you should set it to 0, for a pre-production server
you can set it to 60 seconds, for example. It can make quite a difference.

=head1 PLUGINS

At the moment you can use and write plugins for the C<ESCAPE> attribute. See
L<HTML::Template::Compiled::Plugin::XMLEscape> for an example how to
use it; and have a look at the source code if you want to know how to
write a plugin yourself.

Using Plugins:

    my $htc = HTML::Template::Compiled->new(
        plugin => ['HTML::Template::Compiled::Foo::Bar'],
        # oor shorter:
        plugin => ['::Foo::Bar'],


Let's say you're in a CGI environment and have a lot of includes in your
template, but only few of them are actually used. HTML::Template::Compiled
will (as L<HTML::Template> does) parse all of your includes at once.
Just like the C<use> function does in perl. To get a behaviour like
require, use L<HTML::Template::Compiled::Lazy>.

=head1 TODO

associate, methods with simple parameters,
expressions, pluggable, ...


HTC generates a perl subroutine out of every template. Each included template
is a subroutine for itself. You can look at the generated code by activating
file caching and looking into the cache directory. When you call C<output()>,
the subroutine is called. The subroutine either creates a string and adds
each template text or the results of the tags to the string, or it prints
it directly to a filehandle. Because of the implementation you have to know
at creation time of the module if you want to get a string back or if you
want to print to a filehandle.


HTML::Template::Compiled uses basically the same file caching model as, for example, Template-
Toolkit does: The compiled Perl code is written to disk and later reread via C<do> or
by reading the file and C<eval> the content.

If you are sharing a read/write environment with untrusted users (for example on
a machine with a webserver, like many webhosters offer, and all scripts are running
as the same httpd user), realize that there is possibility of modifying the Perl code that is
cached and then executed. The best solution is to not be in such an

In this case it is the safest option to generate your compiled templates on a local machine
and just put the compiled templates onto the server, with no write access for the http server.
Set the C<expire_time> option to a high value so that HTC never attempts to check the
template timestamp to force a regenerating of the code.

If you are alone on the machine, but you are running under taint mode (see L<perlsec>) then
you have to explicitly set the C<$UNTAINT> variable to 1. HTC will then untaint the code for you
and treat it as if it were safe (it hopefully is =).


I think there is no way to provide an easy function for precompiling,
because every template can have different options.
If you have all your templates with the same options, then you can use the
precompile class method.
It works like this:

    # usual options like path, default_escape, global_vars, file_cache_dir, ...
    filenames => [ list of template-filenames ],

This will then pre-compile all templates into file_cache_dir. Now you would just put this
directory onto the server, and it doesn't need any write-permissions, as it
will be never changed (until you update it because templates have changed).


The options C<case_sensitive>, C<loop_context_vars> and C<global_vars> can have the biggest influence
on speed.

Setting case_sensitive to 1, loop_context_vars to 0 and global_vars to 0 saves time.

On the other hand, compared to HTML::Template, you have a large speed gain under mod_perl
if you use case_sensitive = 1, loop_context_vars = 0,
With CGI HTC is slower.

See the C<examples/> contained in this distribution.

Here are some examples from the benchmark script. I'm showing only Template::AutoFilter,
Template::HTML, HTML::Template and HTC. These four modules allow you to set
automatic HTML escaping ('filter') for all variables.

 loop_context_vars 1
 global_vars 0
 case_sensitive 1
 default_escape HTML (respectively Template::AutoFilter and Template::HTML)

 ht: HTML::Template 2.10
 htc: HTML::Template::Compiled 0.95
 ttaf: Template::AutoFilter 0.112350 with Template 2.22
 tth: Template::HTML 0.02 with Template 2.22

First test is with the test.(htc|tt) from the examples directory, about 900 bytes.

Test without file cache and without memory cache.

              all_ht:  1 wallclock secs ( 0.40 usr +  0.00 sys =  0.40 CPU) @ 250.00/s (n=100)
             all_htc:  1 wallclock secs ( 1.74 usr +  0.01 sys =  1.75 CPU) @ 57.14/s (n=100)
 all_ttaf_new_object:  1 wallclock secs ( 1.69 usr +  0.01 sys =  1.70 CPU) @ 58.82/s (n=100)
  all_tth_new_object:  1 wallclock secs ( 1.44 usr +  0.00 sys =  1.44 CPU) @ 69.44/s (n=100)

