Guard - safe cleanup blocks

       use Guard;
       # temporarily chdir to "/etc" directory, but make sure
       # to go back to "/" no matter how myfun exits:
       sub myfun {
          scope_guard { chdir "/" };
          chdir "/etc";

       # create an object that, when the last reference to it is gone,
       # invokes the given codeblock:
       my $guard = guard { print "destroyed!\n" };
       undef $guard; # probably destroyed here

    This module implements so-called "guards". A guard is something (usually
    an object) that "guards" a resource, ensuring that it is cleaned up when

    Specifically, this module supports two different types of guards: guard
    objects, which execute a given code block when destroyed, and scoped
    guards, which are tied to the scope exit.

    This module currently exports the "scope_guard" and "guard" functions by

    scope_guard BLOCK
    scope_guard ($coderef)
        Registers a block that is executed when the current scope (block,
        function, method, eval etc.) is exited.

        See the EXCEPTIONS section for an explanation of how exceptions
        (i.e. "die") are handled inside guard blocks.

        The description below sounds a bit complicated, but that's just
        because "scope_guard" tries to get even corner cases "right": the
        goal is to provide you with a rock solid clean up tool.

        The behaviour is similar to this code fragment:

           eval ... code following scope_guard ...
              local $@;
              eval BLOCK;
              eval { $Guard::DIED->() } if $@;
           die if $@;

        Except it is much faster, and the whole thing gets executed even
        when the BLOCK calls "exit", "goto", "last" or escapes via other

        If multiple BLOCKs are registered to the same scope, they will be
        executed in reverse order. Other scope-related things such as
        "local" are managed via the same mechanism, so variables "local"ised
        *after* calling "scope_guard" will be restored when the guard runs.

        Example: temporarily change the timezone for the current process,
        ensuring it will be reset when the "if" scope is exited:

           use Guard;
           use POSIX ();

           if ($need_to_switch_tz) {
              # make sure we call tzset after $ENV{TZ} has been restored
              scope_guard { POSIX::tzset };

              # localise after the scope_guard, so it gets undone in time
              local $ENV{TZ} = "Europe/London";

              # do something with the new timezone

    my $guard = guard BLOCK
    my $guard = guard ($coderef)
        Behaves the same as "scope_guard", except that instead of executing
        the block on scope exit, it returns an object whose lifetime
        determines when the BLOCK gets executed: when the last reference to
        the object gets destroyed, the BLOCK gets executed as with

        See the EXCEPTIONS section for an explanation of how exceptions
        (i.e. "die") are handled inside guard blocks.

        Example: acquire a Coro::Semaphore for a second by registering a
        timer. The timer callback references the guard used to unlock it
        again. (Please ignore the fact that "Coro::Semaphore" has a "guard"
        method that does this already):

           use Guard;
           use Coro::AnyEvent;
           use Coro::Semaphore;

           my $sem = new Coro::Semaphore;

           sub lock_for_a_second {
              my $guard = guard { $sem->up };

              Coro::AnyEvent::sleep 1;

              # $sem->up gets executed when returning

        The advantage of doing this with a guard instead of simply calling
        "$sem->down" in the callback is that you can opt not to create the
        timer, or your code can throw an exception before it can create the
        timer (or the thread gets canceled), or you can create multiple
        timers or other event watchers and only when the last one gets
        executed will the lock be unlocked. Using the "guard", you do not
        have to worry about catching all the places where you have to unlock
        the semaphore.

        Calling this function will "disable" the guard object returned by
        the "guard" function, i.e. it will free the BLOCK originally passed
        to "guard "and will arrange for the BLOCK not to be executed.

        This can be useful when you use "guard" to create a cleanup handler
        to be called under fatal conditions and later decide it is no longer

    Guard blocks should not normally throw exceptions (that is, "die").
    After all, they are usually used to clean up after such exceptions.
    However, if something truly exceptional is happening, a guard block
    should of course be allowed to die. Also, programming errors are a large
    source of exceptions, and the programmer certainly wants to know about

    Since in most cases, the block executing when the guard gets executed
    does not know or does not care about the guard blocks, it makes little
    sense to let containing code handle the exception.

    Therefore, whenever a guard block throws an exception, it will be caught
    by Guard, followed by calling the code reference stored in $Guard::DIED
    (with $@ set to the actual exception), which is similar to how most
    event loops handle this case.

    The default for $Guard::DIED is to call "warn "$@"", i.e. the error is
    printed as a warning and the program continues.

    The $@ variable will be restored to its value before the guard call in
    all cases, so guards will not disturb $@ in any way.

    The code reference stored in $Guard::DIED should not die (behaviour is
    not guaranteed, but right now, the exception will simply be ignored).

     Marc Lehmann <>

    Thanks to Marco Maisenhelder, who reminded me of the $Guard::DIED
    solution to the problem of exceptions.

    Scope::Guard and Sub::ScopeFinalizer, which actually implement
    dynamically scoped guards only, not the lexically scoped guards that
    their documentation promises, and have a lot higher CPU, memory and
    typing overhead.

    Hook::Scope, which has apparently never been finished and can corrupt
    memory when used.

    Scope::Guard seems to have a big SEE ALSO section for even more modules
    like it.