package App::cpanminus::fatscript;
#
# This is a pre-compiled source code for the cpanm (cpanminus) program.
# For more details about how to install cpanm, go to the following URL:
#
#   https://github.com/miyagawa/cpanminus
#
# Quickstart: Run the following command and it will install itself for
# you. You might want to run it as a root with sudo if you want to install
# to places like /usr/local/bin.
#
#   % curl -L https://cpanmin.us | perl - App::cpanminus
#
# If you don't have curl but wget, replace `curl -L` with `wget -O -`.

# DO NOT EDIT -- this is an auto generated file

# This chunk of stuff was generated by App::FatPacker. To find the original
# file's code, look for the end of this BEGIN block or the string 'FATPACK'
BEGIN {
my %fatpacked;

$fatpacked{"App/cpanminus.pm"} = '#line '.(1+__LINE__).' "'.__FILE__."\"\n".<<'APP_CPANMINUS';
  package App::cpanminus;
  our $VERSION = "1.7046";
  
  =encoding utf8
  
  =head1 NAME
  
  App::cpanminus - get, unpack, build and install modules from CPAN
  
  =head1 SYNOPSIS
  
      cpanm Module
  
  Run C<cpanm -h> or C<perldoc cpanm> for more options.
  
  =head1 DESCRIPTION
  
  cpanminus is a script to get, unpack, build and install modules from
  CPAN and does nothing else.
  
  It's dependency free (can bootstrap itself), requires zero
  configuration, and stands alone. When running, it requires only 10MB
  of RAM.
  
  =head1 INSTALLATION
  
  There are several ways to install cpanminus to your system.
  
  =head2 Package management system
  
  There are Debian packages, RPMs, FreeBSD ports, and packages for other
  operation systems available. If you want to use the package management system,
  search for cpanminus and use the appropriate command to install. This makes it
  easy to install C<cpanm> to your system without thinking about where to
  install, and later upgrade.
  
  =head2 Installing to system perl
  
  You can also use the latest cpanminus to install cpanminus itself:
  
      curl -L https://cpanmin.us | perl - --sudo App::cpanminus
  
  This will install C<cpanm> to your bin directory like
  C</usr/local/bin> and you'll need the C<--sudo> option to write to
  the directory, unless you configured C<INSTALL_BASE> with L<local::lib>.
  
  =head2 Installing to local perl (perlbrew, plenv etc.)
  
  If you have perl in your home directory, which is the case if you use
  tools like L<perlbrew> or plenv, you don't need the C<--sudo> option, since
  you're most likely to have a write permission to the perl's library
  path. You can just do:
  
      curl -L https://cpanmin.us | perl - App::cpanminus
  
  to install the C<cpanm> executable to the perl's bin path, like
  C<~/perl5/perlbrew/bin/cpanm>.
  
  =head2 Downloading the standalone executable
  
  You can also copy the standalone executable to whatever location you'd like.
  
      cd ~/bin
      curl -L https://cpanmin.us/ -o cpanm
      chmod +x cpanm
  
  This just works, but be sure to grab the new version manually when you
  upgrade because C<--self-upgrade> might not work with this installation setup.
  
  =head2 Troubleshoot: HTTPS warnings
  
  When you run C<curl> commands above, you may encounter SSL handshake
  errors or certification warnings. This is due to your HTTP client
  (curl) being old, or SSL certificates installed on your system needs
  to be updated.
  
  You're recommended to update the software or system if you can. If
  that is impossible or difficult, use the C<-k> option with curl.
  
  =head1 DEPENDENCIES
  
  perl 5.8.1 or later.
  
  =over 4
  
  =item *
  
  'tar' executable (bsdtar or GNU tar version 1.22 are recommended) or Archive::Tar to unpack files.
  
  =item *
  
  C compiler, if you want to build XS modules.
  
  =item *
  
  make
  
  =item *
  
  Module::Build (core in 5.10)
  
  =back
  
  =head1 QUESTIONS
  
  =head2 How does cpanm get/parse/update the CPAN index?
  
  It queries the CPAN Meta DB site at L<http://cpanmetadb.plackperl.org/>.
  The site is updated at least every hour to reflect the latest changes
  from fast syncing mirrors. The script then also falls back to query the
  module at L<http://metacpan.org/> using its search API.
  
  Upon calling these API hosts, cpanm (1.6004 or later) will send the
  local perl versions to the server in User-Agent string by default. You
  can turn it off with C<--no-report-perl-version> option. Read more
  about the option with L<cpanm>, and read more about the privacy policy
  about this data collection at L<http://cpanmetadb.plackperl.org/#privacy>
  
  Fetched files are unpacked in C<~/.cpanm> and automatically cleaned up
  periodically.  You can configure the location of this with the
  C<PERL_CPANM_HOME> environment variable.
  
  =head2 Where does this install modules to? Do I need root access?
  
  It installs to wherever ExtUtils::MakeMaker and Module::Build are
  configured to (via C<PERL_MM_OPT> and C<PERL_MB_OPT>).
  
  By default, it installs to the site_perl directory that belongs to
  your perl. You can see the locations for that by running C<perl -V>
  and it will be likely something under C</opt/local/perl/...> if you're
  using system perl, or under your home directory if you have built perl
  yourself using perlbrew or plenv.
  
  If you've already configured local::lib on your shell, cpanm respects
  that settings and modules will be installed to your local perl5
  directory.
  
  At a boot time, cpanminus checks whether you have already configured
  local::lib, or have a permission to install modules to the site_perl
  directory.  If neither, i.e. you're using system perl and do not run
  cpanm as a root, it automatically sets up local::lib compatible
  installation path in a C<perl5> directory under your home
  directory.
  
  To avoid this, run C<cpanm> either as a root user, with C<--sudo>
  option, or with C<--local-lib> option.
  
  =head2 cpanminus can't install the module XYZ. Is it a bug?
  
  It is more likely a problem with the distribution itself. cpanminus
  doesn't support or may have issues with distributions such as follows:
  
  =over 4
  
  =item *
  
  Tests that require input from STDIN.
  
  =item *
  
  Build.PL or Makefile.PL that prompts for input even when
  C<PERL_MM_USE_DEFAULT> is enabled.
  
  =item *
  
  Modules that have invalid numeric values as VERSION (such as C<1.1a>)
  
  =back
  
  These failures can be reported back to the author of the module so
  that they can fix it accordingly, rather than to cpanminus.
  
  =head2 Does cpanm support the feature XYZ of L<CPAN> and L<CPANPLUS>?
  
  Most likely not. Here are the things that cpanm doesn't do by
  itself.
  
  If you need these features, use L<CPAN>, L<CPANPLUS> or the standalone
  tools that are mentioned.
  
  =over 4
  
  =item *
  
  CPAN testers reporting. See L<App::cpanminus::reporter>
  
  =item *
  
  Building RPM packages from CPAN modules
  
  =item *
  
  Listing the outdated modules that needs upgrading. See L<App::cpanoutdated>
  
  =item *
  
  Showing the changes of the modules you're about to upgrade. See L<cpan-listchanges>
  
  =item *
  
  Patching CPAN modules with distroprefs.
  
  =back
  
  See L<cpanm> or C<cpanm -h> to see what cpanminus I<can> do :)
  
  =head1 COPYRIGHT
  
  Copyright 2010- Tatsuhiko Miyagawa
  
  The standalone executable contains the following modules embedded.
  
  =over 4
  
  =item L<CPAN::DistnameInfo> Copyright 2003 Graham Barr
  
  =item L<local::lib> Copyright 2007-2009 Matt S Trout
  
  =item L<HTTP::Tiny> Copyright 2011 Christian Hansen
  
  =item L<Module::Metadata> Copyright 2001-2006 Ken Williams. 2010 Matt S Trout
  
  =item L<version> Copyright 2004-2010 John Peacock
  
  =item L<JSON::PP> Copyright 2007-2011 by Makamaka Hannyaharamitu
  
  =item L<CPAN::Meta>, L<CPAN::Meta::Requirements> Copyright (c) 2010 by David Golden and Ricardo Signes
  
  =item L<CPAN::Meta::YAML> Copyright 2010 Adam Kennedy
  
  =item L<CPAN::Meta::Check> Copyright (c) 2012 by Leon Timmermans
  
  =item L<File::pushd> Copyright 2012 David Golden
  
  =item L<parent> Copyright (c) 2007-10 Max Maischein
  
  =item L<Parse::PMFile> Copyright 1995 - 2013 by Andreas Koenig, Copyright 2013 by Kenichi Ishigaki
  
  =item L<String::ShellQuote> by Roderick Schertler
  
  
  =back
  
  =head1 LICENSE
  
  This software is licensed under the same terms as Perl.
  
  =head1 CREDITS
  
  =head2 CONTRIBUTORS
  
  Patches and code improvements were contributed by:
  
  Goro Fuji, Kazuhiro Osawa, Tokuhiro Matsuno, Kenichi Ishigaki, Ian
  Wells, Pedro Melo, Masayoshi Sekimura, Matt S Trout (mst), squeeky,
  horus and Ingy dot Net.
  
  =head2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
  
  Bug reports, suggestions and feedbacks were sent by, or general
  acknowledgement goes to:
  
  Jesse Vincent, David Golden, Andreas Koenig, Jos Boumans, Chris
  Williams, Adam Kennedy, Audrey Tang, J. Shirley, Chris Prather, Jesse
  Luehrs, Marcus Ramberg, Shawn M Moore, chocolateboy, Chirs Nehren,
  Jonathan Rockway, Leon Brocard, Simon Elliott, Ricardo Signes, AEvar
  Arnfjord Bjarmason, Eric Wilhelm, Florian Ragwitz and xaicron.
  
  =head1 COMMUNITY
  
  =over 4
  
  =item L<http://github.com/miyagawa/cpanminus> - source code repository, issue tracker
  
  =item L<irc://irc.perl.org/#cpanm> - discussions about cpanm and its related tools
  
  =back
  
  =head1 NO WARRANTY
  
  This software is provided "as-is," without any express or implied
  warranty. In no event shall the author be held liable for any damages
  arising from the use of the software.
  
  =head1 SEE ALSO
  
  L<CPAN> L<CPANPLUS> L<pip>
  
  =cut
  
  1;
APP_CPANMINUS

$fatpacked{"App/cpanminus/Dependency.pm"} = '#line '.(1+__LINE__).' "'.__FILE__."\"\n".<<'APP_CPANMINUS_DEPENDENCY';
  package App::cpanminus::Dependency;
  use strict;
  use CPAN::Meta::Requirements;
  
  sub from_prereqs {
      my($class, $prereqs, $phases, $types) = @_;
  
      my @deps;
      for my $type (@$types) {
          push @deps, $class->from_versions(
              $prereqs->merged_requirements($phases, [$type])->as_string_hash,
              $type,
          );
      }
  
      return @deps;
  }
  
  sub from_versions {
      my($class, $versions, $type) = @_;
  
      my @deps;
      while (my($module, $version) = each %$versions) {
          push @deps, $class->new($module, $version, $type)
      }
  
      @deps;
  }
  
  sub merge_with {
      my($self, $requirements) = @_;
  
      # save the original requirement
      $self->{original_version} = $self->version;
  
      # should it clone? not cloning means we upgrade root $requirements on our way
      eval {
          $requirements->add_string_requirement($self->module, $self->version);
      };
      if ($@ =~ /illegal requirements/) {
          # Just give a warning then replace with the root requirements
          # so that later CPAN::Meta::Check can give a valid error
          warn sprintf("Can't merge requirements for %s: '%s' and '%s'",
                      $self->module, $self->version,
                      $requirements->requirements_for_module($self->module));
      }
  
      $self->{version} = $requirements->requirements_for_module($self->module);
  }
  
  sub new {
      my($class, $module, $version, $type) = @_;
  
      bless {
          module => $module,
          version => $version,
          type => $type || 'requires',
      }, $class;
  }
  
  sub module  { $_[0]->{module} }
  sub version { $_[0]->{version} }
  sub type    { $_[0]->{type} }
  
  sub requires_version {
      my $self = shift;
  
      # original_version may be 0
      if (defined $self->{original_version}) {
          return $self->{original_version};
      }
  
      $self->version;
  }
  
  sub is_requirement {
      $_[0]->{type} eq 'requires';
  }
  
  1;
APP_CPANMINUS_DEPENDENCY

$fatpacked{"App/cpanminus/script.pm"} = '#line '.(1+__LINE__).' "'.__FILE__."\"\n".<<'APP_CPANMINUS_SCRIPT';
  package App::cpanminus::script;
  use strict;
  use Config;
  use Cwd ();
  use App::cpanminus;
  use App::cpanminus::Dependency;
  use File::Basename ();
  use File::Find ();
  use File::Path ();
  use File::Spec ();
  use File::Copy ();
  use File::Temp ();
  use Getopt::Long ();
  use Symbol ();
  use String::ShellQuote ();
  use version ();
  
  use constant WIN32 => $^O eq 'MSWin32';
  use constant BAD_TAR => ($^O eq 'solaris' || $^O eq 'hpux');
  use constant CAN_SYMLINK => eval { symlink("", ""); 1 };
  
  our $VERSION = $App::cpanminus::VERSION;
  
  if ($INC{"App/FatPacker/Trace.pm"}) {
      require version::vpp;
  }
  
  my $quote = WIN32 ? q/"/ : q/'/;
  
  sub agent {
      my $self = shift;
      my $agent = "cpanminus/$VERSION";
      $agent .= " perl/$]" if $self->{report_perl_version};
      $agent;
  }
  
  sub determine_home {
      my $class = shift;
  
      my $homedir = $ENV{HOME}
        || eval { require File::HomeDir; File::HomeDir->my_home }
        || join('', @ENV{qw(HOMEDRIVE HOMEPATH)}); # Win32
  
      if (WIN32) {
          require Win32; # no fatpack
          $homedir = Win32::GetShortPathName($homedir);
      }
  
      return "$homedir/.cpanm";
  }
  
  sub new {
      my $class = shift;
  
      bless {
          home => $class->determine_home,
          cmd  => 'install',
          seen => {},
          notest => undef,
          test_only => undef,
          installdeps => undef,
          force => undef,
          sudo => undef,
          make  => undef,
          verbose => undef,
          quiet => undef,
          interactive => undef,
          log => undef,
          mirrors => [],
          mirror_only => undef,
          mirror_index => undef,
          cpanmetadb => "http://cpanmetadb.plackperl.org/v1.0/",
          perl => $^X,
          argv => [],
          local_lib => undef,
          self_contained => undef,
          exclude_vendor => undef,
          prompt_timeout => 0,
          prompt => undef,
          configure_timeout => 60,
          build_timeout => 3600,
          test_timeout => 1800,
          try_lwp => 1,
          try_wget => 1,
          try_curl => 1,
          uninstall_shadows => ($] < 5.012),
          skip_installed => 1,
          skip_satisfied => 0,
          auto_cleanup => 7, # days
          pod2man => 1,
          installed_dists => 0,
          install_types => ['requires'],
          with_develop => 0,
          with_configure => 0,
          showdeps => 0,
          scandeps => 0,
          scandeps_tree => [],
          format   => 'tree',
          save_dists => undef,
          skip_configure => 0,
          verify => 0,
          report_perl_version => !$class->maybe_ci,
          build_args => {},
          features => {},
          pure_perl => 0,
          cpanfile_path => 'cpanfile',
          @_,
      }, $class;
  }
  
  sub env {
      my($self, $key) = @_;
      $ENV{"PERL_CPANM_" . $key};
  }
  
  sub maybe_ci {
      my $class = shift;
      grep $ENV{$_}, qw( TRAVIS CI AUTOMATED_TESTING AUTHOR_TESTING );
  }
  
  sub install_type_handlers {
      my $self = shift;
  
      my @handlers;
      for my $type (qw( recommends suggests )) {
          push @handlers, "with-$type" => sub {
              my %uniq;
              $self->{install_types} = [ grep !$uniq{$_}++, @{$self->{install_types}}, $type ];
          };
          push @handlers, "without-$type" => sub {
              $self->{install_types} = [ grep $_ ne $type, @{$self->{install_types}} ];
          };
      }
  
      @handlers;
  }
  
  sub build_args_handlers {
      my $self = shift;
  
      my @handlers;
      for my $phase (qw( configure build test install )) {
          push @handlers, "$phase-args=s" => \($self->{build_args}{$phase});
      }
  
      @handlers;
  }
  
  sub parse_options {
      my $self = shift;
  
      local @ARGV = @{$self->{argv}};
      push @ARGV, grep length, split /\s+/, $self->env('OPT');
      push @ARGV, @_;
  
      Getopt::Long::Configure("bundling");
      Getopt::Long::GetOptions(
          'f|force'   => sub { $self->{skip_installed} = 0; $self->{force} = 1 },
          'n|notest!' => \$self->{notest},
          'test-only' => sub { $self->{notest} = 0; $self->{skip_installed} = 0; $self->{test_only} = 1 },
          'S|sudo!'   => \$self->{sudo},
          'v|verbose' => \$self->{verbose},
          'verify!'   => \$self->{verify},
          'q|quiet!'  => \$self->{quiet},
          'h|help'    => sub { $self->{action} = 'show_help' },
          'V|version' => sub { $self->{action} = 'show_version' },
          'perl=s'    => sub {
              $self->diag("--perl is deprecated since it's known to be fragile in figuring out dependencies. Run `$_[1] -S cpanm` instead.\n", 1);
              $self->{perl} = $_[1];
          },
          'l|local-lib=s' => sub { $self->{local_lib} = $self->maybe_abs($_[1]) },
          'L|local-lib-contained=s' => sub {
              $self->{local_lib} = $self->maybe_abs($_[1]);
              $self->{self_contained} = 1;
              $self->{pod2man} = undef;
          },
          'self-contained!' => \$self->{self_contained},
          'exclude-vendor!' => \$self->{exclude_vendor},
          'mirror=s@' => $self->{mirrors},
          'mirror-only!' => \$self->{mirror_only},
          'mirror-index=s' => sub { $self->{mirror_index} = $self->maybe_abs($_[1]) },
          'M|from=s' => sub {
              $self->{mirrors}     = [$_[1]];
              $self->{mirror_only} = 1;
          },
          'cpanmetadb=s'    => \$self->{cpanmetadb},
          'cascade-search!' => \$self->{cascade_search},
          'prompt!'   => \$self->{prompt},
          'installdeps' => \$self->{installdeps},
          'skip-installed!' => \$self->{skip_installed},
          'skip-satisfied!' => \$self->{skip_satisfied},
          'reinstall'    => sub { $self->{skip_installed} = 0 },
          'interactive!' => \$self->{interactive},
          'i|install'    => sub { $self->{cmd} = 'install' },
          'info'         => sub { $self->{cmd} = 'info' },
          'look'         => sub { $self->{cmd} = 'look'; $self->{skip_installed} = 0 },
          'U|uninstall'  => sub { $self->{cmd} = 'uninstall' },
          'self-upgrade' => sub { $self->{action} = 'self_upgrade' },
          'uninst-shadows!'  => \$self->{uninstall_shadows},
          'lwp!'    => \$self->{try_lwp},
          'wget!'   => \$self->{try_wget},
          'curl!'   => \$self->{try_curl},
          'auto-cleanup=s' => \$self->{auto_cleanup},
          'man-pages!' => \$self->{pod2man},
          'scandeps'   => \$self->{scandeps},
          'showdeps'   => sub { $self->{showdeps} = 1; $self->{skip_installed} = 0 },
          'format=s'   => \$self->{format},
          'save-dists=s' => sub {
              $self->{save_dists} = $self->maybe_abs($_[1]);
          },
          'skip-configure!' => \$self->{skip_configure},
          'dev!'       => \$self->{dev_release},
          'metacpan!'  => \$self->{metacpan},
          'report-perl-version!' => \$self->{report_perl_version},
          'configure-timeout=i' => \$self->{configure_timeout},
          'build-timeout=i' => \$self->{build_timeout},
          'test-timeout=i' => \$self->{test_timeout},
          'with-develop' => \$self->{with_develop},
          'without-develop' => sub { $self->{with_develop} = 0 },
          'with-configure' => \$self->{with_configure},
          'without-configure' => sub { $self->{with_configure} = 0 },
          'with-feature=s' => sub { $self->{features}{$_[1]} = 1 },
          'without-feature=s' => sub { $self->{features}{$_[1]} = 0 },
          'with-all-features' => sub { $self->{features}{__all} = 1 },
          'pp|pureperl!' => \$self->{pure_perl},
          "cpanfile=s" => \$self->{cpanfile_path},
          $self->install_type_handlers,
          $self->build_args_handlers,
      );
  
      if (!@ARGV && $0 ne '-' && !-t STDIN){ # e.g. # cpanm < author/requires.cpanm
          push @ARGV, $self->load_argv_from_fh(\*STDIN);
          $self->{load_from_stdin} = 1;
      }
  
      $self->{argv} = \@ARGV;
  }
  
  sub check_upgrade {
      my $self = shift;
      my $install_base = $ENV{PERL_LOCAL_LIB_ROOT} ? $self->local_lib_target($ENV{PERL_LOCAL_LIB_ROOT}) : $Config{installsitebin};
      if ($0 eq '-') {
          # run from curl, that's fine
          return;
      } elsif ($0 !~ /^$install_base/) {
          if ($0 =~ m!perlbrew/bin!) {
              die <<DIE;
  It appears your cpanm executable was installed via `perlbrew install-cpanm`.
  cpanm --self-upgrade won't upgrade the version of cpanm you're running.
  
  Run the following command to get it upgraded.
  
    perlbrew install-cpanm
  
  DIE
          } else {
              die <<DIE;
  You are running cpanm from the path where your current perl won't install executables to.
  Because of that, cpanm --self-upgrade won't upgrade the version of cpanm you're running.
  
    cpanm path   : $0
    Install path : $Config{installsitebin}
  
  It means you either installed cpanm globally with system perl, or use distro packages such
  as rpm or apt-get, and you have to use them again to upgrade cpanm.
  DIE
          }
      }
  }
  
  sub check_libs {
      my $self = shift;
      return if $self->{_checked}++;
      $self->bootstrap_local_lib;
  }
  
  sub setup_verify {
      my $self = shift;
  
      my $has_modules = eval { require Module::Signature; require Digest::SHA; 1 };
      $self->{cpansign} = $self->which('cpansign');
  
      unless ($has_modules && $self->{cpansign}) {
          warn "WARNING: Module::Signature and Digest::SHA is required for distribution verifications.\n";
          $self->{verify} = 0;
      }
  }
  
  sub parse_module_args {
      my($self, $module) = @_;
  
      # Plack@1.2 -> Plack~"==1.2"
      # BUT don't expand @ in git URLs
      $module =~ s/^([A-Za-z0-9_:]+)@([v\d\._]+)$/$1~== $2/;
  
      # Plack~1.20, DBI~"> 1.0, <= 2.0"
      if ($module =~ /\~[v\d\._,\!<>= ]+$/) {
          return split /\~/, $module, 2;
      } else {
          return $module, undef;
      }
  }
  
  sub doit {
      my $self = shift;
  
      my $code;
      eval {
          $code = ($self->_doit == 0);
      }; if (my $e = $@) {
          warn $e;
          $code = 1;
      }
  
      return $code;
  }
  
  sub _doit {
      my $self = shift;
  
      $self->setup_home;
      $self->init_tools;
      $self->setup_verify if $self->{verify};
  
      if (my $action = $self->{action}) {
          $self->$action() and return 1;
      }
  
      return $self->show_help(1)
          unless @{$self->{argv}} or $self->{load_from_stdin};
  
      $self->configure_mirrors;
  
      my $cwd = Cwd::cwd;
  
      my @fail;
      for my $module (@{$self->{argv}}) {
          if ($module =~ s/\.pm$//i) {
              my ($volume, $dirs, $file) = File::Spec->splitpath($module);
              $module = join '::', grep { $_ } File::Spec->splitdir($dirs), $file;
          }
          ($module, my $version) = $self->parse_module_args($module);
  
          $self->chdir($cwd);
          if ($self->{cmd} eq 'uninstall') {
              $self->uninstall_module($module)
                or push @fail, $module;
          } else {
              $self->install_module($module, 0, $version)
                  or push @fail, $module;
          }
      }
  
      if ($self->{base} && $self->{auto_cleanup}) {
          $self->cleanup_workdirs;
      }
  
      if ($self->{installed_dists}) {
          my $dists = $self->{installed_dists} > 1 ? "distributions" : "distribution";
          $self->diag("$self->{installed_dists} $dists installed\n", 1);
      }
  
      if ($self->{scandeps}) {
          $self->dump_scandeps();
      }
      # Workaround for older File::Temp's
      # where creating a tempdir with an implicit $PWD
      # causes tempdir non-cleanup if $PWD changes
      # as paths are stored internally without being resolved
      # absolutely.
      # https://rt.cpan.org/Public/Bug/Display.html?id=44924
      $self->chdir($cwd);
  
      return !@fail;
  }
  
  sub setup_home {
      my $self = shift;
  
      $self->{home} = $self->env('HOME') if $self->env('HOME');
  
      unless (_writable($self->{home})) {
          die "Can't write to cpanm home '$self->{home}': You should fix it with chown/chmod first.\n";
      }
  
      $self->{base} = "$self->{home}/work/" . time . ".$$";
      File::Path::mkpath([ $self->{base} ], 0, 0777);
  
      # native path because we use shell redirect
      $self->{log} = File::Spec->catfile($self->{base}, "build.log");
      my $final_log = "$self->{home}/build.log";
  
      { open my $out, ">$self->{log}" or die "$self->{log}: $!" }
  
      if (CAN_SYMLINK) {
          my $build_link = "$self->{home}/latest-build";
          unlink $build_link;
          symlink $self->{base}, $build_link;
  
          unlink $final_log;
          symlink $self->{log}, $final_log;
      } else {
          my $log = $self->{log}; my $home = $self->{home};
          $self->{at_exit} = sub {
              my $self = shift;
              my $temp_log = "$home/build.log." . time . ".$$";
              File::Copy::copy($log, $temp_log)
                  && unlink($final_log);
              rename($temp_log, $final_log);
          }
      }
  
      $self->chat("cpanm (App::cpanminus) $VERSION on perl $] built for $Config{archname}\n" .
                  "Work directory is $self->{base}\n");
  }
  
  sub package_index_for {
      my ($self, $mirror) = @_;
      return $self->source_for($mirror) . "/02packages.details.txt";
  }
  
  sub generate_mirror_index {
      my ($self, $mirror) = @_;
      my $file = $self->package_index_for($mirror);
      my $gz_file = $file . '.gz';
      my $index_mtime = (stat $gz_file)[9];
  
      unless (-e $file && (stat $file)[9] >= $index_mtime) {
          $self->chat("Uncompressing index file...\n");
          if (eval {require Compress::Zlib}) {
              my $gz = Compress::Zlib::gzopen($gz_file, "rb")
                  or do { $self->diag_fail("$Compress::Zlib::gzerrno opening compressed index"); return};
              open my $fh, '>', $file
                  or do { $self->diag_fail("$! opening uncompressed index for write"); return };
              my $buffer;
              while (my $status = $gz->gzread($buffer)) {
                  if ($status < 0) {
                      $self->diag_fail($gz->gzerror . " reading compressed index");
                      return;
                  }
                  print $fh $buffer;
              }
          } else {
              if (system("gunzip -c $gz_file > $file")) {
                  $self->diag_fail("Cannot uncompress -- please install gunzip or Compress::Zlib");
                  return;
              }
          }
          utime $index_mtime, $index_mtime, $file;
      }
      return 1;
  }
  
  sub search_mirror_index {
      my ($self, $mirror, $module, $version) = @_;
      $self->search_mirror_index_file($self->package_index_for($mirror), $module, $version);
  }
  
  sub search_mirror_index_file {
      my($self, $file, $module, $version) = @_;
  
      open my $fh, '<', $file or return;
      my $found;
      while (<$fh>) {
          if (m!^\Q$module\E\s+([\w\.]+)\s+(\S*)!m) {
              $found = $self->cpan_module($module, $2, $1);
              last;
          }
      }
  
      return $found unless $self->{cascade_search};
  
      if ($found) {
          if ($self->satisfy_version($module, $found->{module_version}, $version)) {
              return $found;
          } else {
              $self->chat("Found $module $found->{module_version} which doesn't satisfy $version.\n");
          }
      }
  
      return;
  }
  
  sub with_version_range {
      my($self, $version) = @_;
      defined($version) && $version =~ /(?:<|!=|==)/;
  }
  
  sub encode_json {
      my($self, $data) = @_;
      require JSON::PP;
  
      my $json = JSON::PP::encode_json($data);
      $self->uri_escape($json);
  }
  
  sub decode_json {
      my($self, $json) = @_;
      require JSON::PP;
  
      JSON::PP::decode_json($json);
  }
  
  sub uri_escape {
      my($self, $fragment) = @_;
      $fragment =~ s/([^A-Za-z0-9\-\._~])/uc sprintf("%%%02X", ord($1))/eg;
      $fragment;
  }
  
  sub uri_params {
      my($self, @params) = @_;
      my @param_strings;
      while (my $key = shift @params) {
          my $value = shift @params;
          push @param_strings, join '=', map $self->uri_escape($_), $key, $value;
      }
      return join '&', @param_strings;
  }
  
  # version->new("1.00_00")->numify => "1.00_00" :/
  sub numify_ver {
      my($self, $ver) = @_;
      eval version->new($ver)->numify;
  }
  
  sub search_metacpan {
      my($self, $module, $version, $dev_release) = @_;
  
      my $metacpan_uri = 'http://fastapi.metacpan.org/v1/download_url/';
  
      my $url = $metacpan_uri . $module;
  
      my $query = $self->uri_params(
          ($version ? (version => $version) : ()),
          ($dev_release ? (dev => 1) : ()),
      );
      $url .= '?' . $query
          if length $query;
  
      my $dist_json = $self->get($url);
      my $dist_meta = eval { $self->decode_json($dist_json) };
  
      if ($dist_meta && $dist_meta->{download_url}) {
          (my $distfile = $dist_meta->{download_url}) =~ s!.+/authors/id/!!;
          local $self->{mirrors} = $self->{mirrors};
          $self->{mirrors} = [ 'http://cpan.metacpan.org' ];
          return $self->cpan_module($module, $distfile, $dist_meta->{version});
      }
  
      $self->chat("! Could not find a release matching $module".($version?" ($version)":'')." on MetaCPAN.\n");
      return;
  }
  
  sub search_database {
      my($self, $module, $version) = @_;
  
      my $found;
  
      if ($self->{dev_release} or $self->{metacpan}) {
          $found = $self->search_metacpan($module, $version, $self->{dev_release})   and return $found;
          $found = $self->search_cpanmetadb($module, $version, $self->{dev_release}) and return $found;
      } else {
          $found = $self->search_cpanmetadb($module, $version) and return $found;
          $found = $self->search_metacpan($module, $version)   and return $found;
      }
  }
  
  sub search_cpanmetadb {
      my($self, $module, $version, $dev_release) = @_;
  
  
      $self->chat("Searching $module ($version) on cpanmetadb ...\n");
  
      if ($self->with_version_range($version)) {
          return $self->search_cpanmetadb_history($module, $version, $dev_release);
      } else {
          return $self->search_cpanmetadb_package($module, $version, $dev_release);
      }
  }
  
  sub search_cpanmetadb_package {
      my($self, $module, $version, $dev_release) = @_;
  
      require CPAN::Meta::YAML;
  
      (my $uri = $self->{cpanmetadb}) =~ s{/?$}{/package/$module};
      my $yaml = $self->get($uri);
      my $meta = eval { CPAN::Meta::YAML::Load($yaml) };
      if ($meta && $meta->{distfile}) {
          return $self->cpan_module($module, $meta->{distfile}, $meta->{version});
      }
  
      $self->diag_fail("Finding $module on cpanmetadb failed.");
      return;
  }
  
  sub search_cpanmetadb_history {
      my($self, $module, $version) = @_;
  
      (my $uri = $self->{cpanmetadb}) =~ s{/?$}{/history/$module};
      my $content = $self->get($uri) or return;
  
      my @found;
      for my $line (split /\r?\n/, $content) {
          if ($line =~ /^$module\s+(\S+)\s+(\S+)$/) {
              push @found, {
                  version => $1,
                  version_obj => version::->parse($1),
                  distfile => $2,
              };
          }
      }
  
      return unless @found;
  
      $found[-1]->{latest} = 1;
  
      my $match;
      for my $try (sort { $b->{version_obj} cmp $a->{version_obj} } @found) {
          if ($self->satisfy_version($module, $try->{version_obj}, $version)) {
              local $self->{mirrors} = $self->{mirrors};
              unshift @{$self->{mirrors}}, 'http://backpan.perl.org'
                unless $try->{latest};
              return $self->cpan_module($module, $try->{distfile}, $try->{version});
          }
      }
  
      $self->diag_fail("Finding $module ($version) on cpanmetadb failed.");
      return;
  }
  
  
  sub search_module {
      my($self, $module, $version) = @_;
  
      if ($self->{mirror_index}) {
          $self->mask_output( chat => "Searching $module on mirror index $self->{mirror_index} ...\n" );
          my $pkg = $self->search_mirror_index_file($self->{mirror_index}, $module, $version);
          return $pkg if $pkg;
  
          unless ($self->{cascade_search}) {
             $self->mask_output( diag_fail => "Finding $module ($version) on mirror index $self->{mirror_index} failed." );
             return;
          }
      }
  
      unless ($self->{mirror_only}) {
          my $found = $self->search_database($module, $version);
          return $found if $found;
      }
  
      MIRROR: for my $mirror (@{ $self->{mirrors} }) {
          $self->mask_output( chat => "Searching $module on mirror $mirror ...\n" );
          my $name = '02packages.details.txt.gz';
          my $uri  = "$mirror/modules/$name";
          my $gz_file = $self->package_index_for($mirror) . '.gz';
  
          unless ($self->{pkgs}{$uri}) {
              $self->mask_output( chat => "Downloading index file $uri ...\n" );
              $self->mirror($uri, $gz_file);
              $self->generate_mirror_index($mirror) or next MIRROR;
              $self->{pkgs}{$uri} = "!!retrieved!!";
          }
  
          my $pkg = $self->search_mirror_index($mirror, $module, $version);
          return $pkg if $pkg;
  
          $self->mask_output( diag_fail => "Finding $module ($version) on mirror $mirror failed." );
      }
  
      return;
  }
  
  sub source_for {
      my($self, $mirror) = @_;
      $mirror =~ s/[^\w\.\-]+/%/g;
  
      my $dir = "$self->{home}/sources/$mirror";
      File::Path::mkpath([ $dir ], 0, 0777);
  
      return $dir;
  }
  
  sub load_argv_from_fh {
      my($self, $fh) = @_;
  
      my @argv;
      while(defined(my $line = <$fh>)){
          chomp $line;
          $line =~ s/#.+$//; # comment
          $line =~ s/^\s+//; # trim spaces
          $line =~ s/\s+$//; # trim spaces
  
          push @argv, split ' ', $line if $line;
      }
      return @argv;
  }
  
  sub show_version {
      my $self = shift;
  
      print "cpanm (App::cpanminus) version $VERSION ($0)\n";
      print "perl version $] ($^X)\n\n";
  
      print "  \%Config:\n";
      for my $key (qw( archname installsitelib installsitebin installman1dir installman3dir
                       sitearchexp sitelibexp vendorarch vendorlibexp archlibexp privlibexp )) {
          print "    $key=$Config{$key}\n" if $Config{$key};
      }
  
      print "  \%ENV:\n";
      for my $key (grep /^PERL/, sort keys %ENV) {
          print "    $key=$ENV{$key}\n";
      }
  
      print "  \@INC:\n";
      for my $inc (@INC) {
          print "    $inc\n" unless ref($inc) eq 'CODE';
      }
  
      return 1;
  }
  
  sub show_help {
      my $self = shift;
  
      if ($_[0]) {
          print <<USAGE;
  Usage: cpanm [options] Module [...]
  
  Try `cpanm --help` or `man cpanm` for more options.
  USAGE
          return;
      }
  
      print <<HELP;
  Usage: cpanm [options] Module [...]
  
  Options:
    -v,--verbose              Turns on chatty output
    -q,--quiet                Turns off the most output
    --interactive             Turns on interactive configure (required for Task:: modules)
    -f,--force                force install
    -n,--notest               Do not run unit tests
    --test-only               Run tests only, do not install
    -S,--sudo                 sudo to run install commands
    --installdeps             Only install dependencies
    --showdeps                Only display direct dependencies
    --reinstall               Reinstall the distribution even if you already have the latest version installed
    --mirror                  Specify the base URL for the mirror (e.g. http://cpan.cpantesters.org/)
    --mirror-only             Use the mirror's index file instead of the CPAN Meta DB
    -M,--from                 Use only this mirror base URL and its index file
    --prompt                  Prompt when configure/build/test fails
    -l,--local-lib            Specify the install base to install modules
    -L,--local-lib-contained  Specify the install base to install all non-core modules
    --self-contained          Install all non-core modules, even if they're already installed.
    --auto-cleanup            Number of days that cpanm's work directories expire in. Defaults to 7
  
  Commands:
    --self-upgrade            upgrades itself
    --info                    Displays distribution info on CPAN
    --look                    Opens the distribution with your SHELL
    -U,--uninstall            Uninstalls the modules (EXPERIMENTAL)
    -V,--version              Displays software version
  
  Examples:
  
    cpanm Test::More                                          # install Test::More
    cpanm MIYAGAWA/Plack-0.99_05.tar.gz                       # full distribution path
    cpanm http://example.org/LDS/CGI.pm-3.20.tar.gz           # install from URL
    cpanm ~/dists/MyCompany-Enterprise-1.00.tar.gz            # install from a local file
    cpanm --interactive Task::Kensho                          # Configure interactively
    cpanm .                                                   # install from local directory
    cpanm --installdeps .                                     # install all the deps for the current directory
    cpanm -L extlib Plack                                     # install Plack and all non-core deps into extlib
    cpanm --mirror http://cpan.cpantesters.org/ DBI           # use the fast-syncing mirror
    cpanm -M https://cpan.metacpan.org App::perlbrew          # use only this secure mirror and its index
  
  You can also specify the default options in PERL_CPANM_OPT environment variable in the shell rc:
  
    export PERL_CPANM_OPT="--prompt --reinstall -l ~/perl --mirror http://cpan.cpantesters.org"
  
  Type `man cpanm` or `perldoc cpanm` for the more detailed explanation of the options.
  
  HELP
  
      return 1;
  }
  
  sub _writable {
      my $dir = shift;
      my @dir = File::Spec->splitdir($dir);
      while (@dir) {
          $dir = File::Spec->catdir(@dir);
          if (-e $dir) {
              return -w _;
          }
          pop @dir;
      }
  
      return;
  }
  
  sub maybe_abs {
      my($self, $lib) = @_;
      if ($lib eq '_' or $lib =~ /^~/ or File::Spec->file_name_is_absolute($lib)) {
          return $lib;
      } else {
          return File::Spec->canonpath(File::Spec->catdir(Cwd::cwd(), $lib));
      }
  }
  
  sub local_lib_target {
      my($self, $root) = @_;
      # local::lib 1.008025 changed the order of PERL_LOCAL_LIB_ROOT
      (grep { $_ ne '' } split /\Q$Config{path_sep}/, $root)[0];
  }
  
  sub bootstrap_local_lib {
      my $self = shift;
  
      # If -l is specified, use that.
      if ($self->{local_lib}) {
          return $self->setup_local_lib($self->{local_lib});
      }
  
      # PERL_LOCAL_LIB_ROOT is defined. Run as local::lib mode without overwriting ENV
      if ($ENV{PERL_LOCAL_LIB_ROOT} && $ENV{PERL_MM_OPT}) {
          return $self->setup_local_lib($self->local_lib_target($ENV{PERL_LOCAL_LIB_ROOT}), 1);
      }
  
      # root, locally-installed perl or --sudo: don't care about install_base
      return if $self->{sudo} or (_writable($Config{installsitelib}) and _writable($Config{installsitebin}));
  
      # local::lib is configured in the shell -- yay
      if ($ENV{PERL_MM_OPT} and ($ENV{MODULEBUILDRC} or $ENV{PERL_MB_OPT})) {
          return;
      }
  
      $self->setup_local_lib;
  
      $self->diag(<<DIAG, 1);
  !
  ! Can't write to $Config{installsitelib} and $Config{installsitebin}: Installing modules to $ENV{HOME}/perl5
  ! To turn off this warning, you have to do one of the following:
  !   - run me as a root or with --sudo option (to install to $Config{installsitelib} and $Config{installsitebin})
  !   - Configure local::lib in your existing shell to set PERL_MM_OPT etc.
  !   - Install local::lib by running the following commands
  !
  !         cpanm --local-lib=~/perl5 local::lib && eval \$(perl -I ~/perl5/lib/perl5/ -Mlocal::lib)
  !
  DIAG
      sleep 2;
  }
  
  sub upgrade_toolchain {
      my($self, $config_deps) = @_;
  
      my %deps = map { $_->module => $_ } @$config_deps;
  
      # M::B 0.38 and EUMM 6.58 for MYMETA
      # EU::Install 1.46 for local::lib
      my $reqs = CPAN::Meta::Requirements->from_string_hash({
          'Module::Build' => '0.38',
          'ExtUtils::MakeMaker' => '6.58',
          'ExtUtils::Install' => '1.46',
      });
  
      if ($deps{"ExtUtils::MakeMaker"}) {
          $deps{"ExtUtils::MakeMaker"}->merge_with($reqs);
      } elsif ($deps{"Module::Build"}) {
          $deps{"Module::Build"}->merge_with($reqs);
          $deps{"ExtUtils::Install"} ||= App::cpanminus::Dependency->new("ExtUtils::Install", 0, 'configure');
          $deps{"ExtUtils::Install"}->merge_with($reqs);
      }
  
      @$config_deps = values %deps;
  }
  
  sub _core_only_inc {
      my($self, $base) = @_;
      require local::lib;
      (
          local::lib->resolve_path(local::lib->install_base_arch_path($base)),
          local::lib->resolve_path(local::lib->install_base_perl_path($base)),
          (!$self->{exclude_vendor} ? grep {$_} @Config{qw(vendorarch vendorlibexp)} : ()),
          @Config{qw(archlibexp privlibexp)},
      );
  }
  
  sub _diff {
      my($self, $old, $new) = @_;
  
      my @diff;
      my %old = map { $_ => 1 } @$old;
      for my $n (@$new) {
          push @diff, $n unless exists $old{$n};
      }
  
      @diff;
  }
  
  sub _setup_local_lib_env {
      my($self, $base) = @_;
  
      $self->diag(<<WARN, 1) if $base =~ /\s/;
  WARNING: Your lib directory name ($base) contains a space in it. It's known to cause issues with perl builder tools such as local::lib and MakeMaker. You're recommended to rename your directory.
  WARN
  
      local $SIG{__WARN__} = sub { }; # catch 'Attempting to write ...'
      local::lib->setup_env_hash_for($base, 0);
  }
  
  sub setup_local_lib {
      my($self, $base, $no_env) = @_;
      $base = undef if $base eq '_';
  
      require local::lib;
      {
          local $0 = 'cpanm'; # so curl/wget | perl works
          $base ||= "~/perl5";
          $base = local::lib->resolve_path($base);
          if ($self->{self_contained}) {
              my @inc = $self->_core_only_inc($base);
              $self->{search_inc} = [ @inc ];
          } else {
              $self->{search_inc} = [
                  local::lib->install_base_arch_path($base),
                  local::lib->install_base_perl_path($base),
                  @INC,
              ];
          }
          $self->_setup_local_lib_env($base) unless $no_env;
          $self->{local_lib} = $base;
      }
  }
  
  sub prompt_bool {
      my($self, $mess, $def) = @_;
  
      my $val = $self->prompt($mess, $def);
      return lc $val eq 'y';
  }
  
  sub prompt {
      my($self, $mess, $def) = @_;
  
      my $isa_tty = -t STDIN && (-t STDOUT || !(-f STDOUT || -c STDOUT)) ;
      my $dispdef = defined $def ? "[$def] " : " ";
      $def = defined $def ? $def : "";
  
      if (!$self->{prompt} || (!$isa_tty && eof STDIN)) {
          return $def;
      }
  
      local $|=1;
      local $\;
      my $ans;
      eval {
          local $SIG{ALRM} = sub { undef $ans; die "alarm\n" };
          print STDOUT "$mess $dispdef";
          alarm $self->{prompt_timeout} if $self->{prompt_timeout};
          $ans = <STDIN>;
          alarm 0;
      };
      if ( defined $ans ) {
          chomp $ans;
      } else { # user hit ctrl-D or alarm timeout
          print STDOUT "\n";
      }
  
      return (!defined $ans || $ans eq '') ? $def : $ans;
  }
  
  sub diag_ok {
      my($self, $msg) = @_;
      chomp $msg;
      $msg ||= "OK";
      if ($self->{in_progress}) {
          $self->_diag("$msg\n");
          $self->{in_progress} = 0;
      }
      $self->log("-> $msg\n");
  }
  
  sub diag_fail {
      my($self, $msg, $always) = @_;
      chomp $msg;
      if ($self->{in_progress}) {
          $self->_diag("FAIL\n");
          $self->{in_progress} = 0;
      }
  
      if ($msg) {
          $self->_diag("! $msg\n", $always, 1);
          $self->log("-> FAIL $msg\n");
      }
  }
  
  sub diag_progress {
      my($self, $msg) = @_;
      chomp $msg;
      $self->{in_progress} = 1;
      $self->_diag("$msg ... ");
      $self->log("$msg\n");
  }
  
  sub _diag {
      my($self, $msg, $always, $error) = @_;
      my $fh = $error ? *STDERR : *STDOUT;
      print {$fh} $msg if $always or $self->{verbose} or !$self->{quiet};
  }
  
  sub diag {
      my($self, $msg, $always) = @_;
      $self->_diag($msg, $always);
      $self->log($msg);
  }
  
  sub chat {
      my $self = shift;
      print STDERR @_ if $self->{verbose};
      $self->log(@_);
  }
  
  sub mask_output {
      my $self = shift;
      my $method = shift;
      $self->$method( $self->mask_uri_passwords(@_) );
  }
  
  sub log {
      my $self = shift;
      open my $out, ">>$self->{log}";
      print $out @_;
  }
  
  sub run {
      my($self, $cmd) = @_;
  
      if (WIN32) {
          $cmd = $self->shell_quote(@$cmd) if ref $cmd eq 'ARRAY';
          unless ($self->{verbose}) {
              $cmd .= " >> " . $self->shell_quote($self->{log}) . " 2>&1";
          }
          !system $cmd;
      } else {
          my $pid = fork;
          if ($pid) {
              waitpid $pid, 0;
              return !$?;
          } else {
              $self->run_exec($cmd);
          }
      }
  }
  
  sub run_exec {
      my($self, $cmd) = @_;
  
      if (ref $cmd eq 'ARRAY') {
          unless ($self->{verbose}) {
              open my $logfh, ">>", $self->{log};
              open STDERR, '>&', $logfh;
              open STDOUT, '>&', $logfh;
              close $logfh;
          }
          exec @$cmd;
      } else {
          unless ($self->{verbose}) {
              $cmd .= " >> " . $self->shell_quote($self->{log}) . " 2>&1";
          }
          exec $cmd;
      }
  }
  
  sub run_timeout {
      my($self, $cmd, $timeout) = @_;
      return $self->run($cmd) if WIN32 || $self->{verbose} || !$timeout;
  
      my $pid = fork;
      if ($pid) {
          eval {
              local $SIG{ALRM} = sub { die "alarm\n" };
              alarm $timeout;
              waitpid $pid, 0;
              alarm 0;
          };
          if ($@ && $@ eq "alarm\n") {
              $self->diag_fail("Timed out (> ${timeout}s). Use --verbose to retry.");
              local $SIG{TERM} = 'IGNORE';
              kill TERM => 0;
              waitpid $pid, 0;
              return;
          }
          return !$?;
      } elsif ($pid == 0) {
          $self->run_exec($cmd);
      } else {
          $self->chat("! fork failed: falling back to system()\n");
          $self->run($cmd);
      }
  }
  
  sub append_args {
      my($self, $cmd, $phase) = @_;
  
      if (my $args = $self->{build_args}{$phase}) {
          $cmd = join ' ', $self->shell_quote(@$cmd), $args;
      }
  
      $cmd;
  }
  
  sub configure {
      my($self, $cmd, $depth) = @_;
  
      # trick AutoInstall
      local $ENV{PERL5_CPAN_IS_RUNNING} = local $ENV{PERL5_CPANPLUS_IS_RUNNING} = $$;
  
      # e.g. skip CPAN configuration on local::lib
      local $ENV{PERL5_CPANM_IS_RUNNING} = $$;
  
      my $use_default = !$self->{interactive};
      local $ENV{PERL_MM_USE_DEFAULT} = $use_default;
  
      local $ENV{PERL_MM_OPT} = $ENV{PERL_MM_OPT};
      local $ENV{PERL_MB_OPT} = $ENV{PERL_MB_OPT};
  
      # skip man page generation
      unless ($self->{pod2man}) {
          $ENV{PERL_MM_OPT} .= " INSTALLMAN1DIR=none INSTALLMAN3DIR=none";
          $ENV{PERL_MB_OPT} .= " --config installman1dir= --config installsiteman1dir= --config installman3dir= --config installsiteman3dir=";
      }
  
      # Lancaster Consensus
      if ($self->{pure_perl}) {
          $ENV{PERL_MM_OPT} .= " PUREPERL_ONLY=1";
          $ENV{PERL_MB_OPT} .= " --pureperl-only";
      }
  
      local $ENV{PERL_USE_UNSAFE_INC} = 1
          unless exists $ENV{PERL_USE_UNSAFE_INC};
  
      $cmd = $self->append_args($cmd, 'configure') if $depth == 0;
  
      local $self->{verbose} = $self->{verbose} || $self->{interactive};
      $self->run_timeout($cmd, $self->{configure_timeout});
  }
  
  sub build {
      my($self, $cmd, $distname, $depth) = @_;
  
      local $ENV{PERL_MM_USE_DEFAULT} = !$self->{interactive};
  
      local $ENV{PERL_USE_UNSAFE_INC} = 1
          unless exists $ENV{PERL_USE_UNSAFE_INC};
  
      $cmd = $self->append_args($cmd, 'build') if $depth == 0;
  
      return 1 if $self->run_timeout($cmd, $self->{build_timeout});
      while (1) {
          my $ans = lc $self->prompt("Building $distname failed.\nYou can s)kip, r)etry, e)xamine build log, or l)ook ?", "s");
          return                                       if $ans eq 's';
          return $self->build($cmd, $distname, $depth) if $ans eq 'r';
          $self->show_build_log                        if $ans eq 'e';
          $self->look                                  if $ans eq 'l';
      }
  }
  
  sub test {
      my($self, $cmd, $distname, $depth) = @_;
      return 1 if $self->{notest};
  
      # https://rt.cpan.org/Ticket/Display.html?id=48965#txn-1013385
      local $ENV{PERL_MM_USE_DEFAULT} = !$self->{interactive};
  
      # https://github.com/Perl-Toolchain-Gang/toolchain-site/blob/master/lancaster-consensus.md
      local $ENV{NONINTERACTIVE_TESTING} = !$self->{interactive};
  
      $cmd = $self->append_args($cmd, 'test') if $depth == 0;
  
      local $ENV{PERL_USE_UNSAFE_INC} = 1
          unless exists $ENV{PERL_USE_UNSAFE_INC};
  
      return 1 if $self->run_timeout($cmd, $self->{test_timeout});
      if ($self->{force}) {
          $self->diag_fail("Testing $distname failed but installing it anyway.");
          return 1;
      } else {
          $self->diag_fail;
          while (1) {
              my $ans = lc $self->prompt("Testing $distname failed.\nYou can s)kip, r)etry, f)orce install, e)xamine build log, or l)ook ?", "s");
              return                                      if $ans eq 's';
              return $self->test($cmd, $distname, $depth) if $ans eq 'r';
              return 1                                    if $ans eq 'f';
              $self->show_build_log                       if $ans eq 'e';
              $self->look                                 if $ans eq 'l';
          }
      }
  }
  
  sub install {
      my($self, $cmd, $uninst_opts, $depth) = @_;
  
      if ($depth == 0 && $self->{test_only}) {
          return 1;
      }
  
      local $ENV{PERL_USE_UNSAFE_INC} = 1
          unless exists $ENV{PERL_USE_UNSAFE_INC};
  
      if ($self->{sudo}) {
          unshift @$cmd, "sudo";
      }
  
      if ($self->{uninstall_shadows} && !$ENV{PERL_MM_OPT}) {
          push @$cmd, @$uninst_opts;
      }
  
      $cmd = $self->append_args($cmd, 'install') if $depth == 0;
  
      $self->run($cmd);
  }
  
  sub look {
      my $self = shift;
  
      my $shell = $ENV{SHELL};
      $shell  ||= $ENV{COMSPEC} if WIN32;
      if ($shell) {
          my $cwd = Cwd::cwd;
          $self->diag("Entering $cwd with $shell\n");
          system $shell;
      } else {
          $self->diag_fail("You don't seem to have a SHELL :/");
      }
  }
  
  sub show_build_log {
      my $self = shift;
  
      my @pagers = (
          $ENV{PAGER},
          (WIN32 ? () : ('less')),
          'more'
      );
      my $pager;
      while (@pagers) {
          $pager = shift @pagers;
          next unless $pager;
          $pager = $self->which($pager);
          next unless $pager;
          last;
      }
  
      if ($pager) {
          # win32 'more' doesn't allow "more build.log", the < is required
          system("$pager < $self->{log}");
      }
      else {
          $self->diag_fail("You don't seem to have a PAGER :/");
      }
  }
  
  sub chdir {
      my $self = shift;
      Cwd::chdir(File::Spec->canonpath($_[0])) or die "$_[0]: $!";
  }
  
  sub configure_mirrors {
      my $self = shift;
      unless (@{$self->{mirrors}}) {
          $self->{mirrors} = [ 'http://www.cpan.org' ];
      }
      for (@{$self->{mirrors}}) {
          s!^/!file:///!;
          s!/$!!;
      }
  }
  
  sub self_upgrade {
      my $self = shift;
      $self->check_upgrade;
      $self->{argv} = [ 'App::cpanminus' ];
      return; # continue
  }
  
  sub install_module {
      my($self, $module, $depth, $version) = @_;
  
      $self->check_libs;
  
      if ($self->{seen}{$module}++) {
          # TODO: circular dependencies
          $self->chat("Already tried $module. Skipping.\n");
          return 1;
      }
  
      if ($self->{skip_satisfied}) {
          my($ok, $local) = $self->check_module($module, $version || 0);
          if ($ok) {
              $self->diag("You have $module ($local)\n", 1);
              return 1;
          }
      }
  
      my $dist = $self->resolve_name($module, $version);
      unless ($dist) {
          my $what = $module . ($version ? " ($version)" : "");
          $self->diag_fail("Couldn't find module or a distribution $what", 1);
          return;
      }
  
      if ($dist->{distvname} && $self->{seen}{$dist->{distvname}}++) {
          $self->chat("Already tried $dist->{distvname}. Skipping.\n");
          return 1;
      }
  
      if ($self->{cmd} eq 'info') {
          print $self->format_dist($dist), "\n";
          return 1;
      }
  
      $dist->{depth} = $depth; # ugly hack
  
      if ($dist->{module}) {
          unless ($self->satisfy_version($dist->{module}, $dist->{module_version}, $version)) {
              $self->diag("Found $dist->{module} $dist->{module_version} which doesn't satisfy $version.\n", 1);
              return;
          }
  
          # If a version is requested, it has to be the exact same version, otherwise, check as if
          # it is the minimum version you need.
          my $cmp = $version ? "==" : "";
          my $requirement = $dist->{module_version} ? "$cmp$dist->{module_version}" : 0;
          my($ok, $local) = $self->check_module($dist->{module}, $requirement);
          if ($self->{skip_installed} && $ok) {
              $self->diag("$dist->{module} is up to date. ($local)\n", 1);
              return 1;
          }
      }
  
      if ($dist->{dist} eq 'perl'){
          $self->diag("skipping $dist->{pathname}\n");
          return 1;
      }
  
      $self->diag("--> Working on $module\n");
  
      $dist->{dir} ||= $self->fetch_module($dist);
  
      unless ($dist->{dir}) {
          $self->diag_fail("Failed to fetch distribution $dist->{distvname}", 1);
          return;
      }
  
      $self->chat("Entering $dist->{dir}\n");
      $self->chdir($self->{base});
      $self->chdir($dist->{dir});
  
      if ($self->{cmd} eq 'look') {
          $self->look;
          return 1;
      }
  
      return $self->build_stuff($module, $dist, $depth);
  }
  
  sub uninstall_search_path {
      my $self = shift;
  
      $self->{local_lib}
          ? (local::lib->install_base_arch_path($self->{local_lib}),
             local::lib->install_base_perl_path($self->{local_lib}))
          : @Config{qw(installsitearch installsitelib)};
  }
  
  sub uninstall_module {
      my ($self, $module) = @_;
  
      $self->check_libs;
  
      my @inc = $self->uninstall_search_path;
  
      my($metadata, $packlist) = $self->packlists_containing($module, \@inc);
      unless ($packlist) {
          $self->diag_fail(<<DIAG, 1);
  $module is not found in the following directories and can't be uninstalled.
  