With file cache:

              all_ht:  1 wallclock secs ( 1.03 usr +  0.01 sys =  1.04 CPU) @ 379.81/s (n=395)
             all_htc:  1 wallclock secs ( 1.07 usr +  0.00 sys =  1.07 CPU) @ 260.75/s (n=279)
 all_ttaf_new_object:  1 wallclock secs ( 1.07 usr +  0.04 sys =  1.11 CPU) @ 251.35/s (n=279)
  all_tth_new_object:  1 wallclock secs ( 1.01 usr +  0.04 sys =  1.05 CPU) @ 227.62/s (n=239)

With memory cache:

       all_ht:  1 wallclock secs ( 1.04 usr +  0.00 sys =  1.04 CPU) @ 461.54/s (n=480)
      all_htc:  1 wallclock secs ( 1.05 usr +  0.01 sys =  1.06 CPU) @ 3168.87/s (n=3359)
 process_ttaf:  1 wallclock secs ( 1.04 usr +  0.00 sys =  1.04 CPU) @ 679.81/s (n=707)
  process_tth:  1 wallclock secs ( 1.05 usr +  0.00 sys =  1.05 CPU) @ 609.52/s (n=640)

Now I'm using a template with about 18Kb by multiplying the example template
20 times. You can see that everything is running slower but some run more
slower than others.

Test without file cache and without memory cache.

              all_ht:  8 wallclock secs ( 7.57 usr +  0.04 sys =  7.61 CPU) @ 13.14/s (n=100)
             all_htc: 32 wallclock secs (32.08 usr +  0.06 sys = 32.14 CPU) @  3.11/s (n=100)
 all_ttaf_new_object: 36 wallclock secs (36.21 usr +  0.04 sys = 36.25 CPU) @  2.76/s (n=100)
  all_tth_new_object: 29 wallclock secs (28.92 usr +  0.05 sys = 28.97 CPU) @  3.45/s (n=100)

With file cache:

              all_ht:  8 wallclock secs ( 7.22 usr +  0.00 sys =  7.22 CPU) @ 13.85/s (n=100)
             all_htc:  5 wallclock secs ( 5.32 usr +  0.00 sys =  5.32 CPU) @ 18.80/s (n=100)
 all_ttaf_new_object:  8 wallclock secs ( 7.59 usr +  0.15 sys =  7.74 CPU) @ 12.92/s (n=100)
  all_tth_new_object:  9 wallclock secs ( 8.74 usr +  0.19 sys =  8.93 CPU) @ 11.20/s (n=100)

With memory cache:

       all_ht:  1 wallclock secs ( 1.04 usr +  0.01 sys =  1.05 CPU) @ 15.24/s (n=16)
      all_htc:  1 wallclock secs ( 1.12 usr +  0.00 sys =  1.12 CPU) @ 272.32/s (n=305)
 process_ttaf:  1 wallclock secs ( 1.07 usr +  0.00 sys =  1.07 CPU) @ 39.25/s (n=42)
  process_tth:  1 wallclock secs ( 1.05 usr +  0.00 sys =  1.05 CPU) @ 34.29/s (n=36)

So the performance difference highly depends on the size of the template and on the
various options.
You can see that using the 900byte template HTC is slower with file cache than
HTML::Template, but with the 18Kb template it's faster.


See L<examples/objects.html> (and C<examples/>) for an example
how to feed objects to HTC.

=head1 BUGS

Probably many bugs I don't know yet =)

Use the bugtracking system to report a bug:

=head1 Why another Template System?

You might ask why I implement yet another templating system. There
are so many to choose from. Well, there are several reasons.

I like the syntax of HTML::Template *because* it is very restricted.
It's also easy to use (template syntax and API).
However, there are some things I miss I try to implement here.

I think while HTML::Template is quite good, the implementation can
be made more efficient (and still pure Perl). That's what I'm trying to achieve.

I use it in my web applications, so I first write it for myself =)
If I can efficiently use it, it was worth it.


See for svn access.

=head1 SEE ALSO



L<Template> - Toolkit

=head1 AUTHOR

Tina Mueller

=head1 CREDITS

Sam Tregar big thanks for ideas and letting me use his L<HTML::Template> test suite

Bjoern Kriews for original idea and contributions

Special Thanks to Sascha Kiefer - he finds all the bugs!

Ronnie Neumann, Martin Fabiani, Kai Sengpiel, Jan Willamowius, Justin Day,
Steffen Winkler, Henrik Tougaard for ideas, beta-testing and patches

L<> and> for everyday learning

Corion, Limbic~Region, tye, runrig and others from 


Copyright (C) 2005-2012 by Tina Mueller

This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the same terms as Perl itself, either Perl version 5.8.3 or,
at your option, any later version of Perl 5 you may have available.