package B::Generate;

require 5.005_62;
use strict;
use warnings;
use B ();

require DynaLoader;
use vars qw( @ISA $VERSION );
@ISA = qw(DynaLoader);
$VERSION = '1.56';

    # 'no warnings' does not work.
    local $SIG{__WARN__} = sub {
        return if $_[0] =~ /Subroutine B(?:::\w+)+ redefined/;
        warn $_[0];
    bootstrap B::Generate $VERSION;

  B::OP; # do not index
use constant OP_LIST    => B::opnumber("list");
use B qw(OPf_PARENS OPf_KIDS);

# for convenience
sub B::NULL::type { 0 };

# This is where we implement op.c in Perl. Sssh.
# XXX coverage: 0
sub linklist {
    my $o = shift;
    if ( $o->can("first") and $o->first and ${ $o->first } ) {
        $o->next( $o->first->linklist );
        for ( my $kid = $o->first; $$kid; $kid = $kid->sibling ) {
            if ( ${ $kid->sibling } ) {
                $kid->next( $kid->sibling->linklist );
            else {
    else {
    return $o->next;

# coverage: scope.t
sub append_elem {
    my ( $class, $type, $first, $last ) = @_;
    return $last  unless $first and $$first;
    return $first unless $last  and $$last;

    if ( $first->type() != $type
        or ( $type == OP_LIST and ( $first->flags & OPf_PARENS ) ) )
        return B::LISTOP->new( $type, 0, $first, $last );

    if ( $first->flags() & OPf_KIDS ) {

    else {
        $first->flags( $first->flags | OPf_KIDS );
    return $first;

# coverage: scope.t
sub prepend_elem {
    my ( $class, $type, $first, $last ) = @_;
    if ( $last->type() != $type ) {
        return B::LISTOP->new( $type, 0, $first, $last );

    if ( $type == OP_LIST ) {
        $first->sibling( $last->first->sibling );
        $last->flags( $last->flags & ~OPf_PARENS )
            unless ( $first->flags & OPf_PARENS );
    else {
        unless ( $last->flags & OPf_KIDS ) {
            $last->flags( $last->flags | OPf_KIDS );
        $first->sibling( $last->first );
    $last->flags( $last->flags | OPf_KIDS );
    return $last;    # I cannot believe this works.

# coverage: scope.t
sub scope {
    my $o = shift;
    return unless $o and $$o;
    if ( $o->flags & OPf_PARENS ) {
        $o = B::OP->prepend_elem( B::opnumber("lineseq"),
             B::OP->new( "enter", 0 ), $o );
        $o->type( B::opnumber("leave") );
    else {
        if ( $o->type == B::opnumber("lineseq") ) {
            my $kid;
            $o->type( B::opnumber("scope") );
            $kid = $o->first;
            die "This probably shouldn't happen (\$kid->null)\n"
                if ( $kid->type == B::opnumber("nextstate")
                or $kid->type == B::opnumber("dbstate") );
        else {
            $o = B::LISTOP->new( "scope", 0, $o, undef );
    return ($o);


=head1 NAME

B::Generate - Create your own op trees.


    use B::Generate;
    # Do nothing, slowly.
    CHECK {
        my $null = new B::OP("null",0);
        my $enter = new B::OP("enter",0);
        my $cop = new B::COP(0, "hiya", 0);
        my $leave = new B::LISTOP("leave", 0, $enter, $null);

        # Tell Perl where to find our tree.

=head1 WARNING

This module will create segmentation faults if you don't know how to
use it properly. Further warning: sometimes B<I> don't know how to use
it properly.

There B<are> lots of other methods and utility functions, but they are
not documented here. This is deliberate, rather than just through
laziness. You are expected to have read the Perl and XS sources to this
module before attempting to do anything with it.


The C<B> module allows you to examine the Perl op tree at
runtime, in Perl space; it's the basis of the Perl compiler.
But what it doesn't let you do is manipulate that op tree: it
won't let you create new ops, or modify old ones. Now you can.

Well, if you're intimately familiar with Perl's internals, you can.