  @{[ join("  \n", map "  $_", @inc) ]}
  
  DIAG
          return;
      }
  
      my @uninst_files = $self->uninstall_target($metadata, $packlist);
  
      $self->ask_permission($module, \@uninst_files) or return;
      $self->uninstall_files(@uninst_files, $packlist);
  
      $self->diag("Successfully uninstalled $module\n", 1);
  
      return 1;
  }
  
  sub packlists_containing {
      my($self, $module, $inc) = @_;
  
      require Module::Metadata;
      my $metadata = Module::Metadata->new_from_module($module, inc => $inc)
          or return;
  
      my $packlist;
      my $wanted = sub {
          return unless $_ eq '.packlist' && -f $_;
          for my $file ($self->unpack_packlist($File::Find::name)) {
              $packlist ||= $File::Find::name if $file eq $metadata->filename;
          }
      };
  
      {
          require File::pushd;
          my $pushd = File::pushd::pushd();
          my @search = grep -d $_, map File::Spec->catdir($_, 'auto'), @$inc;
          File::Find::find($wanted, @search);
      }
  
      return $metadata, $packlist;
  }
  
  sub uninstall_target {
      my($self, $metadata, $packlist) = @_;
  
      # If the module has a shadow install, or uses local::lib, then you can't just remove
      # all files in .packlist since it might have shadows in there
      if ($self->has_shadow_install($metadata) or $self->{local_lib}) {
          grep $self->should_unlink($_), $self->unpack_packlist($packlist);
      } else {
          $self->unpack_packlist($packlist);
      }
  }
  
  sub has_shadow_install {
      my($self, $metadata) = @_;
  
      # check if you have the module in site_perl *and* perl
      my @shadow = grep defined, map Module::Metadata->new_from_module($metadata->name, inc => [$_]), @INC;
      @shadow >= 2;
  }
  
  sub should_unlink {
      my($self, $file) = @_;
  
      # If local::lib is used, everything under the directory can be safely removed
      # Otherwise, bin and man files might be shared with the shadows i.e. site_perl vs perl
      # This is not 100% safe to keep the script there hoping to work with older version of .pm
      # files in the shadow, but there's nothing you can do about it.
      if ($self->{local_lib}) {
          $file =~ /^\Q$self->{local_lib}\E/;
      } else {
          !(grep $file =~ /^\Q$_\E/, @Config{qw(installbin installscript installman1dir installman3dir)});
      }
  }
  
  sub ask_permission {
      my ($self, $module, $files) = @_;
  
      $self->diag("$module contains the following files:\n\n");
      for my $file (@$files) {
          $self->diag("  $file\n");
      }
      $self->diag("\n");
  
      return 'force uninstall' if $self->{force};
      local $self->{prompt} = 1;
      return $self->prompt_bool("Are you sure you want to uninstall $module?", 'y');
  }
  
  sub unpack_packlist {
      my ($self, $packlist) = @_;
      open my $fh, '<', $packlist or die "$packlist: $!";
      map { chomp; $_ } <$fh>;
  }
  
  sub uninstall_files {
      my ($self, @files) = @_;
  
      $self->diag("\n");
  
      for my $file (@files) {
          $self->diag("Unlink: $file\n");
          unlink $file or $self->diag_fail("$!: $file");
      }
  
      $self->diag("\n");
  
      return 1;
  }
  
  sub format_dist {
      my($self, $dist) = @_;
  
      # TODO support --dist-format?
      return "$dist->{cpanid}/$dist->{filename}";
  }
  
  sub trim {
      local $_ = shift;
      tr/\n/ /d;
      s/^\s*|\s*$//g;
      $_;
  }
  
  sub fetch_module {
      my($self, $dist) = @_;
  
      $self->chdir($self->{base});
  
      for my $uri (@{$dist->{uris}}) {
          $self->mask_output( diag_progress => "Fetching $uri" );
  
          # Ugh, $dist->{filename} can contain sub directory
          my $filename = $dist->{filename} || $uri;
          my $name = File::Basename::basename($filename);
  
          my $cancelled;
          my $fetch = sub {
              my $file;
              eval {
                  local $SIG{INT} = sub { $cancelled = 1; die "SIGINT\n" };
                  $self->mirror($uri, $name);
                  $file = $name if -e $name;
              };
              $self->diag("ERROR: " . trim("$@") . "\n", 1) if $@ && $@ ne "SIGINT\n";
              return $file;
          };
  
          my($try, $file);
          while ($try++ < 3) {
              $file = $fetch->();
              last if $cancelled or $file;
              $self->mask_output( diag_fail => "Download $uri failed. Retrying ... ");
          }
  
          if ($cancelled) {
              $self->diag_fail("Download cancelled.");
              return;
          }
  
          unless ($file) {
              $self->mask_output( diag_fail => "Failed to download $uri");
              next;
          }
  
          $self->diag_ok;
          $dist->{local_path} = File::Spec->rel2abs($name);
  
          my $dir = $self->unpack($file, $uri, $dist);
          next unless $dir; # unpack failed
  
          if (my $save = $self->{save_dists}) {
              # Only distros retrieved from CPAN have a pathname set
              my $path = $dist->{pathname} ? "$save/authors/id/$dist->{pathname}"
                                           : "$save/vendor/$file";
              $self->chat("Copying $name to $path\n");
              File::Path::mkpath([ File::Basename::dirname($path) ], 0, 0777);
              File::Copy::copy($file, $path) or warn $!;
          }
  
          return $dist, $dir;
      }
  }
  
  sub unpack {
      my($self, $file, $uri, $dist) = @_;
  
      if ($self->{verify}) {
          $self->verify_archive($file, $uri, $dist) or return;
      }
  
      $self->chat("Unpacking $file\n");
      my $dir = $file =~ /\.zip/i ? $self->unzip($file) : $self->untar($file);
      unless ($dir) {
          $self->diag_fail("Failed to unpack $file: no directory");
      }
      return $dir;
  }
  
  sub verify_archive {
      my($self, $file, $uri, $dist) = @_;
  
      unless ($dist->{cpanid}) {
          $self->chat("Archive '$file' does not seem to be from PAUSE. Skip verification.\n");
          return 1;
      }
  
      (my $mirror = $uri) =~ s!/authors/id.*$!!;
  
      (my $chksum_uri = $uri) =~ s!/[^/]*$!/CHECKSUMS!;
      my $chk_file = $self->source_for($mirror) . "/$dist->{cpanid}.CHECKSUMS";
      $self->mask_output( diag_progress => "Fetching $chksum_uri" );
      $self->mirror($chksum_uri, $chk_file);
  
      unless (-e $chk_file) {
          $self->diag_fail("Fetching $chksum_uri failed.\n");
          return;
      }
  
      $self->diag_ok;
      $self->verify_checksum($file, $chk_file);
  }
  
  sub verify_checksum {
      my($self, $file, $chk_file) = @_;
  
      $self->chat("Verifying the SHA1 for $file\n");
  
      open my $fh, "<$chk_file" or die "$chk_file: $!";
      my $data = join '', <$fh>;
      $data =~ s/\015?\012/\n/g;
  
      require Safe; # no fatpack
      my $chksum = Safe->new->reval($data);
  
      if (!ref $chksum or ref $chksum ne 'HASH') {
          $self->diag_fail("! Checksum file downloaded from $chk_file is broken.\n");
          return;
      }
  
      if (my $sha = $chksum->{$file}{sha256}) {
          my $hex = $self->sha1_for($file);
          if ($hex eq $sha) {
              $self->chat("Checksum for $file: Verified!\n");
          } else {
              $self->diag_fail("Checksum mismatch for $file\n");
              return;
          }
      } else {
          $self->chat("Checksum for $file not found in CHECKSUMS.\n");
          return;
      }
  }
  
  sub sha1_for {
      my($self, $file) = @_;
  
      require Digest::SHA; # no fatpack
  
      open my $fh, "<", $file or die "$file: $!";
      my $dg = Digest::SHA->new(256);
      my($data);
      while (read($fh, $data, 4096)) {
          $dg->add($data);
      }
  
      return $dg->hexdigest;
  }
  
  sub verify_signature {
      my($self, $dist) = @_;
  
      $self->diag_progress("Verifying the SIGNATURE file");
      my $out = `$self->{cpansign} -v --skip 2>&1`;
      $self->log($out);
  
      if ($out =~ /Signature verified OK/) {
          $self->diag_ok("Verified OK");
          return 1;
      } else {
          $self->diag_fail("SIGNATURE verification for $dist->{filename} failed\n");
          return;
      }
  }
  
  sub resolve_name {
      my($self, $module, $version) = @_;
  
      # Git
      if ($module =~ /(?:^git:|\.git(?:@.+)?$)/) {
          return $self->git_uri($module);
      }
  
      # URL
      if ($module =~ /^(ftp|https?|file):/) {
          if ($module =~ m!authors/id/(.*)!) {
              return $self->cpan_dist($1, $module);
          } else {
              return { uris => [ $module ] };
          }
      }
  
      # Directory
      if ($module =~ m!^[\./]! && -d $module) {
          return {
              source => 'local',
              dir => Cwd::abs_path($module),
          };
      }
  
      # File
      if (-f $module) {
          return {
              source => 'local',
              uris => [ "file://" . Cwd::abs_path($module) ],
          };
      }
  
      # cpan URI
      if ($module =~ s!^cpan:///distfile/!!) {
          return $self->cpan_dist($module);
      }
  
      # PAUSEID/foo
      # P/PA/PAUSEID/foo
      if ($module =~ m!^(?:[A-Z]/[A-Z]{2}/)?([A-Z]{2}[\-A-Z0-9]*/.*)$!) {
          return $self->cpan_dist($1);
      }
  
      # Module name
      return $self->search_module($module, $version);
  }
  
  sub cpan_module {
      my($self, $module, $dist_file, $version) = @_;
  
      my $dist = $self->cpan_dist($dist_file);
      $dist->{module} = $module;
      $dist->{module_version} = $version if $version && $version ne 'undef';
  
      return $dist;
  }
  
  sub cpan_dist {
      my($self, $dist, $url) = @_;
  
      $dist =~ s!^([A-Z]{2})!substr($1,0,1)."/".substr($1,0,2)."/".$1!e;
  
      require CPAN::DistnameInfo;
      my $d = CPAN::DistnameInfo->new($dist);
  
      if ($url) {
          $url = [ $url ] unless ref $url eq 'ARRAY';
      } else {
          my $id = $d->cpanid;
          my $fn = substr($id, 0, 1) . "/" . substr($id, 0, 2) . "/" . $id . "/" . $d->filename;
  
          my @mirrors = @{$self->{mirrors}};
          my @urls    = map "$_/authors/id/$fn", @mirrors;
  
          $url = \@urls,
      }
  
      return {
          $d->properties,
          source  => 'cpan',
          uris    => $url,
      };
  }
  
  sub git_uri {
      my ($self, $uri) = @_;
  
      # similar to http://www.pip-installer.org/en/latest/logic.html#vcs-support
      # git URL has to end with .git when you need to use pin @ commit/tag/branch
  
      ($uri, my $commitish) = split /(?<=\.git)@/i, $uri, 2;
  
      my $dir = File::Temp::tempdir(CLEANUP => 1);
  
      $self->mask_output( diag_progress => "Cloning $uri" );
      $self->run([ 'git', 'clone', $uri, $dir ]);
  
      unless (-e "$dir/.git") {
          $self->diag_fail("Failed cloning git repository $uri", 1);
          return;
      }
  
      if ($commitish) {
          require File::pushd;
          my $dir = File::pushd::pushd($dir);
  
          unless ($self->run([ 'git', 'checkout', $commitish ])) {
              $self->diag_fail("Failed to checkout '$commitish' in git repository $uri\n");
              return;
          }
      }
  
      $self->diag_ok;
  
      return {
          source => 'local',
          dir    => $dir,
      };
  }
  
  sub setup_module_build_patch {
      my $self = shift;
  
      open my $out, ">$self->{base}/ModuleBuildSkipMan.pm" or die $!;
      print $out <<EOF;
  package ModuleBuildSkipMan;
  CHECK {
    if (%Module::Build::) {
      no warnings 'redefine';
      *Module::Build::Base::ACTION_manpages = sub {};
      *Module::Build::Base::ACTION_docs     = sub {};
    }
  }
  1;
  EOF
  }
  
  sub core_version_for {
      my($self, $module) = @_;
  
      require Module::CoreList; # no fatpack
      unless (exists $Module::CoreList::version{$]+0}) {
          die sprintf("Module::CoreList %s (loaded from %s) doesn't seem to have entries for perl $]. " .
                      "You're strongly recommended to upgrade Module::CoreList from CPAN.\n",
                      $Module::CoreList::VERSION, $INC{"Module/CoreList.pm"});
      }
  
      unless (exists $Module::CoreList::version{$]+0}{$module}) {
          return -1;
      }
  
      return $Module::CoreList::version{$]+0}{$module};
  }
  
  sub search_inc {
      my $self = shift;
      $self->{search_inc} ||= do {
          # strip lib/ and fatlib/ from search path when booted from dev
          if (defined $::Bin) {
              [grep !/^\Q$::Bin\E\/..\/(?:fat)?lib$/, @INC]
          } else {
              [@INC]
          }
      };
  }
  
  sub check_module {
      my($self, $mod, $want_ver) = @_;
  
      require Module::Metadata;
      my $meta = Module::Metadata->new_from_module($mod, inc => $self->search_inc)
          or return 0, undef;
  
      my $version = $meta->version;
  
      # When -L is in use, the version loaded from 'perl' library path
      # might be newer than (or actually wasn't core at) the version
      # that is shipped with the current perl
      if ($self->{self_contained} && $self->loaded_from_perl_lib($meta)) {
          $version = $self->core_version_for($mod);
          return 0, undef if $version && $version == -1;
      }
  
      $self->{local_versions}{$mod} = $version;
  
      if ($self->is_deprecated($meta)){
          return 0, $version;
      } elsif ($self->satisfy_version($mod, $version, $want_ver)) {
          return 1, ($version || 'undef');
      } else {
          return 0, $version;
      }
  }
  
  sub satisfy_version {
      my($self, $mod, $version, $want_ver) = @_;
  
      $want_ver = '0' unless defined($want_ver) && length($want_ver);
  
      require CPAN::Meta::Requirements;
      my $requirements = CPAN::Meta::Requirements->new;
      $requirements->add_string_requirement($mod, $want_ver);
      $requirements->accepts_module($mod, $version);
  }
  
  sub unsatisfy_how {
      my($self, $ver, $want_ver) = @_;
  
      if ($want_ver =~ /^[v0-9\.\_]+$/) {
          return "$ver < $want_ver";
      } else {
          return "$ver doesn't satisfy $want_ver";
      }
  }
  
  sub is_deprecated {
      my($self, $meta) = @_;
  
      my $deprecated = eval {
          require Module::CoreList; # no fatpack
          Module::CoreList::is_deprecated($meta->{module});
      };
  
      return $deprecated && $self->loaded_from_perl_lib($meta);
  }
  
  sub loaded_from_perl_lib {
      my($self, $meta) = @_;
  
      require Config;
      my @dirs = qw(archlibexp privlibexp);
      if ($self->{self_contained} && ! $self->{exclude_vendor} && $Config{vendorarch}) {
          unshift @dirs, qw(vendorarch vendorlibexp);
      }
      for my $dir (@dirs) {
          my $confdir = $Config{$dir};
          if ($confdir eq substr($meta->filename, 0, length($confdir))) {
              return 1;
          }
      }
  
      return;
  }
  
  sub should_install {
      my($self, $mod, $ver) = @_;
  
      $self->chat("Checking if you have $mod $ver ... ");
      my($ok, $local) = $self->check_module($mod, $ver);
  
      if ($ok)       { $self->chat("Yes ($local)\n") }
      elsif ($local) { $self->chat("No (" . $self->unsatisfy_how($local, $ver) . ")\n") }
      else           { $self->chat("No\n") }
  
      return $mod unless $ok;
      return;
  }
  
  sub check_perl_version {
      my($self, $version) = @_;
      require CPAN::Meta::Requirements;
      my $req = CPAN::Meta::Requirements->from_string_hash({ perl => $version });
      $req->accepts_module(perl => $]);
  }
  
  sub install_deps {
      my($self, $dir, $depth, @deps) = @_;
  
      my(@install, %seen, @fail);
      for my $dep (@deps) {
          next if $seen{$dep->module};
          if ($dep->module eq 'perl') {
              if ($dep->is_requirement && !$self->check_perl_version($dep->version)) {
                  $self->diag("Needs perl @{[$dep->version]}, you have $]\n");
                  push @fail, 'perl';
              }
          } elsif ($self->should_install($dep->module, $dep->version)) {
              push @install, $dep;
              $seen{$dep->module} = 1;
          }
      }
  
      if (@install) {
          $self->diag("==> Found dependencies: " . join(", ",  map $_->module, @install) . "\n");
      }
  
      for my $dep (@install) {
          $self->install_module($dep->module, $depth + 1, $dep->version);
      }
  
      $self->chdir($self->{base});
      $self->chdir($dir) if $dir;
  
      if ($self->{scandeps}) {
          return 1; # Don't check if dependencies are installed, since with --scandeps they aren't
      }
      my @not_ok = $self->unsatisfied_deps(@deps);
      if (@not_ok) {
          return 0, \@not_ok;
      } else {
          return 1;
      }
  }
  
  sub unsatisfied_deps {
      my($self, @deps) = @_;
  
      require CPAN::Meta::Check;
      require CPAN::Meta::Requirements;
  
      my $reqs = CPAN::Meta::Requirements->new;
      for my $dep (grep $_->is_requirement, @deps) {
          $reqs->add_string_requirement($dep->module => $dep->requires_version || '0');
      }
  
      my $ret = CPAN::Meta::Check::check_requirements($reqs, 'requires', $self->{search_inc});
      grep defined, values %$ret;
  }
  
  sub install_deps_bailout {
      my($self, $target, $dir, $depth, @deps) = @_;
  
      my($ok, $fail) = $self->install_deps($dir, $depth, @deps);
      if (!$ok) {
          $self->diag_fail("Installing the dependencies failed: " . join(", ", @$fail), 1);
          unless ($self->prompt_bool("Do you want to continue building $target anyway?", "n")) {
              $self->diag_fail("Bailing out the installation for $target.", 1);
              return;
          }
      }
  
      return 1;
  }
  
  sub build_stuff {
      my($self, $stuff, $dist, $depth) = @_;
  
      if ($self->{verify} && -e 'SIGNATURE') {
          $self->verify_signature($dist) or return;
      }
  
      require CPAN::Meta;
  
      my($meta_file) = grep -f, qw(META.json META.yml);
      if ($meta_file) {
          $self->chat("Checking configure dependencies from $meta_file\n");
          $dist->{cpanmeta} = eval { CPAN::Meta->load_file($meta_file) };
      } elsif ($dist->{dist} && $dist->{version}) {
          $self->chat("META.yml/json not found. Creating skeleton for it.\n");
          $dist->{cpanmeta} = CPAN::Meta->new({ name => $dist->{dist}, version => $dist->{version} });
      }
  
      $dist->{meta} = $dist->{cpanmeta} ? $dist->{cpanmeta}->as_struct : {};
  
      my @config_deps;
  
      if ($dist->{cpanmeta}) {
          push @config_deps, App::cpanminus::Dependency->from_prereqs(
              $dist->{cpanmeta}->effective_prereqs, ['configure'], $self->{install_types},
          );
      }
  
      if (-e 'Build.PL' && !$self->should_use_mm($dist->{dist}) && !@config_deps) {
          push @config_deps, App::cpanminus::Dependency->from_versions(
              { 'Module::Build' => '0.38' }, 'configure',
          );
      }
  
      $self->merge_with_cpanfile($dist, \@config_deps);
  
      $self->upgrade_toolchain(\@config_deps);
  
      my $target = $dist->{meta}{name} ? "$dist->{meta}{name}-$dist->{meta}{version}" : $dist->{dir};
      {
          $self->install_deps_bailout($target, $dist->{dir}, $depth, @config_deps)
            or return;
      }
  
      $self->diag_progress("Configuring $target");
  
      my $configure_state = $self->configure_this($dist, $depth);
      $self->diag_ok($configure_state->{configured_ok} ? "OK" : "N/A");
  
      if ($dist->{cpanmeta} && $dist->{source} eq 'cpan') {
          $dist->{provides} = $dist->{cpanmeta}{provides} || $self->extract_packages($dist->{cpanmeta}, ".");
      }
  
      # install direct 'test' dependencies for --installdeps, even with --notest
      my $root_target = (($self->{installdeps} or $self->{showdeps}) and $depth == 0);
      $dist->{want_phases} = $self->{notest} && !$root_target
                           ? [qw( build runtime )] : [qw( build test runtime )];
  
      push @{$dist->{want_phases}}, 'develop' if $self->{with_develop} && $depth == 0;
      push @{$dist->{want_phases}}, 'configure' if $self->{with_configure} && $depth == 0;
  
      my @deps = $self->find_prereqs($dist);
      my $module_name = $self->find_module_name($configure_state) || $dist->{meta}{name};
      $module_name =~ s/-/::/g;
  
      if ($self->{showdeps}) {
          for my $dep (@config_deps, @deps) {
              print $dep->module, ($dep->version ? ("~".$dep->version) : ""), "\n";
          }
          return 1;
      }
  
      my $distname = $dist->{meta}{name} ? "$dist->{meta}{name}-$dist->{meta}{version}" : $stuff;
  
      my $walkup;
      if ($self->{scandeps}) {
          $walkup = $self->scandeps_append_child($dist);
      }
  
      $self->install_deps_bailout($distname, $dist->{dir}, $depth, @deps)
          or return;
  
      if ($self->{scandeps}) {
          unless ($configure_state->{configured_ok}) {
              my $diag = <<DIAG;
  ! Configuring $distname failed. See $self->{log} for details.
  ! You might have to install the following modules first to get --scandeps working correctly.
  DIAG
              if (@config_deps) {
                  my @tree = @{$self->{scandeps_tree}};
                  $diag .= "!\n" . join("", map "! * $_->[0]{module}\n", @tree[0..$#tree-1]) if @tree;
              }
              $self->diag("!\n$diag!\n", 1);
          }
          $walkup->();
          return 1;
      }
  
      if ($self->{installdeps} && $depth == 0) {
          if ($configure_state->{configured_ok}) {
              $self->diag("<== Installed dependencies for $stuff. Finishing.\n");
              return 1;
          } else {
              $self->diag("! Configuring $distname failed. See $self->{log} for details.\n", 1);
              return;
          }
      }
  
      my $installed;
      if ($configure_state->{use_module_build} && -e 'Build' && -f _) {
          $self->diag_progress("Building " . ($self->{notest} ? "" : "and testing ") . $distname);
          $self->build([ $self->{perl}, "./Build" ], $distname, $depth) &&
          $self->test([ $self->{perl}, "./Build", "test" ], $distname, $depth) &&
          $self->install([ $self->{perl}, "./Build", "install" ], [ "--uninst", 1 ], $depth) &&
          $installed++;
      } elsif ($self->{make} && -e 'Makefile') {
          $self->diag_progress("Building " . ($self->{notest} ? "" : "and testing ") . $distname);
          $self->build([ $self->{make} ], $distname, $depth) &&
          $self->test([ $self->{make}, "test" ], $distname, $depth) &&
          $self->install([ $self->{make}, "install" ], [ "UNINST=1" ], $depth) &&
          $installed++;
      } else {
          my $why;
          my $configure_failed = $configure_state->{configured} && !$configure_state->{configured_ok};
          if ($configure_failed) { $why = "Configure failed for $distname." }
          elsif ($self->{make})  { $why = "The distribution doesn't have a proper Makefile.PL/Build.PL" }
          else                   { $why = "Can't configure the distribution. You probably need to have 'make'." }
  
          $self->diag_fail("$why See $self->{log} for details.", 1);
          return;
      }
  
      if ($installed && $self->{test_only}) {
          $self->diag_ok;
          $self->diag("Successfully tested $distname\n", 1);
      } elsif ($installed) {
          my $local   = $self->{local_versions}{$dist->{module} || ''};
          my $version = $dist->{module_version} || $dist->{meta}{version} || $dist->{version};
          my $reinstall = $local && ($local eq $version);
          my $action  = $local && !$reinstall
                      ? $self->numify_ver($version) < $self->numify_ver($local)
                          ? "downgraded"
                          : "upgraded"
                      : undef;
  
          my $how = $reinstall ? "reinstalled $distname"
                  : $local     ? "installed $distname ($action from $local)"
                               : "installed $distname" ;
          my $msg = "Successfully $how";
          $self->diag_ok;
          $self->diag("$msg\n", 1);
          $self->{installed_dists}++;
          $self->save_meta($stuff, $dist, $module_name, \@config_deps, \@deps);
          return 1;
      } else {
          my $what = $self->{test_only} ? "Testing" : "Installing";
          $self->diag_fail("$what $stuff failed. See $self->{log} for details. Retry with --force to force install it.", 1);
          return;
      }
  }
  
  sub perl_requirements {
      my($self, @requires) = @_;
  
      my @perl;
      for my $requires (grep defined, @requires) {
          if (exists $requires->{perl}) {
              push @perl, App::cpanminus::Dependency->new(perl => $requires->{perl});
          }
      }
  
      return @perl;
  }
  
  sub should_use_mm {
      my($self, $dist) = @_;
  
      # Module::Build deps should use MakeMaker because that causes circular deps and fail
      # Otherwise we should prefer Build.PL
      my %should_use_mm = map { $_ => 1 } qw( version ExtUtils-ParseXS ExtUtils-Install ExtUtils-Manifest );
  
      $should_use_mm{$dist};
  }
  
  sub configure_this {
      my($self, $dist, $depth) = @_;
  
      # Short-circuit `cpanm --installdeps .` because it doesn't need to build the current dir
      if (-e $self->{cpanfile_path} && $self->{installdeps} && $depth == 0) {
          require Module::CPANfile;
          $dist->{cpanfile} = eval { Module::CPANfile->load($self->{cpanfile_path}) };
          $self->diag_fail($@, 1) if $@;
          return {
              configured       => 1,
              configured_ok    => !!$dist->{cpanfile},
              use_module_build => 0,
          };
      }
  
      if ($self->{skip_configure}) {
          my $eumm = -e 'Makefile';
          my $mb   = -e 'Build' && -f _;
          return {
              configured => 1,
              configured_ok => $eumm || $mb,
              use_module_build => $mb,
          };
      }
  
      my $state = {};
  
      my $try_eumm = sub {
          if (-e 'Makefile.PL') {
              $self->chat("Running Makefile.PL\n");
  
              # NOTE: according to Devel::CheckLib, most XS modules exit
              # with 0 even if header files are missing, to avoid receiving
              # tons of FAIL reports in such cases. So exit code can't be
              # trusted if it went well.
              if ($self->configure([ $self->{perl}, "Makefile.PL" ], $depth)) {
                  $state->{configured_ok} = -e 'Makefile';
              }
              $state->{configured}++;
          }
      };
  
      my $try_mb = sub {
          if (-e 'Build.PL') {
              $self->chat("Running Build.PL\n");
              if ($self->configure([ $self->{perl}, "Build.PL" ], $depth)) {
                  $state->{configured_ok} = -e 'Build' && -f _;
              }
              $state->{use_module_build}++;
              $state->{configured}++;
          }
      };
  
      my @try;
      if ($dist->{dist} && $self->should_use_mm($dist->{dist})) {
          @try = ($try_eumm, $try_mb);
      } else {
          @try = ($try_mb, $try_eumm);
      }
  
      for my $try (@try) {
          $try->();
          last if $state->{configured_ok};
      }
  
      unless ($state->{configured_ok}) {
          while (1) {
              my $ans = lc $self->prompt("Configuring $dist->{dist} failed.\nYou can s)kip, r)etry, e)xamine build log, or l)ook ?", "s");
              last                                        if $ans eq 's';
              return $self->configure_this($dist, $depth) if $ans eq 'r';
              $self->show_build_log                       if $ans eq 'e';
              $self->look                                 if $ans eq 'l';
          }
      }
  
      return $state;
  }
  
  sub find_module_name {
      my($self, $state) = @_;
  
      return unless $state->{configured_ok};
  
      if ($state->{use_module_build} &&
          -e "_build/build_params") {
          my $params = do { open my $in, "_build/build_params"; $self->safe_eval(join "", <$in>) };
          return eval { $params->[2]{module_name} } || undef;
      } elsif (-e "Makefile") {
          open my $mf, "Makefile";
          while (<$mf>) {
              if (/^\#\s+NAME\s+=>\s+(.*)/) {
                  return $self->safe_eval($1);
              }
          }
      }
  
      return;
  }
  
  sub list_files {
      my $self = shift;
  
      if (-e 'MANIFEST') {
          require ExtUtils::Manifest;
          my $manifest = eval { ExtUtils::Manifest::manifind() } || {};
          return sort { lc $a cmp lc $b } keys %$manifest;
      } else {
          require File::Find;
          my @files;
          my $finder = sub {
              my $name = $File::Find::name;
              $name =~ s!\.[/\\]!!;
              push @files, $name;
          };
          File::Find::find($finder, ".");
          return sort { lc $a cmp lc $b } @files;
      }
  }
  
  sub extract_packages {
      my($self, $meta, $dir) = @_;
  
      my $try = sub {
          my $file = shift;
          return 0 if $file =~ m!^(?:x?t|inc|local|perl5|fatlib|_build)/!;
          return 1 unless $meta->{no_index};
          return 0 if grep { $file =~ m!^$_/! } @{$meta->{no_index}{directory} || []};
          return 0 if grep { $file eq $_ } @{$meta->{no_index}{file} || []};
          return 1;
      };
  
      require Parse::PMFile;
  
      my @files = grep { /\.pm(?:\.PL)?$/ && $try->($_) } $self->list_files;
  
      my $provides = { };
  
      for my $file (@files) {
          my $parser = Parse::PMFile->new($meta, { UNSAFE => 1, ALLOW_DEV_VERSION => 1 });
          my $packages = $parser->parse($file);
  
          while (my($package, $meta) = each %$packages) {
              $provides->{$package} ||= {
                  file => $meta->{infile},
                  ($meta->{version} eq 'undef') ? () : (version => $meta->{version}),
              };
          }
      }
  
      return $provides;
  }
  
  sub save_meta {
      my($self, $module, $dist, $module_name, $config_deps, $build_deps) = @_;
  
      return unless $dist->{distvname} && $dist->{source} eq 'cpan';
  
      my $base = ($ENV{PERL_MM_OPT} || '') =~ /INSTALL_BASE=/
          ? ($self->install_base($ENV{PERL_MM_OPT}) . "/lib/perl5") : $Config{sitelibexp};
  
      my $provides = $dist->{provides};
  
      File::Path::mkpath("blib/meta", 0, 0777);
  
      my $local = {
          name => $module_name,
          target => $module,
          version => exists $provides->{$module_name}
              ? ($provides->{$module_name}{version} || $dist->{version}) : $dist->{version},
          dist => $dist->{distvname},
          pathname => $dist->{pathname},
          provides => $provides,
      };
  
      require JSON::PP;
      open my $fh, ">", "blib/meta/install.json" or die $!;
      print $fh JSON::PP::encode_json($local);
  
      # Existence of MYMETA.* Depends on EUMM/M::B versions and CPAN::Meta
      if (-e "MYMETA.json") {
          File::Copy::copy("MYMETA.json", "blib/meta/MYMETA.json");
      }
  
      my @cmd = (
          ($self->{sudo} ? 'sudo' : ()),
          $^X,
          '-MExtUtils::Install=install',
          '-e',
          qq[install({ 'blib/meta' => '$base/$Config{archname}/.meta/$dist->{distvname}' })],
      );
      $self->run(\@cmd);
  }
  
  sub _merge_hashref {
      my($self, @hashrefs) = @_;
  
      my %hash;
      for my $h (@hashrefs) {
          %hash = (%hash, %$h);
      }
  
      return \%hash;
  }
  
  sub install_base {
      my($self, $mm_opt) = @_;
      $mm_opt =~ /INSTALL_BASE=(\S+)/ and return $1;
      die "Your PERL_MM_OPT doesn't contain INSTALL_BASE";
  }
  
  sub safe_eval {
      my($self, $code) = @_;
      eval $code;
  }
  
  sub configure_features {
      my($self, $dist, @features) = @_;
      map $_->identifier, grep { $self->effective_feature($dist, $_) } @features;
  }
  
  sub effective_feature {
      my($self, $dist, $feature) = @_;
  
      if ($dist->{depth} == 0) {
          my $value = $self->{features}{$feature->identifier};
          return $value if defined $value;
          return 1 if $self->{features}{__all};
      }
  
      if ($self->{interactive}) {
          require CPAN::Meta::Requirements;
  
          $self->diag("[@{[ $feature->description ]}]\n", 1);
  
          my $req = CPAN::Meta::Requirements->new;
          for my $phase (@{$dist->{want_phases}}) {
              for my $type (@{$self->{install_types}}) {
                  $req->add_requirements($feature->prereqs->requirements_for($phase, $type));
              }
          }
  
          my $reqs = $req->as_string_hash;
          my @missing;
          for my $module (keys %$reqs) {
              if ($self->should_install($module, $req->{$module})) {
                  push @missing, $module;
              }
          }
  
          if (@missing) {
              my $howmany = @missing;
              $self->diag("==> Found missing dependencies: " . join(", ", @missing) . "\n", 1);
              local $self->{prompt} = 1;
              return $self->prompt_bool("Install the $howmany optional module(s)?", "y");
          }
      }
  
      return;
  }
  
  sub find_prereqs {
      my($self, $dist) = @_;
  
      my @deps = $self->extract_meta_prereqs($dist);
  
      if ($dist->{module} =~ /^Bundle::/i) {
          push @deps, $self->bundle_deps($dist);
      }
  
      $self->merge_with_cpanfile($dist, \@deps);
  
      return @deps;
  }
  
  sub merge_with_cpanfile {
      my($self, $dist, $deps) = @_;
  
      if ($self->{cpanfile_requirements} && !$dist->{cpanfile}) {
          for my $dep (@$deps) {
              $dep->merge_with($self->{cpanfile_requirements});
          }
      }
  }
  
  sub extract_meta_prereqs {
      my($self, $dist) = @_;
  
      if ($dist->{cpanfile}) {
          my @features = $self->configure_features($dist, $dist->{cpanfile}->features);
          my $prereqs = $dist->{cpanfile}->prereqs_with(@features);
          # TODO: creating requirements is useful even without cpanfile to detect conflicting prereqs
          $self->{cpanfile_requirements} = $prereqs->merged_requirements($dist->{want_phases}, ['requires']);
          return App::cpanminus::Dependency->from_prereqs($prereqs, $dist->{want_phases}, $self->{install_types});
      }
  
      require CPAN::Meta;
  
      my @deps;
      my($meta_file) = grep -f, qw(MYMETA.json MYMETA.yml);
      if ($meta_file) {
          $self->chat("Checking dependencies from $meta_file ...\n");
          my $mymeta = eval { CPAN::Meta->load_file($meta_file, { lazy_validation => 1 }) };
          if ($mymeta) {
              $dist->{meta}{name}    = $mymeta->name;
              $dist->{meta}{version} = $mymeta->version;
              return $self->extract_prereqs($mymeta, $dist);
          }
      }
  
      if (-e '_build/prereqs') {
          $self->chat("Checking dependencies from _build/prereqs ...\n");
          my $prereqs = do { open my $in, "_build/prereqs"; $self->safe_eval(join "", <$in>) };
          my $meta = CPAN::Meta->new(
              { name => $dist->{meta}{name}, version => $dist->{meta}{version}, %$prereqs },
              { lazy_validation => 1 },
          );
          @deps = $self->extract_prereqs($meta, $dist);
      } elsif (-e 'Makefile') {
          $self->chat("Finding PREREQ from Makefile ...\n");
          open my $mf, "Makefile";
          while (<$mf>) {
              if (/^\#\s+PREREQ_PM => \{\s*(.*?)\s*\}/) {
                  my @all;
                  my @pairs = split ', ', $1;
                  for (@pairs) {
                      my ($pkg, $v) = split '=>', $_;
                      push @all, [ $pkg, $v ];
                  }
                  my $list = join ", ", map { "'$_->[0]' => $_->[1]" } @all;
                  my $prereq = $self->safe_eval("no strict; +{ $list }");
                  push @deps, App::cpanminus::Dependency->from_versions($prereq) if $prereq;
                  last;
              }
          }
      }
  
      return @deps;
  }
  
  sub bundle_deps {
      my($self, $dist) = @_;
  
      my $match;
      if ($dist->{module}) {
          $match = sub {
              my $meta = Module::Metadata->new_from_file($_[0]);
              $meta && ($meta->name eq $dist->{module});
          };
      } else {
          $match = sub { 1 };
      }
  
      my @files;
      File::Find::find({
          wanted => sub {
              push @files, File::Spec->rel2abs($_) if /\.pm$/i && $match->($_);
          },
          no_chdir => 1,
      }, '.');
  
      my @deps;
  
      for my $file (@files) {
          open my $pod, "<", $file or next;
          my $in_contents;
          while (<$pod>) {
              if (/^=head\d\s+CONTENTS/) {
                  $in_contents = 1;
              } elsif (/^=/) {
                  $in_contents = 0;
              } elsif ($in_contents) {
                  /^(\S+)\s*(\S+)?/
                      and push @deps, App::cpanminus::Dependency->new($1, $self->maybe_version($2));
              }
          }
      }
  
      return @deps;
  }
  
  sub maybe_version {
      my($self, $string) = @_;
      return $string && $string =~ /^\.?\d/ ? $string : undef;
  }
  
  sub extract_prereqs {
      my($self, $meta, $dist) = @_;
  
      my @features = $self->configure_features($dist, $meta->features);
      my $prereqs  = $self->soften_makemaker_prereqs($meta->effective_prereqs(\@features)->clone);
  
      return App::cpanminus::Dependency->from_prereqs($prereqs, $dist->{want_phases}, $self->{install_types});
  }
  
  # Workaround for Module::Install 1.04 creating a bogus (higher) MakeMaker requirement that it needs in build_requires
  # Assuming MakeMaker requirement is already satisfied in configure_requires, there's no need to have higher version of
  # MakeMaker in build/test anyway. https://github.com/miyagawa/cpanminus/issues/463
  sub soften_makemaker_prereqs {
      my($self, $prereqs) = @_;
  
      return $prereqs unless -e "inc/Module/Install.pm";
  
      for my $phase (qw( build test runtime )) {
          my $reqs = $prereqs->requirements_for($phase, 'requires');
          if ($reqs->requirements_for_module('ExtUtils::MakeMaker')) {
              $reqs->clear_requirement('ExtUtils::MakeMaker');
              $reqs->add_minimum('ExtUtils::MakeMaker' => 0);
          }
      }
  
      $prereqs;
  }
  
  sub cleanup_workdirs {
      my $self = shift;
  
      my $expire = time - 24 * 60 * 60 * $self->{auto_cleanup};
      my @targets;
  
      opendir my $dh, "$self->{home}/work";
      while (my $e = readdir $dh) {
          next if $e !~ /^(\d+)\.\d+$/; # {UNIX time}.{PID}
          my $time = $1;
          if ($time < $expire) {
              push @targets, "$self->{home}/work/$e";
          }
      }
  
      if (@targets) {
          if (@targets >= 64) {
              $self->diag("Expiring " . scalar(@targets) . " work directories. This might take a while...\n");
          } else {
              $self->chat("Expiring " . scalar(@targets) . " work directories.\n");
          }
          File::Path::rmtree(\@targets, 0, 0); # safe = 0, since blib usually doesn't have write bits
      }
  }
  
  sub scandeps_append_child {
      my($self, $dist) = @_;
  
      my $new_node = [ $dist, [] ];
  
      my $curr_node = $self->{scandeps_current} || [ undef, $self->{scandeps_tree} ];
      push @{$curr_node->[1]}, $new_node;
  
      $self->{scandeps_current} = $new_node;
  
      return sub { $self->{scandeps_current} = $curr_node };
  }
  
  sub dump_scandeps {
      my $self = shift;
  
      if ($self->{format} eq 'tree') {
          $self->walk_down(sub {
              my($dist, $depth) = @_;
              if ($depth == 0) {
                  print "$dist->{distvname}\n";
              } else {
                  print " " x ($depth - 1);
                  print "\\_ $dist->{distvname}\n";
              }
          }, 1);
      } elsif ($self->{format} =~ /^dists?$/) {
          $self->walk_down(sub {
              my($dist, $depth) = @_;
              print $self->format_dist($dist), "\n";
          }, 0);
      } elsif ($self->{format} eq 'json') {
          require JSON::PP;
          print JSON::PP::encode_json($self->{scandeps_tree});
      } elsif ($self->{format} eq 'yaml') {
          require YAML; # no fatpack
          print YAML::Dump($self->{scandeps_tree});
      } else {
          $self->diag("Unknown format: $self->{format}\n");
      }
  }
  
  sub walk_down {
      my($self, $cb, $pre) = @_;
      $self->_do_walk_down($self->{scandeps_tree}, $cb, 0, $pre);
  }
  
  sub _do_walk_down {
      my($self, $children, $cb, $depth, $pre) = @_;
  
      # DFS - $pre determines when we call the callback
      for my $node (@$children) {
          $cb->($node->[0], $depth) if $pre;
          $self->_do_walk_down($node->[1], $cb, $depth + 1, $pre);
          $cb->($node->[0], $depth) unless $pre;
      }
  }
  
  sub DESTROY {
      my $self = shift;
      $self->{at_exit}->($self) if $self->{at_exit};
  }
  
  # Utils
  
  sub shell_quote {
      my($self, @stuff) = @_;
      if (WIN32) {
          join ' ', map { /^${quote}.+${quote}$/ ? $_ : ($quote . $_ . $quote) } @stuff;
      } else {
          String::ShellQuote::shell_quote_best_effort(@stuff);
      }
  }
  
  sub which {
      my($self, $name) = @_;
      if (File::Spec->file_name_is_absolute($name)) {
          if (-x $name && !-d _) {
              return $name;
          }
      }
      my $exe_ext = $Config{_exe};
      for my $dir (File::Spec->path) {
          my $fullpath = File::Spec->catfile($dir, $name);
          if ((-x $fullpath || -x ($fullpath .= $exe_ext)) && !-d _) {
              if ($fullpath =~ /\s/) {
                  $fullpath = $self->shell_quote($fullpath);
              }
              return $fullpath;
          }
      }
      return;
  }
  
  sub get {
      my($self, $uri) = @_;
      if ($uri =~ /^file:/) {
          $self->file_get($uri);
      } else {
          $self->{_backends}{get}->(@_);
      }
  }
  
  sub mirror {
      my($self, $uri, $local) = @_;
      if ($uri =~ /^file:/) {
          $self->file_mirror($uri, $local);
      } else {
          $self->{_backends}{mirror}->(@_);
      }
  }
  
  sub untar    { $_[0]->{_backends}{untar}->(@_) };
  sub unzip    { $_[0]->{_backends}{unzip}->(@_) };
  
  sub uri_to_file {
      my($self, $uri) = @_;
  
      # file:///path/to/file -> /path/to/file
      # file://C:/path       -> C:/path
      if ($uri =~ s!file:/+!!) {
          $uri = "/$uri" unless $uri =~ m![a-zA-Z]:!;
      }
  
      return $uri;
  }
  
  sub file_get {
      my($self, $uri) = @_;
      my $file = $self->uri_to_file($uri);
      open my $fh, "<$file" or return;
      join '', <$fh>;
  }
  
  sub file_mirror {
      my($self, $uri, $path) = @_;
      my $file = $self->uri_to_file($uri);
  
      my $source_mtime = (stat $file)[9];
  
      # Don't mirror a file that's already there (like the index)
      return 1 if -e $path && (stat $path)[9] >= $source_mtime;
  
      File::Copy::copy($file, $path);
  
      utime $source_mtime, $source_mtime, $path;
  }
  
  sub has_working_lwp {
      my($self, $mirrors) = @_;
      my $https = grep /^https:/, @$mirrors;
      eval {
          require LWP::UserAgent; # no fatpack
          LWP::UserAgent->VERSION(5.802);
          require LWP::Protocol::https if $https; # no fatpack
          1;
      };
  }
  
  sub init_tools {
      my $self = shift;
  
      return if $self->{initialized}++;
  
      if ($self->{make} = $self->which($Config{make})) {
          $self->chat("You have make $self->{make}\n");
      }
  
      # use --no-lwp if they have a broken LWP, to upgrade LWP
      if ($self->{try_lwp} && $self->has_working_lwp($self->{mirrors})) {
          $self->chat("You have LWP $LWP::VERSION\n");
          my $ua = sub {
              LWP::UserAgent->new(
                  parse_head => 0,
                  env_proxy => 1,
                  agent => $self->agent,
                  timeout => 30,
                  @_,
              );
          };
          $self->{_backends}{get} = sub {
              my $self = shift;
              my $res = $ua->()->request(HTTP::Request->new(GET => $_[0]));
              return unless $res->is_success;
              return $res->decoded_content;
          };
          $self->{_backends}{mirror} = sub {
              my $self = shift;
              my $res = $ua->()->mirror(@_);
              die $res->content if $res->code == 501;
              $res->code;
          };
      } elsif ($self->{try_wget} and my $wget = $self->which('wget')) {
          $self->chat("You have $wget\n");
          my @common = (
              '--user-agent', $self->agent,
              '--retry-connrefused',
              ($self->{verbose} ? () : ('-q')),
          );
          $self->{_backends}{get} = sub {
              my($self, $uri) = @_;
              $self->safeexec( my $fh, $wget, $uri, @common, '-O', '-' ) or die "wget $uri: $!";
              local $/;
              <$fh>;
          };
          $self->{_backends}{mirror} = sub {
              my($self, $uri, $path) = @_;
              $self->safeexec( my $fh, $wget, $uri, @common, '-O', $path ) or die "wget $uri: $!";
              local $/;
              <$fh>;
          };
      } elsif ($self->{try_curl} and my $curl = $self->which('curl')) {
          $self->chat("You have $curl\n");
          my @common = (
              '--location',
              '--user-agent', $self->agent,
              ($self->{verbose} ? () : '-s'),
          );
          $self->{_backends}{get} = sub {
              my($self, $uri) = @_;
              $self->safeexec( my $fh, $curl, @common, $uri ) or die "curl $uri: $!";
              local $/;
              <$fh>;
          };
          $self->{_backends}{mirror} = sub {
              my($self, $uri, $path) = @_;
              $self->safeexec( my $fh, $curl, @common, $uri, '-#', '-o', $path ) or die "curl $uri: $!";
              local $/;
              <$fh>;
          };
      } else {
          require HTTP::Tiny;
          $self->chat("Falling back to HTTP::Tiny $HTTP::Tiny::VERSION\n");
          my %common = (
              agent => $self->agent,
          );
          $self->{_backends}{get} = sub {
              my $self = shift;
              my $res = HTTP::Tiny->new(%common)->get($_[0]);
              return unless $res->{success};
              return $res->{content};
          };
          $self->{_backends}{mirror} = sub {
              my $self = shift;
              my $res = HTTP::Tiny->new(%common)->mirror(@_);
              return $res->{status};
          };
      }
  
      my $tar = $self->which('tar');
      my $tar_ver;
      my $maybe_bad_tar = sub { WIN32 || BAD_TAR || (($tar_ver = `$tar --version 2>/dev/null`) =~ /GNU.*1\.13/i) };
  
      if ($tar && !$maybe_bad_tar->()) {
          chomp $tar_ver;
          $self->chat("You have $tar: $tar_ver\n");
          $self->{_backends}{untar} = sub {
              my($self, $tarfile) = @_;
  
              my $xf = ($self->{verbose} ? 'v' : '')."xf";
              my $ar = $tarfile =~ /bz2$/ ? 'j' : 'z';
  
              my($root, @others) = `$tar ${ar}tf $tarfile`
                  or return undef;
  
              FILE: {
                  chomp $root;
                  $root =~ s!^\./!!;
                  $root =~ s{^(.+?)/.*$}{$1};
  
                  if (!length($root)) {
                      # archive had ./ as the first entry, so try again
                      $root = shift(@others);
                      redo FILE if $root;
                  }
              }
  
              system "$tar $ar$xf $tarfile";
              return $root if -d $root;
  
              $self->diag_fail("Bad archive: $tarfile");
              return undef;
          }
      } elsif (    $tar
               and my $gzip = $self->which('gzip')
               and my $bzip2 = $self->which('bzip2')) {
          $self->chat("You have $tar, $gzip and $bzip2\n");
          $self->{_backends}{untar} = sub {
              my($self, $tarfile) = @_;
  
              my $x  = "x" . ($self->{verbose} ? 'v' : '') . "f -";
              my $ar = $tarfile =~ /bz2$/ ? $bzip2 : $gzip;
  
              my($root, @others) = `$ar -dc $tarfile | $tar tf -`
                  or return undef;
  
              FILE: {
                  chomp $root;
                  $root =~ s!^\./!!;
                  $root =~ s{^(.+?)/.*$}{$1};
  
                  if (!length($root)) {
                      # archive had ./ as the first entry, so try again
                      $root = shift(@others);
                      redo FILE if $root;
                  }
              }
  
              system "$ar -dc $tarfile | $tar $x";
              return $root if -d $root;
  
              $self->diag_fail("Bad archive: $tarfile");
              return undef;
          }
      } elsif (eval { require Archive::Tar }) { # uses too much memory!
          $self->chat("Falling back to Archive::Tar $Archive::Tar::VERSION\n");
          $self->{_backends}{untar} = sub {
              my $self = shift;
              my $t = Archive::Tar->new($_[0]);
              my($root, @others) = $t->list_files;
              FILE: {
                  $root =~ s!^\./!!;
                  $root =~ s{^(.+?)/.*$}{$1};
  
                  if (!length($root)) {
                      # archive had ./ as the first entry, so try again
                      $root = shift(@others);
                      redo FILE if $root;
                  }
              }
              $t->extract;
              return -d $root ? $root : undef;
          };
      } else {
          $self->{_backends}{untar} = sub {
              die "Failed to extract $_[1] - You need to have tar or Archive::Tar installed.\n";
          };
      }
  
      if (my $unzip = $self->which('unzip')) {
          $self->chat("You have $unzip\n");
          $self->{_backends}{unzip} = sub {
              my($self, $zipfile) = @_;
  
              my $opt = $self->{verbose} ? '' : '-q';
              my(undef, $root, @others) = `$unzip -t $zipfile`
                  or return undef;
              FILE: {
                  chomp $root;
                  if ($root !~ s{^\s+testing:\s+([^/]+)/.*?\s+OK$}{$1}) {
                      $root = shift(@others);
                      redo FILE if $root;
                  }
              }
  
              system "$unzip $opt $zipfile";
              return $root if -d $root;
  
              $self->diag_fail("Bad archive: [$root] $zipfile");
              return undef;
          }
      } else {
          $self->{_backends}{unzip} = sub {
              eval { require Archive::Zip }
                  or  die "Failed to extract $_[1] - You need to have unzip or Archive::Zip installed.\n";
              my($self, $file) = @_;
              my $zip = Archive::Zip->new();
              my $status;
              $status = $zip->read($file);
              $self->diag_fail("Read of file[$file] failed")
                  if $status != Archive::Zip::AZ_OK();
              my @members = $zip->members();
              for my $member ( @members ) {
                  my $af = $member->fileName();
                  next if ($af =~ m!^(/|\.\./)!);
                  $status = $member->extractToFileNamed( $af );
                  $self->diag_fail("Extracting of file[$af] from zipfile[$file failed")
                      if $status != Archive::Zip::AZ_OK();
              }
  
              my ($root) = $zip->membersMatching( qr<^[^/]+/$> );
              $root &&= $root->fileName;
              return -d $root ? $root : undef;
          };
      }
  }
  
  sub safeexec {
      my $self = shift;
      my $rdr = $_[0] ||= Symbol::gensym();
  
      if (WIN32) {
          my $cmd = $self->shell_quote(@_[1..$#_]);
          return open( $rdr, "$cmd |" );
      }
  
      if ( my $pid = open( $rdr, '-|' ) ) {
          return $pid;
      }
      elsif ( defined $pid ) {
          exec( @_[ 1 .. $#_ ] );
          exit 1;
      }
      else {
          return;
      }
  }
  
  sub mask_uri_passwords {
      my($self, @strings) = @_;
      s{ (https?://) ([^:/]+) : [^@/]+ @ }{$1$2:********@}gx for @strings;
      return @strings;
  }
  
  1;
APP_CPANMINUS_SCRIPT

$fatpacked{"CPAN/DistnameInfo.pm"} = '#line '.(1+__LINE__).' "'.__FILE__."\"\n".<<'CPAN_DISTNAMEINFO';
  
  package CPAN::DistnameInfo;
  
  $VERSION = "0.12";
  use strict;
  
  sub distname_info {
    my $file = shift or return;
  
    my ($dist, $version) = $file =~ /^
      ((?:[-+.]*(?:[A-Za-z0-9]+|(?<=\D)_|_(?=\D))*
       (?:
  	[A-Za-z](?=[^A-Za-z]|$)
  	|
  	\d(?=-)
       )(?<![._-][vV])
      )+)(.*)
    $/xs or return ($file,undef,undef);
  
    if ($dist =~ /-undef\z/ and ! length $version) {
      $dist =~ s/-undef\z//;
    }
  
    # Remove potential -withoutworldwriteables suffix
    $version =~ s/-withoutworldwriteables$//;
  
    if ($version =~ /^(-[Vv].*)-(\d.*)/) {
     
      # Catch names like Unicode-Collate-Standard-V3_1_1-0.1
      # where the V3_1_1 is part of the distname
      $dist .= $1;
      $version = $2;
    }
  
    if ($version =~ /(.+_.*)-(\d.*)/) {
        # Catch names like Task-Deprecations5_14-1.00.tar.gz where the 5_14 is
        # part of the distname. However, names like libao-perl_0.03-1.tar.gz
        # should still have 0.03-1 as their version.
        $dist .= $1;
        $version = $2;
    }
  
    # Normalize the Dist.pm-1.23 convention which CGI.pm and
    # a few others use.
    $dist =~ s{\.pm$}{};
  
    $version = $1
      if !length $version and $dist =~ s/-(\d+\w)$//;
  
    $version = $1 . $version
      if $version =~ /^\d+$/ and $dist =~ s/-(\w+)$//;
  
    if ($version =~ /\d\.\d/) {
      $version =~ s/^[-_.]+//;
    }
    else {
      $version =~ s/^[-_]+//;
    }
  
    my $dev;
    if (length $version) {
      if ($file =~ /^perl-?\d+\.(\d+)(?:\D(\d+))?(-(?:TRIAL|RC)\d+)?$/) {
        $dev = 1 if (($1 > 6 and $1 & 1) or ($2 and $2 >= 50)) or $3;
      }
      elsif ($version =~ /\d\D\d+_\d/ or $version =~ /-TRIAL/) {
        $dev = 1;
      }
    }
    else {
      $version = undef;
    }
  
    ($dist, $version, $dev);
  }
  
  sub new {
    my $class = shift;
    my $distfile = shift;
  
    $distfile =~ s,//+,/,g;
  
    my %info = ( pathname => $distfile );
  
    ($info{filename} = $distfile) =~ s,^(((.*?/)?authors/)?id/)?([A-Z])/(\4[A-Z])/(\5[-A-Z0-9]*)/,,
      and $info{cpanid} = $6;
  
    if ($distfile =~ m,([^/]+)\.(tar\.(?:g?z|bz2)|zip|tgz)$,i) { # support more ?
      $info{distvname} = $1;
      $info{extension} = $2;
    }
  
    @info{qw(dist version beta)} = distname_info($info{distvname});
    $info{maturity} = delete $info{beta} ? 'developer' : 'released';
  
    return bless \%info, $class;
  }
  
  sub dist      { shift->{dist} }
  sub version   { shift->{version} }
  sub maturity  { shift->{maturity} }
  sub filename  { shift->{filename} }
  sub cpanid    { shift->{cpanid} }
  sub distvname { shift->{distvname} }
  sub extension { shift->{extension} }
  sub pathname  { shift->{pathname} }
  
  sub properties { %{ $_[0] } }
  
  1;
  
  __END__
  
  =head1 NAME
  
  CPAN::DistnameInfo - Extract distribution name and version from a distribution filename
  
  =head1 SYNOPSIS
  
    my $pathname = "authors/id/G/GB/GBARR/CPAN-DistnameInfo-0.02.tar.gz";
  
    my $d = CPAN::DistnameInfo->new($pathname);
  
    my $dist      = $d->dist;      # "CPAN-DistnameInfo"
    my $version   = $d->version;   # "0.02"
    my $maturity  = $d->maturity;  # "released"
    my $filename  = $d->filename;  # "CPAN-DistnameInfo-0.02.tar.gz"
    my $cpanid    = $d->cpanid;    # "GBARR"
    my $distvname = $d->distvname; # "CPAN-DistnameInfo-0.02"
    my $extension = $d->extension; # "tar.gz"
    my $pathname  = $d->pathname;  # "authors/id/G/GB/GBARR/..."
  
    my %prop = $d->properties;
  
  =head1 DESCRIPTION
  
  Many online services that are centered around CPAN attempt to
  associate multiple uploads by extracting a distribution name from
  the filename of the upload. For most distributions this is easy as
  they have used ExtUtils::MakeMaker or Module::Build to create the
  distribution, which results in a uniform name. But sadly not all
  uploads are created in this way.
  
  C<CPAN::DistnameInfo> uses heuristics that have been learnt by
  L<http://search.cpan.org/> to extract the distribution name and
  version from filenames and also report if the version is to be
  treated as a developer release
  
  The constructor takes a single pathname, returning an object with the following methods
  
  =over
  
  =item cpanid
  
  If the path given looked like a CPAN authors directory path, then this will be the
  the CPAN id of the author.
  
  =item dist
  
  The name of the distribution
  
  =item distvname
  
  The file name with any suffix and leading directory names removed
  
  =item filename
  
  If the path given looked like a CPAN authors directory path, then this will be the
  path to the file relative to the detected CPAN author directory. Otherwise it is the path
  that was passed in.
  
  =item maturity
  
  The maturity of the distribution. This will be either C<released> or C<developer>
  
  =item extension
  
  The extension of the distribution, often used to denote the archive type (e.g. 'tar.gz')
  
  =item pathname
  
  The pathname that was passed to the constructor when creating the object.
  
  =item properties
  
  This will return a list of key-value pairs, suitable for assigning to a hash,
  for the known properties.
  
  =item version
  
  The extracted version
  
  =back
  
  =head1 AUTHOR
  
  Graham Barr <gbarr@pobox.com>
  
  =head1 COPYRIGHT 
  
  Copyright (c) 2003 Graham Barr. All rights reserved. This program is
  free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same
  terms as Perl itself.
  
  =cut
  
CPAN_DISTNAMEINFO

$fatpacked{"CPAN/Meta.pm"} = '#line '.(1+__LINE__).' "'.__FILE__."\"\n".<<'CPAN_META';
  use 5.006;
  use strict;
  use warnings;
  package CPAN::Meta;
  
  our $VERSION = '2.150005';
  
  #pod =head1 SYNOPSIS
  #pod
  #pod     use v5.10;
  #pod     use strict;
  #pod     use warnings;
  #pod     use CPAN::Meta;
  #pod     use Module::Load;
  #pod
  #pod     my $meta = CPAN::Meta->load_file('META.json');
  #pod
  #pod     printf "testing requirements for %s version %s\n",
  #pod     $meta->name,
  #pod     $meta->version;
  #pod
  #pod     my $prereqs = $meta->effective_prereqs;
  #pod
  #pod     for my $phase ( qw/configure runtime build test/ ) {
  #pod         say "Requirements for $phase:";
  #pod         my $reqs = $prereqs->requirements_for($phase, "requires");
  #pod         for my $module ( sort $reqs->required_modules ) {
  #pod             my $status;
  #pod             if ( eval { load $module unless $module eq 'perl'; 1 } ) {
  #pod                 my $version = $module eq 'perl' ? $] : $module->VERSION;
  #pod                 $status = $reqs->accepts_module($module, $version)
  #pod                         ? "$version ok" : "$version not ok";
  #pod             } else {
  #pod                 $status = "missing"
  #pod             };
  #pod             say "  $module ($status)";
  #pod         }
  #pod     }
  #pod
  #pod =head1 DESCRIPTION
  #pod
  #pod Software distributions released to the CPAN include a F<META.json> or, for
  #pod older distributions, F<META.yml>, which describes the distribution, its
  #pod contents, and the requirements for building and installing the distribution.
  #pod The data structure stored in the F<META.json> file is described in
  #pod L<CPAN::Meta::Spec>.
  #pod
  #pod CPAN::Meta provides a simple class to represent this distribution metadata (or
  #pod I<distmeta>), along with some helpful methods for interrogating that data.
  #pod
  #pod The documentation below is only for the methods of the CPAN::Meta object.  For
  #pod information on the meaning of individual fields, consult the spec.
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  use Carp qw(carp croak);
  use CPAN::Meta::Feature;
  use CPAN::Meta::Prereqs;
  use CPAN::Meta::Converter;
  use CPAN::Meta::Validator;
  use Parse::CPAN::Meta 1.4414 ();
  
  BEGIN { *_dclone = \&CPAN::Meta::Converter::_dclone }
  
  #pod =head1 STRING DATA
  #pod
  #pod The following methods return a single value, which is the value for the
  #pod corresponding entry in the distmeta structure.  Values should be either undef
  #pod or strings.
  #pod
  #pod =for :list
  #pod * abstract
  #pod * description
  #pod * dynamic_config
  #pod * generated_by
  #pod * name
  #pod * release_status
  #pod * version
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  BEGIN {
    my @STRING_READERS = qw(
      abstract
      description
      dynamic_config
      generated_by
      name
      release_status
      version
    );
  
    no strict 'refs';
    for my $attr (@STRING_READERS) {
      *$attr = sub { $_[0]{ $attr } };
    }
  }
  
  #pod =head1 LIST DATA
  #pod
  #pod These methods return lists of string values, which might be represented in the
  #pod distmeta structure as arrayrefs or scalars:
  #pod
  #pod =for :list
  #pod * authors
  #pod * keywords
  #pod * licenses
  #pod
  #pod The C<authors> and C<licenses> methods may also be called as C<author> and
  #pod C<license>, respectively, to match the field name in the distmeta structure.
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  BEGIN {
    my @LIST_READERS = qw(
      author
      keywords
      license
    );
  
    no strict 'refs';
    for my $attr (@LIST_READERS) {
      *$attr = sub {
        my $value = $_[0]{ $attr };
        croak "$attr must be called in list context"
          unless wantarray;
        return @{ _dclone($value) } if ref $value;
        return $value;
      };
    }
  }
  
  sub authors  { $_[0]->author }
  sub licenses { $_[0]->license }
  
  #pod =head1 MAP DATA
  #pod
  #pod These readers return hashrefs of arbitrary unblessed data structures, each
  #pod described more fully in the specification:
  #pod
  #pod =for :list
  #pod * meta_spec
  #pod * resources
  #pod * provides
  #pod * no_index
  #pod * prereqs
  #pod * optional_features
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  BEGIN {
    my @MAP_READERS = qw(
      meta-spec
      resources
      provides
      no_index
  
      prereqs
      optional_features
    );
  
    no strict 'refs';
    for my $attr (@MAP_READERS) {
      (my $subname = $attr) =~ s/-/_/;
      *$subname = sub {
        my $value = $_[0]{ $attr };
        return _dclone($value) if $value;
        return {};
      };
    }
  }
  
  #pod =head1 CUSTOM DATA
  #pod
  #pod A list of custom keys are available from the C<custom_keys> method and
  #pod particular keys may be retrieved with the C<custom> method.
  #pod
  #pod   say $meta->custom($_) for $meta->custom_keys;
  #pod
  #pod If a custom key refers to a data structure, a deep clone is returned.
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  sub custom_keys {
    return grep { /^x_/i } keys %{$_[0]};
  }
  
  sub custom {
    my ($self, $attr) = @_;
    my $value = $self->{$attr};
    return _dclone($value) if ref $value;
    return $value;
  }
  
  #pod =method new
  #pod
  #pod   my $meta = CPAN::Meta->new($distmeta_struct, \%options);
  #pod
  #pod Returns a valid CPAN::Meta object or dies if the supplied metadata hash
  #pod reference fails to validate.  Older-format metadata will be up-converted to
  #pod version 2 if they validate against the original stated specification.
  #pod
  #pod It takes an optional hashref of options. Valid options include:
  #pod
  #pod =over
  #pod
  #pod =item *
  #pod
  #pod lazy_validation -- if true, new will attempt to convert the given metadata
  #pod to version 2 before attempting to validate it.  This means than any
  #pod fixable errors will be handled by CPAN::Meta::Converter before validation.
  #pod (Note that this might result in invalid optional data being silently
  #pod dropped.)  The default is false.
  #pod
  #pod =back
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  sub _new {
    my ($class, $struct, $options) = @_;
    my $self;
  
    if ( $options->{lazy_validation} ) {
      # try to convert to a valid structure; if succeeds, then return it
      my $cmc = CPAN::Meta::Converter->new( $struct );
      $self = $cmc->convert( version => 2 ); # valid or dies
      return bless $self, $class;
    }
    else {
      # validate original struct
      my $cmv = CPAN::Meta::Validator->new( $struct );
      unless ( $cmv->is_valid) {
        die "Invalid metadata structure. Errors: "
          . join(", ", $cmv->errors) . "\n";
      }
    }
  
    # up-convert older spec versions
    my $version = $struct->{'meta-spec'}{version} || '1.0';
    if ( $version == 2 ) {
      $self = $struct;
    }
    else {
      my $cmc = CPAN::Meta::Converter->new( $struct );
      $self = $cmc->convert( version => 2 );
    }
  
    return bless $self, $class;
  }
  
  sub new {
    my ($class, $struct, $options) = @_;
    my $self = eval { $class->_new($struct, $options) };
    croak($@) if $@;
    return $self;
  }
  
  #pod =method create
  #pod
  #pod   my $meta = CPAN::Meta->create($distmeta_struct, \%options);
  #pod
  #pod This is same as C<new()>, except that C<generated_by> and C<meta-spec> fields
  #pod will be generated if not provided.  This means the metadata structure is
  #pod assumed to otherwise follow the latest L<CPAN::Meta::Spec>.
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  sub create {
    my ($class, $struct, $options) = @_;
    my $version = __PACKAGE__->VERSION || 2;
    $struct->{generated_by} ||= __PACKAGE__ . " version $version" ;
    $struct->{'meta-spec'}{version} ||= int($version);
    my $self = eval { $class->_new($struct, $options) };
    croak ($@) if $@;
    return $self;
  }
  
  #pod =method load_file
  #pod
  #pod   my $meta = CPAN::Meta->load_file($distmeta_file, \%options);
  #pod
  #pod Given a pathname to a file containing metadata, this deserializes the file
  #pod according to its file suffix and constructs a new C<CPAN::Meta> object, just
  #pod like C<new()>.  It will die if the deserialized version fails to validate
  #pod against its stated specification version.
  #pod
  #pod It takes the same options as C<new()> but C<lazy_validation> defaults to
  #pod true.
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  sub load_file {
    my ($class, $file, $options) = @_;
    $options->{lazy_validation} = 1 unless exists $options->{lazy_validation};
  
    croak "load_file() requires a valid, readable filename"
      unless -r $file;
  
    my $self;
    eval {
      my $struct = Parse::CPAN::Meta->load_file( $file );
      $self = $class->_new($struct, $options);
    };
    croak($@) if $@;
    return $self;
  }
  
  #pod =method load_yaml_string
  #pod
  #pod   my $meta = CPAN::Meta->load_yaml_string($yaml, \%options);
  #pod
  #pod This method returns a new CPAN::Meta object using the first document in the
  #pod given YAML string.  In other respects it is identical to C<load_file()>.
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  sub load_yaml_string {
    my ($class, $yaml, $options) = @_;
    $options->{lazy_validation} = 1 unless exists $options->{lazy_validation};
  
    my $self;
    eval {
      my ($struct) = Parse::CPAN::Meta->load_yaml_string( $yaml );
      $self = $class->_new($struct, $options);
    };
    croak($@) if $@;
    return $self;
  }
  
  #pod =method load_json_string
  #pod
  #pod   my $meta = CPAN::Meta->load_json_string($json, \%options);
  #pod
  #pod This method returns a new CPAN::Meta object using the structure represented by
  #pod the given JSON string.  In other respects it is identical to C<load_file()>.
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  sub load_json_string {
    my ($class, $json, $options) = @_;
    $options->{lazy_validation} = 1 unless exists $options->{lazy_validation};
  
    my $self;
    eval {
      my $struct = Parse::CPAN::Meta->load_json_string( $json );
      $self = $class->_new($struct, $options);
    };
    croak($@) if $@;
    return $self;
  }
  
  #pod =method load_string
  #pod
  #pod   my $meta = CPAN::Meta->load_string($string, \%options);
  #pod
  #pod If you don't know if a string contains YAML or JSON, this method will use
  #pod L<Parse::CPAN::Meta> to guess.  In other respects it is identical to
  #pod C<load_file()>.
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  sub load_string {
    my ($class, $string, $options) = @_;
    $options->{lazy_validation} = 1 unless exists $options->{lazy_validation};
  
    my $self;
    eval {
      my $struct = Parse::CPAN::Meta->load_string( $string );
      $self = $class->_new($struct, $options);
    };
    croak($@) if $@;
    return $self;
  }
  
  #pod =method save
  #pod
  #pod   $meta->save($distmeta_file, \%options);
  #pod
  #pod Serializes the object as JSON and writes it to the given file.  The only valid
  #pod option is C<version>, which defaults to '2'. On Perl 5.8.1 or later, the file
  #pod is saved with UTF-8 encoding.
  #pod
  #pod For C<version> 2 (or higher), the filename should end in '.json'.  L<JSON::PP>
  #pod is the default JSON backend. Using another JSON backend requires L<JSON> 2.5 or
  #pod later and you must set the C<$ENV{PERL_JSON_BACKEND}> to a supported alternate
  #pod backend like L<JSON::XS>.
  #pod
  #pod For C<version> less than 2, the filename should end in '.yml'.
  #pod L<CPAN::Meta::Converter> is used to generate an older metadata structure, which
  #pod is serialized to YAML.  CPAN::Meta::YAML is the default YAML backend.  You may
  #pod set the C<$ENV{PERL_YAML_BACKEND}> to a supported alternative backend, though
  #pod this is not recommended due to subtle incompatibilities between YAML parsers on
  #pod CPAN.
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  sub save {
    my ($self, $file, $options) = @_;
  
    my $version = $options->{version} || '2';
    my $layer = $] ge '5.008001' ? ':utf8' : '';
  
    if ( $version ge '2' ) {
      carp "'$file' should end in '.json'"
        unless $file =~ m{\.json$};
    }
    else {
      carp "'$file' should end in '.yml'"
        unless $file =~ m{\.yml$};
    }
  
    my $data = $self->as_string( $options );
    open my $fh, ">$layer", $file
      or die "Error opening '$file' for writing: $!\n";
  
    print {$fh} $data;
    close $fh
      or die "Error closing '$file': $!\n";
  
    return 1;
  }
  
  #pod =method meta_spec_version
  #pod
  #pod This method returns the version part of the C<meta_spec> entry in the distmeta
  #pod structure.  It is equivalent to:
  #pod
  #pod   $meta->meta_spec->{version};
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  sub meta_spec_version {
    my ($self) = @_;
    return $self->meta_spec->{version};
  }
  
  #pod =method effective_prereqs
  #pod
  #pod   my $prereqs = $meta->effective_prereqs;
  #pod
  #pod   my $prereqs = $meta->effective_prereqs( \@feature_identifiers );
  #pod
  #pod This method returns a L<CPAN::Meta::Prereqs> object describing all the
  #pod prereqs for the distribution.  If an arrayref of feature identifiers is given,
  #pod the prereqs for the identified features are merged together with the
  #pod distribution's core prereqs before the CPAN::Meta::Prereqs object is returned.
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  sub effective_prereqs {
    my ($self, $features) = @_;
    $features ||= [];
  
    my $prereq = CPAN::Meta::Prereqs->new($self->prereqs);
  
    return $prereq unless @$features;
  
    my @other = map {; $self->feature($_)->prereqs } @$features;
  
    return $prereq->with_merged_prereqs(\@other);
  }
  
  #pod =method should_index_file
  #pod
  #pod   ... if $meta->should_index_file( $filename );
  #pod
  #pod This method returns true if the given file should be indexed.  It decides this
  #pod by checking the C<file> and C<directory> keys in the C<no_index> property of
  #pod the distmeta structure. Note that neither the version format nor
  #pod C<release_status> are considered.
  #pod
  #pod C<$filename> should be given in unix format.
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  sub should_index_file {
    my ($self, $filename) = @_;
  
    for my $no_index_file (@{ $self->no_index->{file} || [] }) {
      return if $filename eq $no_index_file;
    }
  
    for my $no_index_dir (@{ $self->no_index->{directory} }) {
      $no_index_dir =~ s{$}{/} unless $no_index_dir =~ m{/\z};
      return if index($filename, $no_index_dir) == 0;
    }
  
    return 1;
  }
  
  #pod =method should_index_package
  #pod
  #pod   ... if $meta->should_index_package( $package );
  #pod
  #pod This method returns true if the given package should be indexed.  It decides
  #pod this by checking the C<package> and C<namespace> keys in the C<no_index>
  #pod property of the distmeta structure. Note that neither the version format nor
  #pod C<release_status> are considered.
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  sub should_index_package {
    my ($self, $package) = @_;
  
    for my $no_index_pkg (@{ $self->no_index->{package} || [] }) {
      return if $package eq $no_index_pkg;
    }
  
    for my $no_index_ns (@{ $self->no_index->{namespace} }) {
      return if index($package, "${no_index_ns}::") == 0;
    }
  
    return 1;
  }
  
  #pod =method features
  #pod
  #pod   my @feature_objects = $meta->features;
  #pod
  #pod This method returns a list of L<CPAN::Meta::Feature> objects, one for each
  #pod optional feature described by the distribution's metadata.
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  sub features {
    my ($self) = @_;
  
    my $opt_f = $self->optional_features;
    my @features = map {; CPAN::Meta::Feature->new($_ => $opt_f->{ $_ }) }
                   keys %$opt_f;
  
    return @features;
  }
  
  #pod =method feature
  #pod
  #pod   my $feature_object = $meta->feature( $identifier );
  #pod
  #pod This method returns a L<CPAN::Meta::Feature> object for the optional feature
  #pod with the given identifier.  If no feature with that identifier exists, an
  #pod exception will be raised.
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  sub feature {
    my ($self, $ident) = @_;
  
    croak "no feature named $ident"
      unless my $f = $self->optional_features->{ $ident };
  
    return CPAN::Meta::Feature->new($ident, $f);
  }
  
  #pod =method as_struct
  #pod
  #pod   my $copy = $meta->as_struct( \%options );
  #pod
  #pod This method returns a deep copy of the object's metadata as an unblessed hash
  #pod reference.  It takes an optional hashref of options.  If the hashref contains
  #pod a C<version> argument, the copied metadata will be converted to the version
  #pod of the specification and returned.  For example:
  #pod
  #pod   my $old_spec = $meta->as_struct( {version => "1.4"} );
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  sub as_struct {
    my ($self, $options) = @_;
    my $struct = _dclone($self);
    if ( $options->{version} ) {
      my $cmc = CPAN::Meta::Converter->new( $struct );
      $struct = $cmc->convert( version => $options->{version} );
    }
    return $struct;
  }
  
  #pod =method as_string
  #pod
  #pod   my $string = $meta->as_string( \%options );
  #pod
  #pod This method returns a serialized copy of the object's metadata as a character
  #pod string.  (The strings are B<not> UTF-8 encoded.)  It takes an optional hashref
  #pod of options.  If the hashref contains a C<version> argument, the copied metadata
  #pod will be converted to the version of the specification and returned.  For
  #pod example:
  #pod
  #pod   my $string = $meta->as_string( {version => "1.4"} );
  #pod
  #pod For C<version> greater than or equal to 2, the string will be serialized as
  #pod JSON.  For C<version> less than 2, the string will be serialized as YAML.  In
  #pod both cases, the same rules are followed as in the C<save()> method for choosing
  #pod a serialization backend.
  #pod
  #pod The serialized structure will include a C<x_serialization_backend> entry giving
  #pod the package and version used to serialize.  Any existing key in the given
  #pod C<$meta> object will be clobbered.
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  sub as_string {
    my ($self, $options) = @_;
  
    my $version = $options->{version} || '2';
  
    my $struct;
    if ( $self->meta_spec_version ne $version ) {
      my $cmc = CPAN::Meta::Converter->new( $self->as_struct );
      $struct = $cmc->convert( version => $version );
    }
    else {
      $struct = $self->as_struct;
    }
  
    my ($data, $backend);
    if ( $version ge '2' ) {
      $backend = Parse::CPAN::Meta->json_backend();
      local $struct->{x_serialization_backend} = sprintf '%s version %s',
        $backend, $backend->VERSION;
      $data = $backend->new->pretty->canonical->encode($struct);
    }
    else {
      $backend = Parse::CPAN::Meta->yaml_backend();
      local $struct->{x_serialization_backend} = sprintf '%s version %s',
        $backend, $backend->VERSION;
      $data = eval { no strict 'refs'; &{"$backend\::Dump"}($struct) };
      if ( $@ ) {
        croak $backend->can('errstr') ? $backend->errstr : $@
      }
    }
  
    return $data;
  }
  
  # Used by JSON::PP, etc. for "convert_blessed"
  sub TO_JSON {
    return { %{ $_[0] } };
  }
  
  1;
  
  # ABSTRACT: the distribution metadata for a CPAN dist
  
  =pod
  
  =encoding UTF-8
  
  =head1 NAME
  
  CPAN::Meta - the distribution metadata for a CPAN dist
  
  =head1 VERSION
  
  version 2.150005
  
  =head1 SYNOPSIS
  
      use v5.10;
      use strict;
      use warnings;
      use CPAN::Meta;
      use Module::Load;
  
      my $meta = CPAN::Meta->load_file('META.json');
  
      printf "testing requirements for %s version %s\n",
      $meta->name,
      $meta->version;
  
      my $prereqs = $meta->effective_prereqs;
  
      for my $phase ( qw/configure runtime build test/ ) {
          say "Requirements for $phase:";
          my $reqs = $prereqs->requirements_for($phase, "requires");
          for my $module ( sort $reqs->required_modules ) {
              my $status;
              if ( eval { load $module unless $module eq 'perl'; 1 } ) {
                  my $version = $module eq 'perl' ? $] : $module->VERSION;
                  $status = $reqs->accepts_module($module, $version)
                          ? "$version ok" : "$version not ok";
              } else {
                  $status = "missing"
              };
              say "  $module ($status)";
          }
      }
  
  =head1 DESCRIPTION
  
  Software distributions released to the CPAN include a F<META.json> or, for
  older distributions, F<META.yml>, which describes the distribution, its
  contents, and the requirements for building and installing the distribution.
  The data structure stored in the F<META.json> file is described in
  L<CPAN::Meta::Spec>.
  
  CPAN::Meta provides a simple class to represent this distribution metadata (or
  I<distmeta>), along with some helpful methods for interrogating that data.
  
  The documentation below is only for the methods of the CPAN::Meta object.  For
  information on the meaning of individual fields, consult the spec.
  
  =head1 METHODS
  
  =head2 new
  
    my $meta = CPAN::Meta->new($distmeta_struct, \%options);
  
  Returns a valid CPAN::Meta object or dies if the supplied metadata hash
  reference fails to validate.  Older-format metadata will be up-converted to
  version 2 if they validate against the original stated specification.
  
  It takes an optional hashref of options. Valid options include:
  
  =over
  
  =item *
  
  lazy_validation -- if true, new will attempt to convert the given metadata
  to version 2 before attempting to validate it.  This means than any
  fixable errors will be handled by CPAN::Meta::Converter before validation.
  (Note that this might result in invalid optional data being silently
  dropped.)  The default is false.
  
  =back
  
  =head2 create
  
    my $meta = CPAN::Meta->create($distmeta_struct, \%options);
  
  This is same as C<new()>, except that C<generated_by> and C<meta-spec> fields
  will be generated if not provided.  This means the metadata structure is
  assumed to otherwise follow the latest L<CPAN::Meta::Spec>.
  
  =head2 load_file
  
    my $meta = CPAN::Meta->load_file($distmeta_file, \%options);
  
  Given a pathname to a file containing metadata, this deserializes the file
  according to its file suffix and constructs a new C<CPAN::Meta> object, just
  like C<new()>.  It will die if the deserialized version fails to validate
  against its stated specification version.
  
  It takes the same options as C<new()> but C<lazy_validation> defaults to
  true.
  
  =head2 load_yaml_string
  
    my $meta = CPAN::Meta->load_yaml_string($yaml, \%options);
  
  This method returns a new CPAN::Meta object using the first document in the
  given YAML string.  In other respects it is identical to C<load_file()>.
  
  =head2 load_json_string
  
    my $meta = CPAN::Meta->load_json_string($json, \%options);
  
  This method returns a new CPAN::Meta object using the structure represented by
  the given JSON string.  In other respects it is identical to C<load_file()>.
  
  =head2 load_string
  
    my $meta = CPAN::Meta->load_string($string, \%options);
  
  If you don't know if a string contains YAML or JSON, this method will use
  L<Parse::CPAN::Meta> to guess.  In other respects it is identical to
  C<load_file()>.
  
  =head2 save
  
    $meta->save($distmeta_file, \%options);
  
  Serializes the object as JSON and writes it to the given file.  The only valid
  option is C<version>, which defaults to '2'. On Perl 5.8.1 or later, the file
  is saved with UTF-8 encoding.
  
  For C<version> 2 (or higher), the filename should end in '.json'.  L<JSON::PP>
  is the default JSON backend. Using another JSON backend requires L<JSON> 2.5 or
  later and you must set the C<$ENV{PERL_JSON_BACKEND}> to a supported alternate
  backend like L<JSON::XS>.
  
  For C<version> less than 2, the filename should end in '.yml'.
  L<CPAN::Meta::Converter> is used to generate an older metadata structure, which
  is serialized to YAML.  CPAN::Meta::YAML is the default YAML backend.  You may
  set the C<$ENV{PERL_YAML_BACKEND}> to a supported alternative backend, though
  this is not recommended due to subtle incompatibilities between YAML parsers on
  CPAN.
  
  =head2 meta_spec_version
  
  This method returns the version part of the C<meta_spec> entry in the distmeta
  structure.  It is equivalent to:
  
    $meta->meta_spec->{version};
  
  =head2 effective_prereqs
  
    my $prereqs = $meta->effective_prereqs;
  
    my $prereqs = $meta->effective_prereqs( \@feature_identifiers );
  
  This method returns a L<CPAN::Meta::Prereqs> object describing all the
  prereqs for the distribution.  If an arrayref of feature identifiers is given,
  the prereqs for the identified features are merged together with the
  distribution's core prereqs before the CPAN::Meta::Prereqs object is returned.
  
  =head2 should_index_file
  
    ... if $meta->should_index_file( $filename );
  
  This method returns true if the given file should be indexed.  It decides this
  by checking the C<file> and C<directory> keys in the C<no_index> property of
  the distmeta structure. Note that neither the version format nor
  C<release_status> are considered.
  
  C<$filename> should be given in unix format.
  
  =head2 should_index_package
  
    ... if $meta->should_index_package( $package );
  
  This method returns true if the given package should be indexed.  It decides
  this by checking the C<package> and C<namespace> keys in the C<no_index>
  property of the distmeta structure. Note that neither the version format nor
  C<release_status> are considered.
  
  =head2 features
  
    my @feature_objects = $meta->features;
  
  This method returns a list of L<CPAN::Meta::Feature> objects, one for each
  optional feature described by the distribution's metadata.
  
  =head2 feature
  
    my $feature_object = $meta->feature( $identifier );
  
  This method returns a L<CPAN::Meta::Feature> object for the optional feature
  with the given identifier.  If no feature with that identifier exists, an
  exception will be raised.
  
  =head2 as_struct
  
    my $copy = $meta->as_struct( \%options );
  
  This method returns a deep copy of the object's metadata as an unblessed hash
  reference.  It takes an optional hashref of options.  If the hashref contains
  a C<version> argument, the copied metadata will be converted to the version
  of the specification and returned.  For example:
  
    my $old_spec = $meta->as_struct( {version => "1.4"} );
  
  =head2 as_string
  
    my $string = $meta->as_string( \%options );
  
  This method returns a serialized copy of the object's metadata as a character
  string.  (The strings are B<not> UTF-8 encoded.)  It takes an optional hashref
  of options.  If the hashref contains a C<version> argument, the copied metadata
  will be converted to the version of the specification and returned.  For
  example:
  
    my $string = $meta->as_string( {version => "1.4"} );
  
  For C<version> greater than or equal to 2, the string will be serialized as
  JSON.  For C<version> less than 2, the string will be serialized as YAML.  In
  both cases, the same rules are followed as in the C<save()> method for choosing
  a serialization backend.
  
  The serialized structure will include a C<x_serialization_backend> entry giving
  the package and version used to serialize.  Any existing key in the given
  C<$meta> object will be clobbered.
  
  =head1 STRING DATA
  
  The following methods return a single value, which is the value for the
  corresponding entry in the distmeta structure.  Values should be either undef
  or strings.
  
  =over 4
  
  =item *
  
  abstract
  
  =item *
  
  description
  
  =item *
  
  dynamic_config
  
  =item *
  
  generated_by
  
  =item *
  
  name
  
  =item *
  
  release_status
  
  =item *
  
  version
  
  =back
  
  =head1 LIST DATA
  
  These methods return lists of string values, which might be represented in the
  distmeta structure as arrayrefs or scalars:
  
  =over 4
  
  =item *
  
  authors
  
  =item *
  
  keywords
  
  =item *
  
  licenses
  
  =back
  
  The C<authors> and C<licenses> methods may also be called as C<author> and
  C<license>, respectively, to match the field name in the distmeta structure.
  
  =head1 MAP DATA
  
  These readers return hashrefs of arbitrary unblessed data structures, each
  described more fully in the specification:
  
  =over 4
  
  =item *
  
  meta_spec
  
  =item *
  
  resources
  
  =item *
  
  provides
  
  =item *
  
  no_index
  
  =item *
  
  prereqs
  
  =item *
  
  optional_features
  
  =back
  
  =head1 CUSTOM DATA
  
  A list of custom keys are available from the C<custom_keys> method and
  particular keys may be retrieved with the C<custom> method.
  
    say $meta->custom($_) for $meta->custom_keys;
  
  If a custom key refers to a data structure, a deep clone is returned.
  
  =for Pod::Coverage TO_JSON abstract author authors custom custom_keys description dynamic_config
  generated_by keywords license licenses meta_spec name no_index
  optional_features prereqs provides release_status resources version
  
  =head1 BUGS
  
  Please report any bugs or feature using the CPAN Request Tracker.
  Bugs can be submitted through the web interface at
  L<http://rt.cpan.org/Dist/Display.html?Queue=CPAN-Meta>
  
  When submitting a bug or request, please include a test-file or a patch to an
  existing test-file that illustrates the bug or desired feature.
  
  =head1 SEE ALSO
  
  =over 4
  
  =item *
  
  L<CPAN::Meta::Converter>
  
  =item *
  
  L<CPAN::Meta::Validator>
  
  =back
  
  =for :stopwords cpan testmatrix url annocpan anno bugtracker rt cpants kwalitee diff irc mailto metadata placeholders metacpan
  
  =head1 SUPPORT
  
  =head2 Bugs / Feature Requests
  
  Please report any bugs or feature requests through the issue tracker
  at L<https://github.com/Perl-Toolchain-Gang/CPAN-Meta/issues>.
  You will be notified automatically of any progress on your issue.
  
  =head2 Source Code
  
  This is open source software.  The code repository is available for
  public review and contribution under the terms of the license.
  
  L<https://github.com/Perl-Toolchain-Gang/CPAN-Meta>
  
    git clone https://github.com/Perl-Toolchain-Gang/CPAN-Meta.git
  
  =head1 AUTHORS
  
  =over 4
  
  =item *
  
  David Golden <dagolden@cpan.org>
  
  =item *
  
  Ricardo Signes <rjbs@cpan.org>
  
  =back
  
  =head1 CONTRIBUTORS
  
  =for stopwords Ansgar Burchardt Avar Arnfjord Bjarmason Christopher J. Madsen Chuck Adams Cory G Watson Damyan Ivanov Eric Wilhelm Graham Knop Gregor Hermann Karen Etheridge Kenichi Ishigaki Ken Williams Lars Dieckow Leon Timmermans majensen Mark Fowler Matt S Trout Michael G. Schwern mohawk2 moznion Niko Tyni Olaf Alders Olivier Mengué Randy Sims Tomohiro Hosaka
  
  =over 4
  
  =item *
  
  Ansgar Burchardt <ansgar@cpan.org>
  
  =item *
  
  Avar Arnfjord Bjarmason <avar@cpan.org>
  
  =item *
  
  Christopher J. Madsen <cjm@cpan.org>
  
  =item *
  
  Chuck Adams <cja987@gmail.com>
  
  =item *
  
  Cory G Watson <gphat@cpan.org>
  
  =item *
  
  Damyan Ivanov <dam@cpan.org>
  
  =item *
  
  Eric Wilhelm <ewilhelm@cpan.org>
  
  =item *
  
  Graham Knop <haarg@haarg.org>
  
  =item *
  
  Gregor Hermann <gregoa@debian.org>
  
  =item *
  
  Karen Etheridge <ether@cpan.org>
  
  =item *
  
  Kenichi Ishigaki <ishigaki@cpan.org>
  
  =item *
  
  Ken Williams <kwilliams@cpan.org>
  
  =item *
  
  Lars Dieckow <daxim@cpan.org>
  
  =item *
  
  Leon Timmermans <leont@cpan.org>
  
  =item *
  
  majensen <maj@fortinbras.us>
  
  =item *
  
  Mark Fowler <markf@cpan.org>
  
  =item *
  
  Matt S Trout <mst@shadowcat.co.uk>
  
  =item *
  
  Michael G. Schwern <mschwern@cpan.org>
  
  =item *
  
  mohawk2 <mohawk2@users.noreply.github.com>
  
  =item *
  
  moznion <moznion@gmail.com>
  
  =item *
  
  Niko Tyni <ntyni@debian.org>
  
  =item *
  
  Olaf Alders <olaf@wundersolutions.com>
  
  =item *
  
  Olivier Mengué <dolmen@cpan.org>
  
  =item *
  
  Randy Sims <randys@thepierianspring.org>
  
  =item *
  
  Tomohiro Hosaka <bokutin@bokut.in>
  
  =back
  
  =head1 COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE
  
  This software is copyright (c) 2010 by David Golden and Ricardo Signes.
  
  This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
  the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.
  
  =cut
  
  __END__
  
  
  # vim: ts=2 sts=2 sw=2 et :
CPAN_META

$fatpacked{"CPAN/Meta/Check.pm"} = '#line '.(1+__LINE__).' "'.__FILE__."\"\n".<<'CPAN_META_CHECK';
  package CPAN::Meta::Check;
  $CPAN::Meta::Check::VERSION = '0.012';
  use strict;
  use warnings;
  
  use base 'Exporter';
  our @EXPORT = qw//;
  our @EXPORT_OK = qw/check_requirements requirements_for verify_dependencies/;
  our %EXPORT_TAGS = (all => [ @EXPORT, @EXPORT_OK ] );
  
  use CPAN::Meta::Prereqs '2.132830';
  use CPAN::Meta::Requirements 2.121;
  use Module::Metadata 1.000023;
  
  sub _check_dep {
  	my ($reqs, $module, $dirs) = @_;
  
  	$module eq 'perl' and return ($reqs->accepts_module($module, $]) ? () : sprintf "Your Perl (%s) is not in the range '%s'", $], $reqs->requirements_for_module($module));
  
  	my $metadata = Module::Metadata->new_from_module($module, inc => $dirs);
  	return "Module '$module' is not installed" if not defined $metadata;
  	my $version = eval { $metadata->version };
  	return "Missing version info for module '$module'" if $reqs->requirements_for_module($module) and not $version;
  	return sprintf 'Installed version (%s) of %s is not in range \'%s\'', $version, $module, $reqs->requirements_for_module($module) if not $reqs->accepts_module($module, $version || 0);
  	return;
  }
  
  sub _check_conflict {
  	my ($reqs, $module, $dirs) = @_;
  	my $metadata = Module::Metadata->new_from_module($module, inc => $dirs);
  	return if not defined $metadata;
  	my $version = eval { $metadata->version };
  	return "Missing version info for module '$module'" if not $version;
  	return sprintf 'Installed version (%s) of %s is in range \'%s\'', $version, $module, $reqs->requirements_for_module($module) if $reqs->accepts_module($module, $version);
  	return;
  }
  
  sub requirements_for {
  	my ($meta, $phases, $type) = @_;
  	my $prereqs = ref($meta) eq 'CPAN::Meta' ? $meta->effective_prereqs : $meta;
  	return $prereqs->merged_requirements(ref($phases) ? $phases : [ $phases ], [ $type ]);
  }
  
  sub check_requirements {
  	my ($reqs, $type, $dirs) = @_;
  
  	return +{
  		map {
  			$_ => $type ne 'conflicts'
  				? scalar _check_dep($reqs, $_, $dirs)
  				: scalar _check_conflict($reqs, $_, $dirs)
  		} $reqs->required_modules
  	};
  }
  
  sub verify_dependencies {
  	my ($meta, $phases, $type, $dirs) = @_;
  	my $reqs = requirements_for($meta, $phases, $type);
  	my $issues = check_requirements($reqs, $type, $dirs);
  	return grep { defined } values %{ $issues };
  }
  
  1;
  
  #ABSTRACT: Verify requirements in a CPAN::Meta object
  
  __END__
  
  =pod
  
  =encoding UTF-8
  
  =head1 NAME
  
  CPAN::Meta::Check - Verify requirements in a CPAN::Meta object
  
  =head1 VERSION
  
  version 0.012
  
  =head1 SYNOPSIS
  
   warn "$_\n" for verify_dependencies($meta, [qw/runtime build test/], 'requires');
  
  =head1 DESCRIPTION
  
  This module verifies if requirements described in a CPAN::Meta object are present.
  
  =head1 FUNCTIONS
  
  =head2 check_requirements($reqs, $type, $incdirs)
  
  This function checks if all dependencies in C<$reqs> (a L<CPAN::Meta::Requirements|CPAN::Meta::Requirements> object) are met, taking into account that 'conflicts' dependencies have to be checked in reverse. It returns a hash with the modules as keys and any problems as values; the value for a successfully found module will be undef. Modules are searched for in C<@$incdirs>, defaulting to C<@INC>.
  
  =head2 verify_dependencies($meta, $phases, $types, $incdirs)
  
  Check all requirements in C<$meta> for phases C<$phases> and type C<$type>. Modules are searched for in C<@$incdirs>, defaulting to C<@INC>. C<$meta> should be a L<CPAN::Meta::Prereqs> or L<CPAN::Meta> object.
  
  =head2 requirements_for($meta, $phases, $types)
  
  B<< This function is deprecated and may be removed at some point in the future, please use CPAN::Meta::Prereqs->merged_requirements instead. >>
  
  This function returns a unified L<CPAN::Meta::Requirements|CPAN::Meta::Requirements> object for all C<$type> requirements for C<$phases>. C<$phases> may be either one (scalar) value or an arrayref of valid values as defined by the L<CPAN::Meta spec|CPAN::Meta::Spec>. C<$type> must be a relationship as defined by the same spec. C<$meta> should be a L<CPAN::Meta::Prereqs> or L<CPAN::Meta> object.
  
  =head1 SEE ALSO
  
  =over 4
  
  =item * L<Test::CheckDeps|Test::CheckDeps>
  
  =item * L<CPAN::Meta|CPAN::Meta>
  
  =for comment # vi:noet:sts=2:sw=2:ts=2
  
  =back
  
  =head1 AUTHOR
  
  Leon Timmermans <leont@cpan.org>
  
  =head1 COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE
  
  This software is copyright (c) 2012 by Leon Timmermans.
  
  This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
  the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.
  
  =cut
CPAN_META_CHECK

$fatpacked{"CPAN/Meta/Converter.pm"} = '#line '.(1+__LINE__).' "'.__FILE__."\"\n".<<'CPAN_META_CONVERTER';
  use 5.006;
  use strict;
  use warnings;
  package CPAN::Meta::Converter;
  
  our $VERSION = '2.150005';
  
  #pod =head1 SYNOPSIS
  #pod
  #pod   my $struct = decode_json_file('META.json');
  #pod
  #pod   my $cmc = CPAN::Meta::Converter->new( $struct );
  #pod
  #pod   my $new_struct = $cmc->convert( version => "2" );
  #pod
  #pod =head1 DESCRIPTION
  #pod
  #pod This module converts CPAN Meta structures from one form to another.  The
  #pod primary use is to convert older structures to the most modern version of
  #pod the specification, but other transformations may be implemented in the
  #pod future as needed.  (E.g. stripping all custom fields or stripping all
  #pod optional fields.)
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  use CPAN::Meta::Validator;
  use CPAN::Meta::Requirements;
  use Parse::CPAN::Meta 1.4400 ();
  
  # To help ExtUtils::MakeMaker bootstrap CPAN::Meta::Requirements on perls
  # before 5.10, we fall back to the EUMM bundled compatibility version module if
  # that's the only thing available.  This shouldn't ever happen in a normal CPAN
  # install of CPAN::Meta::Requirements, as version.pm will be picked up from
  # prereqs and be available at runtime.
  
  BEGIN {
    eval "use version ()"; ## no critic
    if ( my $err = $@ ) {
      eval "use ExtUtils::MakeMaker::version" or die $err; ## no critic
    }
  }
  
  # Perl 5.10.0 didn't have "is_qv" in version.pm
  *_is_qv = version->can('is_qv') ? sub { $_[0]->is_qv } : sub { exists $_[0]->{qv} };
  
  sub _dclone {
    my $ref = shift;
  
    # if an object is in the data structure and doesn't specify how to
    # turn itself into JSON, we just stringify the object.  That does the
    # right thing for typical things that might be there, like version objects,
    # Path::Class objects, etc.
    no warnings 'once';
    no warnings 'redefine';
    local *UNIVERSAL::TO_JSON = sub { "$_[0]" };
  
    my $json = Parse::CPAN::Meta->json_backend()->new
        ->utf8
        ->allow_blessed
        ->convert_blessed;
    $json->decode($json->encode($ref))
  }
  
  my %known_specs = (
      '2'   => 'http://search.cpan.org/perldoc?CPAN::Meta::Spec',
      '1.4' => 'http://module-build.sourceforge.net/META-spec-v1.4.html',
      '1.3' => 'http://module-build.sourceforge.net/META-spec-v1.3.html',
      '1.2' => 'http://module-build.sourceforge.net/META-spec-v1.2.html',
      '1.1' => 'http://module-build.sourceforge.net/META-spec-v1.1.html',
      '1.0' => 'http://module-build.sourceforge.net/META-spec-v1.0.html'
  );
  
  my @spec_list = sort { $a <=> $b } keys %known_specs;
  my ($LOWEST, $HIGHEST) = @spec_list[0,-1];
  
  #--------------------------------------------------------------------------#
  # converters
  #
  # called as $converter->($element, $field_name, $full_meta, $to_version)
  #
  # defined return value used for field
  # undef return value means field is skipped
  #--------------------------------------------------------------------------#
  
  sub _keep { $_[0] }
  
  sub _keep_or_one { defined($_[0]) ? $_[0] : 1 }
  
  sub _keep_or_zero { defined($_[0]) ? $_[0] : 0 }
  
  sub _keep_or_unknown { defined($_[0]) && length($_[0]) ? $_[0] : "unknown" }
  
  sub _generated_by {
    my $gen = shift;
    my $sig = __PACKAGE__ . " version " . (__PACKAGE__->VERSION || "<dev>");
  
    return $sig unless defined $gen and length $gen;
    return $gen if $gen =~ /\Q$sig/;
    return "$gen, $sig";
  }
  
  sub _listify { ! defined $_[0] ? undef : ref $_[0] eq 'ARRAY' ? $_[0] : [$_[0]] }
  
  sub _prefix_custom {
    my $key = shift;
    $key =~ s/^(?!x_)   # Unless it already starts with x_
               (?:x-?)? # Remove leading x- or x (if present)
             /x_/ix;    # and prepend x_
    return $key;
  }
  
  sub _ucfirst_custom {
    my $key = shift;
    $key = ucfirst $key unless $key =~ /[A-Z]/;
    return $key;
  }
  
  sub _no_prefix_ucfirst_custom {
    my $key = shift;
    $key =~ s/^x_//;
    return _ucfirst_custom($key);
  }
  
  sub _change_meta_spec {
    my ($element, undef, undef, $version) = @_;
    return {
      version => $version,
      url => $known_specs{$version},
    };
  }
  
  my @open_source = (
    'perl',
    'gpl',
    'apache',
    'artistic',
    'artistic_2',
    'lgpl',
    'bsd',
    'gpl',
    'mit',
    'mozilla',
    'open_source',
  );
  
  my %is_open_source = map {; $_ => 1 } @open_source;
  
  my @valid_licenses_1 = (
    @open_source,
    'unrestricted',
    'restrictive',
    'unknown',
  );
  
  my %license_map_1 = (
    ( map { $_ => $_ } @valid_licenses_1 ),
    artistic2 => 'artistic_2',
  );
  
  sub _license_1 {
    my ($element) = @_;
    return 'unknown' unless defined $element;
    if ( $license_map_1{lc $element} ) {
      return $license_map_1{lc $element};
    }
    else {
      return 'unknown';
    }
  }
  
  my @valid_licenses_2 = qw(
    agpl_3
    apache_1_1
    apache_2_0
    artistic_1
    artistic_2
    bsd
    freebsd
    gfdl_1_2
    gfdl_1_3
    gpl_1
    gpl_2
    gpl_3
    lgpl_2_1
    lgpl_3_0
    mit
    mozilla_1_0
    mozilla_1_1
    openssl
    perl_5
    qpl_1_0
    ssleay
    sun
    zlib
    open_source
    restricted
    unrestricted
    unknown
  );
  
  # The "old" values were defined by Module::Build, and were often vague.  I have
  # made the decisions below based on reading Module::Build::API and how clearly
  # it specifies the version of the license.
  my %license_map_2 = (
    (map { $_ => $_ } @valid_licenses_2),
    apache      => 'apache_2_0',  # clearly stated as 2.0
    artistic    => 'artistic_1',  # clearly stated as 1
    artistic2   => 'artistic_2',  # clearly stated as 2
    gpl         => 'open_source', # we don't know which GPL; punt
    lgpl        => 'open_source', # we don't know which LGPL; punt
    mozilla     => 'open_source', # we don't know which MPL; punt
    perl        => 'perl_5',      # clearly Perl 5
    restrictive => 'restricted',
  );
  
  sub _license_2 {
    my ($element) = @_;
    return [ 'unknown' ] unless defined $element;
    $element = [ $element ] unless ref $element eq 'ARRAY';
    my @new_list;
    for my $lic ( @$element ) {
      next unless defined $lic;
      if ( my $new = $license_map_2{lc $lic} ) {
        push @new_list, $new;
      }
    }
    return @new_list ? \@new_list : [ 'unknown' ];
  }
  
  my %license_downgrade_map = qw(
    agpl_3            open_source
    apache_1_1        apache
    apache_2_0        apache
    artistic_1        artistic
    artistic_2        artistic_2
    bsd               bsd
    freebsd           open_source
    gfdl_1_2          open_source
    gfdl_1_3          open_source
    gpl_1             gpl
    gpl_2             gpl
    gpl_3             gpl
    lgpl_2_1          lgpl
    lgpl_3_0          lgpl
    mit               mit
    mozilla_1_0       mozilla
    mozilla_1_1       mozilla
    openssl           open_source
    perl_5            perl
    qpl_1_0           open_source
    ssleay            open_source
    sun               open_source
    zlib              open_source
    open_source       open_source
    restricted        restrictive
    unrestricted      unrestricted
    unknown           unknown
  );
  
  sub _downgrade_license {
    my ($element) = @_;
    if ( ! defined $element ) {
      return "unknown";
    }
    elsif( ref $element eq 'ARRAY' ) {
      if ( @$element > 1) {
        if (grep { !$is_open_source{ $license_downgrade_map{lc $_} || 'unknown' } } @$element) {
          return 'unknown';
        }
        else {
          return 'open_source';
        }
      }
      elsif ( @$element == 1 ) {
        return $license_downgrade_map{lc $element->[0]} || "unknown";
      }
    }
    elsif ( ! ref $element ) {
      return $license_downgrade_map{lc $element} || "unknown";
    }
    return "unknown";
  }
  
  my $no_index_spec_1_2 = {
    'file' => \&_listify,
    'dir' => \&_listify,
    'package' => \&_listify,
    'namespace' => \&_listify,
  };
  
  my $no_index_spec_1_3 = {
    'file' => \&_listify,
    'directory' => \&_listify,
    'package' => \&_listify,
    'namespace' => \&_listify,
  };
  
  my $no_index_spec_2 = {
    'file' => \&_listify,
    'directory' => \&_listify,
    'package' => \&_listify,
    'namespace' => \&_listify,
    ':custom'  => \&_prefix_custom,
  };
  
  sub _no_index_1_2 {
    my (undef, undef, $meta) = @_;
    my $no_index = $meta->{no_index} || $meta->{private};
    return unless $no_index;
  
    # cleanup wrong format
    if ( ! ref $no_index ) {
      my $item = $no_index;
      $no_index = { dir => [ $item ], file => [ $item ] };
    }
    elsif ( ref $no_index eq 'ARRAY' ) {
      my $list = $no_index;
      $no_index = { dir => [ @$list ], file => [ @$list ] };
    }
  
    # common mistake: files -> file
    if ( exists $no_index->{files} ) {
      $no_index->{file} = delete $no_index->{files};
    }
    # common mistake: modules -> module
    if ( exists $no_index->{modules} ) {
      $no_index->{module} = delete $no_index->{modules};
    }
    return _convert($no_index, $no_index_spec_1_2);
  }
  
  sub _no_index_directory {
    my ($element, $key, $meta, $version) = @_;
    return unless $element;
  
    # cleanup wrong format
    if ( ! ref $element ) {
      my $item = $element;
      $element = { directory => [ $item ], file => [ $item ] };
    }
    elsif ( ref $element eq 'ARRAY' ) {
      my $list = $element;
      $element = { directory => [ @$list ], file => [ @$list ] };
    }
  
    if ( exists $element->{dir} ) {
      $element->{directory} = delete $element->{dir};
    }
    # common mistake: files -> file
    if ( exists $element->{files} ) {
      $element->{file} = delete $element->{files};
    }
    # common mistake: modules -> module
    if ( exists $element->{modules} ) {
      $element->{module} = delete $element->{modules};
    }
    my $spec = $version == 2 ? $no_index_spec_2 : $no_index_spec_1_3;
    return _convert($element, $spec);
  }
  
  sub _is_module_name {
    my $mod = shift;
    return unless defined $mod && length $mod;
    return $mod =~ m{^[A-Za-z][A-Za-z0-9_]*(?:::[A-Za-z0-9_]+)*$};
  }
  
  sub _clean_version {
    my ($element) = @_;
    return 0 if ! defined $element;
  