C<B::Generate> turns C<B>'s accessor methods into get-set methods.
Hence, instead of merely saying

    $op2 = $op->next;

you can now say


to set the next op in the chain. It also adds constructor methods to
create new ops. This is where it gets really hairy.

    new B::OP     ( type, flags )
    new B::UNOP   ( type, flags, first )
    new B::BINOP  ( type, flags, first, last )
    new B::LOGOP  ( type, flags, first, other )
    new B::LISTOP ( type, flags, first, last )
    new B::SVOP   ( type, flags, sv )
    new B::COP    ( flags, name, first )

In all of the above constructors, C<type> is either a numeric value
representing the op type (C<62> is the addition operator in certain
perl versions, for instance) or the name of the op. (C<"add">)

Incidentally, if you know about custom ops and have registed them
properly with the interpreter, you can create custom ops by name:
C<new B::OP("mycustomop",0)>, or whatever.

C<first>, C<last> and C<other> are ops to be attached to the current op;
these should be C<B::OP> objects. If you haven't created the ops yet,
don't worry; give a false value, and fill them in later:

    $x = new B::UNOP("negate", 0, undef);
    # ... create some more ops ...

In addition, one may create a new C<nextstate> operator with

    newstate B::op ( flags, label, op)

in the same manner as C<B::COP::new> - this will also, however, add the
C<lineseq> op.

Finally, you can set the main root and the starting op by passing ops
to the C<B::main_root> and C<B::main_start> functions.

This module can obviously be used for all sorts of fun and optimizational
purposes. One example will be in conjuction with source filters; have your
source filter parse an input file in a foreign language, create an op tree for
it and get Perl to execute it. Then email me and tell me how you did it.  And


=over 3

=item  B::SVOP->sv()

Returns the SV value instead of the C<B::SV> object. For instance:

    $b_sv = $svop->sv;
    if ($b_sv->sv == 3) {
        print "SVOP's SV has an IV of 3\n"

But to set the SV you need a proper B::SV object.

=item $op->dump

Runs C<Perl_op_dump> on an op; this is roughly equivalent to
C<B::Debug>, but not quite.

=item $b_sv->dump

Runs C<Perl_sv_dump> on an SV; this is exactly equivalent to
C<< Devel::Peek::dump($b_sv->sv) >>

=item $b_op->linklist

Sets the C<op_next> pointers in the tree in correct execution order,
overwriting the old C<next> pointers. You B<need> to do this once you've
created an op tree for execution, unless you've carefully threaded it
together yourself.

=item $b_op->scope

Create a surrounding scope for the b_op, "parenthesize" it.

Creates on OPf_PARENS (already parenthesized by the parser) a
full lineseq, enter, b_op, leave sequence.

Otherwise just scope, b_op.

=item B::SVOP->new_svrv ( type, flags, sv )

Similar to B::SVOP->new ( type, flags, sv ), it
just creates a new SVOP with an attached sv as SvRV to the given sv.

=item $cv->NEW_with_start (root, start)

Clone the C<cv> with new root and start ops. Note that contrary to C<cv_clone>,
the PADLIST and pad index is kept, but the index might point to a different lexical,
because the PADLIST indices will be different. See F<t/new_cv.t>.

Warning: C<$cv->NEW_with_start> is disabled on some strict platforms, like B<MSWin32>.
See CPAN RT#28912.

=item $b_op->targ ( [ targ] )

Get or set the PADOFFSET.


=head2 EXPORT


=head1 AUTHOR

Simon Cozens, C<>
Reini Urban, C<>


Maintained by Reini Urban.

This is just a list of people who have submitted patches to the

Josh Jore, Michael Schwern, Jim Cromie, Scott Walters, Reini Urban,
Anton Berezin, Dmitry Karasik.

Maintainership permissions do have:
Artur Bergman, Chia-liang Kao, Anton Berezin, Jim Cromie, Joshua ben Jore,
Michael G Schwern, Matt S Trout, Reini Urban, Scott Walters.

=head1 LICENSE

This module is available under the same licences as perl, the Artistic
license and the GPL.

=head1 SEE ALSO

L<B>, F<perlguts>, F<op.c>, B<perloptree> with L<B::C>