    $element =~ s{^\s*}{};
    $element =~ s{\s*$}{};
    $element =~ s{^\.}{0.};
  
    return 0 if ! length $element;
    return 0 if ( $element eq 'undef' || $element eq '<undef>' );
  
    my $v = eval { version->new($element) };
    # XXX check defined $v and not just $v because version objects leak memory
    # in boolean context -- dagolden, 2012-02-03
    if ( defined $v ) {
      return _is_qv($v) ? $v->normal : $element;
    }
    else {
      return 0;
    }
  }
  
  sub _bad_version_hook {
    my ($v) = @_;
    $v =~ s{^\s*}{};
    $v =~ s{\s*$}{};
    $v =~ s{[a-z]+$}{}; # strip trailing alphabetics
    my $vobj = eval { version->new($v) };
    return defined($vobj) ? $vobj : version->new(0); # or give up
  }
  
  sub _version_map {
    my ($element) = @_;
    return unless defined $element;
    if ( ref $element eq 'HASH' ) {
      # XXX turn this into CPAN::Meta::Requirements with bad version hook
      # and then turn it back into a hash
      my $new_map = CPAN::Meta::Requirements->new(
        { bad_version_hook => \&_bad_version_hook } # punt
      );
      while ( my ($k,$v) = each %$element ) {
        next unless _is_module_name($k);
        if ( !defined($v) || !length($v) || $v eq 'undef' || $v eq '<undef>'  ) {
          $v = 0;
        }
        # some weird, old META have bad yml with module => module
        # so check if value is like a module name and not like a version
        if ( _is_module_name($v) && ! version::is_lax($v) ) {
          $new_map->add_minimum($k => 0);
          $new_map->add_minimum($v => 0);
        }
        $new_map->add_string_requirement($k => $v);
      }
      return $new_map->as_string_hash;
    }
    elsif ( ref $element eq 'ARRAY' ) {
      my $hashref = { map { $_ => 0 } @$element };
      return _version_map($hashref); # cleanup any weird stuff
    }
    elsif ( ref $element eq '' && length $element ) {
      return { $element => 0 }
    }
    return;
  }
  
  sub _prereqs_from_1 {
    my (undef, undef, $meta) = @_;
    my $prereqs = {};
    for my $phase ( qw/build configure/ ) {
      my $key = "${phase}_requires";
      $prereqs->{$phase}{requires} = _version_map($meta->{$key})
        if $meta->{$key};
    }
    for my $rel ( qw/requires recommends conflicts/ ) {
      $prereqs->{runtime}{$rel} = _version_map($meta->{$rel})
        if $meta->{$rel};
    }
    return $prereqs;
  }
  
  my $prereqs_spec = {
    configure => \&_prereqs_rel,
    build     => \&_prereqs_rel,
    test      => \&_prereqs_rel,
    runtime   => \&_prereqs_rel,
    develop   => \&_prereqs_rel,
    ':custom'  => \&_prefix_custom,
  };
  
  my $relation_spec = {
    requires   => \&_version_map,
    recommends => \&_version_map,
    suggests   => \&_version_map,
    conflicts  => \&_version_map,
    ':custom'  => \&_prefix_custom,
  };
  
  sub _cleanup_prereqs {
    my ($prereqs, $key, $meta, $to_version) = @_;
    return unless $prereqs && ref $prereqs eq 'HASH';
    return _convert( $prereqs, $prereqs_spec, $to_version );
  }
  
  sub _prereqs_rel {
    my ($relation, $key, $meta, $to_version) = @_;
    return unless $relation && ref $relation eq 'HASH';
    return _convert( $relation, $relation_spec, $to_version );
  }
  
  
  BEGIN {
    my @old_prereqs = qw(
      requires
      configure_requires
      recommends
      conflicts
    );
  
    for ( @old_prereqs ) {
      my $sub = "_get_$_";
      my ($phase,$type) = split qr/_/, $_;
      if ( ! defined $type ) {
        $type = $phase;
        $phase = 'runtime';
      }
      no strict 'refs';
      *{$sub} = sub { _extract_prereqs($_[2]->{prereqs},$phase,$type) };
    }
  }
  
  sub _get_build_requires {
    my ($data, $key, $meta) = @_;
  
    my $test_h  = _extract_prereqs($_[2]->{prereqs}, qw(test  requires)) || {};
    my $build_h = _extract_prereqs($_[2]->{prereqs}, qw(build requires)) || {};
  
    my $test_req  = CPAN::Meta::Requirements->from_string_hash($test_h);
    my $build_req = CPAN::Meta::Requirements->from_string_hash($build_h);
  
    $test_req->add_requirements($build_req)->as_string_hash;
  }
  
  sub _extract_prereqs {
    my ($prereqs, $phase, $type) = @_;
    return unless ref $prereqs eq 'HASH';
    return scalar _version_map($prereqs->{$phase}{$type});
  }
  
  sub _downgrade_optional_features {
    my (undef, undef, $meta) = @_;
    return unless exists $meta->{optional_features};
    my $origin = $meta->{optional_features};
    my $features = {};
    for my $name ( keys %$origin ) {
      $features->{$name} = {
        description => $origin->{$name}{description},
        requires => _extract_prereqs($origin->{$name}{prereqs},'runtime','requires'),
        configure_requires => _extract_prereqs($origin->{$name}{prereqs},'runtime','configure_requires'),
        build_requires => _extract_prereqs($origin->{$name}{prereqs},'runtime','build_requires'),
        recommends => _extract_prereqs($origin->{$name}{prereqs},'runtime','recommends'),
        conflicts => _extract_prereqs($origin->{$name}{prereqs},'runtime','conflicts'),
      };
      for my $k (keys %{$features->{$name}} ) {
        delete $features->{$name}{$k} unless defined $features->{$name}{$k};
      }
    }
    return $features;
  }
  
  sub _upgrade_optional_features {
    my (undef, undef, $meta) = @_;
    return unless exists $meta->{optional_features};
    my $origin = $meta->{optional_features};
    my $features = {};
    for my $name ( keys %$origin ) {
      $features->{$name} = {
        description => $origin->{$name}{description},
        prereqs => _prereqs_from_1(undef, undef, $origin->{$name}),
      };
      delete $features->{$name}{prereqs}{configure};
    }
    return $features;
  }
  
  my $optional_features_2_spec = {
    description => \&_keep,
    prereqs => \&_cleanup_prereqs,
    ':custom'  => \&_prefix_custom,
  };
  
  sub _feature_2 {
    my ($element, $key, $meta, $to_version) = @_;
    return unless $element && ref $element eq 'HASH';
    _convert( $element, $optional_features_2_spec, $to_version );
  }
  
  sub _cleanup_optional_features_2 {
    my ($element, $key, $meta, $to_version) = @_;
    return unless $element && ref $element eq 'HASH';
    my $new_data = {};
    for my $k ( keys %$element ) {
      $new_data->{$k} = _feature_2( $element->{$k}, $k, $meta, $to_version );
    }
    return unless keys %$new_data;
    return $new_data;
  }
  
  sub _optional_features_1_4 {
    my ($element) = @_;
    return unless $element;
    $element = _optional_features_as_map($element);
    for my $name ( keys %$element ) {
      for my $drop ( qw/requires_packages requires_os excluded_os/ ) {
        delete $element->{$name}{$drop};
      }
    }
    return $element;
  }
  
  sub _optional_features_as_map {
    my ($element) = @_;
    return unless $element;
    if ( ref $element eq 'ARRAY' ) {
      my %map;
      for my $feature ( @$element ) {
        my (@parts) = %$feature;
        $map{$parts[0]} = $parts[1];
      }
      $element = \%map;
    }
    return $element;
  }
  
  sub _is_urlish { defined $_[0] && $_[0] =~ m{\A[-+.a-z0-9]+:.+}i }
  
  sub _url_or_drop {
    my ($element) = @_;
    return $element if _is_urlish($element);
    return;
  }
  
  sub _url_list {
    my ($element) = @_;
    return unless $element;
    $element = _listify( $element );
    $element = [ grep { _is_urlish($_) } @$element ];
    return unless @$element;
    return $element;
  }
  
  sub _author_list {
    my ($element) = @_;
    return [ 'unknown' ] unless $element;
    $element = _listify( $element );
    $element = [ map { defined $_ && length $_ ? $_ : 'unknown' } @$element ];
    return [ 'unknown' ] unless @$element;
    return $element;
  }
  
  my $resource2_upgrade = {
    license    => sub { return _is_urlish($_[0]) ? _listify( $_[0] ) : undef },
    homepage   => \&_url_or_drop,
    bugtracker => sub {
      my ($item) = @_;
      return unless $item;
      if ( $item =~ m{^mailto:(.*)$} ) { return { mailto => $1 } }
      elsif( _is_urlish($item) ) { return { web => $item } }
      else { return }
    },
    repository => sub { return _is_urlish($_[0]) ? { url => $_[0] } : undef },
    ':custom'  => \&_prefix_custom,
  };
  
  sub _upgrade_resources_2 {
    my (undef, undef, $meta, $version) = @_;
    return unless exists $meta->{resources};
    return _convert($meta->{resources}, $resource2_upgrade);
  }
  
  my $bugtracker2_spec = {
    web => \&_url_or_drop,
    mailto => \&_keep,
    ':custom'  => \&_prefix_custom,
  };
  
  sub _repo_type {
    my ($element, $key, $meta, $to_version) = @_;
    return $element if defined $element;
    return unless exists $meta->{url};
    my $repo_url = $meta->{url};
    for my $type ( qw/git svn/ ) {
      return $type if $repo_url =~ m{\A$type};
    }
    return;
  }
  
  my $repository2_spec = {
    web => \&_url_or_drop,
    url => \&_url_or_drop,
    type => \&_repo_type,
    ':custom'  => \&_prefix_custom,
  };
  
  my $resources2_cleanup = {
    license    => \&_url_list,
    homepage   => \&_url_or_drop,
    bugtracker => sub { ref $_[0] ? _convert( $_[0], $bugtracker2_spec ) : undef },
    repository => sub { my $data = shift; ref $data ? _convert( $data, $repository2_spec ) : undef },
    ':custom'  => \&_prefix_custom,
  };
  
  sub _cleanup_resources_2 {
    my ($resources, $key, $meta, $to_version) = @_;
    return unless $resources && ref $resources eq 'HASH';
    return _convert($resources, $resources2_cleanup, $to_version);
  }
  
  my $resource1_spec = {
    license    => \&_url_or_drop,
    homepage   => \&_url_or_drop,
    bugtracker => \&_url_or_drop,
    repository => \&_url_or_drop,
    ':custom'  => \&_keep,
  };
  
  sub _resources_1_3 {
    my (undef, undef, $meta, $version) = @_;
    return unless exists $meta->{resources};
    return _convert($meta->{resources}, $resource1_spec);
  }
  
  *_resources_1_4 = *_resources_1_3;
  
  sub _resources_1_2 {
    my (undef, undef, $meta) = @_;
    my $resources = $meta->{resources} || {};
    if ( $meta->{license_url} && ! $resources->{license} ) {
      $resources->{license} = $meta->{license_url}
        if _is_urlish($meta->{license_url});
    }
    return unless keys %$resources;
    return _convert($resources, $resource1_spec);
  }
  
  my $resource_downgrade_spec = {
    license    => sub { return ref $_[0] ? $_[0]->[0] : $_[0] },
    homepage   => \&_url_or_drop,
    bugtracker => sub { return $_[0]->{web} },
    repository => sub { return $_[0]->{url} || $_[0]->{web} },
    ':custom'  => \&_no_prefix_ucfirst_custom,
  };
  
  sub _downgrade_resources {
    my (undef, undef, $meta, $version) = @_;
    return unless exists $meta->{resources};
    return _convert($meta->{resources}, $resource_downgrade_spec);
  }
  
  sub _release_status {
    my ($element, undef, $meta) = @_;
    return $element if $element && $element =~ m{\A(?:stable|testing|unstable)\z};
    return _release_status_from_version(undef, undef, $meta);
  }
  
  sub _release_status_from_version {
    my (undef, undef, $meta) = @_;
    my $version = $meta->{version} || '';
    return ( $version =~ /_/ ) ? 'testing' : 'stable';
  }
  
  my $provides_spec = {
    file => \&_keep,
    version => \&_keep,
  };
  
  my $provides_spec_2 = {
    file => \&_keep,
    version => \&_keep,
    ':custom'  => \&_prefix_custom,
  };
  
  sub _provides {
    my ($element, $key, $meta, $to_version) = @_;
    return unless defined $element && ref $element eq 'HASH';
    my $spec = $to_version == 2 ? $provides_spec_2 : $provides_spec;
    my $new_data = {};
    for my $k ( keys %$element ) {
      $new_data->{$k} = _convert($element->{$k}, $spec, $to_version);
      $new_data->{$k}{version} = _clean_version($element->{$k}{version})
        if exists $element->{$k}{version};
    }
    return $new_data;
  }
  
  sub _convert {
    my ($data, $spec, $to_version, $is_fragment) = @_;
  
    my $new_data = {};
    for my $key ( keys %$spec ) {
      next if $key eq ':custom' || $key eq ':drop';
      next unless my $fcn = $spec->{$key};
      if ( $is_fragment && $key eq 'generated_by' ) {
        $fcn = \&_keep;
      }
      die "spec for '$key' is not a coderef"
        unless ref $fcn && ref $fcn eq 'CODE';
      my $new_value = $fcn->($data->{$key}, $key, $data, $to_version);
      $new_data->{$key} = $new_value if defined $new_value;
    }
  
    my $drop_list   = $spec->{':drop'};
    my $customizer  = $spec->{':custom'} || \&_keep;
  
    for my $key ( keys %$data ) {
      next if $drop_list && grep { $key eq $_ } @$drop_list;
      next if exists $spec->{$key}; # we handled it
      $new_data->{ $customizer->($key) } = $data->{$key};
    }
  
    return $new_data;
  }
  
  #--------------------------------------------------------------------------#
  # define converters for each conversion
  #--------------------------------------------------------------------------#
  
  # each converts from prior version
  # special ":custom" field is used for keys not recognized in spec
  my %up_convert = (
    '2-from-1.4' => {
      # PRIOR MANDATORY
      'abstract'            => \&_keep_or_unknown,
      'author'              => \&_author_list,
      'generated_by'        => \&_generated_by,
      'license'             => \&_license_2,
      'meta-spec'           => \&_change_meta_spec,
      'name'                => \&_keep,
      'version'             => \&_keep,
      # CHANGED TO MANDATORY
      'dynamic_config'      => \&_keep_or_one,
      # ADDED MANDATORY
      'release_status'      => \&_release_status,
      # PRIOR OPTIONAL
      'keywords'            => \&_keep,
      'no_index'            => \&_no_index_directory,
      'optional_features'   => \&_upgrade_optional_features,
      'provides'            => \&_provides,
      'resources'           => \&_upgrade_resources_2,
      # ADDED OPTIONAL
      'description'         => \&_keep,
      'prereqs'             => \&_prereqs_from_1,
  
      # drop these deprecated fields, but only after we convert
      ':drop' => [ qw(
          build_requires
          configure_requires
          conflicts
          distribution_type
          license_url
          private
          recommends
          requires
      ) ],
  
      # other random keys need x_ prefixing
      ':custom'              => \&_prefix_custom,
    },
    '1.4-from-1.3' => {
      # PRIOR MANDATORY
      'abstract'            => \&_keep_or_unknown,
      'author'              => \&_author_list,
      'generated_by'        => \&_generated_by,
      'license'             => \&_license_1,
      'meta-spec'           => \&_change_meta_spec,
      'name'                => \&_keep,
      'version'             => \&_keep,
      # PRIOR OPTIONAL
      'build_requires'      => \&_version_map,
      'conflicts'           => \&_version_map,
      'distribution_type'   => \&_keep,
      'dynamic_config'      => \&_keep_or_one,
      'keywords'            => \&_keep,
      'no_index'            => \&_no_index_directory,
      'optional_features'   => \&_optional_features_1_4,
      'provides'            => \&_provides,
      'recommends'          => \&_version_map,
      'requires'            => \&_version_map,
      'resources'           => \&_resources_1_4,
      # ADDED OPTIONAL
      'configure_requires'  => \&_keep,
  
      # drop these deprecated fields, but only after we convert
      ':drop' => [ qw(
        license_url
        private
      )],
  
      # other random keys are OK if already valid
      ':custom'              => \&_keep
    },
    '1.3-from-1.2' => {
      # PRIOR MANDATORY
      'abstract'            => \&_keep_or_unknown,
      'author'              => \&_author_list,
      'generated_by'        => \&_generated_by,
      'license'             => \&_license_1,
      'meta-spec'           => \&_change_meta_spec,
      'name'                => \&_keep,
      'version'             => \&_keep,
      # PRIOR OPTIONAL
      'build_requires'      => \&_version_map,
      'conflicts'           => \&_version_map,
      'distribution_type'   => \&_keep,
      'dynamic_config'      => \&_keep_or_one,
      'keywords'            => \&_keep,
      'no_index'            => \&_no_index_directory,
      'optional_features'   => \&_optional_features_as_map,
      'provides'            => \&_provides,
      'recommends'          => \&_version_map,
      'requires'            => \&_version_map,
      'resources'           => \&_resources_1_3,
  
      # drop these deprecated fields, but only after we convert
      ':drop' => [ qw(
        license_url
        private
      )],
  
      # other random keys are OK if already valid
      ':custom'              => \&_keep
    },
    '1.2-from-1.1' => {
      # PRIOR MANDATORY
      'version'             => \&_keep,
      # CHANGED TO MANDATORY
      'license'             => \&_license_1,
      'name'                => \&_keep,
      'generated_by'        => \&_generated_by,
      # ADDED MANDATORY
      'abstract'            => \&_keep_or_unknown,
      'author'              => \&_author_list,
      'meta-spec'           => \&_change_meta_spec,
      # PRIOR OPTIONAL
      'build_requires'      => \&_version_map,
      'conflicts'           => \&_version_map,
      'distribution_type'   => \&_keep,
      'dynamic_config'      => \&_keep_or_one,
      'recommends'          => \&_version_map,
      'requires'            => \&_version_map,
      # ADDED OPTIONAL
      'keywords'            => \&_keep,
      'no_index'            => \&_no_index_1_2,
      'optional_features'   => \&_optional_features_as_map,
      'provides'            => \&_provides,
      'resources'           => \&_resources_1_2,
  
      # drop these deprecated fields, but only after we convert
      ':drop' => [ qw(
        license_url
        private
      )],
  
      # other random keys are OK if already valid
      ':custom'              => \&_keep
    },
    '1.1-from-1.0' => {
      # CHANGED TO MANDATORY
      'version'             => \&_keep,
      # IMPLIED MANDATORY
      'name'                => \&_keep,
      # PRIOR OPTIONAL
      'build_requires'      => \&_version_map,
      'conflicts'           => \&_version_map,
      'distribution_type'   => \&_keep,
      'dynamic_config'      => \&_keep_or_one,
      'generated_by'        => \&_generated_by,
      'license'             => \&_license_1,
      'recommends'          => \&_version_map,
      'requires'            => \&_version_map,
      # ADDED OPTIONAL
      'license_url'         => \&_url_or_drop,
      'private'             => \&_keep,
  
      # other random keys are OK if already valid
      ':custom'              => \&_keep
    },
  );
  
  my %down_convert = (
    '1.4-from-2' => {
      # MANDATORY
      'abstract'            => \&_keep_or_unknown,
      'author'              => \&_author_list,
      'generated_by'        => \&_generated_by,
      'license'             => \&_downgrade_license,
      'meta-spec'           => \&_change_meta_spec,
      'name'                => \&_keep,
      'version'             => \&_keep,
      # OPTIONAL
      'build_requires'      => \&_get_build_requires,
      'configure_requires'  => \&_get_configure_requires,
      'conflicts'           => \&_get_conflicts,
      'distribution_type'   => \&_keep,
      'dynamic_config'      => \&_keep_or_one,
      'keywords'            => \&_keep,
      'no_index'            => \&_no_index_directory,
      'optional_features'   => \&_downgrade_optional_features,
      'provides'            => \&_provides,
      'recommends'          => \&_get_recommends,
      'requires'            => \&_get_requires,
      'resources'           => \&_downgrade_resources,
  
      # drop these unsupported fields (after conversion)
      ':drop' => [ qw(
        description
        prereqs
        release_status
      )],
  
      # custom keys will be left unchanged
      ':custom'              => \&_keep
    },
    '1.3-from-1.4' => {
      # MANDATORY
      'abstract'            => \&_keep_or_unknown,
      'author'              => \&_author_list,
      'generated_by'        => \&_generated_by,
      'license'             => \&_license_1,
      'meta-spec'           => \&_change_meta_spec,
      'name'                => \&_keep,
      'version'             => \&_keep,
      # OPTIONAL
      'build_requires'      => \&_version_map,
      'conflicts'           => \&_version_map,
      'distribution_type'   => \&_keep,
      'dynamic_config'      => \&_keep_or_one,
      'keywords'            => \&_keep,
      'no_index'            => \&_no_index_directory,
      'optional_features'   => \&_optional_features_as_map,
      'provides'            => \&_provides,
      'recommends'          => \&_version_map,
      'requires'            => \&_version_map,
      'resources'           => \&_resources_1_3,
  
      # drop these unsupported fields, but only after we convert
      ':drop' => [ qw(
        configure_requires
      )],
  
      # other random keys are OK if already valid
      ':custom'              => \&_keep,
    },
    '1.2-from-1.3' => {
      # MANDATORY
      'abstract'            => \&_keep_or_unknown,
      'author'              => \&_author_list,
      'generated_by'        => \&_generated_by,
      'license'             => \&_license_1,
      'meta-spec'           => \&_change_meta_spec,
      'name'                => \&_keep,
      'version'             => \&_keep,
      # OPTIONAL
      'build_requires'      => \&_version_map,
      'conflicts'           => \&_version_map,
      'distribution_type'   => \&_keep,
      'dynamic_config'      => \&_keep_or_one,
      'keywords'            => \&_keep,
      'no_index'            => \&_no_index_1_2,
      'optional_features'   => \&_optional_features_as_map,
      'provides'            => \&_provides,
      'recommends'          => \&_version_map,
      'requires'            => \&_version_map,
      'resources'           => \&_resources_1_3,
  
      # other random keys are OK if already valid
      ':custom'              => \&_keep,
    },
    '1.1-from-1.2' => {
      # MANDATORY
      'version'             => \&_keep,
      # IMPLIED MANDATORY
      'name'                => \&_keep,
      'meta-spec'           => \&_change_meta_spec,
      # OPTIONAL
      'build_requires'      => \&_version_map,
      'conflicts'           => \&_version_map,
      'distribution_type'   => \&_keep,
      'dynamic_config'      => \&_keep_or_one,
      'generated_by'        => \&_generated_by,
      'license'             => \&_license_1,
      'private'             => \&_keep,
      'recommends'          => \&_version_map,
      'requires'            => \&_version_map,
  
      # drop unsupported fields
      ':drop' => [ qw(
        abstract
        author
        provides
        no_index
        keywords
        resources
      )],
  
      # other random keys are OK if already valid
      ':custom'              => \&_keep,
    },
    '1.0-from-1.1' => {
      # IMPLIED MANDATORY
      'name'                => \&_keep,
      'meta-spec'           => \&_change_meta_spec,
      'version'             => \&_keep,
      # PRIOR OPTIONAL
      'build_requires'      => \&_version_map,
      'conflicts'           => \&_version_map,
      'distribution_type'   => \&_keep,
      'dynamic_config'      => \&_keep_or_one,
      'generated_by'        => \&_generated_by,
      'license'             => \&_license_1,
      'recommends'          => \&_version_map,
      'requires'            => \&_version_map,
  
      # other random keys are OK if already valid
      ':custom'              => \&_keep,
    },
  );
  
  my %cleanup = (
    '2' => {
      # PRIOR MANDATORY
      'abstract'            => \&_keep_or_unknown,
      'author'              => \&_author_list,
      'generated_by'        => \&_generated_by,
      'license'             => \&_license_2,
      'meta-spec'           => \&_change_meta_spec,
      'name'                => \&_keep,
      'version'             => \&_keep,
      # CHANGED TO MANDATORY
      'dynamic_config'      => \&_keep_or_one,
      # ADDED MANDATORY
      'release_status'      => \&_release_status,
      # PRIOR OPTIONAL
      'keywords'            => \&_keep,
      'no_index'            => \&_no_index_directory,
      'optional_features'   => \&_cleanup_optional_features_2,
      'provides'            => \&_provides,
      'resources'           => \&_cleanup_resources_2,
      # ADDED OPTIONAL
      'description'         => \&_keep,
      'prereqs'             => \&_cleanup_prereqs,
  
      # drop these deprecated fields, but only after we convert
      ':drop' => [ qw(
          build_requires
          configure_requires
          conflicts
          distribution_type
          license_url
          private
          recommends
          requires
      ) ],
  
      # other random keys need x_ prefixing
      ':custom'              => \&_prefix_custom,
    },
    '1.4' => {
      # PRIOR MANDATORY
      'abstract'            => \&_keep_or_unknown,
      'author'              => \&_author_list,
      'generated_by'        => \&_generated_by,
      'license'             => \&_license_1,
      'meta-spec'           => \&_change_meta_spec,
      'name'                => \&_keep,
      'version'             => \&_keep,
      # PRIOR OPTIONAL
      'build_requires'      => \&_version_map,
      'conflicts'           => \&_version_map,
      'distribution_type'   => \&_keep,
      'dynamic_config'      => \&_keep_or_one,
      'keywords'            => \&_keep,
      'no_index'            => \&_no_index_directory,
      'optional_features'   => \&_optional_features_1_4,
      'provides'            => \&_provides,
      'recommends'          => \&_version_map,
      'requires'            => \&_version_map,
      'resources'           => \&_resources_1_4,
      # ADDED OPTIONAL
      'configure_requires'  => \&_keep,
  
      # other random keys are OK if already valid
      ':custom'             => \&_keep
    },
    '1.3' => {
      # PRIOR MANDATORY
      'abstract'            => \&_keep_or_unknown,
      'author'              => \&_author_list,
      'generated_by'        => \&_generated_by,
      'license'             => \&_license_1,
      'meta-spec'           => \&_change_meta_spec,
      'name'                => \&_keep,
      'version'             => \&_keep,
      # PRIOR OPTIONAL
      'build_requires'      => \&_version_map,
      'conflicts'           => \&_version_map,
      'distribution_type'   => \&_keep,
      'dynamic_config'      => \&_keep_or_one,
      'keywords'            => \&_keep,
      'no_index'            => \&_no_index_directory,
      'optional_features'   => \&_optional_features_as_map,
      'provides'            => \&_provides,
      'recommends'          => \&_version_map,
      'requires'            => \&_version_map,
      'resources'           => \&_resources_1_3,
  
      # other random keys are OK if already valid
      ':custom'             => \&_keep
    },
    '1.2' => {
      # PRIOR MANDATORY
      'version'             => \&_keep,
      # CHANGED TO MANDATORY
      'license'             => \&_license_1,
      'name'                => \&_keep,
      'generated_by'        => \&_generated_by,
      # ADDED MANDATORY
      'abstract'            => \&_keep_or_unknown,
      'author'              => \&_author_list,
      'meta-spec'           => \&_change_meta_spec,
      # PRIOR OPTIONAL
      'build_requires'      => \&_version_map,
      'conflicts'           => \&_version_map,
      'distribution_type'   => \&_keep,
      'dynamic_config'      => \&_keep_or_one,
      'recommends'          => \&_version_map,
      'requires'            => \&_version_map,
      # ADDED OPTIONAL
      'keywords'            => \&_keep,
      'no_index'            => \&_no_index_1_2,
      'optional_features'   => \&_optional_features_as_map,
      'provides'            => \&_provides,
      'resources'           => \&_resources_1_2,
  
      # other random keys are OK if already valid
      ':custom'             => \&_keep
    },
    '1.1' => {
      # CHANGED TO MANDATORY
      'version'             => \&_keep,
      # IMPLIED MANDATORY
      'name'                => \&_keep,
      'meta-spec'           => \&_change_meta_spec,
      # PRIOR OPTIONAL
      'build_requires'      => \&_version_map,
      'conflicts'           => \&_version_map,
      'distribution_type'   => \&_keep,
      'dynamic_config'      => \&_keep_or_one,
      'generated_by'        => \&_generated_by,
      'license'             => \&_license_1,
      'recommends'          => \&_version_map,
      'requires'            => \&_version_map,
      # ADDED OPTIONAL
      'license_url'         => \&_url_or_drop,
      'private'             => \&_keep,
  
      # other random keys are OK if already valid
      ':custom'             => \&_keep
    },
    '1.0' => {
      # IMPLIED MANDATORY
      'name'                => \&_keep,
      'meta-spec'           => \&_change_meta_spec,
      'version'             => \&_keep,
      # IMPLIED OPTIONAL
      'build_requires'      => \&_version_map,
      'conflicts'           => \&_version_map,
      'distribution_type'   => \&_keep,
      'dynamic_config'      => \&_keep_or_one,
      'generated_by'        => \&_generated_by,
      'license'             => \&_license_1,
      'recommends'          => \&_version_map,
      'requires'            => \&_version_map,
  
      # other random keys are OK if already valid
      ':custom'             => \&_keep,
    },
  );
  
  # for a given field in a spec version, what fields will it feed
  # into in the *latest* spec (i.e. v2); meta-spec omitted because
  # we always expect a meta-spec to be generated
  my %fragments_generate = (
    '2' => {
      'abstract'            =>   'abstract',
      'author'              =>   'author',
      'generated_by'        =>   'generated_by',
      'license'             =>   'license',
      'name'                =>   'name',
      'version'             =>   'version',
      'dynamic_config'      =>   'dynamic_config',
      'release_status'      =>   'release_status',
      'keywords'            =>   'keywords',
      'no_index'            =>   'no_index',
      'optional_features'   =>   'optional_features',
      'provides'            =>   'provides',
      'resources'           =>   'resources',
      'description'         =>   'description',
      'prereqs'             =>   'prereqs',
    },
    '1.4' => {
      'abstract'            => 'abstract',
      'author'              => 'author',
      'generated_by'        => 'generated_by',
      'license'             => 'license',
      'name'                => 'name',
      'version'             => 'version',
      'build_requires'      => 'prereqs',
      'conflicts'           => 'prereqs',
      'distribution_type'   => 'distribution_type',
      'dynamic_config'      => 'dynamic_config',
      'keywords'            => 'keywords',
      'no_index'            => 'no_index',
      'optional_features'   => 'optional_features',
      'provides'            => 'provides',
      'recommends'          => 'prereqs',
      'requires'            => 'prereqs',
      'resources'           => 'resources',
      'configure_requires'  => 'prereqs',
    },
  );
  # this is not quite true but will work well enough
  # as 1.4 is a superset of earlier ones
  $fragments_generate{$_} = $fragments_generate{'1.4'} for qw/1.3 1.2 1.1 1.0/;
  
  #--------------------------------------------------------------------------#
  # Code
  #--------------------------------------------------------------------------#
  
  #pod =method new
  #pod
  #pod   my $cmc = CPAN::Meta::Converter->new( $struct );
  #pod
  #pod The constructor should be passed a valid metadata structure but invalid
  #pod structures are accepted.  If no meta-spec version is provided, version 1.0 will
  #pod be assumed.
  #pod
  #pod Optionally, you can provide a C<default_version> argument after C<$struct>:
  #pod
  #pod   my $cmc = CPAN::Meta::Converter->new( $struct, default_version => "1.4" );
  #pod
  #pod This is only needed when converting a metadata fragment that does not include a
  #pod C<meta-spec> field.
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  sub new {
    my ($class,$data,%args) = @_;
  
    # create an attributes hash
    my $self = {
      'data'    => $data,
      'spec'    => _extract_spec_version($data, $args{default_version}),
    };
  
    # create the object
    return bless $self, $class;
  }
  
  sub _extract_spec_version {
      my ($data, $default) = @_;
      my $spec = $data->{'meta-spec'};
  
      # is meta-spec there and valid?
      return( $default || "1.0" ) unless defined $spec && ref $spec eq 'HASH'; # before meta-spec?
  
      # does the version key look like a valid version?
      my $v = $spec->{version};
      if ( defined $v && $v =~ /^\d+(?:\.\d+)?$/ ) {
          return $v if defined $v && grep { $v eq $_ } keys %known_specs; # known spec
          return $v+0 if defined $v && grep { $v == $_ } keys %known_specs; # 2.0 => 2
      }
  
      # otherwise, use heuristics: look for 1.x vs 2.0 fields
      return "2" if exists $data->{prereqs};
      return "1.4" if exists $data->{configure_requires};
      return( $default || "1.2" ); # when meta-spec was first defined
  }
  
  #pod =method convert
  #pod
  #pod   my $new_struct = $cmc->convert( version => "2" );
  #pod
  #pod Returns a new hash reference with the metadata converted to a different form.
  #pod C<convert> will die if any conversion/standardization still results in an
  #pod invalid structure.
  #pod
  #pod Valid parameters include:
  #pod
  #pod =over
  #pod
  #pod =item *
  #pod
  #pod C<version> -- Indicates the desired specification version (e.g. "1.0", "1.1" ... "1.4", "2").
  #pod Defaults to the latest version of the CPAN Meta Spec.
  #pod
  #pod =back
  #pod
  #pod Conversion proceeds through each version in turn.  For example, a version 1.2
  #pod structure might be converted to 1.3 then 1.4 then finally to version 2. The
  #pod conversion process attempts to clean-up simple errors and standardize data.
  #pod For example, if C<author> is given as a scalar, it will converted to an array
  #pod reference containing the item. (Converting a structure to its own version will
  #pod also clean-up and standardize.)
  #pod
  #pod When data are cleaned and standardized, missing or invalid fields will be
  #pod replaced with sensible defaults when possible.  This may be lossy or imprecise.
  #pod For example, some badly structured META.yml files on CPAN have prerequisite
  #pod modules listed as both keys and values:
  #pod
  #pod   requires => { 'Foo::Bar' => 'Bam::Baz' }
  #pod
  #pod These would be split and each converted to a prerequisite with a minimum
  #pod version of zero.
  #pod
  #pod When some mandatory fields are missing or invalid, the conversion will attempt
  #pod to provide a sensible default or will fill them with a value of 'unknown'.  For
  #pod example a missing or unrecognized C<license> field will result in a C<license>
  #pod field of 'unknown'.  Fields that may get an 'unknown' include:
  #pod
  #pod =for :list
  #pod * abstract
  #pod * author
  #pod * license
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  sub convert {
    my ($self, %args) = @_;
    my $args = { %args };
  
    my $new_version = $args->{version} || $HIGHEST;
    my $is_fragment = $args->{is_fragment};
  
    my ($old_version) = $self->{spec};
    my $converted = _dclone($self->{data});
  
    if ( $old_version == $new_version ) {
      $converted = _convert( $converted, $cleanup{$old_version}, $old_version, $is_fragment );
      unless ( $args->{is_fragment} ) {
        my $cmv = CPAN::Meta::Validator->new( $converted );
        unless ( $cmv->is_valid ) {
          my $errs = join("\n", $cmv->errors);
          die "Failed to clean-up $old_version metadata. Errors:\n$errs\n";
        }
      }
      return $converted;
    }
    elsif ( $old_version > $new_version )  {
      my @vers = sort { $b <=> $a } keys %known_specs;
      for my $i ( 0 .. $#vers-1 ) {
        next if $vers[$i] > $old_version;
        last if $vers[$i+1] < $new_version;
        my $spec_string = "$vers[$i+1]-from-$vers[$i]";
        $converted = _convert( $converted, $down_convert{$spec_string}, $vers[$i+1], $is_fragment );
        unless ( $args->{is_fragment} ) {
          my $cmv = CPAN::Meta::Validator->new( $converted );
          unless ( $cmv->is_valid ) {
            my $errs = join("\n", $cmv->errors);
            die "Failed to downconvert metadata to $vers[$i+1]. Errors:\n$errs\n";
          }
        }
      }
      return $converted;
    }
    else {
      my @vers = sort { $a <=> $b } keys %known_specs;
      for my $i ( 0 .. $#vers-1 ) {
        next if $vers[$i] < $old_version;
        last if $vers[$i+1] > $new_version;
        my $spec_string = "$vers[$i+1]-from-$vers[$i]";
        $converted = _convert( $converted, $up_convert{$spec_string}, $vers[$i+1], $is_fragment );
        unless ( $args->{is_fragment} ) {
          my $cmv = CPAN::Meta::Validator->new( $converted );
          unless ( $cmv->is_valid ) {
            my $errs = join("\n", $cmv->errors);
            die "Failed to upconvert metadata to $vers[$i+1]. Errors:\n$errs\n";
          }
        }
      }
      return $converted;
    }
  }
  
  #pod =method upgrade_fragment
  #pod
  #pod   my $new_struct = $cmc->upgrade_fragment;
  #pod
  #pod Returns a new hash reference with the metadata converted to the latest version
  #pod of the CPAN Meta Spec.  No validation is done on the result -- you must
  #pod validate after merging fragments into a complete metadata document.
  #pod
  #pod Available since version 2.141170.
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  sub upgrade_fragment {
    my ($self) = @_;
    my ($old_version) = $self->{spec};
    my %expected =
      map {; $_ => 1 }
      grep { defined }
      map { $fragments_generate{$old_version}{$_} }
      keys %{ $self->{data} };
    my $converted = $self->convert( version => $HIGHEST, is_fragment => 1 );
    for my $key ( keys %$converted ) {
      next if $key =~ /^x_/i || $key eq 'meta-spec';
      delete $converted->{$key} unless $expected{$key};
    }
    return $converted;
  }
  
  1;
  
  # ABSTRACT: Convert CPAN distribution metadata structures
  
  =pod
  
  =encoding UTF-8
  
  =head1 NAME
  
  CPAN::Meta::Converter - Convert CPAN distribution metadata structures
  
  =head1 VERSION
  
  version 2.150005
  
  =head1 SYNOPSIS
  
    my $struct = decode_json_file('META.json');
  
    my $cmc = CPAN::Meta::Converter->new( $struct );
  
    my $new_struct = $cmc->convert( version => "2" );
  
  =head1 DESCRIPTION
  
  This module converts CPAN Meta structures from one form to another.  The
  primary use is to convert older structures to the most modern version of
  the specification, but other transformations may be implemented in the
  future as needed.  (E.g. stripping all custom fields or stripping all
  optional fields.)
  
  =head1 METHODS
  
  =head2 new
  
    my $cmc = CPAN::Meta::Converter->new( $struct );
  
  The constructor should be passed a valid metadata structure but invalid
  structures are accepted.  If no meta-spec version is provided, version 1.0 will
  be assumed.
  
  Optionally, you can provide a C<default_version> argument after C<$struct>:
  
    my $cmc = CPAN::Meta::Converter->new( $struct, default_version => "1.4" );
  
  This is only needed when converting a metadata fragment that does not include a
  C<meta-spec> field.
  
  =head2 convert
  
    my $new_struct = $cmc->convert( version => "2" );
  
  Returns a new hash reference with the metadata converted to a different form.
  C<convert> will die if any conversion/standardization still results in an
  invalid structure.
  
  Valid parameters include:
  
  =over
  
  =item *
  
  C<version> -- Indicates the desired specification version (e.g. "1.0", "1.1" ... "1.4", "2").
  Defaults to the latest version of the CPAN Meta Spec.
  
  =back
  
  Conversion proceeds through each version in turn.  For example, a version 1.2
  structure might be converted to 1.3 then 1.4 then finally to version 2. The
  conversion process attempts to clean-up simple errors and standardize data.
  For example, if C<author> is given as a scalar, it will converted to an array
  reference containing the item. (Converting a structure to its own version will
  also clean-up and standardize.)
  
  When data are cleaned and standardized, missing or invalid fields will be
  replaced with sensible defaults when possible.  This may be lossy or imprecise.
  For example, some badly structured META.yml files on CPAN have prerequisite
  modules listed as both keys and values:
  
    requires => { 'Foo::Bar' => 'Bam::Baz' }
  
  These would be split and each converted to a prerequisite with a minimum
  version of zero.
  
  When some mandatory fields are missing or invalid, the conversion will attempt
  to provide a sensible default or will fill them with a value of 'unknown'.  For
  example a missing or unrecognized C<license> field will result in a C<license>
  field of 'unknown'.  Fields that may get an 'unknown' include:
  
  =over 4
  
  =item *
  
  abstract
  
  =item *
  
  author
  
  =item *
  
  license
  
  =back
  
  =head2 upgrade_fragment
  
    my $new_struct = $cmc->upgrade_fragment;
  
  Returns a new hash reference with the metadata converted to the latest version
  of the CPAN Meta Spec.  No validation is done on the result -- you must
  validate after merging fragments into a complete metadata document.
  
  Available since version 2.141170.
  
  =head1 BUGS
  
  Please report any bugs or feature using the CPAN Request Tracker.
  Bugs can be submitted through the web interface at
  L<http://rt.cpan.org/Dist/Display.html?Queue=CPAN-Meta>
  
  When submitting a bug or request, please include a test-file or a patch to an
  existing test-file that illustrates the bug or desired feature.
  
  =head1 AUTHORS
  
  =over 4
  
  =item *
  
  David Golden <dagolden@cpan.org>
  
  =item *
  
  Ricardo Signes <rjbs@cpan.org>
  
  =back
  
  =head1 COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE
  
  This software is copyright (c) 2010 by David Golden and Ricardo Signes.
  
  This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
  the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.
  
  =cut
  
  __END__
  
  
  # vim: ts=2 sts=2 sw=2 et :
CPAN_META_CONVERTER

$fatpacked{"CPAN/Meta/Feature.pm"} = '#line '.(1+__LINE__).' "'.__FILE__."\"\n".<<'CPAN_META_FEATURE';
  use 5.006;
  use strict;
  use warnings;
  package CPAN::Meta::Feature;
  
  our $VERSION = '2.150005';
  
  use CPAN::Meta::Prereqs;
  
  #pod =head1 DESCRIPTION
  #pod
  #pod A CPAN::Meta::Feature object describes an optional feature offered by a CPAN
  #pod distribution and specified in the distribution's F<META.json> (or F<META.yml>)
  #pod file.
  #pod
  #pod For the most part, this class will only be used when operating on the result of
  #pod the C<feature> or C<features> methods on a L<CPAN::Meta> object.
  #pod
  #pod =method new
  #pod
  #pod   my $feature = CPAN::Meta::Feature->new( $identifier => \%spec );
  #pod
  #pod This returns a new Feature object.  The C<%spec> argument to the constructor
  #pod should be the same as the value of the C<optional_feature> entry in the
  #pod distmeta.  It must contain entries for C<description> and C<prereqs>.
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  sub new {
    my ($class, $identifier, $spec) = @_;
  
    my %guts = (
      identifier  => $identifier,
      description => $spec->{description},
      prereqs     => CPAN::Meta::Prereqs->new($spec->{prereqs}),
    );
  
    bless \%guts => $class;
  }
  
  #pod =method identifier
  #pod
  #pod This method returns the feature's identifier.
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  sub identifier  { $_[0]{identifier}  }
  
  #pod =method description
  #pod
  #pod This method returns the feature's long description.
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  sub description { $_[0]{description} }
  
  #pod =method prereqs
  #pod
  #pod This method returns the feature's prerequisites as a L<CPAN::Meta::Prereqs>
  #pod object.
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  sub prereqs     { $_[0]{prereqs} }
  
  1;
  
  # ABSTRACT: an optional feature provided by a CPAN distribution
  
  =pod
  
  =encoding UTF-8
  
  =head1 NAME
  
  CPAN::Meta::Feature - an optional feature provided by a CPAN distribution
  
  =head1 VERSION
  
  version 2.150005
  
  =head1 DESCRIPTION
  
  A CPAN::Meta::Feature object describes an optional feature offered by a CPAN
  distribution and specified in the distribution's F<META.json> (or F<META.yml>)
  file.
  
  For the most part, this class will only be used when operating on the result of
  the C<feature> or C<features> methods on a L<CPAN::Meta> object.
  
  =head1 METHODS
  
  =head2 new
  
    my $feature = CPAN::Meta::Feature->new( $identifier => \%spec );
  
  This returns a new Feature object.  The C<%spec> argument to the constructor
  should be the same as the value of the C<optional_feature> entry in the
  distmeta.  It must contain entries for C<description> and C<prereqs>.
  
  =head2 identifier
  
  This method returns the feature's identifier.
  
  =head2 description
  
  This method returns the feature's long description.
  
  =head2 prereqs
  
  This method returns the feature's prerequisites as a L<CPAN::Meta::Prereqs>
  object.
  
  =head1 BUGS
  
  Please report any bugs or feature using the CPAN Request Tracker.
  Bugs can be submitted through the web interface at
  L<http://rt.cpan.org/Dist/Display.html?Queue=CPAN-Meta>
  
  When submitting a bug or request, please include a test-file or a patch to an
  existing test-file that illustrates the bug or desired feature.
  
  =head1 AUTHORS
  
  =over 4
  
  =item *
  
  David Golden <dagolden@cpan.org>
  
  =item *
  
  Ricardo Signes <rjbs@cpan.org>
  
  =back
  
  =head1 COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE
  
  This software is copyright (c) 2010 by David Golden and Ricardo Signes.
  
  This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
  the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.
  
  =cut
  
  __END__
  
  
  # vim: ts=2 sts=2 sw=2 et :
CPAN_META_FEATURE

$fatpacked{"CPAN/Meta/History.pm"} = '#line '.(1+__LINE__).' "'.__FILE__."\"\n".<<'CPAN_META_HISTORY';
  # vi:tw=72
  use 5.006;
  use strict;
  use warnings;
  package CPAN::Meta::History;
  
  our $VERSION = '2.150005';
  
  1;
  
  # ABSTRACT: history of CPAN Meta Spec changes
  
  __END__
  
  =pod
  
  =encoding UTF-8
  
  =head1 NAME
  
  CPAN::Meta::History - history of CPAN Meta Spec changes
  
  =head1 VERSION
  
  version 2.150005
  
  =head1 DESCRIPTION
  
  The CPAN Meta Spec has gone through several iterations.  It was
  originally written in HTML and later revised into POD (though published
  in HTML generated from the POD).  Fields were added, removed or changed,
  sometimes by design and sometimes to reflect real-world usage after the
  fact.
  
  This document reconstructs the history of the CPAN Meta Spec based on
  change logs, repository commit messages and the published HTML files.
  In some cases, particularly prior to version 1.2, the exact version
  when certain fields were introduced or changed is inconsistent between
  sources.  When in doubt, the published HTML files for versions 1.0 to
  1.4 as they existed when version 2 was developed are used as the
  definitive source.
  
  Starting with version 2, the specification document is part of the
  CPAN-Meta distribution and will be published on CPAN as
  L<CPAN::Meta::Spec>.
  
  Going forward, specification version numbers will be integers and
  decimal portions will correspond to a release date for the CPAN::Meta
  library.
  
  =head1 HISTORY
  
  =head2 Version 2
  
  April 2010
  
  =over
  
  =item *
  
  Revised spec examples as perl data structures rather than YAML
  
  =item *
  
  Switched to JSON serialization from YAML
  
  =item *
  
  Specified allowed version number formats
  
  =item *
  
  Replaced 'requires', 'build_requires', 'configure_requires',
  'recommends' and 'conflicts' with new 'prereqs' data structure divided
  by I<phase> (configure, build, test, runtime, etc.) and I<relationship>
  (requires, recommends, suggests, conflicts)
  
  =item *
  
  Added support for 'develop' phase for requirements for maintaining
  a list of authoring tools
  
  =item *
  
  Changed 'license' to a list and revised the set of valid licenses
  
  =item *
  
  Made 'dynamic_config' mandatory to reduce confusion
  
  =item *
  
  Changed 'resources' subkey 'repository' to a hash that clarifies
  repository type, url for browsing and url for checkout
  
  =item *
  
  Changed 'resources' subkey 'bugtracker' to a hash for either web
  or mailto resource
  
  =item *
  
  Changed specification of 'optional_features':
  
  =over
  
  =item *
  
  Added formal specification and usage guide instead of just example
  
  =item *
  
  Changed to use new prereqs data structure instead of individual keys
  
  =back
  
  =item *
  
  Clarified intended use of 'author' as generalized contact list
  
  =item *
  
  Added 'release_status' field to indicate stable, testing or unstable
  status to provide hints to indexers
  
  =item *
  
  Added 'description' field for a longer description of the distribution
  
  =item *
  
  Formalized use of "x_" or "X_" for all custom keys not listed in the
  official spec
  
  =back
  
  =head2 Version 1.4
  
  June 2008
  
  =over
  
  =item *
  
  Noted explicit support for 'perl' in prerequisites
  
  =item *
  
  Added 'configure_requires' prerequisite type
  
  =item *
  
  Changed 'optional_features'
  
  =over
  
  =item *
  
  Example corrected to show map of maps instead of list of maps
  (though descriptive text said 'map' even in v1.3)
  
  =item *
  
  Removed 'requires_packages', 'requires_os' and 'excluded_os'
  as valid subkeys
  
  =back
  
  =back
  
  =head2 Version 1.3
  
  November 2006
  
  =over
  
  =item *
  
  Added 'no_index' subkey 'directory' and removed 'dir' to match actual
  usage in the wild
  
  =item *
  
  Added a 'repository' subkey to 'resources'
  
  =back
  
  =head2 Version 1.2
  
  August 2005
  
  =over
  
  =item *
  
  Re-wrote and restructured spec in POD syntax
  
  =item *
  
  Changed 'name' to be mandatory
  
  =item *
  
  Changed 'generated_by' to be mandatory
  
  =item *
  
  Changed 'license' to be mandatory
  
  =item *
  
  Added version range specifications for prerequisites
  
  =item *
  
  Added required 'abstract' field
  
  =item *
  
  Added required 'author' field
  
  =item *
  
  Added required 'meta-spec' field to define 'version' (and 'url') of the
  CPAN Meta Spec used for metadata
  
  =item *
  
  Added 'provides' field
  
  =item *
  
  Added 'no_index' field and deprecated 'private' field.  'no_index'
  subkeys include 'file', 'dir', 'package' and 'namespace'
  
  =item *
  
  Added 'keywords' field
  
  =item *
  
  Added 'resources' field with subkeys 'homepage', 'license', and
  'bugtracker'
  
  =item *
  
  Added 'optional_features' field as an alternate under 'recommends'.
  Includes 'description', 'requires', 'build_requires', 'conflicts',
  'requires_packages', 'requires_os' and 'excluded_os' as valid subkeys
  
  =item *
  
  Removed 'license_uri' field
  
  =back
  
  =head2 Version 1.1
  
  May 2003
  
  =over
  
  =item *
  
  Changed 'version' to be mandatory
  
  =item *
  
  Added 'private' field
  
  =item *
  
  Added 'license_uri' field
  
  =back
  
  =head2 Version 1.0
  
  March 2003
  
  =over
  
  =item *
  
  Original release (in HTML format only)
  
  =item *
  
  Included 'name', 'version', 'license', 'distribution_type', 'requires',
  'recommends', 'build_requires', 'conflicts', 'dynamic_config',
  'generated_by'
  
  =back
  
  =head1 AUTHORS
  
  =over 4
  
  =item *
  
  David Golden <dagolden@cpan.org>
  
  =item *
  
  Ricardo Signes <rjbs@cpan.org>
  
  =back
  
  =head1 COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE
  
  This software is copyright (c) 2010 by David Golden and Ricardo Signes.
  
  This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
  the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.
  
  =cut
CPAN_META_HISTORY

$fatpacked{"CPAN/Meta/Merge.pm"} = '#line '.(1+__LINE__).' "'.__FILE__."\"\n".<<'CPAN_META_MERGE';
  use strict;
  use warnings;
  
  package CPAN::Meta::Merge;
  
  our $VERSION = '2.150005';
  
  use Carp qw/croak/;
  use Scalar::Util qw/blessed/;
  use CPAN::Meta::Converter 2.141170;
  
  sub _is_identical {
    my ($left, $right) = @_;
    return
      (not defined $left and not defined $right)
      # if either of these are references, we compare the serialized value
      || (defined $left and defined $right and $left eq $right);
  }
  
  sub _identical {
    my ($left, $right, $path) = @_;
    croak sprintf "Can't merge attribute %s: '%s' does not equal '%s'", join('.', @{$path}), $left, $right
      unless _is_identical($left, $right);
    return $left;
  }
  
  sub _merge {
    my ($current, $next, $mergers, $path) = @_;
    for my $key (keys %{$next}) {
      if (not exists $current->{$key}) {
        $current->{$key} = $next->{$key};
      }
      elsif (my $merger = $mergers->{$key}) {
        $current->{$key} = $merger->($current->{$key}, $next->{$key}, [ @{$path}, $key ]);
      }
      elsif ($merger = $mergers->{':default'}) {
        $current->{$key} = $merger->($current->{$key}, $next->{$key}, [ @{$path}, $key ]);
      }
      else {
        croak sprintf "Can't merge unknown attribute '%s'", join '.', @{$path}, $key;
      }
    }
    return $current;
  }
  
  sub _uniq {
    my %seen = ();
    return grep { not $seen{$_}++ } @_;
  }
  
  sub _set_addition {
    my ($left, $right) = @_;
    return [ +_uniq(@{$left}, @{$right}) ];
  }
  
  sub _uniq_map {
    my ($left, $right, $path) = @_;
    for my $key (keys %{$right}) {
      if (not exists $left->{$key}) {
        $left->{$key} = $right->{$key};
      }
      # identical strings or references are merged identically
      elsif (_is_identical($left->{$key}, $right->{$key})) {
        1; # do nothing - keep left
      }
      elsif (ref $left->{$key} eq 'HASH' and ref $right->{$key} eq 'HASH') {
        $left->{$key} = _uniq_map($left->{$key}, $right->{$key}, [ @{$path}, $key ]);
      }
      else {
        croak 'Duplication of element ' . join '.', @{$path}, $key;
      }
    }
    return $left;
  }
  
  sub _improvize {
    my ($left, $right, $path) = @_;
    my ($name) = reverse @{$path};
    if ($name =~ /^x_/) {
      if (ref($left) eq 'ARRAY') {
        return _set_addition($left, $right, $path);
      }
      elsif (ref($left) eq 'HASH') {
        return _uniq_map($left, $right, $path);
      }
      else {
        return _identical($left, $right, $path);
      }
    }
    croak sprintf "Can't merge '%s'", join '.', @{$path};
  }
  
  sub _optional_features {
    my ($left, $right, $path) = @_;
  
    for my $key (keys %{$right}) {
      if (not exists $left->{$key}) {
        $left->{$key} = $right->{$key};
      }
      else {
        for my $subkey (keys %{ $right->{$key} }) {
          next if $subkey eq 'prereqs';
          if (not exists $left->{$key}{$subkey}) {
            $left->{$key}{$subkey} = $right->{$key}{$subkey};
          }
          else {
            Carp::croak "Cannot merge two optional_features named '$key' with different '$subkey' values"
              if do { no warnings 'uninitialized'; $left->{$key}{$subkey} ne $right->{$key}{$subkey} };
          }
        }
  
        require CPAN::Meta::Prereqs;
        $left->{$key}{prereqs} =
          CPAN::Meta::Prereqs->new($left->{$key}{prereqs})
            ->with_merged_prereqs(CPAN::Meta::Prereqs->new($right->{$key}{prereqs}))
            ->as_string_hash;
      }
    }
    return $left;
  }
  
  
  my %default = (
    abstract       => \&_identical,
    author         => \&_set_addition,
    dynamic_config => sub {
      my ($left, $right) = @_;
      return $left || $right;
    },
    generated_by => sub {
      my ($left, $right) = @_;
      return join ', ', _uniq(split(/, /, $left), split(/, /, $right));
    },
    license     => \&_set_addition,
    'meta-spec' => {
      version => \&_identical,
      url     => \&_identical
    },
    name              => \&_identical,
    release_status    => \&_identical,
    version           => \&_identical,
    description       => \&_identical,
    keywords          => \&_set_addition,
    no_index          => { map { ($_ => \&_set_addition) } qw/file directory package namespace/ },
    optional_features => \&_optional_features,
    prereqs           => sub {
      require CPAN::Meta::Prereqs;
      my ($left, $right) = map { CPAN::Meta::Prereqs->new($_) } @_[0,1];
      return $left->with_merged_prereqs($right)->as_string_hash;
    },
    provides  => \&_uniq_map,
    resources => {
      license    => \&_set_addition,
      homepage   => \&_identical,
      bugtracker => \&_uniq_map,
      repository => \&_uniq_map,
      ':default' => \&_improvize,
    },
    ':default' => \&_improvize,
  );
  
  sub new {
    my ($class, %arguments) = @_;
    croak 'default version required' if not exists $arguments{default_version};
    my %mapping = %default;
    my %extra = %{ $arguments{extra_mappings} || {} };
    for my $key (keys %extra) {
      if (ref($mapping{$key}) eq 'HASH') {
        $mapping{$key} = { %{ $mapping{$key} }, %{ $extra{$key} } };
      }
      else {
        $mapping{$key} = $extra{$key};
      }
    }
    return bless {
      default_version => $arguments{default_version},
      mapping => _coerce_mapping(\%mapping, []),
    }, $class;
  }
  
  my %coderef_for = (
    set_addition => \&_set_addition,
    uniq_map     => \&_uniq_map,
    identical    => \&_identical,
    improvize    => \&_improvize,
  );
  
  sub _coerce_mapping {
    my ($orig, $map_path) = @_;
    my %ret;
    for my $key (keys %{$orig}) {
      my $value = $orig->{$key};
      if (ref($orig->{$key}) eq 'CODE') {
        $ret{$key} = $value;
      }
      elsif (ref($value) eq 'HASH') {
        my $mapping = _coerce_mapping($value, [ @{$map_path}, $key ]);
        $ret{$key} = sub {
          my ($left, $right, $path) = @_;
          return _merge($left, $right, $mapping, [ @{$path} ]);
        };
      }
      elsif ($coderef_for{$value}) {
        $ret{$key} = $coderef_for{$value};
      }
      else {
        croak "Don't know what to do with " . join '.', @{$map_path}, $key;
      }
    }
    return \%ret;
  }
  
  sub merge {
    my ($self, @items) = @_;
    my $current = {};
    for my $next (@items) {
      if ( blessed($next) && $next->isa('CPAN::Meta') ) {
        $next = $next->as_struct;
      }
      elsif ( ref($next) eq 'HASH' ) {
        my $cmc = CPAN::Meta::Converter->new(
          $next, default_version => $self->{default_version}
        );
        $next = $cmc->upgrade_fragment;
      }
      else {
        croak "Don't know how to merge '$next'";
      }
      $current = _merge($current, $next, $self->{mapping}, []);
    }
    return $current;
  }
  
  1;
  
  # ABSTRACT: Merging CPAN Meta fragments
  
  
  # vim: ts=2 sts=2 sw=2 et :
  
  __END__
  
  =pod
  
  =encoding UTF-8
  
  =head1 NAME
  
  CPAN::Meta::Merge - Merging CPAN Meta fragments
  
  =head1 VERSION
  
  version 2.150005
  
  =head1 SYNOPSIS
  
   my $merger = CPAN::Meta::Merge->new(default_version => "2");
   my $meta = $merger->merge($base, @additional);
  
  =head1 DESCRIPTION
  
  =head1 METHODS
  
  =head2 new
  
  This creates a CPAN::Meta::Merge object. It takes one mandatory named
  argument, C<version>, declaring the version of the meta-spec that must be
  used for the merge. It can optionally take an C<extra_mappings> argument
  that allows one to add additional merging functions for specific elements.
  
  =head2 merge(@fragments)
  
  Merge all C<@fragments> together. It will accept both CPAN::Meta objects and
  (possibly incomplete) hashrefs of metadata.
  
  =head1 AUTHORS
  
  =over 4
  
  =item *
  
  David Golden <dagolden@cpan.org>
  
  =item *
  
  Ricardo Signes <rjbs@cpan.org>
  
  =back
  
  =head1 COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE
  
  This software is copyright (c) 2010 by David Golden and Ricardo Signes.
  
  This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
  the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.
  
  =cut
CPAN_META_MERGE

$fatpacked{"CPAN/Meta/Prereqs.pm"} = '#line '.(1+__LINE__).' "'.__FILE__."\"\n".<<'CPAN_META_PREREQS';
  use 5.006;
  use strict;
  use warnings;
  package CPAN::Meta::Prereqs;
  
  our $VERSION = '2.150005';
  
  #pod =head1 DESCRIPTION
  #pod
  #pod A CPAN::Meta::Prereqs object represents the prerequisites for a CPAN
  #pod distribution or one of its optional features.  Each set of prereqs is
  #pod organized by phase and type, as described in L<CPAN::Meta::Prereqs>.
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  use Carp qw(confess);
  use Scalar::Util qw(blessed);
  use CPAN::Meta::Requirements 2.121;
  
  #pod =method new
  #pod
  #pod   my $prereq = CPAN::Meta::Prereqs->new( \%prereq_spec );
  #pod
  #pod This method returns a new set of Prereqs.  The input should look like the
  #pod contents of the C<prereqs> field described in L<CPAN::Meta::Spec>, meaning
  #pod something more or less like this:
  #pod
  #pod   my $prereq = CPAN::Meta::Prereqs->new({
  #pod     runtime => {
  #pod       requires => {
  #pod         'Some::Module' => '1.234',
  #pod         ...,
  #pod       },
  #pod       ...,
  #pod     },
  #pod     ...,
  #pod   });
  #pod
  #pod You can also construct an empty set of prereqs with:
  #pod
  #pod   my $prereqs = CPAN::Meta::Prereqs->new;
  #pod
  #pod This empty set of prereqs is useful for accumulating new prereqs before finally
  #pod dumping the whole set into a structure or string.
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  sub __legal_phases { qw(configure build test runtime develop)   }
  sub __legal_types  { qw(requires recommends suggests conflicts) }
  
  # expect a prereq spec from META.json -- rjbs, 2010-04-11
  sub new {
    my ($class, $prereq_spec) = @_;
    $prereq_spec ||= {};
  
    my %is_legal_phase = map {; $_ => 1 } $class->__legal_phases;
    my %is_legal_type  = map {; $_ => 1 } $class->__legal_types;
  
    my %guts;
    PHASE: for my $phase (keys %$prereq_spec) {
      next PHASE unless $phase =~ /\Ax_/i or $is_legal_phase{$phase};
  
      my $phase_spec = $prereq_spec->{ $phase };
      next PHASE unless keys %$phase_spec;
  
      TYPE: for my $type (keys %$phase_spec) {
        next TYPE unless $type =~ /\Ax_/i or $is_legal_type{$type};
  
        my $spec = $phase_spec->{ $type };
  
        next TYPE unless keys %$spec;
  
        $guts{prereqs}{$phase}{$type} = CPAN::Meta::Requirements->from_string_hash(
          $spec
        );
      }
    }
  
    return bless \%guts => $class;
  }
  
  #pod =method requirements_for
  #pod
  #pod   my $requirements = $prereqs->requirements_for( $phase, $type );
  #pod
  #pod This method returns a L<CPAN::Meta::Requirements> object for the given
  #pod phase/type combination.  If no prerequisites are registered for that
  #pod combination, a new CPAN::Meta::Requirements object will be returned, and it may
  #pod be added to as needed.
  #pod
  #pod If C<$phase> or C<$type> are undefined or otherwise invalid, an exception will
  #pod be raised.
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  sub requirements_for {
    my ($self, $phase, $type) = @_;
  
    confess "requirements_for called without phase" unless defined $phase;
    confess "requirements_for called without type"  unless defined $type;
  
    unless ($phase =~ /\Ax_/i or grep { $phase eq $_ } $self->__legal_phases) {
      confess "requested requirements for unknown phase: $phase";
    }
  
    unless ($type =~ /\Ax_/i or grep { $type eq $_ } $self->__legal_types) {
      confess "requested requirements for unknown type: $type";
    }
  
    my $req = ($self->{prereqs}{$phase}{$type} ||= CPAN::Meta::Requirements->new);
  
    $req->finalize if $self->is_finalized;
  
    return $req;
  }
  
  #pod =method with_merged_prereqs
  #pod
  #pod   my $new_prereqs = $prereqs->with_merged_prereqs( $other_prereqs );
  #pod
  #pod   my $new_prereqs = $prereqs->with_merged_prereqs( \@other_prereqs );
  #pod
  #pod This method returns a new CPAN::Meta::Prereqs objects in which all the
  #pod other prerequisites given are merged into the current set.  This is primarily
  #pod provided for combining a distribution's core prereqs with the prereqs of one of
  #pod its optional features.
  #pod
  #pod The new prereqs object has no ties to the originals, and altering it further
  #pod will not alter them.
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  sub with_merged_prereqs {
    my ($self, $other) = @_;
  
    my @other = blessed($other) ? $other : @$other;
  
    my @prereq_objs = ($self, @other);
  
    my %new_arg;
  
    for my $phase ($self->__legal_phases) {
      for my $type ($self->__legal_types) {
        my $req = CPAN::Meta::Requirements->new;
  
        for my $prereq (@prereq_objs) {
          my $this_req = $prereq->requirements_for($phase, $type);
          next unless $this_req->required_modules;
  
          $req->add_requirements($this_req);
        }
  
        next unless $req->required_modules;
  
        $new_arg{ $phase }{ $type } = $req->as_string_hash;
      }
    }
  
    return (ref $self)->new(\%new_arg);
  }
  
  #pod =method merged_requirements
  #pod
  #pod     my $new_reqs = $prereqs->merged_requirements( \@phases, \@types );
  #pod     my $new_reqs = $prereqs->merged_requirements( \@phases );
  #pod     my $new_reqs = $prereqs->merged_requirements();
  #pod
  #pod This method joins together all requirements across a number of phases
  #pod and types into a new L<CPAN::Meta::Requirements> object.  If arguments
  #pod are omitted, it defaults to "runtime", "build" and "test" for phases
  #pod and "requires" and "recommends" for types.
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  sub merged_requirements {
    my ($self, $phases, $types) = @_;
    $phases = [qw/runtime build test/] unless defined $phases;
    $types = [qw/requires recommends/] unless defined $types;
  
    confess "merged_requirements phases argument must be an arrayref"
      unless ref $phases eq 'ARRAY';
    confess "merged_requirements types argument must be an arrayref"
      unless ref $types eq 'ARRAY';
  
    my $req = CPAN::Meta::Requirements->new;
  
    for my $phase ( @$phases ) {
      unless ($phase =~ /\Ax_/i or grep { $phase eq $_ } $self->__legal_phases) {
          confess "requested requirements for unknown phase: $phase";
      }
      for my $type ( @$types ) {
        unless ($type =~ /\Ax_/i or grep { $type eq $_ } $self->__legal_types) {
            confess "requested requirements for unknown type: $type";
        }
        $req->add_requirements( $self->requirements_for($phase, $type) );
      }
    }
  
    $req->finalize if $self->is_finalized;
  
    return $req;
  }
  
  
  #pod =method as_string_hash
  #pod
  #pod This method returns a hashref containing structures suitable for dumping into a
  #pod distmeta data structure.  It is made up of hashes and strings, only; there will
  #pod be no Prereqs, CPAN::Meta::Requirements, or C<version> objects inside it.
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  sub as_string_hash {
    my ($self) = @_;
  
    my %hash;
  
    for my $phase ($self->__legal_phases) {
      for my $type ($self->__legal_types) {
        my $req = $self->requirements_for($phase, $type);
        next unless $req->required_modules;
  
        $hash{ $phase }{ $type } = $req->as_string_hash;
      }
    }
  
    return \%hash;
  }
  
  #pod =method is_finalized
  #pod
  #pod This method returns true if the set of prereqs has been marked "finalized," and
  #pod cannot be altered.
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  sub is_finalized { $_[0]{finalized} }
  
  #pod =method finalize
  #pod
  #pod Calling C<finalize> on a Prereqs object will close it for further modification.
  #pod Attempting to make any changes that would actually alter the prereqs will
  #pod result in an exception being thrown.
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  sub finalize {
    my ($self) = @_;
  
    $self->{finalized} = 1;
  
    for my $phase (keys %{ $self->{prereqs} }) {
      $_->finalize for values %{ $self->{prereqs}{$phase} };
    }
  }
  
  #pod =method clone
  #pod
  #pod   my $cloned_prereqs = $prereqs->clone;
  #pod
  #pod This method returns a Prereqs object that is identical to the original object,
  #pod but can be altered without affecting the original object.  Finalization does
  #pod not survive cloning, meaning that you may clone a finalized set of prereqs and
  #pod then modify the clone.
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  sub clone {
    my ($self) = @_;
  
    my $clone = (ref $self)->new( $self->as_string_hash );
  }
  
  1;
  
  # ABSTRACT: a set of distribution prerequisites by phase and type
  
  =pod
  
  =encoding UTF-8
  
  =head1 NAME
  
  CPAN::Meta::Prereqs - a set of distribution prerequisites by phase and type
  
  =head1 VERSION
  
  version 2.150005
  
  =head1 DESCRIPTION
  
  A CPAN::Meta::Prereqs object represents the prerequisites for a CPAN
  distribution or one of its optional features.  Each set of prereqs is
  organized by phase and type, as described in L<CPAN::Meta::Prereqs>.
  
  =head1 METHODS
  
  =head2 new
  
    my $prereq = CPAN::Meta::Prereqs->new( \%prereq_spec );
  
  This method returns a new set of Prereqs.  The input should look like the
  contents of the C<prereqs> field described in L<CPAN::Meta::Spec>, meaning
  something more or less like this:
  
    my $prereq = CPAN::Meta::Prereqs->new({
      runtime => {
        requires => {
          'Some::Module' => '1.234',
          ...,
        },
        ...,
      },
      ...,
    });
  
  You can also construct an empty set of prereqs with:
  
    my $prereqs = CPAN::Meta::Prereqs->new;
  
  This empty set of prereqs is useful for accumulating new prereqs before finally
  dumping the whole set into a structure or string.
  
  =head2 requirements_for
  
    my $requirements = $prereqs->requirements_for( $phase, $type );
  
  This method returns a L<CPAN::Meta::Requirements> object for the given
  phase/type combination.  If no prerequisites are registered for that
  combination, a new CPAN::Meta::Requirements object will be returned, and it may
  be added to as needed.
  
  If C<$phase> or C<$type> are undefined or otherwise invalid, an exception will
  be raised.
  
  =head2 with_merged_prereqs
  
    my $new_prereqs = $prereqs->with_merged_prereqs( $other_prereqs );
  
    my $new_prereqs = $prereqs->with_merged_prereqs( \@other_prereqs );
  
  This method returns a new CPAN::Meta::Prereqs objects in which all the
  other prerequisites given are merged into the current set.  This is primarily
  provided for combining a distribution's core prereqs with the prereqs of one of
  its optional features.
  
  The new prereqs object has no ties to the originals, and altering it further
  will not alter them.
  
  =head2 merged_requirements
  
      my $new_reqs = $prereqs->merged_requirements( \@phases, \@types );
      my $new_reqs = $prereqs->merged_requirements( \@phases );
      my $new_reqs = $prereqs->merged_requirements();
  
  This method joins together all requirements across a number of phases
  and types into a new L<CPAN::Meta::Requirements> object.  If arguments
  are omitted, it defaults to "runtime", "build" and "test" for phases
  and "requires" and "recommends" for types.
  
  =head2 as_string_hash
  
  This method returns a hashref containing structures suitable for dumping into a
  distmeta data structure.  It is made up of hashes and strings, only; there will
  be no Prereqs, CPAN::Meta::Requirements, or C<version> objects inside it.
  
  =head2 is_finalized
  
  This method returns true if the set of prereqs has been marked "finalized," and
  cannot be altered.
  
  =head2 finalize
  
  Calling C<finalize> on a Prereqs object will close it for further modification.
  Attempting to make any changes that would actually alter the prereqs will
  result in an exception being thrown.
  
  =head2 clone
  
    my $cloned_prereqs = $prereqs->clone;
  
  This method returns a Prereqs object that is identical to the original object,
  but can be altered without affecting the original object.  Finalization does
  not survive cloning, meaning that you may clone a finalized set of prereqs and
  then modify the clone.
  
  =head1 BUGS
  
  Please report any bugs or feature using the CPAN Request Tracker.
  Bugs can be submitted through the web interface at
  L<http://rt.cpan.org/Dist/Display.html?Queue=CPAN-Meta>
  
  When submitting a bug or request, please include a test-file or a patch to an
  existing test-file that illustrates the bug or desired feature.
  
  =head1 AUTHORS
  
  =over 4
  
  =item *
  
  David Golden <dagolden@cpan.org>
  
  =item *
  
  Ricardo Signes <rjbs@cpan.org>
  
  =back
  
  =head1 COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE
  
  This software is copyright (c) 2010 by David Golden and Ricardo Signes.
  
  This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
  the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.
  
  =cut
  
  __END__
  
  
  # vim: ts=2 sts=2 sw=2 et :
CPAN_META_PREREQS

$fatpacked{"CPAN/Meta/Requirements.pm"} = '#line '.(1+__LINE__).' "'.__FILE__."\"\n".<<'CPAN_META_REQUIREMENTS';
  use strict;
  use warnings;
  package CPAN::Meta::Requirements;
  # ABSTRACT: a set of version requirements for a CPAN dist
  
  our $VERSION = '2.133';
  
  #pod =head1 SYNOPSIS
  #pod
  #pod   use CPAN::Meta::Requirements;
  #pod
  #pod   my $build_requires = CPAN::Meta::Requirements->new;
  #pod
  #pod   $build_requires->add_minimum('Library::Foo' => 1.208);
  #pod
  #pod   $build_requires->add_minimum('Library::Foo' => 2.602);
  #pod
  #pod   $build_requires->add_minimum('Module::Bar'  => 'v1.2.3');
  #pod
  #pod   $METAyml->{build_requires} = $build_requires->as_string_hash;
  #pod
  #pod =head1 DESCRIPTION
  #pod
  #pod A CPAN::Meta::Requirements object models a set of version constraints like
  #pod those specified in the F<META.yml> or F<META.json> files in CPAN distributions,
  #pod and as defined by L<CPAN::Meta::Spec>;
  #pod It can be built up by adding more and more constraints, and it will reduce them
  #pod to the simplest representation.
  #pod
  #pod Logically impossible constraints will be identified immediately by thrown
  #pod exceptions.
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  use Carp ();
  
  # To help ExtUtils::MakeMaker bootstrap CPAN::Meta::Requirements on perls
  # before 5.10, we fall back to the EUMM bundled compatibility version module if
  # that's the only thing available.  This shouldn't ever happen in a normal CPAN
  # install of CPAN::Meta::Requirements, as version.pm will be picked up from
  # prereqs and be available at runtime.
  
  BEGIN {
    eval "use version ()"; ## no critic
    if ( my $err = $@ ) {
      eval "use ExtUtils::MakeMaker::version" or die $err; ## no critic
    }
  }
  
  # Perl 5.10.0 didn't have "is_qv" in version.pm
  *_is_qv = version->can('is_qv') ? sub { $_[0]->is_qv } : sub { exists $_[0]->{qv} };
  
  # construct once, reuse many times
  my $V0 = version->new(0);
  
  #pod =method new
  #pod
  #pod   my $req = CPAN::Meta::Requirements->new;
  #pod
  #pod This returns a new CPAN::Meta::Requirements object.  It takes an optional
  #pod hash reference argument.  Currently, only one key is supported:
  #pod
  #pod =for :list
  #pod * C<bad_version_hook> -- if provided, when a version cannot be parsed into
  #pod   a version object, this code reference will be called with the invalid
  #pod   version string as first argument, and the module name as second
  #pod   argument.  It must return a valid version object.
  #pod
  #pod All other keys are ignored.
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  my @valid_options = qw( bad_version_hook );
  
  sub new {
    my ($class, $options) = @_;
    $options ||= {};
    Carp::croak "Argument to $class\->new() must be a hash reference"
      unless ref $options eq 'HASH';
    my %self = map {; $_ => $options->{$_}} @valid_options;
  
    return bless \%self => $class;
  }
  
  # from version::vpp
  sub _find_magic_vstring {
    my $value = shift;
    my $tvalue = '';
    require B;
    my $sv = B::svref_2object(\$value);
    my $magic = ref($sv) eq 'B::PVMG' ? $sv->MAGIC : undef;
    while ( $magic ) {
      if ( $magic->TYPE eq 'V' ) {
        $tvalue = $magic->PTR;
        $tvalue =~ s/^v?(.+)$/v$1/;
        last;
      }
      else {
        $magic = $magic->MOREMAGIC;
      }
    }
    return $tvalue;
  }
  
  # safe if given an unblessed reference
  sub _isa_version {
    UNIVERSAL::isa( $_[0], 'UNIVERSAL' ) && $_[0]->isa('version')
  }
  
  sub _version_object {
    my ($self, $module, $version) = @_;
  
    my ($vobj, $err);
  
    if (not defined $version or (!ref($version) && $version eq '0')) {
      return $V0;
    }
    elsif ( ref($version) eq 'version' || _isa_version($version) ) {
      $vobj = $version;
    }
    else {
      # hack around version::vpp not handling <3 character vstring literals
      if ( $INC{'version/vpp.pm'} || $INC{'ExtUtils/MakeMaker/version/vpp.pm'} ) {
        my $magic = _find_magic_vstring( $version );
        $version = $magic if length $magic;
      }
      eval {
        local $SIG{__WARN__} = sub { die "Invalid version: $_[0]" };
        $vobj = version->new($version);
      };
      if ( my $err = $@ ) {
        my $hook = $self->{bad_version_hook};
        $vobj = eval { $hook->($version, $module) }
          if ref $hook eq 'CODE';
        unless (eval { $vobj->isa("version") }) {
          $err =~ s{ at .* line \d+.*$}{};
          die "Can't convert '$version': $err";
        }
      }
    }
  
    # ensure no leading '.'
    if ( $vobj =~ m{\A\.} ) {
      $vobj = version->new("0$vobj");
    }
  
    # ensure normal v-string form
    if ( _is_qv($vobj) ) {
      $vobj = version->new($vobj->normal);
    }
  
    return $vobj;
  }
  
  #pod =method add_minimum
  #pod
  #pod   $req->add_minimum( $module => $version );
  #pod
  #pod This adds a new minimum version requirement.  If the new requirement is
  #pod redundant to the existing specification, this has no effect.
  #pod
  #pod Minimum requirements are inclusive.  C<$version> is required, along with any
  #pod greater version number.
  #pod
  #pod This method returns the requirements object.
  #pod
  #pod =method add_maximum
  #pod
  #pod   $req->add_maximum( $module => $version );
  #pod
  #pod This adds a new maximum version requirement.  If the new requirement is
  #pod redundant to the existing specification, this has no effect.
  #pod
  #pod Maximum requirements are inclusive.  No version strictly greater than the given
  #pod version is allowed.
  #pod
  #pod This method returns the requirements object.
  #pod
  #pod =method add_exclusion
  #pod
  #pod   $req->add_exclusion( $module => $version );
  #pod
  #pod This adds a new excluded version.  For example, you might use these three
  #pod method calls:
  #pod
  #pod   $req->add_minimum( $module => '1.00' );
  #pod   $req->add_maximum( $module => '1.82' );
  #pod
  #pod   $req->add_exclusion( $module => '1.75' );
  #pod
  #pod Any version between 1.00 and 1.82 inclusive would be acceptable, except for
  #pod 1.75.
  #pod
  #pod This method returns the requirements object.
  #pod
  #pod =method exact_version
  #pod
  #pod   $req->exact_version( $module => $version );
  #pod
  #pod This sets the version required for the given module to I<exactly> the given
  #pod version.  No other version would be considered acceptable.
  #pod
  #pod This method returns the requirements object.
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  BEGIN {
    for my $type (qw(maximum exclusion exact_version)) {
      my $method = "with_$type";
      my $to_add = $type eq 'exact_version' ? $type : "add_$type";
  
      my $code = sub {
        my ($self, $name, $version) = @_;
  
        $version = $self->_version_object( $name, $version );
  
        $self->__modify_entry_for($name, $method, $version);
  
        return $self;
      };
      
      no strict 'refs';
      *$to_add = $code;
    }
  }
  
  # add_minimum is optimized compared to generated subs above because
  # it is called frequently and with "0" or equivalent input
  sub add_minimum {
    my ($self, $name, $version) = @_;
  
    # stringify $version so that version->new("0.00")->stringify ne "0"
    # which preserves the user's choice of "0.00" as the requirement
    if (not defined $version or "$version" eq '0') {
      return $self if $self->__entry_for($name);
      Carp::confess("can't add new requirements to finalized requirements")
        if $self->is_finalized;
  
      $self->{requirements}{ $name } =
        CPAN::Meta::Requirements::_Range::Range->with_minimum($V0);
    }
    else {
      $version = $self->_version_object( $name, $version );
  
      $self->__modify_entry_for($name, 'with_minimum', $version);
    }
    return $self;
  }
  
  #pod =method add_requirements
  #pod
  #pod   $req->add_requirements( $another_req_object );
  #pod
  #pod This method adds all the requirements in the given CPAN::Meta::Requirements object
  #pod to the requirements object on which it was called.  If there are any conflicts,
  #pod an exception is thrown.
  #pod
  #pod This method returns the requirements object.
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  sub add_requirements {
    my ($self, $req) = @_;
  
    for my $module ($req->required_modules) {
      my $modifiers = $req->__entry_for($module)->as_modifiers;
      for my $modifier (@$modifiers) {
        my ($method, @args) = @$modifier;
        $self->$method($module => @args);
      };
    }
  
    return $self;
  }
  
  #pod =method accepts_module
  #pod
  #pod   my $bool = $req->accepts_module($module => $version);
  #pod
  #pod Given an module and version, this method returns true if the version
  #pod specification for the module accepts the provided version.  In other words,
  #pod given:
  #pod
  #pod   Module => '>= 1.00, < 2.00'
  #pod
  #pod We will accept 1.00 and 1.75 but not 0.50 or 2.00.
  #pod
  #pod For modules that do not appear in the requirements, this method will return
  #pod true.
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  sub accepts_module {
    my ($self, $module, $version) = @_;
  
    $version = $self->_version_object( $module, $version );
  
    return 1 unless my $range = $self->__entry_for($module);
    return $range->_accepts($version);
  }
  
  #pod =method clear_requirement
  #pod
  #pod   $req->clear_requirement( $module );
  #pod
  #pod This removes the requirement for a given module from the object.
  #pod
  #pod This method returns the requirements object.
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  sub clear_requirement {
    my ($self, $module) = @_;
  
    return $self unless $self->__entry_for($module);
  
    Carp::confess("can't clear requirements on finalized requirements")
      if $self->is_finalized;
  
    delete $self->{requirements}{ $module };
  
    return $self;
  }
  
  #pod =method requirements_for_module
  #pod
  #pod   $req->requirements_for_module( $module );
  #pod
  #pod This returns a string containing the version requirements for a given module in
  #pod the format described in L<CPAN::Meta::Spec> or undef if the given module has no
  #pod requirements. This should only be used for informational purposes such as error
  #pod messages and should not be interpreted or used for comparison (see
  #pod L</accepts_module> instead.)
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  sub requirements_for_module {
    my ($self, $module) = @_;
    my $entry = $self->__entry_for($module);
    return unless $entry;
    return $entry->as_string;
  }
  
  #pod =method required_modules
  #pod
  #pod This method returns a list of all the modules for which requirements have been
  #pod specified.
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  sub required_modules { keys %{ $_[0]{requirements} } }
  
  #pod =method clone
  #pod
  #pod   $req->clone;
  #pod
  #pod This method returns a clone of the invocant.  The clone and the original object
  #pod can then be changed independent of one another.
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  sub clone {
    my ($self) = @_;
    my $new = (ref $self)->new;
  
    return $new->add_requirements($self);
  }
  
  sub __entry_for     { $_[0]{requirements}{ $_[1] } }
  
  sub __modify_entry_for {
    my ($self, $name, $method, $version) = @_;
  
    my $fin = $self->is_finalized;
    my $old = $self->__entry_for($name);
  
    Carp::confess("can't add new requirements to finalized requirements")
      if $fin and not $old;
  
    my $new = ($old || 'CPAN::Meta::Requirements::_Range::Range')
            ->$method($version);
  
    Carp::confess("can't modify finalized requirements")
      if $fin and $old->as_string ne $new->as_string;
  
    $self->{requirements}{ $name } = $new;
  }
  
  #pod =method is_simple
  #pod
  #pod This method returns true if and only if all requirements are inclusive minimums
  #pod -- that is, if their string expression is just the version number.
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  sub is_simple {
    my ($self) = @_;
    for my $module ($self->required_modules) {
      # XXX: This is a complete hack, but also entirely correct.
      return if $self->__entry_for($module)->as_string =~ /\s/;
    }
  
    return 1;
  }
  
  #pod =method is_finalized
  #pod
  #pod This method returns true if the requirements have been finalized by having the
  #pod C<finalize> method called on them.
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  sub is_finalized { $_[0]{finalized} }
  
  #pod =method finalize
  #pod
  #pod This method marks the requirements finalized.  Subsequent attempts to change
  #pod the requirements will be fatal, I<if> they would result in a change.  If they
  #pod would not alter the requirements, they have no effect.
  #pod
  #pod If a finalized set of requirements is cloned, the cloned requirements are not
  #pod also finalized.
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  sub finalize { $_[0]{finalized} = 1 }
  
  #pod =method as_string_hash
  #pod
  #pod This returns a reference to a hash describing the requirements using the
  #pod strings in the L<CPAN::Meta::Spec> specification.
  #pod
  #pod For example after the following program:
  #pod
  #pod   my $req = CPAN::Meta::Requirements->new;
  #pod
  #pod   $req->add_minimum('CPAN::Meta::Requirements' => 0.102);
  #pod
  #pod   $req->add_minimum('Library::Foo' => 1.208);
  #pod
  #pod   $req->add_maximum('Library::Foo' => 2.602);
  #pod
  #pod   $req->add_minimum('Module::Bar'  => 'v1.2.3');
  #pod
  #pod   $req->add_exclusion('Module::Bar'  => 'v1.2.8');
  #pod
  #pod   $req->exact_version('Xyzzy'  => '6.01');
  #pod
  #pod   my $hashref = $req->as_string_hash;
  #pod
  #pod C<$hashref> would contain:
  #pod
  #pod   {
  #pod     'CPAN::Meta::Requirements' => '0.102',
  #pod     'Library::Foo' => '>= 1.208, <= 2.206',
  #pod     'Module::Bar'  => '>= v1.2.3, != v1.2.8',
  #pod     'Xyzzy'        => '== 6.01',
  #pod   }
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  sub as_string_hash {
    my ($self) = @_;
  
    my %hash = map {; $_ => $self->{requirements}{$_}->as_string }
               $self->required_modules;
  
    return \%hash;
  }
  
  #pod =method add_string_requirement
  #pod
  #pod   $req->add_string_requirement('Library::Foo' => '>= 1.208, <= 2.206');
  #pod   $req->add_string_requirement('Library::Foo' => v1.208);
  #pod
  #pod This method parses the passed in string and adds the appropriate requirement
  #pod for the given module.  A version can be a Perl "v-string".  It understands
  #pod version ranges as described in the L<CPAN::Meta::Spec/Version Ranges>. For
  #pod example:
  #pod
  #pod =over 4
  #pod
  #pod =item 1.3
  #pod
  #pod =item >= 1.3
  #pod
  #pod =item <= 1.3
  #pod
  #pod =item == 1.3
  #pod
  #pod =item != 1.3
  #pod
  #pod =item > 1.3
  #pod
  #pod =item < 1.3
  #pod
  #pod =item >= 1.3, != 1.5, <= 2.0
  #pod
  #pod A version number without an operator is equivalent to specifying a minimum
  #pod (C<E<gt>=>).  Extra whitespace is allowed.
  #pod
  #pod =back
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  my %methods_for_op = (
    '==' => [ qw(exact_version) ],
    '!=' => [ qw(add_exclusion) ],
    '>=' => [ qw(add_minimum)   ],
    '<=' => [ qw(add_maximum)   ],
    '>'  => [ qw(add_minimum add_exclusion) ],
    '<'  => [ qw(add_maximum add_exclusion) ],
  );
  
  sub add_string_requirement {
    my ($self, $module, $req) = @_;
  
    unless ( defined $req && length $req ) {
      $req = 0;
      $self->_blank_carp($module);
    }
  
    my $magic = _find_magic_vstring( $req );
    if (length $magic) {
      $self->add_minimum($module => $magic);
      return;
    }
  
    my @parts = split qr{\s*,\s*}, $req;
  
    for my $part (@parts) {
      my ($op, $ver) = $part =~ m{\A\s*(==|>=|>|<=|<|!=)\s*(.*)\z};
  
      if (! defined $op) {
        $self->add_minimum($module => $part);
      } else {
        Carp::confess("illegal requirement string: $req")
          unless my $methods = $methods_for_op{ $op };
  
        $self->$_($module => $ver) for @$methods;
      }
    }
  }
  
  #pod =method from_string_hash
  #pod
  #pod   my $req = CPAN::Meta::Requirements->from_string_hash( \%hash );
  #pod   my $req = CPAN::Meta::Requirements->from_string_hash( \%hash, \%opts );
  #pod
  #pod This is an alternate constructor for a CPAN::Meta::Requirements
  #pod object. It takes a hash of module names and version requirement
  #pod strings and returns a new CPAN::Meta::Requirements object. As with
  #pod add_string_requirement, a version can be a Perl "v-string". Optionally,
  #pod you can supply a hash-reference of options, exactly as with the L</new>
  #pod method.
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  sub _blank_carp {
    my ($self, $module) = @_;
    Carp::carp("Undefined requirement for $module treated as '0'");
  }
  
  sub from_string_hash {
    my ($class, $hash, $options) = @_;
  
    my $self = $class->new($options);
  
    for my $module (keys %$hash) {
      my $req = $hash->{$module};
      unless ( defined $req && length $req ) {
        $req = 0;
        $class->_blank_carp($module);
      }
      $self->add_string_requirement($module, $req);
    }
  
    return $self;
  }
  
  ##############################################################
  
  {
    package
      CPAN::Meta::Requirements::_Range::Exact;
    sub _new     { bless { version => $_[1] } => $_[0] }
  
    sub _accepts { return $_[0]{version} == $_[1] }
  
    sub as_string { return "== $_[0]{version}" }
  
    sub as_modifiers { return [ [ exact_version => $_[0]{version} ] ] }
  
    sub _clone {
      (ref $_[0])->_new( version->new( $_[0]{version} ) )
    }
  
    sub with_exact_version {
      my ($self, $version) = @_;
  
      return $self->_clone if $self->_accepts($version);
  
      Carp::confess("illegal requirements: unequal exact version specified");
    }
  
    sub with_minimum {
      my ($self, $minimum) = @_;
      return $self->_clone if $self->{version} >= $minimum;
      Carp::confess("illegal requirements: minimum above exact specification");
    }
  
    sub with_maximum {
      my ($self, $maximum) = @_;
      return $self->_clone if $self->{version} <= $maximum;
      Carp::confess("illegal requirements: maximum below exact specification");
    }
  
    sub with_exclusion {
      my ($self, $exclusion) = @_;
      return $self->_clone unless $exclusion == $self->{version};
      Carp::confess("illegal requirements: excluded exact specification");
    }
  }
  
  ##############################################################
  
  {
    package
      CPAN::Meta::Requirements::_Range::Range;
  
    sub _self { ref($_[0]) ? $_[0] : (bless { } => $_[0]) }
  
    sub _clone {
      return (bless { } => $_[0]) unless ref $_[0];
  
      my ($s) = @_;
      my %guts = (
        (exists $s->{minimum} ? (minimum => version->new($s->{minimum})) : ()),
        (exists $s->{maximum} ? (maximum => version->new($s->{maximum})) : ()),
  
        (exists $s->{exclusions}
          ? (exclusions => [ map { version->new($_) } @{ $s->{exclusions} } ])
          : ()),
      );
  
      bless \%guts => ref($s);
    }
  
    sub as_modifiers {
      my ($self) = @_;
      my @mods;
      push @mods, [ add_minimum => $self->{minimum} ] if exists $self->{minimum};
      push @mods, [ add_maximum => $self->{maximum} ] if exists $self->{maximum};
      push @mods, map {; [ add_exclusion => $_ ] } @{$self->{exclusions} || []};
      return \@mods;
    }
  
    sub as_string {
      my ($self) = @_;
  
      return 0 if ! keys %$self;
  
      return "$self->{minimum}" if (keys %$self) == 1 and exists $self->{minimum};
  
      my @exclusions = @{ $self->{exclusions} || [] };
  
      my @parts;
  
      for my $pair (
        [ qw( >= > minimum ) ],
        [ qw( <= < maximum ) ],
      ) {
        my ($op, $e_op, $k) = @$pair;
        if (exists $self->{$k}) {
          my @new_exclusions = grep { $_ != $self->{ $k } } @exclusions;
          if (@new_exclusions == @exclusions) {
            push @parts, "$op $self->{ $k }";
          } else {
            push @parts, "$e_op $self->{ $k }";
            @exclusions = @new_exclusions;
          }
        }
      }
  
      push @parts, map {; "!= $_" } @exclusions;
  
      return join q{, }, @parts;
    }
  
    sub with_exact_version {
      my ($self, $version) = @_;
      $self = $self->_clone;
  
      Carp::confess("illegal requirements: exact specification outside of range")
        unless $self->_accepts($version);
  
      return CPAN::Meta::Requirements::_Range::Exact->_new($version);
    }
  
    sub _simplify {
      my ($self) = @_;
  
      if (defined $self->{minimum} and defined $self->{maximum}) {
        if ($self->{minimum} == $self->{maximum}) {
          Carp::confess("illegal requirements: excluded all values")
            if grep { $_ == $self->{minimum} } @{ $self->{exclusions} || [] };
  
          return CPAN::Meta::Requirements::_Range::Exact->_new($self->{minimum})
        }
  
        Carp::confess("illegal requirements: minimum exceeds maximum")
          if $self->{minimum} > $self->{maximum};
      }
  
      # eliminate irrelevant exclusions
      if ($self->{exclusions}) {
        my %seen;
        @{ $self->{exclusions} } = grep {
          (! defined $self->{minimum} or $_ >= $self->{minimum})
          and
          (! defined $self->{maximum} or $_ <= $self->{maximum})
          and
          ! $seen{$_}++
        } @{ $self->{exclusions} };
      }
  
      return $self;
    }
  
    sub with_minimum {
      my ($self, $minimum) = @_;
      $self = $self->_clone;
  
      if (defined (my $old_min = $self->{minimum})) {
        $self->{minimum} = (sort { $b cmp $a } ($minimum, $old_min))[0];
      } else {
        $self->{minimum} = $minimum;
      }
  
      return $self->_simplify;
    }
  
    sub with_maximum {
      my ($self, $maximum) = @_;
      $self = $self->_clone;
  
      if (defined (my $old_max = $self->{maximum})) {
        $self->{maximum} = (sort { $a cmp $b } ($maximum, $old_max))[0];
      } else {
        $self->{maximum} = $maximum;
      }
  
      return $self->_simplify;
    }
  
    sub with_exclusion {
      my ($self, $exclusion) = @_;
      $self = $self->_clone;
  
      push @{ $self->{exclusions} ||= [] }, $exclusion;
  
      return $self->_simplify;
    }
  
    sub _accepts {
      my ($self, $version) = @_;
  
      return if defined $self->{minimum} and $version < $self->{minimum};
      return if defined $self->{maximum} and $version > $self->{maximum};
      return if defined $self->{exclusions}
            and grep { $version == $_ } @{ $self->{exclusions} };
  
      return 1;
    }
  }
  
  1;
  # vim: ts=2 sts=2 sw=2 et:
  
  __END__
  
  =pod
  
  =encoding UTF-8
  
  =head1 NAME
  
  CPAN::Meta::Requirements - a set of version requirements for a CPAN dist
  
  =head1 VERSION
  
  version 2.133
  
  =head1 SYNOPSIS
  
    use CPAN::Meta::Requirements;
  
    my $build_requires = CPAN::Meta::Requirements->new;
  
    $build_requires->add_minimum('Library::Foo' => 1.208);
  
    $build_requires->add_minimum('Library::Foo' => 2.602);
  
    $build_requires->add_minimum('Module::Bar'  => 'v1.2.3');
  
    $METAyml->{build_requires} = $build_requires->as_string_hash;
  
  =head1 DESCRIPTION
  
  A CPAN::Meta::Requirements object models a set of version constraints like
  those specified in the F<META.yml> or F<META.json> files in CPAN distributions,
  and as defined by L<CPAN::Meta::Spec>;
  It can be built up by adding more and more constraints, and it will reduce them
  to the simplest representation.
  
  Logically impossible constraints will be identified immediately by thrown
  exceptions.
  
  =head1 METHODS
  
  =head2 new
  
    my $req = CPAN::Meta::Requirements->new;
  
  This returns a new CPAN::Meta::Requirements object.  It takes an optional
  hash reference argument.  Currently, only one key is supported:
  
  =over 4
  
  =item *
  
  C<bad_version_hook> -- if provided, when a version cannot be parsed into a version object, this code reference will be called with the invalid version string as first argument, and the module name as second argument.  It must return a valid version object.
  
  =back
  
  All other keys are ignored.
  
  =head2 add_minimum
  
    $req->add_minimum( $module => $version );
  
  This adds a new minimum version requirement.  If the new requirement is
  redundant to the existing specification, this has no effect.
  
  Minimum requirements are inclusive.  C<$version> is required, along with any
  greater version number.
  
  This method returns the requirements object.
  
  =head2 add_maximum
  
    $req->add_maximum( $module => $version );
  
  This adds a new maximum version requirement.  If the new requirement is
  redundant to the existing specification, this has no effect.
  
  Maximum requirements are inclusive.  No version strictly greater than the given
  version is allowed.
  
  This method returns the requirements object.
  
  =head2 add_exclusion
  
    $req->add_exclusion( $module => $version );
  
  This adds a new excluded version.  For example, you might use these three
  method calls:
  
    $req->add_minimum( $module => '1.00' );
    $req->add_maximum( $module => '1.82' );
  
    $req->add_exclusion( $module => '1.75' );
  
  Any version between 1.00 and 1.82 inclusive would be acceptable, except for
  1.75.
  
  This method returns the requirements object.
  
  =head2 exact_version
  
    $req->exact_version( $module => $version );
  
  This sets the version required for the given module to I<exactly> the given
  version.  No other version would be considered acceptable.
  
  This method returns the requirements object.
  
  =head2 add_requirements
  
    $req->add_requirements( $another_req_object );
  
  This method adds all the requirements in the given CPAN::Meta::Requirements object
  to the requirements object on which it was called.  If there are any conflicts,
  an exception is thrown.
  
  This method returns the requirements object.
  
  =head2 accepts_module
  
    my $bool = $req->accepts_module($module => $version);
  
  Given an module and version, this method returns true if the version
  specification for the module accepts the provided version.  In other words,
  given:
  
    Module => '>= 1.00, < 2.00'
  
  We will accept 1.00 and 1.75 but not 0.50 or 2.00.
  
  For modules that do not appear in the requirements, this method will return
  true.
  
  =head2 clear_requirement
  
    $req->clear_requirement( $module );
  
  This removes the requirement for a given module from the object.
  
  This method returns the requirements object.
  
  =head2 requirements_for_module
  
    $req->requirements_for_module( $module );
  
  This returns a string containing the version requirements for a given module in
  the format described in L<CPAN::Meta::Spec> or undef if the given module has no
  requirements. This should only be used for informational purposes such as error
  messages and should not be interpreted or used for comparison (see
  L</accepts_module> instead.)
  
  =head2 required_modules
  
  This method returns a list of all the modules for which requirements have been
  specified.
  
  =head2 clone
  
    $req->clone;
  
  This method returns a clone of the invocant.  The clone and the original object
  can then be changed independent of one another.
  
  =head2 is_simple
  
  This method returns true if and only if all requirements are inclusive minimums
  -- that is, if their string expression is just the version number.
  
  =head2 is_finalized
  
  This method returns true if the requirements have been finalized by having the
  C<finalize> method called on them.
  
  =head2 finalize
  
  This method marks the requirements finalized.  Subsequent attempts to change
  the requirements will be fatal, I<if> they would result in a change.  If they
  would not alter the requirements, they have no effect.
  
  If a finalized set of requirements is cloned, the cloned requirements are not
  also finalized.
  
  =head2 as_string_hash
  
  This returns a reference to a hash describing the requirements using the
  strings in the L<CPAN::Meta::Spec> specification.
  
  For example after the following program:
  
    my $req = CPAN::Meta::Requirements->new;
  
    $req->add_minimum('CPAN::Meta::Requirements' => 0.102);
  
    $req->add_minimum('Library::Foo' => 1.208);
  
    $req->add_maximum('Library::Foo' => 2.602);
  
    $req->add_minimum('Module::Bar'  => 'v1.2.3');
  
    $req->add_exclusion('Module::Bar'  => 'v1.2.8');
  
    $req->exact_version('Xyzzy'  => '6.01');
  
    my $hashref = $req->as_string_hash;
  
  C<$hashref> would contain:
  
    {
      'CPAN::Meta::Requirements' => '0.102',
      'Library::Foo' => '>= 1.208, <= 2.206',
      'Module::Bar'  => '>= v1.2.3, != v1.2.8',
      'Xyzzy'        => '== 6.01',
    }
  
  =head2 add_string_requirement
  
    $req->add_string_requirement('Library::Foo' => '>= 1.208, <= 2.206');
    $req->add_string_requirement('Library::Foo' => v1.208);
  
  This method parses the passed in string and adds the appropriate requirement
  for the given module.  A version can be a Perl "v-string".  It understands
  version ranges as described in the L<CPAN::Meta::Spec/Version Ranges>. For
  example:
  
  =over 4
  
  =item 1.3
  
  =item >= 1.3
  
  =item <= 1.3
  
  =item == 1.3
  
  =item != 1.3
  
  =item > 1.3
  
  =item < 1.3
  
  =item >= 1.3, != 1.5, <= 2.0
  
  A version number without an operator is equivalent to specifying a minimum
  (C<E<gt>=>).  Extra whitespace is allowed.
  
  =back
  
  =head2 from_string_hash
  
    my $req = CPAN::Meta::Requirements->from_string_hash( \%hash );
    my $req = CPAN::Meta::Requirements->from_string_hash( \%hash, \%opts );
  
  This is an alternate constructor for a CPAN::Meta::Requirements
  object. It takes a hash of module names and version requirement
  strings and returns a new CPAN::Meta::Requirements object. As with
  add_string_requirement, a version can be a Perl "v-string". Optionally,
  you can supply a hash-reference of options, exactly as with the L</new>
  method.
  
  =for :stopwords cpan testmatrix url annocpan anno bugtracker rt cpants kwalitee diff irc mailto metadata placeholders metacpan
  
  =head1 SUPPORT
  
  =head2 Bugs / Feature Requests
  
  Please report any bugs or feature requests through the issue tracker
  at L<https://github.com/dagolden/CPAN-Meta-Requirements/issues>.
  You will be notified automatically of any progress on your issue.
  
  =head2 Source Code
  
  This is open source software.  The code repository is available for
  public review and contribution under the terms of the license.
  
  L<https://github.com/dagolden/CPAN-Meta-Requirements>
  
    git clone https://github.com/dagolden/CPAN-Meta-Requirements.git
  
  =head1 AUTHORS
  
  =over 4
  
  =item *
  
  David Golden <dagolden@cpan.org>
  
  =item *
  
  Ricardo Signes <rjbs@cpan.org>
  
  =back
  
  =head1 CONTRIBUTORS
  
  =for stopwords Ed J Karen Etheridge Leon Timmermans robario
  
  =over 4
  
  =item *
  
  Ed J <mohawk2@users.noreply.github.com>
  
  =item *
  
  Karen Etheridge <ether@cpan.org>
  
  =item *
  
  Leon Timmermans <fawaka@gmail.com>
  
  =item *
  
  robario <webmaster@robario.com>
  
  =back
  
  =head1 COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE
  
  This software is copyright (c) 2010 by David Golden and Ricardo Signes.
  
  This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
  the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.
  
  =cut
CPAN_META_REQUIREMENTS

$fatpacked{"CPAN/Meta/Spec.pm"} = '#line '.(1+__LINE__).' "'.__FILE__."\"\n".<<'CPAN_META_SPEC';
  # XXX RULES FOR PATCHING THIS FILE XXX
  # Patches that fix typos or formatting are acceptable.  Patches
  # that change semantics are not acceptable without prior approval
  # by David Golden or Ricardo Signes.
  
  use 5.006;
  use strict;
  use warnings;
  package CPAN::Meta::Spec;
  
  our $VERSION = '2.150005';
  
  1;
  
  # ABSTRACT: specification for CPAN distribution metadata
  
  
  # vi:tw=72
  
  __END__
  
  =pod
  
  =encoding UTF-8
  
  =head1 NAME
  
  CPAN::Meta::Spec - specification for CPAN distribution metadata
  
  =head1 VERSION
  
  version 2.150005
  
  =head1 SYNOPSIS
  
    my $distmeta = {
      name => 'Module-Build',
      abstract => 'Build and install Perl modules',
      description =>  "Module::Build is a system for "
        . "building, testing, and installing Perl modules. "
        . "It is meant to ... blah blah blah ...",
      version  => '0.36',
      release_status => 'stable',
      author   => [
        'Ken Williams <kwilliams@cpan.org>',
        'Module-Build List <module-build@perl.org>', # additional contact
      ],
      license  => [ 'perl_5' ],
      prereqs => {
        runtime => {
          requires => {
            'perl'   => '5.006',
            'ExtUtils::Install' => '0',
            'File::Basename' => '0',
            'File::Compare'  => '0',
            'IO::File'   => '0',
          },
          recommends => {
            'Archive::Tar' => '1.00',
            'ExtUtils::Install' => '0.3',
            'ExtUtils::ParseXS' => '2.02',
          },
        },
        build => {
          requires => {
            'Test::More' => '0',
          },
        }
      },
      resources => {
        license => ['http://dev.perl.org/licenses/'],
      },
      optional_features => {
        domination => {
          description => 'Take over the world',
          prereqs     => {
            develop => { requires => { 'Genius::Evil'     => '1.234' } },
            runtime => { requires => { 'Machine::Weather' => '2.0'   } },
          },
        },
      },
      dynamic_config => 1,
      keywords => [ qw/ toolchain cpan dual-life / ],
      'meta-spec' => {
        version => '2',
        url     => 'https://metacpan.org/pod/CPAN::Meta::Spec',
      },
      generated_by => 'Module::Build version 0.36',
    };
  
  =head1 DESCRIPTION
  
  This document describes version 2 of the CPAN distribution metadata
  specification, also known as the "CPAN Meta Spec".
  
  Revisions of this specification for typo corrections and prose
  clarifications may be issued as CPAN::Meta::Spec 2.I<x>.  These
  revisions will never change semantics or add or remove specified
  behavior.
  
  Distribution metadata describe important properties of Perl
  distributions. Distribution building tools like Module::Build,
  Module::Install, ExtUtils::MakeMaker or Dist::Zilla should create a
  metadata file in accordance with this specification and include it with
  the distribution for use by automated tools that index, examine, package
  or install Perl distributions.
  
  =head1 TERMINOLOGY
  
  =over 4
  
  =item distribution
  
  This is the primary object described by the metadata. In the context of
  this document it usually refers to a collection of modules, scripts,
  and/or documents that are distributed together for other developers to
  use.  Examples of distributions are C<Class-Container>, C<libwww-perl>,
  or C<DBI>.
  
  =item module
  
  This refers to a reusable library of code contained in a single file.
  Modules usually contain one or more packages and are often referred
  to by the name of a primary package that can be mapped to the file
  name. For example, one might refer to C<File::Spec> instead of
  F<File/Spec.pm>
  
  =item package
  
  This refers to a namespace declared with the Perl C<package> statement.
  In Perl, packages often have a version number property given by the
  C<$VERSION> variable in the namespace.
  
  =item consumer
  
  This refers to code that reads a metadata file, deserializes it into a
  data structure in memory, or interprets a data structure of metadata
  elements.
  
  =item producer
  
  This refers to code that constructs a metadata data structure,
  serializes into a bytestream and/or writes it to disk.
  
  =item must, should, may, etc.
  
  These terms are interpreted as described in IETF RFC 2119.
  
  =back
  
  =head1 DATA TYPES
  
  Fields in the L</STRUCTURE> section describe data elements, each of
  which has an associated data type as described herein.  There are four
  primitive types: Boolean, String, List and Map.  Other types are
  subtypes of primitives and define compound data structures or define
  constraints on the values of a data element.
  
  =head2 Boolean
  
  A I<Boolean> is used to provide a true or false value.  It B<must> be
  represented as a defined value.
  
  =head2 String
  
  A I<String> is data element containing a non-zero length sequence of
  Unicode characters, such as an ordinary Perl scalar that is not a
  reference.
  
  =head2 List
  
  A I<List> is an ordered collection of zero or more data elements.
  Elements of a List may be of mixed types.
  
  Producers B<must> represent List elements using a data structure which
  unambiguously indicates that multiple values are possible, such as a
  reference to a Perl array (an "arrayref").
  
  Consumers expecting a List B<must> consider a String as equivalent to a
  List of length 1.
  
  =head2 Map
  
  A I<Map> is an unordered collection of zero or more data elements
  ("values"), indexed by associated String elements ("keys").  The Map's
  value elements may be of mixed types.
  
  =head2 License String
  
  A I<License String> is a subtype of String with a restricted set of
  values.  Valid values are described in detail in the description of
  the L</license> field.
  
  =head2 URL
  
  I<URL> is a subtype of String containing a Uniform Resource Locator or
  Identifier.  [ This type is called URL and not URI for historical reasons. ]
  
  =head2 Version
  
  A I<Version> is a subtype of String containing a value that describes
  the version number of packages or distributions.  Restrictions on format
  are described in detail in the L</Version Formats> section.
  
  =head2 Version Range
  
  The I<Version Range> type is a subtype of String.  It describes a range
  of Versions that may be present or installed to fulfill prerequisites.
  It is specified in detail in the L</Version Ranges> section.
  
  =head1 STRUCTURE
  
  The metadata structure is a data element of type Map.  This section
  describes valid keys within the Map.
  
  Any keys not described in this specification document (whether top-level
  or within compound data structures described herein) are considered
  I<custom keys> and B<must> begin with an "x" or "X" and be followed by an
  underscore; i.e. they must match the pattern: C<< qr{\Ax_}i >>.  If a
  custom key refers to a compound data structure, subkeys within it do not
  need an "x_" or "X_" prefix.
  
  Consumers of metadata may ignore any or all custom keys.  All other keys
  not described herein are invalid and should be ignored by consumers.
  Producers must not generate or output invalid keys.
  
  For each key, an example is provided followed by a description.  The
  description begins with the version of spec in which the key was added
  or in which the definition was modified, whether the key is I<required>
  or I<optional> and the data type of the corresponding data element.
  These items are in parentheses, brackets and braces, respectively.
  
  If a data type is a Map or Map subtype, valid subkeys will be described
  as well.
  
  Some fields are marked I<Deprecated>.  These are shown for historical
  context and must not be produced in or consumed from any metadata structure
  of version 2 or higher.
  
  =head2 REQUIRED FIELDS
  
  =head3 abstract
  
  Example:
  
    abstract => 'Build and install Perl modules'
  
  (Spec 1.2) [required] {String}
  
  This is a short description of the purpose of the distribution.
  
  =head3 author
  
  Example:
  
    author => [ 'Ken Williams <kwilliams@cpan.org>' ]
  
  (Spec 1.2) [required] {List of one or more Strings}
  
  This List indicates the person(s) to contact concerning the
  distribution. The preferred form of the contact string is:
  
    contact-name <email-address>
  
  This field provides a general contact list independent of other
  structured fields provided within the L</resources> field, such as
  C<bugtracker>.  The addressee(s) can be contacted for any purpose
  including but not limited to (security) problems with the distribution,
  questions about the distribution or bugs in the distribution.
  
  A distribution's original author is usually the contact listed within
  this field.  Co-maintainers, successor maintainers or mailing lists
  devoted to the distribution may also be listed in addition to or instead
  of the original author.
  
  =head3 dynamic_config
  
  Example:
  
    dynamic_config => 1
  
  (Spec 2) [required] {Boolean}
  
  A boolean flag indicating whether a F<Build.PL> or F<Makefile.PL> (or
  similar) must be executed to determine prerequisites.
  
  This field should be set to a true value if the distribution performs
  some dynamic configuration (asking questions, sensing the environment,
  etc.) as part of its configuration.  This field should be set to a false
  value to indicate that prerequisites included in metadata may be
  considered final and valid for static analysis.
  
  Note: when this field is true, post-configuration prerequisites are not
  guaranteed to bear any relation whatsoever to those stated in the metadata,
  and relying on them doing so is an error. See also
  L</Prerequisites for dynamically configured distributions> in the implementors'
  notes.
  
  This field explicitly B<does not> indicate whether installation may be
  safely performed without using a Makefile or Build file, as there may be
  special files to install or custom installation targets (e.g. for
  dual-life modules that exist on CPAN as well as in the Perl core).  This
  field only defines whether or not prerequisites are exactly as given in the
  metadata.
  
  =head3 generated_by
  
  Example:
  
    generated_by => 'Module::Build version 0.36'
  
  (Spec 1.0) [required] {String}
  
  This field indicates the tool that was used to create this metadata.
  There are no defined semantics for this field, but it is traditional to
  use a string in the form "Generating::Package version 1.23" or the
  author's name, if the file was generated by hand.
  
  =head3 license
  
  Example:
  
    license => [ 'perl_5' ]
  
    license => [ 'apache_2_0', 'mozilla_1_0' ]
  
  (Spec 2) [required] {List of one or more License Strings}
  
  One or more licenses that apply to some or all of the files in the
  distribution.  If multiple licenses are listed, the distribution
  documentation should be consulted to clarify the interpretation of
  multiple licenses.
  
  The following list of license strings are valid:
  
   string          description
   -------------   -----------------------------------------------
   agpl_3          GNU Affero General Public License, Version 3
   apache_1_1      Apache Software License, Version 1.1
   apache_2_0      Apache License, Version 2.0
   artistic_1      Artistic License, (Version 1)
   artistic_2      Artistic License, Version 2.0
   bsd             BSD License (three-clause)
   freebsd         FreeBSD License (two-clause)
   gfdl_1_2        GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2
   gfdl_1_3        GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3
   gpl_1           GNU General Public License, Version 1
   gpl_2           GNU General Public License, Version 2
   gpl_3           GNU General Public License, Version 3
   lgpl_2_1        GNU Lesser General Public License, Version 2.1
   lgpl_3_0        GNU Lesser General Public License, Version 3.0
   mit             MIT (aka X11) License
   mozilla_1_0     Mozilla Public License, Version 1.0
   mozilla_1_1     Mozilla Public License, Version 1.1
   openssl         OpenSSL License
   perl_5          The Perl 5 License (Artistic 1 & GPL 1 or later)
   qpl_1_0         Q Public License, Version 1.0
   ssleay          Original SSLeay License
   sun             Sun Internet Standards Source License (SISSL)
   zlib            zlib License
  
  The following license strings are also valid and indicate other
  licensing not described above:
  
   string          description
   -------------   -----------------------------------------------
   open_source     Other Open Source Initiative (OSI) approved license
   restricted      Requires special permission from copyright holder
   unrestricted    Not an OSI approved license, but not restricted
   unknown         License not provided in metadata
  
  All other strings are invalid in the license field.
  
  =head3 meta-spec
  
  Example:
  
    'meta-spec' => {
      version => '2',
      url     => 'http://search.cpan.org/perldoc?CPAN::Meta::Spec',
    }
  
  (Spec 1.2) [required] {Map}
  
  This field indicates the version of the CPAN Meta Spec that should be
  used to interpret the metadata.  Consumers must check this key as soon
  as possible and abort further metadata processing if the meta-spec
  version is not supported by the consumer.
  
  The following keys are valid, but only C<version> is required.
  
  =over
  
  =item version
  
  This subkey gives the integer I<Version> of the CPAN Meta Spec against
  which the document was generated.
  
  =item url
  
  This is a I<URL> of the metadata specification document corresponding to
  the given version.  This is strictly for human-consumption and should
  not impact the interpretation of the document.
  
  For the version 2 spec, either of these are recommended:
  
  =over 4
  
  =item *
  
  C<https://metacpan.org/pod/CPAN::Meta::Spec>
  
  =item *
  
  C<http://search.cpan.org/perldoc?CPAN::Meta::Spec>
  
  =back
  
  =back
  
  =head3 name
  
  Example:
  
    name => 'Module-Build'
  
  (Spec 1.0) [required] {String}
  
  This field is the name of the distribution.  This is often created by
  taking the "main package" in the distribution and changing C<::> to
  C<->, but the name may be completely unrelated to the packages within
  the distribution.  For example, L<LWP::UserAgent> is distributed as part
  of the distribution name "libwww-perl".
  
  =head3 release_status
  
  Example:
  
    release_status => 'stable'
  
  (Spec 2) [required] {String}
  
  This field provides the  release status of this distribution.  If the
  C<version> field contains an underscore character, then
  C<release_status> B<must not> be "stable."
  
  The C<release_status> field B<must> have one of the following values:
  
  =over
  
  =item stable
  
  This indicates an ordinary, "final" release that should be indexed by PAUSE
  or other indexers.
  
  =item testing
  
  This indicates a "beta" release that is substantially complete, but has an
  elevated risk of bugs and requires additional testing.  The distribution
  should not be installed over a stable release without an explicit request
  or other confirmation from a user.  This release status may also be used
  for "release candidate" versions of a distribution.
  
  =item unstable
  
  This indicates an "alpha" release that is under active development, but has
  been released for early feedback or testing and may be missing features or
  may have serious bugs.  The distribution should not be installed over a
  stable release without an explicit request or other confirmation from a
  user.
  
  =back
  
  Consumers B<may> use this field to determine how to index the
  distribution for CPAN or other repositories in addition to or in
  replacement of heuristics based on version number or file name.
  
  =head3 version
  
  Example:
  
    version => '0.36'
  
  (Spec 1.0) [required] {Version}
  
  This field gives the version of the distribution to which the metadata
  structure refers.
  
  =head2 OPTIONAL FIELDS
  
  =head3 description
  
  Example:
  
      description =>  "Module::Build is a system for "
        . "building, testing, and installing Perl modules. "
        . "It is meant to ... blah blah blah ...",
  
  (Spec 2) [optional] {String}
  
  A longer, more complete description of the purpose or intended use of
  the distribution than the one provided by the C<abstract> key.
  
  =head3 keywords
  
  Example:
  
    keywords => [ qw/ toolchain cpan dual-life / ]
  
  (Spec 1.1) [optional] {List of zero or more Strings}
  
  A List of keywords that describe this distribution.  Keywords
  B<must not> include whitespace.
  
  =head3 no_index
  
  Example:
  
    no_index => {
      file      => [ 'My/Module.pm' ],
      directory => [ 'My/Private' ],
      package   => [ 'My::Module::Secret' ],
      namespace => [ 'My::Module::Sample' ],
    }
  
  (Spec 1.2) [optional] {Map}
  
  This Map describes any files, directories, packages, and namespaces that
  are private to the packaging or implementation of the distribution and
  should be ignored by indexing or search tools. Note that this is a list of
  exclusions, and the spec does not define what to I<include> - see
  L</Indexing distributions a la PAUSE> in the implementors notes for more
  information.
  
  Valid subkeys are as follows:
  
  =over
  
  =item file
  
  A I<List> of relative paths to files.  Paths B<must be> specified with
  unix conventions.
  
  =item directory
  
  A I<List> of relative paths to directories.  Paths B<must be> specified
  with unix conventions.
  
  [ Note: previous editions of the spec had C<dir> instead of C<directory> ]
  
  =item package
  
  A I<List> of package names.
  
  =item namespace
  
  A I<List> of package namespaces, where anything below the namespace
  must be ignored, but I<not> the namespace itself.
  
  In the example above for C<no_index>, C<My::Module::Sample::Foo> would
  be ignored, but C<My::Module::Sample> would not.
  
  =back
  
  =head3 optional_features
  
  Example:
  
    optional_features => {
      sqlite => {
        description => 'Provides SQLite support',
        prereqs => {
          runtime => {
            requires => {
              'DBD::SQLite' => '1.25'
            }
          }
        }
      }
    }
  
  (Spec 2) [optional] {Map}
  
  This Map describes optional features with incremental prerequisites.
  Each key of the C<optional_features> Map is a String used to identify
  the feature and each value is a Map with additional information about
  the feature.  Valid subkeys include:
  
  =over
  
  =item description
  
  This is a String describing the feature.  Every optional feature
  should provide a description
  
  =item prereqs
  
  This entry is required and has the same structure as that of the
  C<L</prereqs>> key.  It provides a list of package requirements
  that must be satisfied for the feature to be supported or enabled.
  
  There is one crucial restriction:  the prereqs of an optional feature
  B<must not> include C<configure> phase prereqs.
  
  =back
  
  Consumers B<must not> include optional features as prerequisites without
  explicit instruction from users (whether via interactive prompting,
  a function parameter or a configuration value, etc. ).
  
  If an optional feature is used by a consumer to add additional
  prerequisites, the consumer should merge the optional feature
  prerequisites into those given by the C<prereqs> key using the same
  semantics.  See L</Merging and Resolving Prerequisites> for details on
  merging prerequisites.
  
  I<Suggestion for disuse:> Because there is currently no way for a
  distribution to specify a dependency on an optional feature of another
  dependency, the use of C<optional_feature> is discouraged.  Instead,
  create a separate, installable distribution that ensures the desired
  feature is available.  For example, if C<Foo::Bar> has a C<Baz> feature,
  release a separate C<Foo-Bar-Baz> distribution that satisfies
  requirements for the feature.
  
  =head3 prereqs
  
  Example:
  
    prereqs => {
      runtime => {
        requires => {
          'perl'          => '5.006',
          'File::Spec'    => '0.86',
          'JSON'          => '2.16',
        },
        recommends => {
          'JSON::XS'      => '2.26',
        },
        suggests => {
          'Archive::Tar'  => '0',
        },
      },
      build => {
        requires => {
          'Alien::SDL'    => '1.00',
        },
      },
      test => {
        recommends => {
          'Test::Deep'    => '0.10',
        },
      }
    }
  
  (Spec 2) [optional] {Map}
  
  This is a Map that describes all the prerequisites of the distribution.
  The keys are phases of activity, such as C<configure>, C<build>, C<test>
  or C<runtime>.  Values are Maps in which the keys name the type of
  prerequisite relationship such as C<requires>, C<recommends>, or
  C<suggests> and the value provides a set of prerequisite relations.  The
  set of relations B<must> be specified as a Map of package names to
  version ranges.
  
  The full definition for this field is given in the L</Prereq Spec>
  section.
  
  =head3 provides
  
  Example:
  
    provides => {
      'Foo::Bar' => {
        file    => 'lib/Foo/Bar.pm',
        version => '0.27_02',
      },
      'Foo::Bar::Blah' => {
        file    => 'lib/Foo/Bar/Blah.pm',
      },
      'Foo::Bar::Baz' => {
        file    => 'lib/Foo/Bar/Baz.pm',
        version => '0.3',
      },
    }
  
  (Spec 1.2) [optional] {Map}
  
  This describes all packages provided by this distribution.  This
  information is used by distribution and automation mechanisms like
  PAUSE, CPAN, metacpan.org and search.cpan.org to build indexes saying in
  which distribution various packages can be found.
  
  The keys of C<provides> are package names that can be found within
  the distribution.  If a package name key is provided, it must
  have a Map with the following valid subkeys:
  
  =over
  
  =item file
  
  This field is required.  It must contain a Unix-style relative file path
  from the root of the distribution directory to a file that contains or
  generates the package.  It may be given as C<META.yml> or C<META.json>
  to claim a package for indexing without needing a C<*.pm>.
  
  =item version
  
  If it exists, this field must contains a I<Version> String for the
  package.  If the package does not have a C<$VERSION>, this field must
  be omitted.
  
  =back
  
  =head3 resources
  
  Example:
  
    resources => {
      license     => [ 'http://dev.perl.org/licenses/' ],
      homepage    => 'http://sourceforge.net/projects/module-build',
      bugtracker  => {
        web    => 'http://rt.cpan.org/Public/Dist/Display.html?Name=CPAN-Meta',
        mailto => 'meta-bugs@example.com',
      },
      repository  => {
        url  => 'git://github.com/dagolden/cpan-meta.git',
        web  => 'http://github.com/dagolden/cpan-meta',
        type => 'git',
      },
      x_twitter   => 'http://twitter.com/cpan_linked/',
    }
  
  (Spec 2) [optional] {Map}
  
  This field describes resources related to this distribution.
  
  Valid subkeys include:
  
  =over
  
  =item homepage
  
  The official home of this project on the web.
  
  =item license
  
  A List of I<URL>'s that relate to this distribution's license.  As with the
  top-level C<license> field, distribution documentation should be consulted
  to clarify the interpretation of multiple licenses provided here.
  
  =item bugtracker
  
  This entry describes the bug tracking system for this distribution.  It
  is a Map with the following valid keys:
  
    web    - a URL pointing to a web front-end for the bug tracker
    mailto - an email address to which bugs can be sent
  
  =item repository
  
  This entry describes the source control repository for this distribution.  It
  is a Map with the following valid keys:
  
    url  - a URL pointing to the repository itself
    web  - a URL pointing to a web front-end for the repository
    type - a lowercase string indicating the VCS used
  
  Because a url like C<http://myrepo.example.com/> is ambiguous as to
  type, producers should provide a C<type> whenever a C<url> key is given.
  The C<type> field should be the name of the most common program used
  to work with the repository, e.g. C<git>, C<svn>, C<cvs>, C<darcs>,
  C<bzr> or C<hg>.
  
  =back
  
  =head2 DEPRECATED FIELDS
  
  =head3 build_requires
  
  I<(Deprecated in Spec 2)> [optional] {String}
  
  Replaced by C<prereqs>
  
  =head3 configure_requires
  
  I<(Deprecated in Spec 2)> [optional] {String}
  
  Replaced by C<prereqs>
  
  =head3 conflicts
  
  I<(Deprecated in Spec 2)> [optional] {String}
  
  Replaced by C<prereqs>
  
  =head3 distribution_type
  
  I<(Deprecated in Spec 2)> [optional] {String}
  
  This field indicated 'module' or 'script' but was considered
  meaningless, since many distributions are hybrids of several kinds of
  things.
  
  =head3 license_uri
  
  I<(Deprecated in Spec 1.2)> [optional] {URL}
  
  Replaced by C<license> in C<resources>
  
  =head3 private
  
  I<(Deprecated in Spec 1.2)> [optional] {Map}
  
  This field has been renamed to L</"no_index">.
  
  =head3 recommends
  
  I<(Deprecated in Spec 2)> [optional] {String}
  
  Replaced by C<prereqs>
  
  =head3 requires
  
  I<(Deprecated in Spec 2)> [optional] {String}
  
  Replaced by C<prereqs>
  
  =head1 VERSION NUMBERS
  
  =head2 Version Formats
  
  This section defines the Version type, used by several fields in the
  CPAN Meta Spec.
  
  Version numbers must be treated as strings, not numbers.  For
  example, C<1.200> B<must not> be serialized as C<1.2>.  Version
  comparison should be delegated to the Perl L<version> module, version
  0.80 or newer.
  
  Unless otherwise specified, version numbers B<must> appear in one of two
  formats:
  
  =over
  
  =item Decimal versions
  
  Decimal versions are regular "decimal numbers", with some limitations.
  They B<must> be non-negative and B<must> begin and end with a digit.  A
  single underscore B<may> be included, but B<must> be between two digits.
  They B<must not> use exponential notation ("1.23e-2").
  
     version => '1.234'       # OK
     version => '1.23_04'     # OK
  
     version => '1.23_04_05'  # Illegal
     version => '1.'          # Illegal
     version => '.1'          # Illegal
  
  =item Dotted-integer versions
  
  Dotted-integer (also known as dotted-decimal) versions consist of
  positive integers separated by full stop characters (i.e. "dots",
  "periods" or "decimal points").  This are equivalent in format to Perl
  "v-strings", with some additional restrictions on form.  They must be
  given in "normal" form, which has a leading "v" character and at least
  three integer components.  To retain a one-to-one mapping with decimal
  versions, all components after the first B<should> be restricted to the
  range 0 to 999.  The final component B<may> be separated by an
  underscore character instead of a period.
  
     version => 'v1.2.3'      # OK
     version => 'v1.2_3'      # OK
     version => 'v1.2.3.4'    # OK
     version => 'v1.2.3_4'    # OK
     version => 'v2009.10.31' # OK
  
     version => 'v1.2'          # Illegal
     version => '1.2.3'         # Illegal
     version => 'v1.2_3_4'      # Illegal
     version => 'v1.2009.10.31' # Not recommended
  
  =back
  
  =head2 Version Ranges
  
  Some fields (prereq, optional_features) indicate the particular
  version(s) of some other module that may be required as a prerequisite.
  This section details the Version Range type used to provide this
  information.
  
  The simplest format for a Version Range is just the version
  number itself, e.g. C<2.4>.  This means that B<at least> version 2.4
  must be present.  To indicate that B<any> version of a prerequisite is
  okay, even if the prerequisite doesn't define a version at all, use
  the version C<0>.
  
  Alternatively, a version range B<may> use the operators E<lt> (less than),
  E<lt>= (less than or equal), E<gt> (greater than), E<gt>= (greater than
  or equal), == (equal), and != (not equal).  For example, the
  specification C<E<lt> 2.0> means that any version of the prerequisite
  less than 2.0 is suitable.
  
  For more complicated situations, version specifications B<may> be AND-ed
  together using commas.  The specification C<E<gt>= 1.2, != 1.5, E<lt>
  2.0> indicates a version that must be B<at least> 1.2, B<less than> 2.0,
  and B<not equal to> 1.5.
  
  =head1 PREREQUISITES
  
  =head2 Prereq Spec
  
  The C<prereqs> key in the top-level metadata and within
  C<optional_features> define the relationship between a distribution and
  other packages.  The prereq spec structure is a hierarchical data
  structure which divides prerequisites into I<Phases> of activity in the
  installation process and I<Relationships> that indicate how
  prerequisites should be resolved.
  
  For example, to specify that C<Data::Dumper> is C<required> during the
  C<test> phase, this entry would appear in the distribution metadata:
  
    prereqs => {
      test => {
        requires => {
          'Data::Dumper' => '2.00'
        }
      }
    }
  
  =head3 Phases
  
  Requirements for regular use must be listed in the C<runtime> phase.
  Other requirements should be listed in the earliest stage in which they
  are required and consumers must accumulate and satisfy requirements
  across phases before executing the activity. For example, C<build>
  requirements must also be available during the C<test> phase.
  
    before action       requirements that must be met
    ----------------    --------------------------------
    perl Build.PL       configure
    perl Makefile.PL
  
    make                configure, runtime, build
    Build
  
    make test           configure, runtime, build, test
    Build test
  
  Consumers that install the distribution must ensure that
  I<runtime> requirements are also installed and may install
  dependencies from other phases.
  
    after action        requirements that must be met
    ----------------    --------------------------------
    make install        runtime
    Build install
  
  =over
  
  =item configure
  
  The configure phase occurs before any dynamic configuration has been
  attempted.  Libraries required by the configure phase B<must> be
  available for use before the distribution building tool has been
  executed.
  
  =item build
  
  The build phase is when the distribution's source code is compiled (if
  necessary) and otherwise made ready for installation.
  
  =item test
  
  The test phase is when the distribution's automated test suite is run.
  Any library that is needed only for testing and not for subsequent use
  should be listed here.
  
  =item runtime
  
  The runtime phase refers not only to when the distribution's contents
  are installed, but also to its continued use.  Any library that is a
  prerequisite for regular use of this distribution should be indicated
  here.
  
  =item develop
  
  The develop phase's prereqs are libraries needed to work on the
  distribution's source code as its author does.  These tools might be
  needed to build a release tarball, to run author-only tests, or to
  perform other tasks related to developing new versions of the
  distribution.
  
  =back
  
  =head3 Relationships
  
  =over
  
  =item requires
  
  These dependencies B<must> be installed for proper completion of the
  phase.
  
  =item recommends
  
  Recommended dependencies are I<strongly> encouraged and should be
  satisfied except in resource constrained environments.
  
  =item suggests
  
  These dependencies are optional, but are suggested for enhanced operation
  of the described distribution.
  
  =item conflicts
  
  These libraries cannot be installed when the phase is in operation.
  This is a very rare situation, and the C<conflicts> relationship should
  be used with great caution, or not at all.
  
  =back
  
  =head2 Merging and Resolving Prerequisites
  
  Whenever metadata consumers merge prerequisites, either from different
  phases or from C<optional_features>, they should merged in a way which
  preserves the intended semantics of the prerequisite structure.  Generally,
  this means concatenating the version specifications using commas, as
  described in the L<Version Ranges> section.
  
  Another subtle error that can occur in resolving prerequisites comes from
  the way that modules in prerequisites are indexed to distribution files on
  CPAN.  When a module is deleted from a distribution, prerequisites calling
  for that module could indicate an older distribution should be installed,
  potentially overwriting files from a newer distribution.
  
  For example, as of Oct 31, 2009, the CPAN index file contained these
  module-distribution mappings:
  
    Class::MOP                   0.94  D/DR/DROLSKY/Class-MOP-0.94.tar.gz
    Class::MOP::Class            0.94  D/DR/DROLSKY/Class-MOP-0.94.tar.gz
    Class::MOP::Class::Immutable 0.04  S/ST/STEVAN/Class-MOP-0.36.tar.gz
  
  Consider the case where "Class::MOP" 0.94 is installed.  If a
  distribution specified "Class::MOP::Class::Immutable" as a prerequisite,
  it could result in Class-MOP-0.36.tar.gz being installed, overwriting
  any files from Class-MOP-0.94.tar.gz.
  
  Consumers of metadata B<should> test whether prerequisites would result
  in installed module files being "downgraded" to an older version and
  B<may> warn users or ignore the prerequisite that would cause such a
  result.
  
  =head1 SERIALIZATION
  
  Distribution metadata should be serialized (as a hashref) as
  JSON-encoded data and packaged with distributions as the file
  F<META.json>.
  
  In the past, the distribution metadata structure had been packed with
  distributions as F<META.yml>, a file in the YAML Tiny format (for which,
  see L<YAML::Tiny>).  Tools that consume distribution metadata from disk
  should be capable of loading F<META.yml>, but should prefer F<META.json>
  if both are found.
  
  =head1 NOTES FOR IMPLEMENTORS
  
  =head2 Extracting Version Numbers from Perl Modules
  
  To get the version number from a Perl module, consumers should use the
  C<< MM->parse_version($file) >> method provided by
  L<ExtUtils::MakeMaker> or L<Module::Metadata>.  For example, for the
  module given by C<$mod>, the version may be retrieved in one of the
  following ways:
  
    # via ExtUtils::MakeMaker
    my $file = MM->_installed_file_for_module($mod);
    my $version = MM->parse_version($file)
  
  The private C<_installed_file_for_module> method may be replaced with
  other methods for locating a module in C<@INC>.
  
    # via Module::Metadata
    my $info = Module::Metadata->new_from_module($mod);
    my $version = $info->version;
  
  If only a filename is available, the following approach may be used:
  
    # via Module::Build
    my $info = Module::Metadata->new_from_file($file);
    my $version = $info->version;
  
  =head2 Comparing Version Numbers
  
  The L<version> module provides the most reliable way to compare version
  numbers in all the various ways they might be provided or might exist
  within modules.  Given two strings containing version numbers, C<$v1> and
  C<$v2>, they should be converted to C<version> objects before using
  ordinary comparison operators.  For example:
  
    use version;
    if ( version->new($v1) <=> version->new($v2) ) {
      print "Versions are not equal\n";
    }
  
  If the only comparison needed is whether an installed module is of a
  sufficiently high version, a direct test may be done using the string
  form of C<eval> and the C<use> function.  For example, for module C<$mod>
  and version prerequisite C<$prereq>:
  
    if ( eval "use $mod $prereq (); 1" ) {
      print "Module $mod version is OK.\n";
    }
  
  If the values of C<$mod> and C<$prereq> have not been scrubbed, however,
  this presents security implications.
  
  =head2 Prerequisites for dynamically configured distributions
  
  When C<dynamic_config> is true, it is an error to presume that the
  prerequisites given in distribution metadata will have any relationship
  whatsoever to the actual prerequisites of the distribution.
  
  In practice, however, one can generally expect such prerequisites to be
  one of two things:
  
  =over 4
  
  =item *
  
  The minimum prerequisites for the distribution, to which dynamic configuration will only add items
  
  =item *
  
  Whatever the distribution configured with on the releaser's machine at release time
  
  =back
  
  The second case often turns out to have identical results to the first case,
  albeit only by accident.
  
  As such, consumers may use this data for informational analysis, but
  presenting it to the user as canonical or relying on it as such is
  invariably the height of folly.
  
  =head2 Indexing distributions a la PAUSE
  
  While no_index tells you what must be ignored when indexing, this spec holds
  no opinion on how you should get your initial candidate list of things to
  possibly index. For "normal" distributions you might consider simply indexing
  the contents of lib/, but there are many fascinating oddities on CPAN and
  many dists from the days when it was normal to put the main .pm file in the
  root of the distribution archive - so PAUSE currently indexes all .pm and .PL
  files that are not either (a) specifically excluded by no_index (b) in
  C<inc>, C<xt>, or C<t> directories, or common 'mistake' directories such as
  C<perl5>.
  
  Or: If you're trying to be PAUSE-like, make sure you skip C<inc>, C<xt> and
  C<t> as well as anything marked as no_index.
  
  Also remember: If the META file contains a provides field, you shouldn't be
  indexing anything in the first place - just use that.
  
  =head1 SEE ALSO
  
  =over 4
  
  =item *
  
  CPAN, L<http://www.cpan.org/>
  
  =item *
  
  JSON, L<http://json.org/>
  
  =item *
  
  YAML, L<http://www.yaml.org/>
  
  =item *
  
  L<CPAN>
  
  =item *
  
  L<CPANPLUS>
  
  =item *
  
  L<ExtUtils::MakeMaker>
  
  =item *
  
  L<Module::Build>
  
  =item *
  
  L<Module::Install>
  
  =back
  
  =head1 HISTORY
  
  Ken Williams wrote the original CPAN Meta Spec (also known as the
  "META.yml spec") in 2003 and maintained it through several revisions
  with input from various members of the community.  In 2005, Randy
  Sims redrafted it from HTML to POD for the version 1.2 release.  Ken
  continued to maintain the spec through version 1.4.
  
  In late 2009, David Golden organized the version 2 proposal review
  process.  David and Ricardo Signes drafted the final version 2 spec
  in April 2010 based on the version 1.4 spec and patches contributed
  during the proposal process.
  
  =head1 AUTHORS
  
  =over 4
  
  =item *
  
  David Golden <dagolden@cpan.org>
  
  =item *
  
  Ricardo Signes <rjbs@cpan.org>
  
  =back
  
  =head1 COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE
  
  This software is copyright (c) 2010 by David Golden and Ricardo Signes.
  
  This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
  the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.
  
  =cut
CPAN_META_SPEC

$fatpacked{"CPAN/Meta/Validator.pm"} = '#line '.(1+__LINE__).' "'.__FILE__."\"\n".<<'CPAN_META_VALIDATOR';
  use 5.006;
  use strict;
  use warnings;
  package CPAN::Meta::Validator;
  
  our $VERSION = '2.150005';
  
  #pod =head1 SYNOPSIS
  #pod
  #pod   my $struct = decode_json_file('META.json');
  #pod
  #pod   my $cmv = CPAN::Meta::Validator->new( $struct );
  #pod
  #pod   unless ( $cmv->is_valid ) {
  #pod     my $msg = "Invalid META structure.  Errors found:\n";
  #pod     $msg .= join( "\n", $cmv->errors );
  #pod     die $msg;
  #pod   }
  #pod
  #pod =head1 DESCRIPTION
  #pod
  #pod This module validates a CPAN Meta structure against the version of the
  #pod the specification claimed in the C<meta-spec> field of the structure.
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  #--------------------------------------------------------------------------#
  # This code copied and adapted from Test::CPAN::Meta
  # by Barbie, <barbie@cpan.org> for Miss Barbell Productions,
  # L<http://www.missbarbell.co.uk>
  #--------------------------------------------------------------------------#
  
  #--------------------------------------------------------------------------#
  # Specification Definitions
  #--------------------------------------------------------------------------#
  
  my %known_specs = (
      '1.4' => 'http://module-build.sourceforge.net/META-spec-v1.4.html',
      '1.3' => 'http://module-build.sourceforge.net/META-spec-v1.3.html',
      '1.2' => 'http://module-build.sourceforge.net/META-spec-v1.2.html',
      '1.1' => 'http://module-build.sourceforge.net/META-spec-v1.1.html',
      '1.0' => 'http://module-build.sourceforge.net/META-spec-v1.0.html'
  );
  my %known_urls = map {$known_specs{$_} => $_} keys %known_specs;
  
  my $module_map1 = { 'map' => { ':key' => { name => \&module, value => \&exversion } } };
  
  my $module_map2 = { 'map' => { ':key' => { name => \&module, value => \&version   } } };
  
  my $no_index_2 = {
      'map'       => { file       => { list => { value => \&string } },
                       directory  => { list => { value => \&string } },
                       'package'  => { list => { value => \&string } },
                       namespace  => { list => { value => \&string } },
                      ':key'      => { name => \&custom_2, value => \&anything },
      }
  };
  
  my $no_index_1_3 = {
      'map'       => { file       => { list => { value => \&string } },
                       directory  => { list => { value => \&string } },
                       'package'  => { list => { value => \&string } },
                       namespace  => { list => { value => \&string } },
                       ':key'     => { name => \&string, value => \&anything },
      }
  };
  
  my $no_index_1_2 = {
      'map'       => { file       => { list => { value => \&string } },
                       dir        => { list => { value => \&string } },
                       'package'  => { list => { value => \&string } },
                       namespace  => { list => { value => \&string } },
                       ':key'     => { name => \&string, value => \&anything },
      }
  };
  
  my $no_index_1_1 = {
      'map'       => { ':key'     => { name => \&string, list => { value => \&string } },
      }
  };
  
  my $prereq_map = {
    map => {
      ':key' => {
        name => \&phase,
        'map' => {
          ':key'  => {
            name => \&relation,
            %$module_map1,
          },
        },
      }
    },
  };
  
  my %definitions = (
    '2' => {
      # REQUIRED
      'abstract'            => { mandatory => 1, value => \&string  },
      'author'              => { mandatory => 1, list => { value => \&string } },
      'dynamic_config'      => { mandatory => 1, value => \&boolean },
      'generated_by'        => { mandatory => 1, value => \&string  },
      'license'             => { mandatory => 1, list => { value => \&license } },
      'meta-spec' => {
        mandatory => 1,
        'map' => {
          version => { mandatory => 1, value => \&version},
          url     => { value => \&url },
          ':key' => { name => \&custom_2, value => \&anything },
        }
      },
      'name'                => { mandatory => 1, value => \&string  },
      'release_status'      => { mandatory => 1, value => \&release_status },
      'version'             => { mandatory => 1, value => \&version },
  
      # OPTIONAL
      'description' => { value => \&string },
      'keywords'    => { list => { value => \&string } },
      'no_index'    => $no_index_2,
      'optional_features'   => {
        'map'       => {
          ':key'  => {
            name => \&string,
            'map'   => {
              description        => { value => \&string },
              prereqs => $prereq_map,
              ':key' => { name => \&custom_2, value => \&anything },
            }
          }
        }
      },
      'prereqs' => $prereq_map,
      'provides'    => {
        'map'       => {
          ':key' => {
            name  => \&module,
            'map' => {
              file    => { mandatory => 1, value => \&file },
              version => { value => \&version },
              ':key' => { name => \&custom_2, value => \&anything },
            }
          }
        }
      },
      'resources'   => {
        'map'       => {
          license    => { list => { value => \&url } },
          homepage   => { value => \&url },
          bugtracker => {
            'map' => {
              web => { value => \&url },
              mailto => { value => \&string},
              ':key' => { name => \&custom_2, value => \&anything },
            }
          },
          repository => {
            'map' => {
              web => { value => \&url },
              url => { value => \&url },
              type => { value => \&string },
              ':key' => { name => \&custom_2, value => \&anything },
            }
          },
          ':key'     => { value => \&string, name => \&custom_2 },
        }
      },
  
      # CUSTOM -- additional user defined key/value pairs
      # note we can only validate the key name, as the structure is user defined
      ':key'        => { name => \&custom_2, value => \&anything },
    },
  
  '1.4' => {
    'meta-spec'           => {
      mandatory => 1,
      'map' => {
        version => { mandatory => 1, value => \&version},
        url     => { mandatory => 1, value => \&urlspec },
        ':key'  => { name => \&string, value => \&anything },
      },
    },
  
    'name'                => { mandatory => 1, value => \&string  },
    'version'             => { mandatory => 1, value => \&version },
    'abstract'            => { mandatory => 1, value => \&string  },
    'author'              => { mandatory => 1, list  => { value => \&string } },
    'license'             => { mandatory => 1, value => \&license },
    'generated_by'        => { mandatory => 1, value => \&string  },
  
    'distribution_type'   => { value => \&string  },
    'dynamic_config'      => { value => \&boolean },
  
    'requires'            => $module_map1,
    'recommends'          => $module_map1,
    'build_requires'      => $module_map1,
    'configure_requires'  => $module_map1,
    'conflicts'           => $module_map2,
  
    'optional_features'   => {
      'map'       => {
          ':key'  => { name => \&string,
              'map'   => { description        => { value => \&string },
                           requires           => $module_map1,
                           recommends         => $module_map1,
                           build_requires     => $module_map1,
                           conflicts          => $module_map2,
                           ':key'  => { name => \&string, value => \&anything },
              }
          }
       }
    },
  
    'provides'    => {
      'map'       => {
        ':key' => { name  => \&module,
          'map' => {
            file    => { mandatory => 1, value => \&file },
            version => { value => \&version },
            ':key'  => { name => \&string, value => \&anything },
          }
        }
      }
    },
  
    'no_index'    => $no_index_1_3,
    'private'     => $no_index_1_3,
  
    'keywords'    => { list => { value => \&string } },
  
    'resources'   => {
      'map'       => { license    => { value => \&url },
                       homepage   => { value => \&url },
                       bugtracker => { value => \&url },
                       repository => { value => \&url },
                       ':key'     => { value => \&string, name => \&custom_1 },
      }
    },
  
    # additional user defined key/value pairs
    # note we can only validate the key name, as the structure is user defined
    ':key'        => { name => \&string, value => \&anything },
  },
  
  '1.3' => {
    'meta-spec'           => {
      mandatory => 1,
      'map' => {
        version => { mandatory => 1, value => \&version},
        url     => { mandatory => 1, value => \&urlspec },
        ':key'  => { name => \&string, value => \&anything },
      },
    },
  
    'name'                => { mandatory => 1, value => \&string  },
    'version'             => { mandatory => 1, value => \&version },
    'abstract'            => { mandatory => 1, value => \&string  },
    'author'              => { mandatory => 1, list  => { value => \&string } },
    'license'             => { mandatory => 1, value => \&license },
    'generated_by'        => { mandatory => 1, value => \&string  },
  
    'distribution_type'   => { value => \&string  },
    'dynamic_config'      => { value => \&boolean },
  
    'requires'            => $module_map1,
    'recommends'          => $module_map1,
    'build_requires'      => $module_map1,
    'conflicts'           => $module_map2,
  
    'optional_features'   => {
      'map'       => {
          ':key'  => { name => \&string,
              'map'   => { description        => { value => \&string },
                           requires           => $module_map1,
                           recommends         => $module_map1,
                           build_requires     => $module_map1,
                           conflicts          => $module_map2,
                           ':key'  => { name => \&string, value => \&anything },
              }
          }
       }
    },
  
    'provides'    => {
      'map'       => {
        ':key' => { name  => \&module,
          'map' => {
            file    => { mandatory => 1, value => \&file },
            version => { value => \&version },
            ':key'  => { name => \&string, value => \&anything },
          }
        }
      }
    },
  
  
    'no_index'    => $no_index_1_3,
    'private'     => $no_index_1_3,
  
    'keywords'    => { list => { value => \&string } },
  
    'resources'   => {
      'map'       => { license    => { value => \&url },
                       homepage   => { value => \&url },
                       bugtracker => { value => \&url },
                       repository => { value => \&url },
                       ':key'     => { value => \&string, name => \&custom_1 },
      }
    },
  
    # additional user defined key/value pairs
    # note we can only validate the key name, as the structure is user defined
    ':key'        => { name => \&string, value => \&anything },
  },
  
  # v1.2 is misleading, it seems to assume that a number of fields where created
  # within v1.1, when they were created within v1.2. This may have been an
  # original mistake, and that a v1.1 was retro fitted into the timeline, when
  # v1.2 was originally slated as v1.1. But I could be wrong ;)
  '1.2' => {
    'meta-spec'           => {
      mandatory => 1,
      'map' => {
        version => { mandatory => 1, value => \&version},
        url     => { mandatory => 1, value => \&urlspec },
        ':key'  => { name => \&string, value => \&anything },
      },
    },
  
  
    'name'                => { mandatory => 1, value => \&string  },
    'version'             => { mandatory => 1, value => \&version },
    'license'             => { mandatory => 1, value => \&license },
    'generated_by'        => { mandatory => 1, value => \&string  },
    'author'              => { mandatory => 1, list => { value => \&string } },
    'abstract'            => { mandatory => 1, value => \&string  },
  
    'distribution_type'   => { value => \&string  },
    'dynamic_config'      => { value => \&boolean },
  
    'keywords'            => { list => { value => \&string } },
  
    'private'             => $no_index_1_2,
    '$no_index'           => $no_index_1_2,
  
    'requires'            => $module_map1,
    'recommends'          => $module_map1,
    'build_requires'      => $module_map1,
    'conflicts'           => $module_map2,
  
    'optional_features'   => {
      'map'       => {
          ':key'  => { name => \&string,
              'map'   => { description        => { value => \&string },
                           requires           => $module_map1,
                           recommends         => $module_map1,
                           build_requires     => $module_map1,
                           conflicts          => $module_map2,
                           ':key'  => { name => \&string, value => \&anything },
              }
          }
       }
    },
  
    'provides'    => {
      'map'       => {
        ':key' => { name  => \&module,
          'map' => {
            file    => { mandatory => 1, value => \&file },
            version => { value => \&version },
            ':key'  => { name => \&string, value => \&anything },
          }
        }
      }
    },
  
    'resources'   => {
      'map'       => { license    => { value => \&url },
                       homepage   => { value => \&url },
                       bugtracker => { value => \&url },
                       repository => { value => \&url },
                       ':key'     => { value => \&string, name => \&custom_1 },
      }
    },
  
    # additional user defined key/value pairs
    # note we can only validate the key name, as the structure is user defined
    ':key'        => { name => \&string, value => \&anything },
  },
  
  # note that the 1.1 spec only specifies 'version' as mandatory
  '1.1' => {
    'name'                => { value => \&string  },
    'version'             => { mandatory => 1, value => \&version },
    'license'             => { value => \&license },
    'generated_by'        => { value => \&string  },
  
    'license_uri'         => { value => \&url },
    'distribution_type'   => { value => \&string  },
    'dynamic_config'      => { value => \&boolean },
  
    'private'             => $no_index_1_1,
  
    'requires'            => $module_map1,
    'recommends'          => $module_map1,
    'build_requires'      => $module_map1,
    'conflicts'           => $module_map2,
  
    # additional user defined key/value pairs
    # note we can only validate the key name, as the structure is user defined
    ':key'        => { name => \&string, value => \&anything },
  },
  
  # note that the 1.0 spec doesn't specify optional or mandatory fields
  # but we will treat version as mandatory since otherwise META 1.0 is
  # completely arbitrary and pointless
  '1.0' => {
    'name'                => { value => \&string  },
    'version'             => { mandatory => 1, value => \&version },
    'license'             => { value => \&license },
    'generated_by'        => { value => \&string  },
  
    'license_uri'         => { value => \&url },
    'distribution_type'   => { value => \&string  },
    'dynamic_config'      => { value => \&boolean },
  
    'requires'            => $module_map1,
    'recommends'          => $module_map1,
    'build_requires'      => $module_map1,
    'conflicts'           => $module_map2,
  
    # additional user defined key/value pairs
    # note we can only validate the key name, as the structure is user defined
    ':key'        => { name => \&string, value => \&anything },
  },
  );
  
  #--------------------------------------------------------------------------#
  # Code
  #--------------------------------------------------------------------------#
  
  #pod =method new
  #pod
  #pod   my $cmv = CPAN::Meta::Validator->new( $struct )
  #pod
  #pod The constructor must be passed a metadata structure.
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  sub new {
    my ($class,$data) = @_;
  
    # create an attributes hash
    my $self = {
      'data'    => $data,
      'spec'    => eval { $data->{'meta-spec'}{'version'} } || "1.0",
      'errors'  => undef,
    };
  
    # create the object
    return bless $self, $class;
  }
  
  #pod =method is_valid
  #pod
  #pod   if ( $cmv->is_valid ) {
  #pod     ...
  #pod   }
  #pod
  #pod Returns a boolean value indicating whether the metadata provided
  #pod is valid.
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  sub is_valid {
      my $self = shift;
      my $data = $self->{data};
      my $spec_version = $self->{spec};
      $self->check_map($definitions{$spec_version},$data);
      return ! $self->errors;
  }
  
  #pod =method errors
  #pod
  #pod   warn( join "\n", $cmv->errors );
  #pod
  #pod Returns a list of errors seen during validation.
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  sub errors {
      my $self = shift;
      return ()   unless(defined $self->{errors});
      return @{$self->{errors}};
  }
  
  #pod =begin :internals
  #pod
  #pod =head2 Check Methods
  #pod
  #pod =over
  #pod
  #pod =item *
  #pod
  #pod check_map($spec,$data)
  #pod
  #pod Checks whether a map (or hash) part of the data structure conforms to the
  #pod appropriate specification definition.
  #pod
  #pod =item *
  #pod
  #pod check_list($spec,$data)
  #pod
  #pod Checks whether a list (or array) part of the data structure conforms to
  #pod the appropriate specification definition.
  #pod
  #pod =item *
  #pod
  #pod =back
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  my $spec_error = "Missing validation action in specification. "
    . "Must be one of 'map', 'list', or 'value'";
  
  sub check_map {
      my ($self,$spec,$data) = @_;
  
      if(ref($spec) ne 'HASH') {
          $self->_error( "Unknown META specification, cannot validate." );
          return;
      }
  
      if(ref($data) ne 'HASH') {
          $self->_error( "Expected a map structure from string or file." );
          return;
      }
  
      for my $key (keys %$spec) {
          next    unless($spec->{$key}->{mandatory});
          next    if(defined $data->{$key});
          push @{$self->{stack}}, $key;
          $self->_error( "Missing mandatory field, '$key'" );
          pop @{$self->{stack}};
      }
  
      for my $key (keys %$data) {
          push @{$self->{stack}}, $key;
          if($spec->{$key}) {
              if($spec->{$key}{value}) {
                  $spec->{$key}{value}->($self,$key,$data->{$key});
              } elsif($spec->{$key}{'map'}) {
                  $self->check_map($spec->{$key}{'map'},$data->{$key});
              } elsif($spec->{$key}{'list'}) {
                  $self->check_list($spec->{$key}{'list'},$data->{$key});
              } else {
                  $self->_error( "$spec_error for '$key'" );
              }
  
          } elsif ($spec->{':key'}) {
              $spec->{':key'}{name}->($self,$key,$key);
              if($spec->{':key'}{value}) {
                  $spec->{':key'}{value}->($self,$key,$data->{$key});
              } elsif($spec->{':key'}{'map'}) {
                  $self->check_map($spec->{':key'}{'map'},$data->{$key});
              } elsif($spec->{':key'}{'list'}) {
                  $self->check_list($spec->{':key'}{'list'},$data->{$key});
              } else {
                  $self->_error( "$spec_error for ':key'" );
              }
  
  
          } else {
              $self->_error( "Unknown key, '$key', found in map structure" );
          }
          pop @{$self->{stack}};
      }
  }
  
  sub check_list {
      my ($self,$spec,$data) = @_;
  
      if(ref($data) ne 'ARRAY') {
          $self->_error( "Expected a list structure" );
          return;
      }
  
      if(defined $spec->{mandatory}) {
          if(!defined $data->[0]) {
              $self->_error( "Missing entries from mandatory list" );
          }
      }
  
      for my $value (@$data) {
          push @{$self->{stack}}, $value || "<undef>";
          if(defined $spec->{value}) {
              $spec->{value}->($self,'list',$value);
          } elsif(defined $spec->{'map'}) {
              $self->check_map($spec->{'map'},$value);
          } elsif(defined $spec->{'list'}) {
              $self->check_list($spec->{'list'},$value);
          } elsif ($spec->{':key'}) {
              $self->check_map($spec,$value);
          } else {
            $self->_error( "$spec_error associated with '$self->{stack}[-2]'" );
          }
          pop @{$self->{stack}};
      }
  }
  
  #pod =head2 Validator Methods
  #pod
  #pod =over
  #pod
  #pod =item *
  #pod
  #pod header($self,$key,$value)
  #pod
  #pod Validates that the header is valid.
  #pod
  #pod Note: No longer used as we now read the data structure, not the file.
  #pod
  #pod =item *
  #pod
  #pod url($self,$key,$value)
  #pod
  #pod Validates that a given value is in an acceptable URL format
  #pod
  #pod =item *
  #pod
  #pod urlspec($self,$key,$value)
  #pod
  #pod Validates that the URL to a META specification is a known one.
  #pod
  #pod =item *
  #pod
  #pod string_or_undef($self,$key,$value)
  #pod
  #pod Validates that the value is either a string or an undef value. Bit of a
  #pod catchall function for parts of the data structure that are completely user
  #pod defined.
  #pod
  #pod =item *
  #pod
  #pod string($self,$key,$value)
  #pod
  #pod Validates that a string exists for the given key.
  #pod
  #pod =item *
  #pod
  #pod file($self,$key,$value)
  #pod
  #pod Validate that a file is passed for the given key. This may be made more
  #pod thorough in the future. For now it acts like \&string.
  #pod
  #pod =item *
  #pod
  #pod exversion($self,$key,$value)
  #pod
  #pod Validates a list of versions, e.g. '<= 5, >=2, ==3, !=4, >1, <6, 0'.
  #pod
  #pod =item *
  #pod
  #pod version($self,$key,$value)
  #pod
  #pod Validates a single version string. Versions of the type '5.8.8' and '0.00_00'
  #pod are both valid. A leading 'v' like 'v1.2.3' is also valid.
  #pod
  #pod =item *
  #pod
  #pod boolean($self,$key,$value)
  #pod
  #pod Validates for a boolean value. Currently these values are '1', '0', 'true',
  #pod 'false', however the latter 2 may be removed.
  #pod
  #pod =item *
  #pod
  #pod license($self,$key,$value)
  #pod
  #pod Validates that a value is given for the license. Returns 1 if an known license
  #pod type, or 2 if a value is given but the license type is not a recommended one.
  #pod
  #pod =item *
  #pod
  #pod custom_1($self,$key,$value)
  #pod
  #pod Validates that the given key is in CamelCase, to indicate a user defined
  #pod keyword and only has characters in the class [-_a-zA-Z].  In version 1.X
  #pod of the spec, this was only explicitly stated for 'resources'.
  #pod
  #pod =item *
  #pod
  #pod custom_2($self,$key,$value)
  #pod
  #pod Validates that the given key begins with 'x_' or 'X_', to indicate a user
  #pod defined keyword and only has characters in the class [-_a-zA-Z]
  #pod
  #pod =item *
  #pod
  #pod identifier($self,$key,$value)
  #pod
  #pod Validates that key is in an acceptable format for the META specification,
  #pod for an identifier, i.e. any that matches the regular expression
  #pod qr/[a-z][a-z_]/i.
  #pod
  #pod =item *
  #pod
  #pod module($self,$key,$value)
  #pod
  #pod Validates that a given key is in an acceptable module name format, e.g.
  #pod 'Test::CPAN::Meta::Version'.
  #pod
  #pod =back
  #pod
  #pod =end :internals
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  sub header {
      my ($self,$key,$value) = @_;
      if(defined $value) {
          return 1    if($value && $value =~ /^--- #YAML:1.0/);
      }
      $self->_error( "file does not have a valid YAML header." );
      return 0;
  }
  
  sub release_status {
    my ($self,$key,$value) = @_;
    if(defined $value) {
      my $version = $self->{data}{version} || '';
      if ( $version =~ /_/ ) {
        return 1 if ( $value =~ /\A(?:testing|unstable)\z/ );
        $self->_error( "'$value' for '$key' is invalid for version '$version'" );
      }
      else {
        return 1 if ( $value =~ /\A(?:stable|testing|unstable)\z/ );
        $self->_error( "'$value' for '$key' is invalid" );
      }
    }
    else {
      $self->_error( "'$key' is not defined" );
    }
    return 0;
  }
  
  # _uri_split taken from URI::Split by Gisle Aas, Copyright 2003
  sub _uri_split {
       return $_[0] =~ m,(?:([^:/?#]+):)?(?://([^/?#]*))?([^?#]*)(?:\?([^#]*))?(?:#(.*))?,;
  }
  
  sub url {
      my ($self,$key,$value) = @_;
      if(defined $value) {
        my ($scheme, $auth, $path, $query, $frag) = _uri_split($value);
        unless ( defined $scheme && length $scheme ) {
          $self->_error( "'$value' for '$key' does not have a URL scheme" );
          return 0;
        }
        unless ( defined $auth && length $auth ) {
          $self->_error( "'$value' for '$key' does not have a URL authority" );
          return 0;
        }
        return 1;
      }
      $value ||= '';
      $self->_error( "'$value' for '$key' is not a valid URL." );
      return 0;
  }
  
  sub urlspec {
      my ($self,$key,$value) = @_;
      if(defined $value) {
          return 1    if($value && $known_specs{$self->{spec}} eq $value);
          if($value && $known_urls{$value}) {
              $self->_error( 'META specification URL does not match version' );
              return 0;
          }
      }
      $self->_error( 'Unknown META specification' );
      return 0;
  }
  
  sub anything { return 1 }
  
  sub string {
      my ($self,$key,$value) = @_;
      if(defined $value) {
          return 1    if($value || $value =~ /^0$/);
      }
      $self->_error( "value is an undefined string" );
      return 0;
  }
  
  sub string_or_undef {
      my ($self,$key,$value) = @_;
      return 1    unless(defined $value);
      return 1    if($value || $value =~ /^0$/);
      $self->_error( "No string defined for '$key'" );
      return 0;
  }
  
  sub file {
      my ($self,$key,$value) = @_;
      return 1    if(defined $value);
      $self->_error( "No file defined for '$key'" );
      return 0;
  }
  
  sub exversion {
      my ($self,$key,$value) = @_;
      if(defined $value && ($value || $value =~ /0/)) {
          my $pass = 1;
          for(split(",",$value)) { $self->version($key,$_) or ($pass = 0); }
          return $pass;
      }
      $value = '<undef>'  unless(defined $value);
      $self->_error( "'$value' for '$key' is not a valid version." );
      return 0;
  }
  
  sub version {
      my ($self,$key,$value) = @_;
      if(defined $value) {
          return 0    unless($value || $value =~ /0/);
          return 1    if($value =~ /^\s*((<|<=|>=|>|!=|==)\s*)?v?\d+((\.\d+((_|\.)\d+)?)?)/);
      } else {
          $value = '<undef>';
      }
      $self->_error( "'$value' for '$key' is not a valid version." );
      return 0;
  }
  
  sub boolean {
      my ($self,$key,$value) = @_;
      if(defined $value) {
          return 1    if($value =~ /^(0|1|true|false)$/);
      } else {
          $value = '<undef>';
      }
      $self->_error( "'$value' for '$key' is not a boolean value." );
      return 0;
  }
  
  my %v1_licenses = (
      'perl'         => 'http://dev.perl.org/licenses/',
      'gpl'          => 'http://www.opensource.org/licenses/gpl-license.php',
      'apache'       => 'http://apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0',
      'artistic'     => 'http://opensource.org/licenses/artistic-license.php',
      'artistic_2'   => 'http://opensource.org/licenses/artistic-license-2.0.php',
      'lgpl'         => 'http://www.opensource.org/licenses/lgpl-license.php',
      'bsd'          => 'http://www.opensource.org/licenses/bsd-license.php',
      'gpl'          => 'http://www.opensource.org/licenses/gpl-license.php',
      'mit'          => 'http://opensource.org/licenses/mit-license.php',
      'mozilla'      => 'http://opensource.org/licenses/mozilla1.1.php',
      'open_source'  => undef,
      'unrestricted' => undef,
      'restrictive'  => undef,
      'unknown'      => undef,
  );
  
  my %v2_licenses = map { $_ => 1 } qw(
    agpl_3
    apache_1_1
    apache_2_0
    artistic_1
    artistic_2
    bsd
    freebsd
    gfdl_1_2
    gfdl_1_3
    gpl_1
    gpl_2
    gpl_3
    lgpl_2_1
    lgpl_3_0
    mit
    mozilla_1_0
    mozilla_1_1
    openssl
    perl_5
    qpl_1_0
    ssleay
    sun
    zlib
    open_source
    restricted
    unrestricted
    unknown
  );
  
  sub license {
      my ($self,$key,$value) = @_;
      my $licenses = $self->{spec} < 2 ? \%v1_licenses : \%v2_licenses;
      if(defined $value) {
          return 1    if($value && exists $licenses->{$value});
      } else {
          $value = '<undef>';
      }
      $self->_error( "License '$value' is invalid" );
      return 0;
  }
  
  sub custom_1 {
      my ($self,$key) = @_;
      if(defined $key) {
          # a valid user defined key should be alphabetic
          # and contain at least one capital case letter.
          return 1    if($key && $key =~ /^[_a-z]+$/i && $key =~ /[A-Z]/);
      } else {
          $key = '<undef>';
      }
      $self->_error( "Custom resource '$key' must be in CamelCase." );
      return 0;
  }
  
  sub custom_2 {
      my ($self,$key) = @_;
      if(defined $key) {
          return 1    if($key && $key =~ /^x_/i);  # user defined
      } else {
          $key = '<undef>';
      }
      $self->_error( "Custom key '$key' must begin with 'x_' or 'X_'." );
      return 0;
  }
  
  sub identifier {
      my ($self,$key) = @_;
      if(defined $key) {
          return 1    if($key && $key =~ /^([a-z][_a-z]+)$/i);    # spec 2.0 defined
      } else {
          $key = '<undef>';
      }
      $self->_error( "Key '$key' is not a legal identifier." );
      return 0;
  }
  
  sub module {
      my ($self,$key) = @_;
      if(defined $key) {
          return 1    if($key && $key =~ /^[A-Za-z0-9_]+(::[A-Za-z0-9_]+)*$/);
      } else {
          $key = '<undef>';
      }
      $self->_error( "Key '$key' is not a legal module name." );
      return 0;
  }
  
  my @valid_phases = qw/ configure build test runtime develop /;
  sub phase {
      my ($self,$key) = @_;
      if(defined $key) {
          return 1 if( length $key && grep { $key eq $_ } @valid_phases );
          return 1 if $key =~ /x_/i;
      } else {
          $key = '<undef>';
      }
      $self->_error( "Key '$key' is not a legal phase." );
      return 0;
  }
  
  my @valid_relations = qw/ requires recommends suggests conflicts /;
  sub relation {
      my ($self,$key) = @_;
      if(defined $key) {
          return 1 if( length $key && grep { $key eq $_ } @valid_relations );
          return 1 if $key =~ /x_/i;
      } else {
          $key = '<undef>';
      }
      $self->_error( "Key '$key' is not a legal prereq relationship." );
      return 0;
  }
  
  sub _error {
      my $self = shift;
      my $mess = shift;
  
      $mess .= ' ('.join(' -> ',@{$self->{stack}}).')'  if($self->{stack});
      $mess .= " [Validation: $self->{spec}]";
  
      push @{$self->{errors}}, $mess;
  }
  
  1;
  
  # ABSTRACT: validate CPAN distribution metadata structures
  
  =pod
  
  =encoding UTF-8
  
  =head1 NAME
  
  CPAN::Meta::Validator - validate CPAN distribution metadata structures
  
  =head1 VERSION
  
  version 2.150005
  
  =head1 SYNOPSIS
  
    my $struct = decode_json_file('META.json');
  
    my $cmv = CPAN::Meta::Validator->new( $struct );
  
    unless ( $cmv->is_valid ) {
      my $msg = "Invalid META structure.  Errors found:\n";
      $msg .= join( "\n", $cmv->errors );
      die $msg;
    }
  
  =head1 DESCRIPTION
  
  This module validates a CPAN Meta structure against the version of the
  the specification claimed in the C<meta-spec> field of the structure.
  
  =head1 METHODS
  
  =head2 new
  
    my $cmv = CPAN::Meta::Validator->new( $struct )
  
  The constructor must be passed a metadata structure.
  
  =head2 is_valid
  
    if ( $cmv->is_valid ) {
      ...
    }
  
  Returns a boolean value indicating whether the metadata provided
  is valid.
  
  =head2 errors
  
    warn( join "\n", $cmv->errors );
  
  Returns a list of errors seen during validation.
  
  =begin :internals
  
  =head2 Check Methods
  
  =over
  
  =item *
  
  check_map($spec,$data)
  
  Checks whether a map (or hash) part of the data structure conforms to the
  appropriate specification definition.
  
  =item *
  
  check_list($spec,$data)
  
  Checks whether a list (or array) part of the data structure conforms to
  the appropriate specification definition.
  
  =item *
  
  =back
  
  =head2 Validator Methods
  
  =over
  
  =item *
  
  header($self,$key,$value)
  
  Validates that the header is valid.
  
  Note: No longer used as we now read the data structure, not the file.
  
  =item *
  
  url($self,$key,$value)
  
  Validates that a given value is in an acceptable URL format
  
  =item *
  
  urlspec($self,$key,$value)
  
  Validates that the URL to a META specification is a known one.
  
  =item *
  
  string_or_undef($self,$key,$value)
  
  Validates that the value is either a string or an undef value. Bit of a
  catchall function for parts of the data structure that are completely user
  defined.
  
  =item *
  
  string($self,$key,$value)
  
  Validates that a string exists for the given key.
  
  =item *
  
  file($self,$key,$value)
  
  Validate that a file is passed for the given key. This may be made more
  thorough in the future. For now it acts like \&string.
  
  =item *
  
  exversion($self,$key,$value)
  
  Validates a list of versions, e.g. '<= 5, >=2, ==3, !=4, >1, <6, 0'.
  
  =item *
  
  version($self,$key,$value)
  
  Validates a single version string. Versions of the type '5.8.8' and '0.00_00'
  are both valid. A leading 'v' like 'v1.2.3' is also valid.
  
  =item *
  
  boolean($self,$key,$value)
  
  Validates for a boolean value. Currently these values are '1', '0', 'true',
  'false', however the latter 2 may be removed.
  
  =item *
  
  license($self,$key,$value)
  
  Validates that a value is given for the license. Returns 1 if an known license
  type, or 2 if a value is given but the license type is not a recommended one.
  
  =item *
  
  custom_1($self,$key,$value)
  
  Validates that the given key is in CamelCase, to indicate a user defined
  keyword and only has characters in the class [-_a-zA-Z].  In version 1.X
  of the spec, this was only explicitly stated for 'resources'.
  
  =item *
  
  custom_2($self,$key,$value)
  
  Validates that the given key begins with 'x_' or 'X_', to indicate a user
  defined keyword and only has characters in the class [-_a-zA-Z]
  
  =item *
  
  identifier($self,$key,$value)
  
  Validates that key is in an acceptable format for the META specification,
  for an identifier, i.e. any that matches the regular expression
  qr/[a-z][a-z_]/i.
  
  =item *
  
  module($self,$key,$value)
  
  Validates that a given key is in an acceptable module name format, e.g.
  'Test::CPAN::Meta::Version'.
  
  =back
  
  =end :internals
  
  =for Pod::Coverage anything boolean check_list custom_1 custom_2 exversion file
  identifier license module phase relation release_status string string_or_undef
  url urlspec version header check_map
  
  =head1 BUGS
  
  Please report any bugs or feature using the CPAN Request Tracker.
  Bugs can be submitted through the web interface at
  L<http://rt.cpan.org/Dist/Display.html?Queue=CPAN-Meta>
  
  When submitting a bug or request, please include a test-file or a patch to an
  existing test-file that illustrates the bug or desired feature.
  
  =head1 AUTHORS
  
  =over 4
  
  =item *
  
  David Golden <dagolden@cpan.org>
  
  =item *
  
  Ricardo Signes <rjbs@cpan.org>
  
  =back
  
  =head1 COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE
  
  This software is copyright (c) 2010 by David Golden and Ricardo Signes.
  
  This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
  the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.
  
  =cut
  
  __END__
  
  
  # vim: ts=2 sts=2 sw=2 et :
CPAN_META_VALIDATOR

$fatpacked{"CPAN/Meta/YAML.pm"} = '#line '.(1+__LINE__).' "'.__FILE__."\"\n".<<'CPAN_META_YAML';
  use 5.008001; # sane UTF-8 support
  use strict;
  use warnings;
  package CPAN::Meta::YAML; # git description: v1.66-5-ge09e1ae
  # XXX-INGY is 5.8.1 too old/broken for utf8?
  # XXX-XDG Lancaster consensus was that it was sufficient until
  # proven otherwise
  $CPAN::Meta::YAML::VERSION = '0.016';
  ; # original $VERSION removed by Doppelgaenger
  
  #####################################################################
  # The CPAN::Meta::YAML API.
  #
  # These are the currently documented API functions/methods and
  # exports:
  
  use Exporter;
  our @ISA       = qw{ Exporter  };
  our @EXPORT    = qw{ Load Dump };
  our @EXPORT_OK = qw{ LoadFile DumpFile freeze thaw };
  
  ###
  # Functional/Export API:
  
  sub Dump {
      return CPAN::Meta::YAML->new(@_)->_dump_string;
  }
  
  # XXX-INGY Returning last document seems a bad behavior.
  # XXX-XDG I think first would seem more natural, but I don't know
  # that it's worth changing now
  sub Load {
      my $self = CPAN::Meta::YAML->_load_string(@_);
      if ( wantarray ) {
          return @$self;
      } else {
          # To match YAML.pm, return the last document
          return $self->[-1];
      }
  }
  
  # XXX-INGY Do we really need freeze and thaw?
  # XXX-XDG I don't think so.  I'd support deprecating them.
  BEGIN {
      *freeze = \&Dump;
      *thaw   = \&Load;
  }
  
  sub DumpFile {
      my $file = shift;
      return CPAN::Meta::YAML->new(@_)->_dump_file($file);
  }
  
  sub LoadFile {
      my $file = shift;
      my $self = CPAN::Meta::YAML->_load_file($file);
      if ( wantarray ) {
          return @$self;
      } else {
          # Return only the last document to match YAML.pm,
          return $self->[-1];
      }
  }
  
  
  ###
  # Object Oriented API:
  
  # Create an empty CPAN::Meta::YAML object
  # XXX-INGY Why do we use ARRAY object?
  # NOTE: I get it now, but I think it's confusing and not needed.
  # Will change it on a branch later, for review.
  #
  # XXX-XDG I don't support changing it yet.  It's a very well-documented
  # "API" of CPAN::Meta::YAML.  I'd support deprecating it, but Adam suggested
  # we not change it until YAML.pm's own OO API is established so that
  # users only have one API change to digest, not two
  sub new {
      my $class = shift;
      bless [ @_ ], $class;
  }
  
  # XXX-INGY It probably doesn't matter, and it's probably too late to
  # change, but 'read/write' are the wrong names. Read and Write
  # are actions that take data from storage to memory
  # characters/strings. These take the data to/from storage to native
  # Perl objects, which the terms dump and load are meant. As long as
  # this is a legacy quirk to CPAN::Meta::YAML it's ok, but I'd prefer not
  # to add new {read,write}_* methods to this API.
  
  sub read_string {
      my $self = shift;
      $self->_load_string(@_);
  }
  
  sub write_string {
      my $self = shift;
      $self->_dump_string(@_);
  }
  
  sub read {
      my $self = shift;
      $self->_load_file(@_);
  }
  
  sub write {
      my $self = shift;
      $self->_dump_file(@_);
  }
  
  
  
  
  #####################################################################
  # Constants
  
  # Printed form of the unprintable characters in the lowest range
  # of ASCII characters, listed by ASCII ordinal position.
  my @UNPRINTABLE = qw(
      0    x01  x02  x03  x04  x05  x06  a
      b    t    n    v    f    r    x0E  x0F
      x10  x11  x12  x13  x14  x15  x16  x17
      x18  x19  x1A  e    x1C  x1D  x1E  x1F
  );
  
  # Printable characters for escapes
  my %UNESCAPES = (
      0 => "\x00", z => "\x00", N    => "\x85",
      a => "\x07", b => "\x08", t    => "\x09",
      n => "\x0a", v => "\x0b", f    => "\x0c",
      r => "\x0d", e => "\x1b", '\\' => '\\',
  );
  
  # XXX-INGY
  # I(ngy) need to decide if these values should be quoted in
  # CPAN::Meta::YAML or not. Probably yes.
  
  # These 3 values have special meaning when unquoted and using the
  # default YAML schema. They need quotes if they are strings.
  my %QUOTE = map { $_ => 1 } qw{
      null true false
  };
  
  # The commented out form is simpler, but overloaded the Perl regex
  # engine due to recursion and backtracking problems on strings
  # larger than 32,000ish characters. Keep it for reference purposes.
  # qr/\"((?:\\.|[^\"])*)\"/
  my $re_capture_double_quoted = qr/\"([^\\"]*(?:\\.[^\\"]*)*)\"/;
  my $re_capture_single_quoted = qr/\'([^\']*(?:\'\'[^\']*)*)\'/;
  # unquoted re gets trailing space that needs to be stripped
  my $re_capture_unquoted_key  = qr/([^:]+(?::+\S(?:[^:]*|.*?(?=:)))*)(?=\s*\:(?:\s+|$))/;
  my $re_trailing_comment      = qr/(?:\s+\#.*)?/;
  my $re_key_value_separator   = qr/\s*:(?:\s+(?:\#.*)?|$)/;
  
  
  
  
  
  #####################################################################
  # CPAN::Meta::YAML Implementation.
  #
  # These are the private methods that do all the work. They may change
  # at any time.
  
  
  ###
  # Loader functions:
  
  # Create an object from a file
  sub _load_file {
      my $class = ref $_[0] ? ref shift : shift;
  
      # Check the file
      my $file = shift or $class->_error( 'You did not specify a file name' );
      $class->_error( "File '$file' does not exist" )
          unless -e $file;
      $class->_error( "'$file' is a directory, not a file" )
          unless -f _;
      $class->_error( "Insufficient permissions to read '$file'" )
          unless -r _;
  
      # Open unbuffered with strict UTF-8 decoding and no translation layers
      open( my $fh, "<:unix:encoding(UTF-8)", $file );
      unless ( $fh ) {
          $class->_error("Failed to open file '$file': $!");
      }
  
      # flock if available (or warn if not possible for OS-specific reasons)
      if ( _can_flock() ) {
          flock( $fh, Fcntl::LOCK_SH() )
              or warn "Couldn't lock '$file' for reading: $!";
      }
  
      # slurp the contents
      my $contents = eval {
          use warnings FATAL => 'utf8';
          local $/;
          <$fh>
      };
      if ( my $err = $@ ) {
          $class->_error("Error reading from file '$file': $err");
      }
  
      # close the file (release the lock)
      unless ( close $fh ) {
          $class->_error("Failed to close file '$file': $!");
      }
  
      $class->_load_string( $contents );
  }
  
  # Create an object from a string
  sub _load_string {
      my $class  = ref $_[0] ? ref shift : shift;
      my $self   = bless [], $class;
      my $string = $_[0];
      eval {
          unless ( defined $string ) {
              die \"Did not provide a string to load";
          }
  
          # Check if Perl has it marked as characters, but it's internally
          # inconsistent.  E.g. maybe latin1 got read on a :utf8 layer
          if ( utf8::is_utf8($string) && ! utf8::valid($string) ) {
              die \<<'...';
  Read an invalid UTF-8 string (maybe mixed UTF-8 and 8-bit character set).
  Did you decode with lax ":utf8" instead of strict ":encoding(UTF-8)"?
  ...
          }
  
          # Ensure Unicode character semantics, even for 0x80-0xff
          utf8::upgrade($string);
  
          # Check for and strip any leading UTF-8 BOM
          $string =~ s/^\x{FEFF}//;
  
          # Check for some special cases
          return $self unless length $string;
  
          # Split the file into lines
          my @lines = grep { ! /^\s*(?:\#.*)?\z/ }
                  split /(?:\015{1,2}\012|\015|\012)/, $string;
  
          # Strip the initial YAML header
          @lines and $lines[0] =~ /^\%YAML[: ][\d\.]+.*\z/ and shift @lines;
  
          # A nibbling parser
          my $in_document = 0;
          while ( @lines ) {
              # Do we have a document header?
              if ( $lines[0] =~ /^---\s*(?:(.+)\s*)?\z/ ) {
                  # Handle scalar documents
                  shift @lines;
                  if ( defined $1 and $1 !~ /^(?:\#.+|\%YAML[: ][\d\.]+)\z/ ) {
                      push @$self,
                          $self->_load_scalar( "$1", [ undef ], \@lines );
                      next;
                  }
                  $in_document = 1;
              }
  
              if ( ! @lines or $lines[0] =~ /^(?:---|\.\.\.)/ ) {
                  # A naked document
                  push @$self, undef;
                  while ( @lines and $lines[0] !~ /^---/ ) {
                      shift @lines;
                  }
                  $in_document = 0;
  
              # XXX The final '-+$' is to look for -- which ends up being an
              # error later.
              } elsif ( ! $in_document && @$self ) {
                  # only the first document can be explicit
                  die \"CPAN::Meta::YAML failed to classify the line '$lines[0]'";
              } elsif ( $lines[0] =~ /^\s*\-(?:\s|$|-+$)/ ) {
                  # An array at the root
                  my $document = [ ];
                  push @$self, $document;
                  $self->_load_array( $document, [ 0 ], \@lines );
  
              } elsif ( $lines[0] =~ /^(\s*)\S/ ) {
                  # A hash at the root
                  my $document = { };
                  push @$self, $document;
                  $self->_load_hash( $document, [ length($1) ], \@lines );
  
              } else {
                  # Shouldn't get here.  @lines have whitespace-only lines
                  # stripped, and previous match is a line with any
                  # non-whitespace.  So this clause should only be reachable via
                  # a perlbug where \s is not symmetric with \S
  
                  # uncoverable statement
                  die \"CPAN::Meta::YAML failed to classify the line '$lines[0]'";
              }
          }
      };
      my $err = $@;
      if ( ref $err eq 'SCALAR' ) {
          $self->_error(${$err});
      } elsif ( $err ) {
          $self->_error($err);
      }
  
      return $self;
  }
  
  sub _unquote_single {
      my ($self, $string) = @_;
      return '' unless length $string;
      $string =~ s/\'\'/\'/g;
      return $string;
  }
  
  sub _unquote_double {
      my ($self, $string) = @_;
      return '' unless length $string;
      $string =~ s/\\"/"/g;
      $string =~
          s{\\([Nnever\\fartz0b]|x([0-9a-fA-F]{2}))}
           {(length($1)>1)?pack("H2",$2):$UNESCAPES{$1}}gex;
      return $string;
  }
  
  # Load a YAML scalar string to the actual Perl scalar
  sub _load_scalar {
      my ($self, $string, $indent, $lines) = @_;
  
      # Trim trailing whitespace
      $string =~ s/\s*\z//;
  
      # Explitic null/undef
      return undef if $string eq '~';
  
      # Single quote
      if ( $string =~ /^$re_capture_single_quoted$re_trailing_comment\z/ ) {
          return $self->_unquote_single($1);
      }
  
      # Double quote.
      if ( $string =~ /^$re_capture_double_quoted$re_trailing_comment\z/ ) {
          return $self->_unquote_double($1);
      }
  
      # Special cases
      if ( $string =~ /^[\'\"!&]/ ) {
          die \"CPAN::Meta::YAML does not support a feature in line '$string'";
      }
      return {} if $string =~ /^{}(?:\s+\#.*)?\z/;
      return [] if $string =~ /^\[\](?:\s+\#.*)?\z/;
  
      # Regular unquoted string
      if ( $string !~ /^[>|]/ ) {
          die \"CPAN::Meta::YAML found illegal characters in plain scalar: '$string'"
              if $string =~ /^(?:-(?:\s|$)|[\@\%\`])/ or
                  $string =~ /:(?:\s|$)/;
          $string =~ s/\s+#.*\z//;
          return $string;
      }
  
      # Error
      die \"CPAN::Meta::YAML failed to find multi-line scalar content" unless @$lines;
  
      # Check the indent depth
      $lines->[0]   =~ /^(\s*)/;
      $indent->[-1] = length("$1");
      if ( defined $indent->[-2] and $indent->[-1] <= $indent->[-2] ) {
          die \"CPAN::Meta::YAML found bad indenting in line '$lines->[0]'";
      }
  
      # Pull the lines
      my @multiline = ();
      while ( @$lines ) {
          $lines->[0] =~ /^(\s*)/;
          last unless length($1) >= $indent->[-1];
          push @multiline, substr(shift(@$lines), length($1));
      }
  
      my $j = (substr($string, 0, 1) eq '>') ? ' ' : "\n";
      my $t = (substr($string, 1, 1) eq '-') ? ''  : "\n";
      return join( $j, @multiline ) . $t;
  }
  
  # Load an array
  sub _load_array {
      my ($self, $array, $indent, $lines) = @_;
  
      while ( @$lines ) {
          # Check for a new document
          if ( $lines->[0] =~ /^(?:---|\.\.\.)/ ) {
              while ( @$lines and $lines->[0] !~ /^---/ ) {
                  shift @$lines;
              }
              return 1;
          }
  
          # Check the indent level
          $lines->[0] =~ /^(\s*)/;
          if ( length($1) < $indent->[-1] ) {
              return 1;
          } elsif ( length($1) > $indent->[-1] ) {
              die \"CPAN::Meta::YAML found bad indenting in line '$lines->[0]'";
          }
  
          if ( $lines->[0] =~ /^(\s*\-\s+)[^\'\"]\S*\s*:(?:\s+|$)/ ) {
              # Inline nested hash
              my $indent2 = length("$1");
              $lines->[0] =~ s/-/ /;
              push @$array, { };
              $self->_load_hash( $array->[-1], [ @$indent, $indent2 ], $lines );
  
          } elsif ( $lines->[0] =~ /^\s*\-\s*\z/ ) {
              shift @$lines;
              unless ( @$lines ) {
                  push @$array, undef;
                  return 1;
              }
              if ( $lines->[0] =~ /^(\s*)\-/ ) {
                  my $indent2 = length("$1");
                  if ( $indent->[-1] == $indent2 ) {
                      # Null array entry
                      push @$array, undef;
                  } else {
                      # Naked indenter
                      push @$array, [ ];
                      $self->_load_array(
                          $array->[-1], [ @$indent, $indent2 ], $lines
                      );
                  }
  
              } elsif ( $lines->[0] =~ /^(\s*)\S/ ) {
                  push @$array, { };
                  $self->_load_hash(
                      $array->[-1], [ @$indent, length("$1") ], $lines
                  );
  
              } else {
                  die \"CPAN::Meta::YAML failed to classify line '$lines->[0]'";
              }
  
          } elsif ( $lines->[0] =~ /^\s*\-(\s*)(.+?)\s*\z/ ) {
              # Array entry with a value
              shift @$lines;
              push @$array, $self->_load_scalar(
                  "$2", [ @$indent, undef ], $lines
              );
  
          } elsif ( defined $indent->[-2] and $indent->[-1] == $indent->[-2] ) {
              # This is probably a structure like the following...
              # ---
              # foo:
              # - list
              # bar: value
              #
              # ... so lets return and let the hash parser handle it
              return 1;
  
          } else {
              die \"CPAN::Meta::YAML failed to classify line '$lines->[0]'";
          }
      }
  
      return 1;
  }
  
  # Load a hash
  sub _load_hash {
      my ($self, $hash, $indent, $lines) = @_;
  
      while ( @$lines ) {
          # Check for a new document
          if ( $lines->[0] =~ /^(?:---|\.\.\.)/ ) {
              while ( @$lines and $lines->[0] !~ /^---/ ) {
                  shift @$lines;
              }
              return 1;
          }
  
          # Check the indent level
          $lines->[0] =~ /^(\s*)/;
          if ( length($1) < $indent->[-1] ) {
              return 1;
          } elsif ( length($1) > $indent->[-1] ) {
              die \"CPAN::Meta::YAML found bad indenting in line '$lines->[0]'";
          }
  
          # Find the key
          my $key;
  
          # Quoted keys
          if ( $lines->[0] =~
              s/^\s*$re_capture_single_quoted$re_key_value_separator//
          ) {
              $key = $self->_unquote_single($1);
          }
          elsif ( $lines->[0] =~
              s/^\s*$re_capture_double_quoted$re_key_value_separator//
          ) {
              $key = $self->_unquote_double($1);
          }
          elsif ( $lines->[0] =~
              s/^\s*$re_capture_unquoted_key$re_key_value_separator//
          ) {
              $key = $1;
              $key =~ s/\s+$//;
          }
          elsif ( $lines->[0] =~ /^\s*\?/ ) {
              die \"CPAN::Meta::YAML does not support a feature in line '$lines->[0]'";
          }
          else {
              die \"CPAN::Meta::YAML failed to classify line '$lines->[0]'";
          }
  
          if ( exists $hash->{$key} ) {
              warn "CPAN::Meta::YAML found a duplicate key '$key' in line '$lines->[0]'";
          }
  
          # Do we have a value?
          if ( length $lines->[0] ) {
              # Yes
              $hash->{$key} = $self->_load_scalar(
                  shift(@$lines), [ @$indent, undef ], $lines
              );
          } else {
              # An indent
              shift @$lines;
              unless ( @$lines ) {
                  $hash->{$key} = undef;
                  return 1;
              }
              if ( $lines->[0] =~ /^(\s*)-/ ) {
                  $hash->{$key} = [];
                  $self->_load_array(
                      $hash->{$key}, [ @$indent, length($1) ], $lines
                  );
              } elsif ( $lines->[0] =~ /^(\s*)./ ) {
                  my $indent2 = length("$1");
                  if ( $indent->[-1] >= $indent2 ) {
                      # Null hash entry
                      $hash->{$key} = undef;
                  } else {
                      $hash->{$key} = {};
                      $self->_load_hash(
                          $hash->{$key}, [ @$indent, length($1) ], $lines
                      );
                  }
              }
          }
      }
  
      return 1;
  }
  
  
  ###
  # Dumper functions:
  
  # Save an object to a file
  sub _dump_file {
      my $self = shift;
  
      require Fcntl;
  
      # Check the file
      my $file = shift or $self->_error( 'You did not specify a file name' );
  
      my $fh;
      # flock if available (or warn if not possible for OS-specific reasons)
      if ( _can_flock() ) {
          # Open without truncation (truncate comes after lock)
          my $flags = Fcntl::O_WRONLY()|Fcntl::O_CREAT();
          sysopen( $fh, $file, $flags );
          unless ( $fh ) {
              $self->_error("Failed to open file '$file' for writing: $!");
          }
  
          # Use no translation and strict UTF-8
          binmode( $fh, ":raw:encoding(UTF-8)");
  
          flock( $fh, Fcntl::LOCK_EX() )
              or warn "Couldn't lock '$file' for reading: $!";
  
          # truncate and spew contents
          truncate $fh, 0;
          seek $fh, 0, 0;
      }
      else {
          open $fh, ">:unix:encoding(UTF-8)", $file;
      }
  
      # serialize and spew to the handle
      print {$fh} $self->_dump_string;
  
      # close the file (release the lock)
      unless ( close $fh ) {
          $self->_error("Failed to close file '$file': $!");
      }
  
      return 1;
  }
  
  # Save an object to a string
  sub _dump_string {
      my $self = shift;
      return '' unless ref $self && @$self;
  
      # Iterate over the documents
      my $indent = 0;
      my @lines  = ();
  
      eval {
          foreach my $cursor ( @$self ) {
              push @lines, '---';
  
              # An empty document
              if ( ! defined $cursor ) {
                  # Do nothing
  
              # A scalar document
              } elsif ( ! ref $cursor ) {
                  $lines[-1] .= ' ' . $self->_dump_scalar( $cursor );
  
              # A list at the root
              } elsif ( ref $cursor eq 'ARRAY' ) {
                  unless ( @$cursor ) {
                      $lines[-1] .= ' []';
                      next;
                  }
                  push @lines, $self->_dump_array( $cursor, $indent, {} );
  
              # A hash at the root
              } elsif ( ref $cursor eq 'HASH' ) {
                  unless ( %$cursor ) {
                      $lines[-1] .= ' {}';
                      next;
                  }
                  push @lines, $self->_dump_hash( $cursor, $indent, {} );
  
              } else {
                  die \("Cannot serialize " . ref($cursor));
              }
          }
      };
      if ( ref $@ eq 'SCALAR' ) {
          $self->_error(${$@});
      } elsif ( $@ ) {
          $self->_error($@);
      }
  
      join '', map { "$_\n" } @lines;
  }
  
  sub _has_internal_string_value {
      my $value = shift;
      my $b_obj = B::svref_2object(\$value);  # for round trip problem
      return $b_obj->FLAGS & B::SVf_POK();
  }
  
  sub _dump_scalar {
      my $string = $_[1];
      my $is_key = $_[2];
      # Check this before checking length or it winds up looking like a string!
      my $has_string_flag = _has_internal_string_value($string);
      return '~'  unless defined $string;
      return "''" unless length  $string;
      if (Scalar::Util::looks_like_number($string)) {
          # keys and values that have been used as strings get quoted
          if ( $is_key || $has_string_flag ) {
              return qq['$string'];
          }
          else {
              return $string;
          }
      }
      if ( $string =~ /[\x00-\x09\x0b-\x0d\x0e-\x1f\x7f-\x9f\'\n]/ ) {
          $string =~ s/\\/\\\\/g;
          $string =~ s/"/\\"/g;
          $string =~ s/\n/\\n/g;
          $string =~ s/[\x85]/\\N/g;
          $string =~ s/([\x00-\x1f])/\\$UNPRINTABLE[ord($1)]/g;
          $string =~ s/([\x7f-\x9f])/'\x' . sprintf("%X",ord($1))/ge;
          return qq|"$string"|;
      }
      if ( $string =~ /(?:^[~!@#%&*|>?:,'"`{}\[\]]|^-+$|\s|:\z)/ or
          $QUOTE{$string}
      ) {
          return "'$string'";
      }
      return $string;
  }
  
  sub _dump_array {
      my ($self, $array, $indent, $seen) = @_;
      if ( $seen->{refaddr($array)}++ ) {
          die \"CPAN::Meta::YAML does not support circular references";
      }
      my @lines  = ();
      foreach my $el ( @$array ) {
          my $line = ('  ' x $indent) . '-';
          my $type = ref $el;
          if ( ! $type ) {
              $line .= ' ' . $self->_dump_scalar( $el );
              push @lines, $line;
  
          } elsif ( $type eq 'ARRAY' ) {
              if ( @$el ) {
                  push @lines, $line;
                  push @lines, $self->_dump_array( $el, $indent + 1, $seen );
              } else {
                  $line .= ' []';
                  push @lines, $line;
              }
  
          } elsif ( $type eq 'HASH' ) {
              if ( keys %$el ) {
                  push @lines, $line;
                  push @lines, $self->_dump_hash( $el, $indent + 1, $seen );
              } else {
                  $line .= ' {}';
                  push @lines, $line;
              }
  
          } else {
              die \"CPAN::Meta::YAML does not support $type references";
          }
      }
  
      @lines;
  }
  
  sub _dump_hash {
      my ($self, $hash, $indent, $seen) = @_;
      if ( $seen->{refaddr($hash)}++ ) {
          die \"CPAN::Meta::YAML does not support circular references";
      }
      my @lines  = ();
      foreach my $name ( sort keys %$hash ) {
          my $el   = $hash->{$name};
          my $line = ('  ' x $indent) . $self->_dump_scalar($name, 1) . ":";
          my $type = ref $el;
          if ( ! $type ) {
              $line .= ' ' . $self->_dump_scalar( $el );
              push @lines, $line;
  
          } elsif ( $type eq 'ARRAY' ) {
              if ( @$el ) {
                  push @lines, $line;
                  push @lines, $self->_dump_array( $el, $indent + 1, $seen );
              } else {
                  $line .= ' []';
                  push @lines, $line;
              }
  
          } elsif ( $type eq 'HASH' ) {
              if ( keys %$el ) {
                  push @lines, $line;
                  push @lines, $self->_dump_hash( $el, $indent + 1, $seen );
              } else {
                  $line .= ' {}';
                  push @lines, $line;
              }
  
          } else {
              die \"CPAN::Meta::YAML does not support $type references";
          }
      }
  
      @lines;
  }
  
  
  
  #####################################################################
  # DEPRECATED API methods:
  
  # Error storage (DEPRECATED as of 1.57)
  our $errstr    = '';
  
  # Set error
  sub _error {
      require Carp;
      $errstr = $_[1];
      $errstr =~ s/ at \S+ line \d+.*//;
      Carp::croak( $errstr );
  }
  
  # Retrieve error
  my $errstr_warned;
  sub errstr {
      require Carp;
      Carp::carp( "CPAN::Meta::YAML->errstr and \$CPAN::Meta::YAML::errstr is deprecated" )
          unless $errstr_warned++;
      $errstr;
  }
  
  
  
  
  #####################################################################
  # Helper functions. Possibly not needed.
  
  
  # Use to detect nv or iv
  use B;
  
  # XXX-INGY Is flock CPAN::Meta::YAML's responsibility?
  # Some platforms can't flock :-(
  # XXX-XDG I think it is.  When reading and writing files, we ought
  # to be locking whenever possible.  People (foolishly) use YAML
  # files for things like session storage, which has race issues.
  my $HAS_FLOCK;
  sub _can_flock {
      if ( defined $HAS_FLOCK ) {
          return $HAS_FLOCK;
      }
      else {
          require Config;
          my $c = \%Config::Config;
          $HAS_FLOCK = grep { $c->{$_} } qw/d_flock d_fcntl_can_lock d_lockf/;
          require Fcntl if $HAS_FLOCK;
          return $HAS_FLOCK;
      }
  }
  
  
  # XXX-INGY Is this core in 5.8.1? Can we remove this?
  # XXX-XDG Scalar::Util 1.18 didn't land until 5.8.8, so we need this
  #####################################################################
  # Use Scalar::Util if possible, otherwise emulate it
  
  use Scalar::Util ();
  BEGIN {
      local $@;
      if ( eval { Scalar::Util->VERSION(1.18); } ) {
          *refaddr = *Scalar::Util::refaddr;
      }
      else {
          eval <<'END_PERL';
  # Scalar::Util failed to load or too old
  sub refaddr {
      my $pkg = ref($_[0]) or return undef;
      if ( !! UNIVERSAL::can($_[0], 'can') ) {
          bless $_[0], 'Scalar::Util::Fake';
      } else {
          $pkg = undef;
      }
      "$_[0]" =~ /0x(\w+)/;
      my $i = do { no warnings 'portable'; hex $1 };
      bless $_[0], $pkg if defined $pkg;
      $i;
  }
  END_PERL
      }
  }
  
  delete $CPAN::Meta::YAML::{refaddr};
  
  1;
  
  # XXX-INGY Doc notes I'm putting up here. Changing the doc when it's wrong
  # but leaving grey area stuff up here.
  #
  # I would like to change Read/Write to Load/Dump below without
  # changing the actual API names.
  #
  # It might be better to put Load/Dump API in the SYNOPSIS instead of the
  # dubious OO API.
  #
  # null and bool explanations may be outdated.
  
  =pod
  
  =encoding UTF-8
  
  =head1 NAME
  
  CPAN::Meta::YAML - Read and write a subset of YAML for CPAN Meta files
  
  =head1 VERSION
  
  version 0.016
  
  =head1 SYNOPSIS
  
      use CPAN::Meta::YAML;
  
      # reading a META file
      open $fh, "<:utf8", "META.yml";
      $yaml_text = do { local $/; <$fh> };
      $yaml = CPAN::Meta::YAML->read_string($yaml_text)
        or die CPAN::Meta::YAML->errstr;
  
      # finding the metadata
      $meta = $yaml->[0];
  
      # writing a META file
      $yaml_text = $yaml->write_string
        or die CPAN::Meta::YAML->errstr;
      open $fh, ">:utf8", "META.yml";
      print $fh $yaml_text;
  
  =head1 DESCRIPTION
  
  This module implements a subset of the YAML specification for use in reading
  and writing CPAN metadata files like F<META.yml> and F<MYMETA.yml>.  It should
  not be used for any other general YAML parsing or generation task.
  
  NOTE: F<META.yml> (and F<MYMETA.yml>) files should be UTF-8 encoded.  Users are
  responsible for proper encoding and decoding.  In particular, the C<read> and
  C<write> methods do B<not> support UTF-8 and should not be used.
  
  =head1 SUPPORT
  
  This module is currently derived from L<YAML::Tiny> by Adam Kennedy.  If
  there are bugs in how it parses a particular META.yml file, please file
  a bug report in the YAML::Tiny bugtracker:
  L<https://github.com/Perl-Toolchain-Gang/YAML-Tiny/issues>
  
  =head1 SEE ALSO
  
  L<YAML::Tiny>, L<YAML>, L<YAML::XS>
  
  =head1 AUTHORS
  
  =over 4
  
  =item *
  
  Adam Kennedy <adamk@cpan.org>
  
  =item *
  
  David Golden <dagolden@cpan.org>
  
  =back
  
  =head1 COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE
  
  This software is copyright (c) 2010 by Adam Kennedy.
  
  This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
  the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.
  
  =cut
  
  __END__
  
  
  # ABSTRACT: Read and write a subset of YAML for CPAN Meta files
  
  
CPAN_META_YAML

$fatpacked{"Exporter.pm"} = '#line '.(1+__LINE__).' "'.__FILE__."\"\n".<<'EXPORTER';
  package Exporter;
  
  require 5.006;
  
  # Be lean.
  #use strict;
  #no strict 'refs';
  
  our $Debug = 0;
  our $ExportLevel = 0;
  our $Verbose ||= 0;
  our $VERSION = '5.70';
  our (%Cache);
  
  sub as_heavy {
    require Exporter::Heavy;
    # Unfortunately, this does not work if the caller is aliased as *name = \&foo
    # Thus the need to create a lot of identical subroutines
    my $c = (caller(1))[3];
    $c =~ s/.*:://;
    \&{"Exporter::Heavy::heavy_$c"};
  }
  
  sub export {
    goto &{as_heavy()};
  }
  
  sub import {
    my $pkg = shift;
    my $callpkg = caller($ExportLevel);
  
    if ($pkg eq "Exporter" and @_ and $_[0] eq "import") {
      *{$callpkg."::import"} = \&import;
      return;
    }
  
    # We *need* to treat @{"$pkg\::EXPORT_FAIL"} since Carp uses it :-(
    my $exports = \@{"$pkg\::EXPORT"};
    # But, avoid creating things if they don't exist, which saves a couple of
    # hundred bytes per package processed.
    my $fail = ${$pkg . '::'}{EXPORT_FAIL} && \@{"$pkg\::EXPORT_FAIL"};
    return export $pkg, $callpkg, @_
      if $Verbose or $Debug or $fail && @$fail > 1;
    my $export_cache = ($Cache{$pkg} ||= {});
    my $args = @_ or @_ = @$exports;
  
    if ($args and not %$export_cache) {
      s/^&//, $export_cache->{$_} = 1
        foreach (@$exports, @{"$pkg\::EXPORT_OK"});
    }
    my $heavy;
    # Try very hard not to use {} and hence have to  enter scope on the foreach
    # We bomb out of the loop with last as soon as heavy is set.
    if ($args or $fail) {
      ($heavy = (/\W/ or $args and not exists $export_cache->{$_}
                 or $fail and @$fail and $_ eq $fail->[0])) and last
                   foreach (@_);
    } else {
      ($heavy = /\W/) and last
        foreach (@_);
    }
    return export $pkg, $callpkg, ($args ? @_ : ()) if $heavy;
    local $SIG{__WARN__} = 
  	sub {require Carp; &Carp::carp} if not $SIG{__WARN__};
    # shortcut for the common case of no type character
    *{"$callpkg\::$_"} = \&{"$pkg\::$_"} foreach @_;
  }
  
  # Default methods
  
  sub export_fail {
      my $self = shift;
      @_;
  }
  
  # Unfortunately, caller(1)[3] "does not work" if the caller is aliased as
  # *name = \&foo.  Thus the need to create a lot of identical subroutines
  # Otherwise we could have aliased them to export().
  
  sub export_to_level {
    goto &{as_heavy()};
  }
  
  sub export_tags {
    goto &{as_heavy()};
  }
  
  sub export_ok_tags {
    goto &{as_heavy()};
  }
  
  sub require_version {
    goto &{as_heavy()};
  }
  
  1;
  __END__
  
  =head1 NAME
  
  Exporter - Implements default import method for modules
  
  =head1 SYNOPSIS
  
  In module F<YourModule.pm>:
  
    package YourModule;
    require Exporter;
    @ISA = qw(Exporter);
    @EXPORT_OK = qw(munge frobnicate);  # symbols to export on request
  
  or
  
    package YourModule;
    use Exporter 'import'; # gives you Exporter's import() method directly
    @EXPORT_OK = qw(munge frobnicate);  # symbols to export on request
  
  In other files which wish to use C<YourModule>:
  
    use YourModule qw(frobnicate);      # import listed symbols
    frobnicate ($left, $right)          # calls YourModule::frobnicate
  
  Take a look at L</Good Practices> for some variants
  you will like to use in modern Perl code.
  
  =head1 DESCRIPTION
  
  The Exporter module implements an C<import> method which allows a module
  to export functions and variables to its users' namespaces.  Many modules
  use Exporter rather than implementing their own C<import> method because
  Exporter provides a highly flexible interface, with an implementation optimised
  for the common case.
  
  Perl automatically calls the C<import> method when processing a
  C<use> statement for a module.  Modules and C<use> are documented
  in L<perlfunc> and L<perlmod>.  Understanding the concept of
  modules and how the C<use> statement operates is important to
  understanding the Exporter.
  
  =head2 How to Export
  
  The arrays C<@EXPORT> and C<@EXPORT_OK> in a module hold lists of
  symbols that are going to be exported into the users name space by
  default, or which they can request to be exported, respectively.  The
  symbols can represent functions, scalars, arrays, hashes, or typeglobs.
  The symbols must be given by full name with the exception that the
  ampersand in front of a function is optional, e.g.
  
      @EXPORT    = qw(afunc $scalar @array);   # afunc is a function
      @EXPORT_OK = qw(&bfunc %hash *typeglob); # explicit prefix on &bfunc
  
  If you are only exporting function names it is recommended to omit the
  ampersand, as the implementation is faster this way.
  
  =head2 Selecting What to Export
  
  Do B<not> export method names!
  
  Do B<not> export anything else by default without a good reason!
  
  Exports pollute the namespace of the module user.  If you must export
  try to use C<@EXPORT_OK> in preference to C<@EXPORT> and avoid short or
  common symbol names to reduce the risk of name clashes.
  
  Generally anything not exported is still accessible from outside the
  module using the C<YourModule::item_name> (or C<< $blessed_ref->method >>)
  syntax.  By convention you can use a leading underscore on names to
  informally indicate that they are 'internal' and not for public use.
  
  (It is actually possible to get private functions by saying:
  
    my $subref = sub { ... };
    $subref->(@args);            # Call it as a function
    $obj->$subref(@args);        # Use it as a method
  
  However if you use them for methods it is up to you to figure out
  how to make inheritance work.)
  
  As a general rule, if the module is trying to be object oriented
  then export nothing.  If it's just a collection of functions then
  C<@EXPORT_OK> anything but use C<@EXPORT> with caution.  For function and
  method names use barewords in preference to names prefixed with
  ampersands for the export lists.
  
  Other module design guidelines can be found in L<perlmod>.
  
  =head2 How to Import
  
  In other files which wish to use your module there are three basic ways for
  them to load your module and import its symbols:
  
  =over 4
  
  =item C<use YourModule;>
  
  This imports all the symbols from YourModule's C<@EXPORT> into the namespace
  of the C<use> statement.
  
  =item C<use YourModule ();>
  
  This causes perl to load your module but does not import any symbols.
  
  =item C<use YourModule qw(...);>
  
  This imports only the symbols listed by the caller into their namespace.
  All listed symbols must be in your C<@EXPORT> or C<@EXPORT_OK>, else an error
  occurs.  The advanced export features of Exporter are accessed like this,
  but with list entries that are syntactically distinct from symbol names.
  
  =back
  
  Unless you want to use its advanced features, this is probably all you
  need to know to use Exporter.
  
  =head1 Advanced Features
  
  =head2 Specialised Import Lists
  
  If any of the entries in an import list begins with !, : or / then
  the list is treated as a series of specifications which either add to
  or delete from the list of names to import.  They are processed left to
  right. Specifications are in the form:
  
      [!]name         This name only
      [!]:DEFAULT     All names in @EXPORT
      [!]:tag         All names in $EXPORT_TAGS{tag} anonymous list
      [!]/pattern/    All names in @EXPORT and @EXPORT_OK which match
  
  A leading ! indicates that matching names should be deleted from the
  list of names to import.  If the first specification is a deletion it
  is treated as though preceded by :DEFAULT.  If you just want to import
  extra names in addition to the default set you will still need to
  include :DEFAULT explicitly.
  
  e.g., F<Module.pm> defines:
  
      @EXPORT      = qw(A1 A2 A3 A4 A5);
      @EXPORT_OK   = qw(B1 B2 B3 B4 B5);
      %EXPORT_TAGS = (T1 => [qw(A1 A2 B1 B2)], T2 => [qw(A1 A2 B3 B4)]);
  
  Note that you cannot use tags in @EXPORT or @EXPORT_OK.
  
  Names in EXPORT_TAGS must also appear in @EXPORT or @EXPORT_OK.
  
  An application using Module can say something like:
  
      use Module qw(:DEFAULT :T2 !B3 A3);
  
  Other examples include:
  
      use Socket qw(!/^[AP]F_/ !SOMAXCONN !SOL_SOCKET);
      use POSIX  qw(:errno_h :termios_h !TCSADRAIN !/^EXIT/);
  
  Remember that most patterns (using //) will need to be anchored
  with a leading ^, e.g., C</^EXIT/> rather than C</EXIT/>.
  
  You can say C<BEGIN { $Exporter::Verbose=1 }> to see how the
  specifications are being processed and what is actually being imported
  into modules.
  
  =head2 Exporting Without Using Exporter's import Method
  
  Exporter has a special method, 'export_to_level' which is used in situations
  where you can't directly call Exporter's
  import method.  The export_to_level
  method looks like:
  
      MyPackage->export_to_level(
  	$where_to_export, $package, @what_to_export
      );
  
  where C<$where_to_export> is an integer telling how far up the calling stack
  to export your symbols, and C<@what_to_export> is an array telling what
  symbols *to* export (usually this is C<@_>).  The C<$package> argument is
  currently unused.
  
  For example, suppose that you have a module, A, which already has an
  import function:
  
      package A;
  
      @ISA = qw(Exporter);
      @EXPORT_OK = qw($b);
  
      sub import
      {
  	$A::b = 1;     # not a very useful import method
      }
  
  and you want to Export symbol C<$A::b> back to the module that called 
  package A.  Since Exporter relies on the import method to work, via 
  inheritance, as it stands Exporter::import() will never get called. 
  Instead, say the following:
  
      package A;
      @ISA = qw(Exporter);
      @EXPORT_OK = qw($b);
  
      sub import
      {
  	$A::b = 1;
  	A->export_to_level(1, @_);
      }
  
  This will export the symbols one level 'above' the current package - ie: to 
  the program or module that used package A. 
  
  Note: Be careful not to modify C<@_> at all before you call export_to_level
  - or people using your package will get very unexplained results!
  
  =head2 Exporting Without Inheriting from Exporter
  
  By including Exporter in your C<@ISA> you inherit an Exporter's import() method
  but you also inherit several other helper methods which you probably don't
  want.  To avoid this you can do:
  
    package YourModule;
    use Exporter qw(import);
  
  which will export Exporter's own import() method into YourModule.
  Everything will work as before but you won't need to include Exporter in
  C<@YourModule::ISA>.
  
  Note: This feature was introduced in version 5.57
  of Exporter, released with perl 5.8.3.
  
  =head2 Module Version Checking
  
  The Exporter module will convert an attempt to import a number from a
  module into a call to C<< $module_name->VERSION($value) >>.  This can
  be used to validate that the version of the module being used is
  greater than or equal to the required version.
  
  For historical reasons, Exporter supplies a C<require_version> method that
  simply delegates to C<VERSION>.  Originally, before C<UNIVERSAL::VERSION>
  existed, Exporter would call C<require_version>.
  
  Since the C<UNIVERSAL::VERSION> method treats the C<$VERSION> number as
  a simple numeric value it will regard version 1.10 as lower than
  1.9.  For this reason it is strongly recommended that you use numbers
  with at least two decimal places, e.g., 1.09.
  
  =head2 Managing Unknown Symbols
  
  In some situations you may want to prevent certain symbols from being
  exported.  Typically this applies to extensions which have functions
  or constants that may not exist on some systems.
  
  The names of any symbols that cannot be exported should be listed
  in the C<@EXPORT_FAIL> array.
  
  If a module attempts to import any of these symbols the Exporter
  will give the module an opportunity to handle the situation before
  generating an error.  The Exporter will call an export_fail method
  with a list of the failed symbols:
  
    @failed_symbols = $module_name->export_fail(@failed_symbols);
  
  If the C<export_fail> method returns an empty list then no error is
  recorded and all the requested symbols are exported.  If the returned
  list is not empty then an error is generated for each symbol and the
  export fails.  The Exporter provides a default C<export_fail> method which
  simply returns the list unchanged.
  
  Uses for the C<export_fail> method include giving better error messages
  for some symbols and performing lazy architectural checks (put more
  symbols into C<@EXPORT_FAIL> by default and then take them out if someone
  actually tries to use them and an expensive check shows that they are
  usable on that platform).
  
  =head2 Tag Handling Utility Functions
  
  Since the symbols listed within C<%EXPORT_TAGS> must also appear in either
  C<@EXPORT> or C<@EXPORT_OK>, two utility functions are provided which allow
  you to easily add tagged sets of symbols to C<@EXPORT> or C<@EXPORT_OK>:
  
    %EXPORT_TAGS = (foo => [qw(aa bb cc)], bar => [qw(aa cc dd)]);
  
    Exporter::export_tags('foo');     # add aa, bb and cc to @EXPORT
    Exporter::export_ok_tags('bar');  # add aa, cc and dd to @EXPORT_OK
  
  Any names which are not tags are added to C<@EXPORT> or C<@EXPORT_OK>
  unchanged but will trigger a warning (with C<-w>) to avoid misspelt tags
  names being silently added to C<@EXPORT> or C<@EXPORT_OK>.  Future versions
  may make this a fatal error.
  
  =head2 Generating Combined Tags
  
  If several symbol categories exist in C<%EXPORT_TAGS>, it's usually
  useful to create the utility ":all" to simplify "use" statements.
  
  The simplest way to do this is:
  
    %EXPORT_TAGS = (foo => [qw(aa bb cc)], bar => [qw(aa cc dd)]);
  
    # add all the other ":class" tags to the ":all" class,
    # deleting duplicates
    {
      my %seen;
  
      push @{$EXPORT_TAGS{all}},
        grep {!$seen{$_}++} @{$EXPORT_TAGS{$_}} foreach keys %EXPORT_TAGS;
    }
  
  F<CGI.pm> creates an ":all" tag which contains some (but not really
  all) of its categories.  That could be done with one small
  change:
  
    # add some of the other ":class" tags to the ":all" class,
    # deleting duplicates
    {
      my %seen;
  
      push @{$EXPORT_TAGS{all}},
        grep {!$seen{$_}++} @{$EXPORT_TAGS{$_}}
          foreach qw/html2 html3 netscape form cgi internal/;
    }
  
  Note that the tag names in C<%EXPORT_TAGS> don't have the leading ':'.
  
  =head2 C<AUTOLOAD>ed Constants
  
  Many modules make use of C<AUTOLOAD>ing for constant subroutines to
  avoid having to compile and waste memory on rarely used values (see
  L<perlsub> for details on constant subroutines).  Calls to such
  constant subroutines are not optimized away at compile time because
  they can't be checked at compile time for constancy.
  
  Even if a prototype is available at compile time, the body of the
  subroutine is not (it hasn't been C<AUTOLOAD>ed yet).  perl needs to
  examine both the C<()> prototype and the body of a subroutine at
  compile time to detect that it can safely replace calls to that
  subroutine with the constant value.
  
  A workaround for this is to call the constants once in a C<BEGIN> block:
  
     package My ;
  
     use Socket ;
  
     foo( SO_LINGER );  ## SO_LINGER NOT optimized away; called at runtime
     BEGIN { SO_LINGER }
     foo( SO_LINGER );  ## SO_LINGER optimized away at compile time.
  
  This forces the C<AUTOLOAD> for C<SO_LINGER> to take place before
  SO_LINGER is encountered later in C<My> package.
  
  If you are writing a package that C<AUTOLOAD>s, consider forcing
  an C<AUTOLOAD> for any constants explicitly imported by other packages
  or which are usually used when your package is C<use>d.
  
  =head1 Good Practices
  
  =head2 Declaring C<@EXPORT_OK> and Friends
  
  When using C<Exporter> with the standard C<strict> and C<warnings>
  pragmas, the C<our> keyword is needed to declare the package
  variables C<@EXPORT_OK>, C<@EXPORT>, C<@ISA>, etc.
  
    our @ISA = qw(Exporter);
    our @EXPORT_OK = qw(munge frobnicate);
  
  If backward compatibility for Perls under 5.6 is important,
  one must write instead a C<use vars> statement.
  
    use vars qw(@ISA @EXPORT_OK);
    @ISA = qw(Exporter);
    @EXPORT_OK = qw(munge frobnicate);
  
  =head2 Playing Safe
  
  There are some caveats with the use of runtime statements
  like C<require Exporter> and the assignment to package
  variables, which can be very subtle for the unaware programmer.
  This may happen for instance with mutually recursive
  modules, which are affected by the time the relevant
  constructions are executed.
  
  The ideal (but a bit ugly) way to never have to think
  about that is to use C<BEGIN> blocks.  So the first part
  of the L</SYNOPSIS> code could be rewritten as:
  
    package YourModule;
  
    use strict;
    use warnings;
  
    our (@ISA, @EXPORT_OK);
    BEGIN {
       require Exporter;
       @ISA = qw(Exporter);
       @EXPORT_OK = qw(munge frobnicate);  # symbols to export on request
    }
  
  The C<BEGIN> will assure that the loading of F<Exporter.pm>
  and the assignments to C<@ISA> and C<@EXPORT_OK> happen
  immediately, leaving no room for something to get awry
  or just plain wrong.
  
  With respect to loading C<Exporter> and inheriting, there
  are alternatives with the use of modules like C<base> and C<parent>.
  
    use base qw(Exporter);
    # or
    use parent qw(Exporter);
  
  Any of these statements are nice replacements for
  C<BEGIN { require Exporter; @ISA = qw(Exporter); }>
  with the same compile-time effect.  The basic difference
  is that C<base> code interacts with declared C<fields>
  while C<parent> is a streamlined version of the older
  C<base> code to just establish the IS-A relationship.
  
  For more details, see the documentation and code of
  L<base> and L<parent>.
  
  Another thorough remedy to that runtime
  vs. compile-time trap is to use L<Exporter::Easy>,
  which is a wrapper of Exporter that allows all
  boilerplate code at a single gulp in the
  use statement.
  
     use Exporter::Easy (
         OK => [ qw(munge frobnicate) ],
     );
     # @ISA setup is automatic
     # all assignments happen at compile time
  
  =head2 What Not to Export
  
  You have been warned already in L</Selecting What to Export>
  to not export:
  
  =over 4
  
  =item *
  
  method names (because you don't need to
  and that's likely to not do what you want),
  
  =item *
  
  anything by default (because you don't want to surprise your users...
  badly)
  
  =item *
  
  anything you don't need to (because less is more)
  
  =back
  
  There's one more item to add to this list.  Do B<not>
  export variable names.  Just because C<Exporter> lets you
  do that, it does not mean you should.
  
    @EXPORT_OK = qw($svar @avar %hvar); # DON'T!
  
  Exporting variables is not a good idea.  They can
  change under the hood, provoking horrible
  effects at-a-distance that are too hard to track
  and to fix.  Trust me: they are not worth it.
  
  To provide the capability to set/get class-wide
  settings, it is best instead to provide accessors
  as subroutines or class methods instead.
  
  =head1 SEE ALSO
  
  C<Exporter> is definitely not the only module with
  symbol exporter capabilities.  At CPAN, you may find
  a bunch of them.  Some are lighter.  Some
  provide improved APIs and features.  Pick the one
  that fits your needs.  The following is
  a sample list of such modules.
  
      Exporter::Easy
      Exporter::Lite
      Exporter::Renaming
      Exporter::Tidy
      Sub::Exporter / Sub::Installer
      Perl6::Export / Perl6::Export::Attrs
  
  =head1 LICENSE
  
  This library is free software.  You can redistribute it
  and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.
  
  =cut
  
  
  
EXPORTER

$fatpacked{"Exporter/Heavy.pm"} = '#line '.(1+__LINE__).' "'.__FILE__."\"\n".<<'EXPORTER_HEAVY';
  package Exporter::Heavy;
  
  use strict;
  no strict 'refs';
  
  # On one line so MakeMaker will see it.
  require Exporter;  our $VERSION = $Exporter::VERSION;
  
  =head1 NAME
  
  Exporter::Heavy - Exporter guts
  
  =head1 SYNOPSIS
  
  (internal use only)
  
  =head1 DESCRIPTION
  
  No user-serviceable parts inside.
  
  =cut
  
  #
  # We go to a lot of trouble not to 'require Carp' at file scope,
  #  because Carp requires Exporter, and something has to give.
  #
  
  sub _rebuild_cache {
      my ($pkg, $exports, $cache) = @_;
      s/^&// foreach @$exports;
      @{$cache}{@$exports} = (1) x @$exports;
      my $ok = \@{"${pkg}::EXPORT_OK"};
      if (@$ok) {
  	s/^&// foreach @$ok;
  	@{$cache}{@$ok} = (1) x @$ok;
      }
  }
  
  sub heavy_export {
  
      # Save the old __WARN__ handler in case it was defined
      my $oldwarn = $SIG{__WARN__};
  
      # First make import warnings look like they're coming from the "use".
      local $SIG{__WARN__} = sub {
  	# restore it back so proper stacking occurs
  	local $SIG{__WARN__} = $oldwarn;
  	my $text = shift;
  	if ($text =~ s/ at \S*Exporter\S*.pm line \d+.*\n//) {
  	    require Carp;
  	    local $Carp::CarpLevel = 1;	# ignore package calling us too.
  	    Carp::carp($text);
  	}
  	else {
  	    warn $text;
  	}
      };
      local $SIG{__DIE__} = sub {
  	require Carp;
  	local $Carp::CarpLevel = 1;	# ignore package calling us too.
  	Carp::croak("$_[0]Illegal null symbol in \@${1}::EXPORT")
  	    if $_[0] =~ /^Unable to create sub named "(.*?)::"/;
      };
  
      my($pkg, $callpkg, @imports) = @_;
      my($type, $sym, $cache_is_current, $oops);
      my($exports, $export_cache) = (\@{"${pkg}::EXPORT"},
                                     $Exporter::Cache{$pkg} ||= {});
  
      if (@imports) {
  	if (!%$export_cache) {
  	    _rebuild_cache ($pkg, $exports, $export_cache);
  	    $cache_is_current = 1;
  	}
  
  	if (grep m{^[/!:]}, @imports) {
  	    my $tagsref = \%{"${pkg}::EXPORT_TAGS"};
  	    my $tagdata;
  	    my %imports;
  	    my($remove, $spec, @names, @allexports);
  	    # negated first item implies starting with default set:
  	    unshift @imports, ':DEFAULT' if $imports[0] =~ m/^!/;
  	    foreach $spec (@imports){
  		$remove = $spec =~ s/^!//;
  
  		if ($spec =~ s/^://){
  		    if ($spec eq 'DEFAULT'){
  			@names = @$exports;
  		    }
  		    elsif ($tagdata = $tagsref->{$spec}) {
  			@names = @$tagdata;
  		    }
  		    else {
  			warn qq["$spec" is not defined in %${pkg}::EXPORT_TAGS];
  			++$oops;
  			next;
  		    }
  		}
  		elsif ($spec =~ m:^/(.*)/$:){
  		    my $patn = $1;
  		    @allexports = keys %$export_cache unless @allexports; # only do keys once
  		    @names = grep(/$patn/, @allexports); # not anchored by default
  		}
  		else {
  		    @names = ($spec); # is a normal symbol name
  		}
  
  		warn "Import ".($remove ? "del":"add").": @names "
  		    if $Exporter::Verbose;
  
  		if ($remove) {
  		   foreach $sym (@names) { delete $imports{$sym} } 
  		}
  		else {
  		    @imports{@names} = (1) x @names;
  		}
  	    }
  	    @imports = keys %imports;
  	}
  
          my @carp;
  	foreach $sym (@imports) {
  	    if (!$export_cache->{$sym}) {
  		if ($sym =~ m/^\d/) {
  		    $pkg->VERSION($sym); # inherit from UNIVERSAL
  		    # If the version number was the only thing specified
  		    # then we should act as if nothing was specified:
  		    if (@imports == 1) {
  			@imports = @$exports;
  			last;
  		    }
  		    # We need a way to emulate 'use Foo ()' but still
  		    # allow an easy version check: "use Foo 1.23, ''";
  		    if (@imports == 2 and !$imports[1]) {
  			@imports = ();
  			last;
  		    }
  		} elsif ($sym !~ s/^&// || !$export_cache->{$sym}) {
  		    # Last chance - see if they've updated EXPORT_OK since we
  		    # cached it.
  
  		    unless ($cache_is_current) {
  			%$export_cache = ();
  			_rebuild_cache ($pkg, $exports, $export_cache);
  			$cache_is_current = 1;
  		    }
  
  		    if (!$export_cache->{$sym}) {
  			# accumulate the non-exports
  			push @carp,
  			  qq["$sym" is not exported by the $pkg module\n];
  			$oops++;
  		    }
  		}
  	    }
  	}
  	if ($oops) {
  	    require Carp;
  	    Carp::croak("@{carp}Can't continue after import errors");
  	}
      }
      else {
  	@imports = @$exports;
      }
  
      my($fail, $fail_cache) = (\@{"${pkg}::EXPORT_FAIL"},
                                $Exporter::FailCache{$pkg} ||= {});
  
      if (@$fail) {
  	if (!%$fail_cache) {
  	    # Build cache of symbols. Optimise the lookup by adding
  	    # barewords twice... both with and without a leading &.
  	    # (Technique could be applied to $export_cache at cost of memory)
  	    my @expanded = map { /^\w/ ? ($_, '&'.$_) : $_ } @$fail;
  	    warn "${pkg}::EXPORT_FAIL cached: @expanded" if $Exporter::Verbose;
  	    @{$fail_cache}{@expanded} = (1) x @expanded;
  	}
  	my @failed;
  	foreach $sym (@imports) { push(@failed, $sym) if $fail_cache->{$sym} }
  	if (@failed) {
  	    @failed = $pkg->export_fail(@failed);
  	    foreach $sym (@failed) {
                  require Carp;
  		Carp::carp(qq["$sym" is not implemented by the $pkg module ],
  			"on this architecture");
  	    }
  	    if (@failed) {
  		require Carp;
  		Carp::croak("Can't continue after import errors");
  	    }
  	}
      }
  
      warn "Importing into $callpkg from $pkg: ",
  		join(", ",sort @imports) if $Exporter::Verbose;
  
      foreach $sym (@imports) {
  	# shortcut for the common case of no type character
  	(*{"${callpkg}::$sym"} = \&{"${pkg}::$sym"}, next)
  	    unless $sym =~ s/^(\W)//;
  	$type = $1;
  	no warnings 'once';
  	*{"${callpkg}::$sym"} =
  	    $type eq '&' ? \&{"${pkg}::$sym"} :
  	    $type eq '$' ? \${"${pkg}::$sym"} :
  	    $type eq '@' ? \@{"${pkg}::$sym"} :
  	    $type eq '%' ? \%{"${pkg}::$sym"} :
  	    $type eq '*' ?  *{"${pkg}::$sym"} :
  	    do { require Carp; Carp::croak("Can't export symbol: $type$sym") };
      }
  }
  
  sub heavy_export_to_level
  {
        my $pkg = shift;
        my $level = shift;
        (undef) = shift;			# XXX redundant arg
        my $callpkg = caller($level);
        $pkg->export($callpkg, @_);
  }
  
  # Utility functions
  
  sub _push_tags {
      my($pkg, $var, $syms) = @_;
      my @nontag = ();
      my $export_tags = \%{"${pkg}::EXPORT_TAGS"};
      push(@{"${pkg}::$var"},
  	map { $export_tags->{$_} ? @{$export_tags->{$_}} 
                                   : scalar(push(@nontag,$_),$_) }
  		(@$syms) ? @$syms : keys %$export_tags);
      if (@nontag and $^W) {
  	# This may change to a die one day
  	require Carp;
  	Carp::carp(join(", ", @nontag)." are not tags of $pkg");
      }
  }
  
  sub heavy_require_version {
      my($self, $wanted) = @_;
      my $pkg = ref $self || $self;
      return ${pkg}->VERSION($wanted);
  }
  
  sub heavy_export_tags {
    _push_tags((caller)[0], "EXPORT",    \@_);
  }
  
  sub heavy_export_ok_tags {
    _push_tags((caller)[0], "EXPORT_OK", \@_);
  }
  
  1;
EXPORTER_HEAVY

$fatpacked{"File/pushd.pm"} = '#line '.(1+__LINE__).' "'.__FILE__."\"\n".<<'FILE_PUSHD';
  use strict;
  use warnings;
  
  package File::pushd;
  # ABSTRACT: change directory temporarily for a limited scope
  our $VERSION = '1.009'; # VERSION
  
  our @EXPORT = qw( pushd tempd );
  our @ISA    = qw( Exporter );
  
  use Exporter;
  use Carp;
  use Cwd qw( getcwd abs_path );
  use File::Path qw( rmtree );
  use File::Temp qw();
  use File::Spec;
  
  use overload
    q{""}    => sub { File::Spec->canonpath( $_[0]->{_pushd} ) },
    fallback => 1;
  
  #--------------------------------------------------------------------------#
  # pushd()
  #--------------------------------------------------------------------------#
  
  sub pushd {
      my ( $target_dir, $options ) = @_;
      $options->{untaint_pattern} ||= qr{^([-+@\w./]+)$};
  
      $target_dir = "." unless defined $target_dir;
      croak "Can't locate directory $target_dir" unless -d $target_dir;
  
      my $tainted_orig = getcwd;
      my $orig;
      if ( $tainted_orig =~ $options->{untaint_pattern} ) {
          $orig = $1;
      }
      else {
          $orig = $tainted_orig;
      }
  
      my $tainted_dest;
      eval { $tainted_dest = $target_dir ? abs_path($target_dir) : $orig };
      croak "Can't locate absolute path for $target_dir: $@" if $@;
  
      my $dest;
      if ( $tainted_dest =~ $options->{untaint_pattern} ) {
          $dest = $1;
      }
      else {
          $dest = $tainted_dest;
      }
  
      if ( $dest ne $orig ) {
          chdir $dest or croak "Can't chdir to $dest\: $!";
      }
  
      my $self = bless {
          _pushd    => $dest,
          _original => $orig
        },
        __PACKAGE__;
  
      return $self;
  }
  
  #--------------------------------------------------------------------------#
  # tempd()
  #--------------------------------------------------------------------------#
  
  sub tempd {
      my ($options) = @_;
      my $dir;
      eval { $dir = pushd( File::Temp::tempdir( CLEANUP => 0 ), $options ) };
      croak $@ if $@;
      $dir->{_tempd} = 1;
      return $dir;
  }
  
  #--------------------------------------------------------------------------#
  # preserve()
  #--------------------------------------------------------------------------#
  
  sub preserve {
      my $self = shift;
      return 1 if !$self->{"_tempd"};
      if ( @_ == 0 ) {
          return $self->{_preserve} = 1;
      }
      else {
          return $self->{_preserve} = $_[0] ? 1 : 0;
      }
  }
  
  #--------------------------------------------------------------------------#
  # DESTROY()
  # Revert to original directory as object is destroyed and cleanup
  # if necessary
  #--------------------------------------------------------------------------#
  
  sub DESTROY {
      my ($self) = @_;
      my $orig = $self->{_original};
      chdir $orig if $orig; # should always be so, but just in case...
      if ( $self->{_tempd}
          && !$self->{_preserve} )
      {
          # don't destroy existing $@ if there is no error.
          my $err = do {
              local $@;
              eval { rmtree( $self->{_pushd} ) };
              $@;
          };
          carp $err if $err;
      }
  }
  
  1;
  
  =pod
  
  =encoding UTF-8
  
  =head1 NAME
  
  File::pushd - change directory temporarily for a limited scope
  
  =head1 VERSION
  
  version 1.009
  
  =head1 SYNOPSIS
  
   use File::pushd;
  
   chdir $ENV{HOME};
  
   # change directory again for a limited scope
   {
       my $dir = pushd( '/tmp' );
       # working directory changed to /tmp
   }
   # working directory has reverted to $ENV{HOME}
  
   # tempd() is equivalent to pushd( File::Temp::tempdir )
   {
       my $dir = tempd();
   }
  
   # object stringifies naturally as an absolute path
   {
      my $dir = pushd( '/tmp' );
      my $filename = File::Spec->catfile( $dir, "somefile.txt" );
      # gives /tmp/somefile.txt
   }
  
  =head1 DESCRIPTION
  
  File::pushd does a temporary C<chdir> that is easily and automatically
  reverted, similar to C<pushd> in some Unix command shells.  It works by
  creating an object that caches the original working directory.  When the object
  is destroyed, the destructor calls C<chdir> to revert to the original working
  directory.  By storing the object in a lexical variable with a limited scope,
  this happens automatically at the end of the scope.
  
  This is very handy when working with temporary directories for tasks like
  testing; a function is provided to streamline getting a temporary
  directory from L<File::Temp>.
  
  For convenience, the object stringifies as the canonical form of the absolute
  pathname of the directory entered.
  
  B<Warning>: if you create multiple C<pushd> objects in the same lexical scope,
  their destruction order is not guaranteed and you might not wind up in the
  directory you expect.
  
  =head1 USAGE
  
   use File::pushd;
  
  Using File::pushd automatically imports the C<pushd> and C<tempd> functions.
  
  =head2 pushd
  
   {
       my $dir = pushd( $target_directory );
   }
  
  Caches the current working directory, calls C<chdir> to change to the target
  directory, and returns a File::pushd object.  When the object is
  destroyed, the working directory reverts to the original directory.
  
  The provided target directory can be a relative or absolute path. If
  called with no arguments, it uses the current directory as its target and
  returns to the current directory when the object is destroyed.
  
  If the target directory does not exist or if the directory change fails
  for some reason, C<pushd> will die with an error message.
  
  Can be given a hashref as an optional second argument.  The only supported
  option is C<untaint_pattern>, which is used to untaint file paths involved.
  It defaults to {qr{^(L<-+@\w./>+)$}}, which is reasonably restrictive (e.g.
  it does not even allow spaces in the path).  Change this to suit your
  circumstances and security needs if running under taint mode. *Note*: you
  must include the parentheses in the pattern to capture the untainted
  portion of the path.
  
  =head2 tempd
  
   {
       my $dir = tempd();
   }
  
  This function is like C<pushd> but automatically creates and calls C<chdir> to
  a temporary directory created by L<File::Temp>. Unlike normal L<File::Temp>
  cleanup which happens at the end of the program, this temporary directory is
  removed when the object is destroyed. (But also see C<preserve>.)  A warning
  will be issued if the directory cannot be removed.
  
  As with C<pushd>, C<tempd> will die if C<chdir> fails.
  
  It may be given a single options hash that will be passed internally
  to C<pushd>.
  
  =head2 preserve
  
   {
       my $dir = tempd();
       $dir->preserve;      # mark to preserve at end of scope
       $dir->preserve(0);   # mark to delete at end of scope
   }
  
  Controls whether a temporary directory will be cleaned up when the object is
  destroyed.  With no arguments, C<preserve> sets the directory to be preserved.
  With an argument, the directory will be preserved if the argument is true, or
  marked for cleanup if the argument is false.  Only C<tempd> objects may be
  marked for cleanup.  (Target directories to C<pushd> are always preserved.)
  C<preserve> returns true if the directory will be preserved, and false
  otherwise.
  
  =head1 SEE ALSO
  
  =over 4
  
  =item *
  
  L<File::chdir>
  
  =back
  
  =for :stopwords cpan testmatrix url annocpan anno bugtracker rt cpants kwalitee diff irc mailto metadata placeholders metacpan
  
  =head1 SUPPORT
  
  =head2 Bugs / Feature Requests
  
  Please report any bugs or feature requests through the issue tracker
  at L<https://github.com/dagolden/File-pushd/issues>.
  You will be notified automatically of any progress on your issue.
  
  =head2 Source Code
  
  This is open source software.  The code repository is available for
  public review and contribution under the terms of the license.
  
  L<https://github.com/dagolden/File-pushd>
  
    git clone https://github.com/dagolden/File-pushd.git
  
  =head1 AUTHOR
  
  David Golden <dagolden@cpan.org>
  
  =head1 CONTRIBUTORS
  
  =over 4
  
  =item *
  
  Diab Jerius <djerius@cfa.harvard.edu>
  
  =item *
  
  Graham Ollis <plicease@cpan.org>
  
  =back
  
  =head1 COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE
  
  This software is Copyright (c) 2014 by David A Golden.
  
  This is free software, licensed under:
  
    The Apache License, Version 2.0, January 2004
  
  =cut
  
  __END__
  
  
  # vim: ts=4 sts=4 sw=4 et:
FILE_PUSHD

$fatpacked{"HTTP/Tiny.pm"} = '#line '.(1+__LINE__).' "'.__FILE__."\"\n".<<'HTTP_TINY';
  # vim: ts=4 sts=4 sw=4 et:
  package HTTP::Tiny;
  use strict;
  use warnings;
  # ABSTRACT: A small, simple, correct HTTP/1.1 client
  
  our $VERSION = '0.056';
  
  use Carp ();
  
  #pod =method new
  #pod
  #pod     $http = HTTP::Tiny->new( %attributes );
  #pod
  #pod This constructor returns a new HTTP::Tiny object.  Valid attributes include:
  #pod
  #pod =for :list
  #pod * C<agent> —
  #pod     A user-agent string (defaults to 'HTTP-Tiny/$VERSION'). If C<agent> — ends in a space character, the default user-agent string is appended.
  #pod * C<cookie_jar> —
  #pod     An instance of L<HTTP::CookieJar> — or equivalent class that supports the C<add> and C<cookie_header> methods
  #pod * C<default_headers> —
  #pod     A hashref of default headers to apply to requests
  #pod * C<local_address> —
  #pod     The local IP address to bind to
  #pod * C<keep_alive> —
  #pod     Whether to reuse the last connection (if for the same scheme, host and port) (defaults to 1)
  #pod * C<max_redirect> —
  #pod     Maximum number of redirects allowed (defaults to 5)
  #pod * C<max_size> —
  #pod     Maximum response size in bytes (only when not using a data callback).  If defined, responses larger than this will return an exception.
  #pod * C<http_proxy> —
  #pod     URL of a proxy server to use for HTTP connections (default is C<$ENV{http_proxy}> — if set)
  #pod * C<https_proxy> —
  #pod     URL of a proxy server to use for HTTPS connections (default is C<$ENV{https_proxy}> — if set)
  #pod * C<proxy> —
  #pod     URL of a generic proxy server for both HTTP and HTTPS connections (default is C<$ENV{all_proxy}> — if set)
  #pod * C<no_proxy> —
  #pod     List of domain suffixes that should not be proxied.  Must be a comma-separated string or an array reference. (default is C<$ENV{no_proxy}> —)
  #pod * C<timeout> —
  #pod     Request timeout in seconds (default is 60)
  #pod * C<verify_SSL> —
  #pod     A boolean that indicates whether to validate the SSL certificate of an C<https> —
  #pod     connection (default is false)
  #pod * C<SSL_options> —
  #pod     A hashref of C<SSL_*> — options to pass through to L<IO::Socket::SSL>
  #pod
  #pod Passing an explicit C<undef> for C<proxy>, C<http_proxy> or C<https_proxy> will
  #pod prevent getting the corresponding proxies from the environment.
  #pod
  #pod Exceptions from C<max_size>, C<timeout> or other errors will result in a
  #pod pseudo-HTTP status code of 599 and a reason of "Internal Exception". The
  #pod content field in the response will contain the text of the exception.
  #pod
  #pod The C<keep_alive> parameter enables a persistent connection, but only to a
  #pod single destination scheme, host and port.  Also, if any connection-relevant
  #pod attributes are modified, or if the process ID or thread ID change, the
  #pod persistent connection will be dropped.  If you want persistent connections
  #pod across multiple destinations, use multiple HTTP::Tiny objects.
  #pod
  #pod See L</SSL SUPPORT> for more on the C<verify_SSL> and C<SSL_options> attributes.
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  my @attributes;
  BEGIN {
      @attributes = qw(
          cookie_jar default_headers http_proxy https_proxy keep_alive
          local_address max_redirect max_size proxy no_proxy timeout
          SSL_options verify_SSL
      );
      my %persist_ok = map {; $_ => 1 } qw(
          cookie_jar default_headers max_redirect max_size
      );
      no strict 'refs';
      no warnings 'uninitialized';
      for my $accessor ( @attributes ) {
          *{$accessor} = sub {
              @_ > 1
                  ? do {
                      delete $_[0]->{handle} if !$persist_ok{$accessor} && $_[1] ne $_[0]->{$accessor};
                      $_[0]->{$accessor} = $_[1]
                  }
                  : $_[0]->{$accessor};
          };
      }
  }
  
  sub agent {
      my($self, $agent) = @_;
      if( @_ > 1 ){
          $self->{agent} =
              (defined $agent && $agent =~ / $/) ? $agent . $self->_agent : $agent;
      }
      return $self->{agent};
  }
  
  sub new {
      my($class, %args) = @_;
  
      my $self = {
          max_redirect => 5,
          timeout      => 60,
          keep_alive   => 1,
          verify_SSL   => $args{verify_SSL} || $args{verify_ssl} || 0, # no verification by default
          no_proxy     => $ENV{no_proxy},
      };
  
      bless $self, $class;
  
      $class->_validate_cookie_jar( $args{cookie_jar} ) if $args{cookie_jar};
  
      for my $key ( @attributes ) {
          $self->{$key} = $args{$key} if exists $args{$key}
      }
  
      $self->agent( exists $args{agent} ? $args{agent} : $class->_agent );
  
      $self->_set_proxies;
  
      return $self;
  }
  
  sub _set_proxies {
      my ($self) = @_;
  
      # get proxies from %ENV only if not provided; explicit undef will disable
      # getting proxies from the environment
  
      # generic proxy
      if (! exists $self->{proxy} ) {
          $self->{proxy} = $ENV{all_proxy} || $ENV{ALL_PROXY};
      }
  
      if ( defined $self->{proxy} ) {
          $self->_split_proxy( 'generic proxy' => $self->{proxy} ); # validate
      }
      else {
          delete $self->{proxy};
      }
  
      # http proxy
      if (! exists $self->{http_proxy} ) {
          # under CGI, bypass HTTP_PROXY as request sets it from Proxy header
          local $ENV{HTTP_PROXY} if $ENV{REQUEST_METHOD};
          $self->{http_proxy} = $ENV{http_proxy} || $ENV{HTTP_PROXY} || $self->{proxy};
      }
  
      if ( defined $self->{http_proxy} ) {
          $self->_split_proxy( http_proxy => $self->{http_proxy} ); # validate
          $self->{_has_proxy}{http} = 1;
      }
      else {
          delete $self->{http_proxy};
      }
  
      # https proxy
      if (! exists $self->{https_proxy} ) {
          $self->{https_proxy} = $ENV{https_proxy} || $ENV{HTTPS_PROXY} || $self->{proxy};
      }
  
      if ( $self->{https_proxy} ) {
          $self->_split_proxy( https_proxy => $self->{https_proxy} ); # validate
          $self->{_has_proxy}{https} = 1;
      }
      else {
          delete $self->{https_proxy};
      }
  
      # Split no_proxy to array reference if not provided as such
      unless ( ref $self->{no_proxy} eq 'ARRAY' ) {
          $self->{no_proxy} =
              (defined $self->{no_proxy}) ? [ split /\s*,\s*/, $self->{no_proxy} ] : [];
      }
  
      return;
  }
  
  #pod =method get|head|put|post|delete
  #pod
  #pod     $response = $http->get($url);
  #pod     $response = $http->get($url, \%options);
  #pod     $response = $http->head($url);
  #pod
  #pod These methods are shorthand for calling C<request()> for the given method.  The
  #pod URL must have unsafe characters escaped and international domain names encoded.
  #pod See C<request()> for valid options and a description of the response.
  #pod
  #pod The C<success> field of the response will be true if the status code is 2XX.
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  for my $sub_name ( qw/get head put post delete/ ) {
      my $req_method = uc $sub_name;
      no strict 'refs';
      eval <<"HERE"; ## no critic
      sub $sub_name {
          my (\$self, \$url, \$args) = \@_;
          \@_ == 2 || (\@_ == 3 && ref \$args eq 'HASH')
          or Carp::croak(q/Usage: \$http->$sub_name(URL, [HASHREF])/ . "\n");
          return \$self->request('$req_method', \$url, \$args || {});
      }
  HERE
  }
  
  #pod =method post_form
  #pod
  #pod     $response = $http->post_form($url, $form_data);
  #pod     $response = $http->post_form($url, $form_data, \%options);
  #pod
  #pod This method executes a C<POST> request and sends the key/value pairs from a
  #pod form data hash or array reference to the given URL with a C<content-type> of
  #pod C<application/x-www-form-urlencoded>.  If data is provided as an array
  #pod reference, the order is preserved; if provided as a hash reference, the terms
  #pod are sorted on key and value for consistency.  See documentation for the
  #pod C<www_form_urlencode> method for details on the encoding.
  #pod
  #pod The URL must have unsafe characters escaped and international domain names
  #pod encoded.  See C<request()> for valid options and a description of the response.
  #pod Any C<content-type> header or content in the options hashref will be ignored.
  #pod
  #pod The C<success> field of the response will be true if the status code is 2XX.
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  sub post_form {
      my ($self, $url, $data, $args) = @_;
      (@_ == 3 || @_ == 4 && ref $args eq 'HASH')
          or Carp::croak(q/Usage: $http->post_form(URL, DATAREF, [HASHREF])/ . "\n");
  
      my $headers = {};
      while ( my ($key, $value) = each %{$args->{headers} || {}} ) {
          $headers->{lc $key} = $value;
      }
      delete $args->{headers};
  
      return $self->request('POST', $url, {
              %$args,
              content => $self->www_form_urlencode($data),
              headers => {
                  %$headers,
                  'content-type' => 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded'
              },
          }
      );
  }
  
  #pod =method mirror
  #pod
  #pod     $response = $http->mirror($url, $file, \%options)
  #pod     if ( $response->{success} ) {
  #pod         print "$file is up to date\n";
  #pod     }
  #pod
  #pod Executes a C<GET> request for the URL and saves the response body to the file
  #pod name provided.  The URL must have unsafe characters escaped and international
  #pod domain names encoded.  If the file already exists, the request will include an
  #pod C<If-Modified-Since> header with the modification timestamp of the file.  You
  #pod may specify a different C<If-Modified-Since> header yourself in the C<<
  #pod $options->{headers} >> hash.
  #pod
  #pod The C<success> field of the response will be true if the status code is 2XX
  #pod or if the status code is 304 (unmodified).
  #pod
  #pod If the file was modified and the server response includes a properly
  #pod formatted C<Last-Modified> header, the file modification time will
  #pod be updated accordingly.
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  sub mirror {
      my ($self, $url, $file, $args) = @_;
      @_ == 3 || (@_ == 4 && ref $args eq 'HASH')
        or Carp::croak(q/Usage: $http->mirror(URL, FILE, [HASHREF])/ . "\n");
      if ( -e $file and my $mtime = (stat($file))[9] ) {
          $args->{headers}{'if-modified-since'} ||= $self->_http_date($mtime);
      }
      my $tempfile = $file . int(rand(2**31));
  
      require Fcntl;
      sysopen my $fh, $tempfile, Fcntl::O_CREAT()|Fcntl::O_EXCL()|Fcntl::O_WRONLY()
         or Carp::croak(qq/Error: Could not create temporary file $tempfile for downloading: $!\n/);
      binmode $fh;
      $args->{data_callback} = sub { print {$fh} $_[0] };
      my $response = $self->request('GET', $url, $args);
      close $fh
          or Carp::croak(qq/Error: Caught error closing temporary file $tempfile: $!\n/);
  
      if ( $response->{success} ) {
          rename $tempfile, $file
              or Carp::croak(qq/Error replacing $file with $tempfile: $!\n/);
          my $lm = $response->{headers}{'last-modified'};
          if ( $lm and my $mtime = $self->_parse_http_date($lm) ) {
              utime $mtime, $mtime, $file;
          }
      }
      $response->{success} ||= $response->{status} eq '304';
      unlink $tempfile;
      return $response;
  }
  
  #pod =method request
  #pod
  #pod     $response = $http->request($method, $url);
  #pod     $response = $http->request($method, $url, \%options);
  #pod
  #pod Executes an HTTP request of the given method type ('GET', 'HEAD', 'POST',
  #pod 'PUT', etc.) on the given URL.  The URL must have unsafe characters escaped and
  #pod international domain names encoded.
  #pod
  #pod If the URL includes a "user:password" stanza, they will be used for Basic-style
  #pod authorization headers.  (Authorization headers will not be included in a
  #pod redirected request.) For example:
  #pod
  #pod     $http->request('GET', 'http://Aladdin:open sesame@example.com/');
  #pod
  #pod If the "user:password" stanza contains reserved characters, they must
  #pod be percent-escaped:
  #pod
  #pod     $http->request('GET', 'http://john%40example.com:password@example.com/');
  #pod
  #pod A hashref of options may be appended to modify the request.
  #pod
  #pod Valid options are:
  #pod
  #pod =for :list
  #pod * C<headers> —
  #pod     A hashref containing headers to include with the request.  If the value for
  #pod     a header is an array reference, the header will be output multiple times with
  #pod     each value in the array.  These headers over-write any default headers.
  #pod * C<content> —
  #pod     A scalar to include as the body of the request OR a code reference
  #pod     that will be called iteratively to produce the body of the request
  #pod * C<trailer_callback> —
  #pod     A code reference that will be called if it exists to provide a hashref
  #pod     of trailing headers (only used with chunked transfer-encoding)
  #pod * C<data_callback> —
  #pod     A code reference that will be called for each chunks of the response
  #pod     body received.
  #pod
  #pod The C<Host> header is generated from the URL in accordance with RFC 2616.  It
  #pod is a fatal error to specify C<Host> in the C<headers> option.  Other headers
  #pod may be ignored or overwritten if necessary for transport compliance.
  #pod
  #pod If the C<content> option is a code reference, it will be called iteratively
  #pod to provide the content body of the request.  It should return the empty
  #pod string or undef when the iterator is exhausted.
  #pod
  #pod If the C<content> option is the empty string, no C<content-type> or
  #pod C<content-length> headers will be generated.
  #pod
  #pod If the C<data_callback> option is provided, it will be called iteratively until
  #pod the entire response body is received.  The first argument will be a string
  #pod containing a chunk of the response body, the second argument will be the
  #pod in-progress response hash reference, as described below.  (This allows
  #pod customizing the action of the callback based on the C<status> or C<headers>
  #pod received prior to the content body.)
  #pod
  #pod The C<request> method returns a hashref containing the response.  The hashref
  #pod will have the following keys:
  #pod
  #pod =for :list
  #pod * C<success> —
  #pod     Boolean indicating whether the operation returned a 2XX status code
  #pod * C<url> —
  #pod     URL that provided the response. This is the URL of the request unless
  #pod     there were redirections, in which case it is the last URL queried
  #pod     in a redirection chain
  #pod * C<status> —
  #pod     The HTTP status code of the response
  #pod * C<reason> —
  #pod     The response phrase returned by the server
  #pod * C<content> —
  #pod     The body of the response.  If the response does not have any content
  #pod     or if a data callback is provided to consume the response body,
  #pod     this will be the empty string
  #pod * C<headers> —
  #pod     A hashref of header fields.  All header field names will be normalized
  #pod     to be lower case. If a header is repeated, the value will be an arrayref;
  #pod     it will otherwise be a scalar string containing the value
  #pod
  #pod On an exception during the execution of the request, the C<status> field will
  #pod contain 599, and the C<content> field will contain the text of the exception.
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  my %idempotent = map { $_ => 1 } qw/GET HEAD PUT DELETE OPTIONS TRACE/;
  
  sub request {
      my ($self, $method, $url, $args) = @_;
      @_ == 3 || (@_ == 4 && ref $args eq 'HASH')
        or Carp::croak(q/Usage: $http->request(METHOD, URL, [HASHREF])/ . "\n");
      $args ||= {}; # we keep some state in this during _request
  
      # RFC 2616 Section 8.1.4 mandates a single retry on broken socket
      my $response;
      for ( 0 .. 1 ) {
          $response = eval { $self->_request($method, $url, $args) };
          last unless $@ && $idempotent{$method}
              && $@ =~ m{^(?:Socket closed|Unexpected end)};
      }
  
      if (my $e = $@) {
          # maybe we got a response hash thrown from somewhere deep
          if ( ref $e eq 'HASH' && exists $e->{status} ) {
              return $e;
          }
  
          # otherwise, stringify it
          $e = "$e";
          $response = {
              url     => $url,
              success => q{},
              status  => 599,
              reason  => 'Internal Exception',
              content => $e,
              headers => {
                  'content-type'   => 'text/plain',
                  'content-length' => length $e,
              }
          };
      }
      return $response;
  }
  
  #pod =method www_form_urlencode
  #pod
  #pod     $params = $http->www_form_urlencode( $data );
  #pod     $response = $http->get("http://example.com/query?$params");
  #pod
  #pod This method converts the key/value pairs from a data hash or array reference
  #pod into a C<x-www-form-urlencoded> string.  The keys and values from the data
  #pod reference will be UTF-8 encoded and escaped per RFC 3986.  If a value is an
  #pod array reference, the key will be repeated with each of the values of the array
  #pod reference.  If data is provided as a hash reference, the key/value pairs in the
  #pod resulting string will be sorted by key and value for consistent ordering.
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  sub www_form_urlencode {
      my ($self, $data) = @_;
      (@_ == 2 && ref $data)
          or Carp::croak(q/Usage: $http->www_form_urlencode(DATAREF)/ . "\n");
      (ref $data eq 'HASH' || ref $data eq 'ARRAY')
          or Carp::croak("form data must be a hash or array reference\n");
  
      my @params = ref $data eq 'HASH' ? %$data : @$data;
      @params % 2 == 0
          or Carp::croak("form data reference must have an even number of terms\n");
  
      my @terms;
      while( @params ) {
          my ($key, $value) = splice(@params, 0, 2);
          if ( ref $value eq 'ARRAY' ) {
              unshift @params, map { $key => $_ } @$value;
          }
          else {
              push @terms, join("=", map { $self->_uri_escape($_) } $key, $value);
          }
      }
  
      return join("&", (ref $data eq 'ARRAY') ? (@terms) : (sort @terms) );
  }
  
  #pod =method can_ssl
  #pod
  #pod     $ok         = HTTP::Tiny->can_ssl;
  #pod     ($ok, $why) = HTTP::Tiny->can_ssl;
  #pod     ($ok, $why) = $http->can_ssl;
  #pod
  #pod Indicates if SSL support is available.  When called as a class object, it
  #pod checks for the correct version of L<Net::SSLeay> and L<IO::Socket::SSL>.
  #pod When called as an object methods, if C<SSL_verify> is true or if C<SSL_verify_mode>
  #pod is set in C<SSL_options>, it checks that a CA file is available.
  #pod
  #pod In scalar context, returns a boolean indicating if SSL is available.
  #pod In list context, returns the boolean and a (possibly multi-line) string of
  #pod errors indicating why SSL isn't available.
  #pod
  #pod =cut
  
  sub can_ssl {
      my ($self) = @_;
  
      my($ok, $reason) = (1, '');
  
      # Need IO::Socket::SSL 1.42 for SSL_create_ctx_callback
      unless (eval {require IO::Socket::SSL; IO::Socket::SSL->VERSION(1.42)}) {
          $ok = 0;
          $reason .= qq/IO::Socket::SSL 1.42 must be installed for https support\n/;
      }
  
      # Need Net::SSLeay 1.49 for MODE_AUTO_RETRY
      unless (eval {require Net::SSLeay; Net::SSLeay->VERSION(1.49)}) {
          $ok = 0;
          $reason .= qq/Net::SSLeay 1.49 must be installed for https support\n/;
      }
  
      # If an object, check that SSL config lets us get a CA if necessary
      if ( ref($self) && ( $self->{verify_SSL} || $self->{SSL_options}{SSL_verify_mode} ) ) {
          my $handle = HTTP::Tiny::Handle->new(
              SSL_options => $self->{SSL_options},
              verify_SSL  => $self->{verify_SSL},
          );
          unless ( eval { $handle->_find_CA_file; 1 } ) {
              $ok = 0;
              $reason .= "$@";
          }
      }
  
      wantarray ? ($ok, $reason) : $ok;
  }
  
  #--------------------------------------------------------------------------#
  # private methods
  #--------------------------------------------------------------------------#
  
  my %DefaultPort = (
      http => 80,
      https => 443,
  );
  
  sub _agent {
      my $class = ref($_[0]) || $_[0];
      (my $default_agent = $class) =~ s{::}{-}g;
      return $default_agent . "/" . $class->VERSION;
  }
  
  sub _request {
      my ($self, $method, $url, $args) = @_;
  
      my ($scheme, $host, $port, $path_query, $auth) = $self->_split_url($url);
  
      my $request = {
          method    => $method,
          scheme    => $scheme,
          host      => $host,
          port      => $port,
          host_port => ($port == $DefaultPort{$scheme} ? $host : "$host:$port"),
          uri       => $path_query,
          headers   => {},
      };
  
      # We remove the cached handle so it is not reused in the case of redirect.
      # If all is well, it will be recached at the end of _request.  We only
      # reuse for the same scheme, host and port
      my $handle = delete $self->{handle};
      if ( $handle ) {
          unless ( $handle->can_reuse( $scheme, $host, $port ) ) {
              $handle->close;
              undef $handle;
          }
      }
      $handle ||= $self->_open_handle( $request, $scheme, $host, $port );
  
      $self->_prepare_headers_and_cb($request, $args, $url, $auth);
      $handle->write_request($request);
  
      my $response;
      do { $response = $handle->read_response_header }
          until (substr($response->{status},0,1) ne '1');
  
      $self->_update_cookie_jar( $url, $response ) if $self->{cookie_jar};
  
      if ( my @redir_args = $self->_maybe_redirect($request, $response, $args) ) {
          $handle->close;
          return $self->_request(@redir_args, $args);
      }
  
      my $known_message_length;
      if ($method eq 'HEAD' || $response->{status} =~ /^[23]04/) {
          # response has no message body
          $known_message_length = 1;
      }
      else {
          my $data_cb = $self->_prepare_data_cb($response, $args);
          $known_message_length = $handle->read_body($data_cb, $response);
      }
  
      if ( $self->{keep_alive}
          && $known_message_length
          && $response->{protocol} eq 'HTTP/1.1'
          && ($response->{headers}{connection} || '') ne 'close'
      ) {
          $self->{handle} = $handle;
      }
      else {
          $handle->close;
      }
  
      $response->{success} = substr( $response->{status}, 0, 1 ) eq '2';
      $response->{url} = $url;
      return $response;
  }
  
  sub _open_handle {
      my ($self, $request, $scheme, $host, $port) = @_;
  
      my $handle  = HTTP::Tiny::Handle->new(
          timeout         => $self->{timeout},
          SSL_options     => $self->{SSL_options},
          verify_SSL      => $self->{verify_SSL},
          local_address   => $self->{local_address},
          keep_alive      => $self->{keep_alive}
      );
  
      if ($self->{_has_proxy}{$scheme} && ! grep { $host =~ /\Q$_\E$/ } @{$self->{no_proxy}}) {
          return $self->_proxy_connect( $request, $handle );
      }
      else {
          return $handle->connect($scheme, $host, $port);
      }
  }
  
  sub _proxy_connect {
      my ($self, $request, $handle) = @_;
  
      my @proxy_vars;
      if ( $request->{scheme} eq 'https' ) {
          Carp::croak(qq{No https_proxy defined}) unless $self->{https_proxy};
          @proxy_vars = $self->_split_proxy( https_proxy => $self->{https_proxy} );
          if ( $proxy_vars[0] eq 'https' ) {
              Carp::croak(qq{Can't proxy https over https: $request->{uri} via $self->{https_proxy}});
          }
      }
      else {
          Carp::croak(qq{No http_proxy defined}) unless $self->{http_proxy};
          @proxy_vars = $self->_split_proxy( http_proxy => $self->{http_proxy} );
      }
  
      my ($p_scheme, $p_host, $p_port, $p_auth) = @proxy_vars;
  
      if ( length $p_auth && ! defined $request->{headers}{'proxy-authorization'} ) {
          $self->_add_basic_auth_header( $request, 'proxy-authorization' => $p_auth );
      }
  
      $handle->connect($p_scheme, $p_host, $p_port);
  
      if ($request->{scheme} eq 'https') {
          $self->_create_proxy_tunnel( $request, $handle );
      }
      else {
          # non-tunneled proxy requires absolute URI
          $request->{uri} = "$request->{scheme}://$request->{host_port}$request->{uri}";
      }
  
      return $handle;
  }
  
  sub _split_proxy {
      my ($self, $type, $proxy) = @_;
  
      my ($scheme, $host, $port, $path_query, $auth) = eval { $self->_split_url($proxy) };
  
      unless(
          defined($scheme) && length($scheme) && length($host) && length($port)
          && $path_query eq '/'
      ) {
          Carp::croak(qq{$type URL must be in format http[s]://[auth@]<host>:<port>/\n});
      }
  
      return ($scheme, $host, $port, $auth);
  }
  
  sub _create_proxy_tunnel {
      my ($self, $request, $handle) = @_;
  
      $handle->_assert_ssl;
  
      my $agent = exists($request->{headers}{'user-agent'})
          ? $request->{headers}{'user-agent'} : $self->{agent};
  
      my $connect_request = {
          method    => 'CONNECT',
          uri       => "$request->{host}:$request->{port}",
          headers   => {
              host => "$request->{host}:$request->{port}",
              'user-agent' => $agent,
          }
      };
  
      if ( $request->{headers}{'proxy-authorization'} ) {
          $connect_request->{headers}{'proxy-authorization'} =
              delete $request->{headers}{'proxy-authorization'};
      }
  
      $handle->write_request($connect_request);
      my $response;
      do { $response = $handle->read_response_header }
          until (substr($response->{status},0,1) ne '1');
  
      # if CONNECT failed, throw the response so it will be
      # returned from the original request() method;
      unless (substr($response->{status},0,1) eq '2') {
          die $response;
      }
  
      # tunnel established, so start SSL handshake
      $handle->start_ssl( $request->{host} );
  
      return;
  }
  
  sub _prepare_headers_and_cb {
      my ($self, $request, $args, $url, $auth) = @_;
  
      for ($self->{default_headers}, $args->{headers}) {
          next unless defined;
          while (my ($k, $v) = each %$_) {
              $request->{headers}{lc $k} = $v;
          }
      }
  
      if (exists $request->{headers}{'host'}) {
          die(qq/The 'Host' header must not be provided as header option\n/);
      }
  
      $request->{headers}{'host'}         = $request->{host_port};
      $request->{headers}{'user-agent'} ||= $self->{agent};
      $request->{headers}{'connection'}   = "close"
          unless $self->{keep_alive};
  
      if ( defined $args->{content} ) {
          if (ref $args->{content} eq 'CODE') {
              $request->{headers}{'content-type'} ||= "application/octet-stream";
              $request->{headers}{'transfer-encoding'} = 'chunked'
                unless $request->{headers}{'content-length'}
                    || $request->{headers}{'transfer-encoding'};
              $request->{cb} = $args->{content};
          }
          elsif ( length $args->{content} ) {
              my $content = $args->{content};
              if ( $] ge '5.008' ) {
                  utf8::downgrade($content, 1)
                      or die(qq/Wide character in request message body\n/);
              }
              $request->{headers}{'content-type'} ||= "application/octet-stream";
              $request->{headers}{'content-length'} = length $content
                unless $request->{headers}{'content-length'}
                    || $request->{headers}{'transfer-encoding'};
              $request->{cb} = sub { substr $content, 0, length $content, '' };
          }
          $request->{trailer_cb} = $args->{trailer_callback}
              if ref $args->{trailer_callback} eq 'CODE';
      }
  
      ### If we have a cookie jar, then maybe add relevant cookies
      if ( $self->{cookie_jar} ) {
          my $cookies = $self->cookie_jar->cookie_header( $url );
          $request->{headers}{cookie} = $cookies if length $cookies;
      }
  
      # if we have Basic auth parameters, add them
      if ( length $auth && ! defined $request->{headers}{authorization} ) {
          $self->_add_basic_auth_header( $request, 'authorization' => $auth );
      }
  
      return;
  }
  
  sub _add_basic_auth_header {
      my ($self, $request, $header, $auth) = @_;
      require MIME::Base64;
      $request->{headers}{$header} =
          "Basic " . MIME::Base64::encode_base64($auth, "");
      return;
  }
  
  sub _prepare_data_cb {
      my ($self, $response, $args) = @_;
      my $data_cb = $args->{data_callback};
      $response->{content} = '';
  
      if (!$data_cb || $response->{status} !~ /^2/) {
          if (defined $self->{max_size}) {
              $data_cb = sub {
                  $_[1]->{content} .= $_[0];
                  die(qq/Size of response body exceeds the maximum allowed of $self->{max_size}\n/)
                    if length $_[1]->{content} > $self->{max_size};
              };
          }
          else {
              $data_cb = sub { $_[1]->{content} .= $_[0] };
          }
      }
      return $data_cb;
  }
  
  sub _update_cookie_jar {
      my ($self, $url, $response) = @_;
  
      my $cookies = $response->{headers}->{'set-cookie'};
      return unless defined $cookies;
  
      my @cookies = ref $cookies ? @$cookies : $cookies;
  
      $self->cookie_jar->add( $url, $_ ) for @cookies;
  
      return;
  }
  
  sub _validate_cookie_jar {
      my ($class, $jar) = @_;
  
      # duck typing
      for my $method ( qw/add cookie_header/ ) {
          Carp::croak(qq/Cookie jar must provide the '$method' method\n/)
              unless ref($jar) && ref($jar)->can($method);
      }
  
      return;
  }
  
  sub _maybe_redirect {
      my ($self, $request, $response, $args) = @_;
      my $headers = $response->{headers};
      my ($status, $method) = ($response->{status}, $request->{method});
      if (($status eq '303' or ($status =~ /^30[1278]/ && $method =~ /^GET|HEAD$/))
          and $headers->{location}
          and ++$args->{redirects} <= $self->{max_redirect}
      ) {
          my $location = ($headers->{location} =~ /^\//)
              ? "$request->{scheme}://$request->{host_port}$headers->{location}"
              : $headers->{location} ;
          return (($status eq '303' ? 'GET' : $method), $location);
      }
      return;
  }
  
  sub _split_url {
      my $url = pop;
  
      # URI regex adapted from the URI module
      my ($scheme, $host, $path_query) = $url =~ m<\A([^:/?#]+)://([^/?#]*)([^#]*)>
        or die(qq/Cannot parse URL: '$url'\n/);
  
      $scheme     = lc $scheme;
      $path_query = "/$path_query" unless $path_query =~ m<\A/>;
  
      my $auth = '';
      if ( (my $i = index $host, '@') != -1 ) {
          # user:pass@host
          $auth = substr $host, 0, $i, ''; # take up to the @ for auth
          substr $host, 0, 1, '';          # knock the @ off the host
  
          # userinfo might be percent escaped, so recover real auth info
          $auth =~ s/%([0-9A-Fa-f]{2})/chr(hex($1))/eg;
      }
      my $port = $host =~ s/:(\d*)\z// && length $1 ? $1
               : $scheme eq 'http'                  ? 80
               : $scheme eq 'https'                 ? 443
               : undef;
  
      return ($scheme, (length $host ? lc $host : "localhost") , $port, $path_query, $auth);
  }
  
  # Date conversions adapted from HTTP::Date
  my $DoW = "Sun|Mon|Tue|Wed|Thu|Fri|Sat";
  my $MoY = "Jan|Feb|Mar|Apr|May|Jun|Jul|Aug|Sep|Oct|Nov|Dec";
  sub _http_date {
      my ($sec, $min, $hour, $mday, $mon, $year, $wday) = gmtime($_[1]);
      return sprintf("%s, %02d %s %04d %02d:%02d:%02d GMT",
          substr($DoW,$wday*4,3),
          $mday, substr($MoY,$mon*4,3), $year+1900,
          $hour, $min, $sec
      );
  }
  
  sub _parse_http_date {
      my ($self, $str) = @_;
      require Time::Local;
      my @tl_parts;
      if ($str =~ /^[SMTWF][a-z]+, +(\d{1,2}) ($MoY) +(\d\d\d\d) +(\d\d):(\d\d):(\d\d) +GMT$/) {
          @tl_parts = ($6, $5, $4, $1, (index($MoY,$2)/4), $3);
      }
      elsif ($str =~ /^[SMTWF][a-z]+, +(\d\d)-($MoY)-(\d{2,4}) +(\d\d):(\d\d):(\d\d) +GMT$/ ) {
          @tl_parts = ($6, $5, $4, $1, (index($MoY,$2)/4), $3);
      }
      elsif ($str =~ /^[SMTWF][a-z]+ +($MoY) +(\d{1,2}) +(\d\d):(\d\d):(\d\d) +(?:[^0-9]+ +)?(\d\d\d\d)$/ ) {
          @tl_parts = ($5, $4, $3, $2, (index($MoY,$1)/4), $6);
      }
      return eval {
          my $t = @tl_parts ? Time::Local::timegm(@tl_parts) : -1;
          $t < 0 ? undef : $t;
      };
  }
  
  # URI escaping adapted from URI::Escape
  # c.f. http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/interact/forms.html#h-17.13.4.1
  # perl 5.6 ready UTF-8 encoding adapted from JSON::PP
  my %escapes = map { chr($_) => sprintf("%%%02X", $_) } 0..255;
  $escapes{' '}="+";
  my $unsafe_char = qr/[^A-Za-z0-9\-\._~]/;
  
  sub _uri_escape {
      my ($self, $str) = @_;
      if ( $] ge '5.008' ) {
          utf8::encode($str);
      }
      else {
          $str = pack("U*", unpack("C*", $str)) # UTF-8 encode a byte string
              if ( length $str == do { use bytes; length $str } );
          $str = pack("C*", unpack("C*", $str)); # clear UTF-8 flag
      }
      $str =~ s/($unsafe_char)/$escapes{$1}/ge;
      return $str;
  }
  
  package
      HTTP::Tiny::Handle; # hide from PAUSE/indexers
  use strict;
  use warnings;
  
  use Errno      qw[EINTR EPIPE];
  use IO::Socket qw[SOCK_STREAM];
  
  # PERL_HTTP_TINY_IPV4_ONLY is a private environment variable to force old
  # behavior if someone is unable to boostrap CPAN from a new perl install; it is
  # not intended for general, per-client use and may be removed in the future
  my $SOCKET_CLASS =
      $ENV{PERL_HTTP_TINY_IPV4_ONLY} ? 'IO::Socket::INET' :
      eval { require IO::Socket::IP; IO::Socket::IP->VERSION(0.25) } ? 'IO::Socket::IP' :
      'IO::Socket::INET';
  
  sub BUFSIZE () { 32768 } ## no critic
  
  my $Printable = sub {
      local $_ = shift;
      s/\r/\\r/g;
      s/\n/\\n/g;
      s/\t/\\t/g;
      s/([^\x20-\x7E])/sprintf('\\x%.2X', ord($1))/ge;
      $_;
  };
  
  my $Token = qr/[\x21\x23-\x27\x2A\x2B\x2D\x2E\x30-\x39\x41-\x5A\x5E-\x7A\x7C\x7E]/;
  
  sub new {
      my ($class, %args) = @_;
      return bless {
          rbuf             => '',
          timeout          => 60,
          max_line_size    => 16384,
          max_header_lines => 64,
          verify_SSL       => 0,
          SSL_options      => {},
          %args
      }, $class;
  }
  
  sub connect {
      @_ == 4 || die(q/Usage: $handle->connect(scheme, host, port)/ . "\n");
      my ($self, $scheme, $host, $port) = @_;
  
      if ( $scheme eq 'https' ) {
          $self->_assert_ssl;
      }
      elsif ( $scheme ne 'http' ) {
        die(qq/Unsupported URL scheme '$scheme'\n/);
      }
      $self->{fh} = $SOCKET_CLASS->new(
          PeerHost  => $host,
          PeerPort  => $port,
          $self->{local_address} ?
              ( LocalAddr => $self->{local_address} ) : (),
          Proto     => 'tcp',
          Type      => SOCK_STREAM,
          Timeout   => $self->{timeout},
          KeepAlive => !!$self->{keep_alive}
      ) or die(qq/Could not connect to '$host:$port': $@\n/);
  
      binmode($self->{fh})
        or die(qq/Could not binmode() socket: '$!'\n/);
  
      $self->start_ssl($host) if $scheme eq 'https';
  
      $self->{scheme} = $scheme;
      $self->{host} = $host;
      $self->{port} = $port;
      $self->{pid} = $$;
      $self->{tid} = _get_tid();
  
      return $self;
  }
  
  sub start_ssl {
      my ($self, $host) = @_;
  
      # As this might be used via CONNECT after an SSL session
      # to a proxy, we shut down any existing SSL before attempting
      # the handshake
      if ( ref($self->{fh}) eq 'IO::Socket::SSL' ) {
          unless ( $self->{fh}->stop_SSL ) {
              my $ssl_err = IO::Socket::SSL->errstr;
              die(qq/Error halting prior SSL connection: $ssl_err/);
          }
      }
  
      my $ssl_args = $self->_ssl_args($host);
      IO::Socket::SSL->start_SSL(
          $self->{fh},
          %$ssl_args,
          SSL_create_ctx_callback => sub {
              my $ctx = shift;
              Net::SSLeay::CTX_set_mode($ctx, Net::SSLeay::MODE_AUTO_RETRY());
          },
      );
  
      unless ( ref($self->{fh}) eq 'IO::Socket::SSL' ) {
          my $ssl_err = IO::Socket::SSL->errstr;
          die(qq/SSL connection failed for $host: $ssl_err\n/);
      }
  }
  
  sub close {
      @_ == 1 || die(q/Usage: $handle->close()/ . "\n");
      my ($self) = @_;
      CORE::close($self->{fh})
        or die(qq/Could not close socket: '$!'\n/);
  }
  
  sub write {
      @_ == 2 || die(q/Usage: $handle->write(buf)/ . "\n");
      my ($self, $buf) = @_;
  
      if ( $] ge '5.008' ) {
          utf8::downgrade($buf, 1)
              or die(qq/Wide character in write()\n/);
      }
  
      my $len = length $buf;
      my $off = 0;
  
      local $SIG{PIPE} = 'IGNORE';
  
      while () {
          $self->can_write
            or die(qq/Timed out while waiting for socket to become ready for writing\n/);
          my $r = syswrite($self->{fh}, $buf, $len, $off);
          if (defined $r) {
              $len -= $r;
              $off += $r;
              last unless $len > 0;
          }
          elsif ($! == EPIPE) {
              die(qq/Socket closed by remote server: $!\n/);
          }
          elsif ($! != EINTR) {
              if ($self->{fh}->can('errstr')){
                  my $err = $self->{fh}->errstr();
                  die (qq/Could not write to SSL socket: '$err'\n /);
              }
              else {
                  die(qq/Could not write to socket: '$!'\n/);
              }
  
          }
      }
      return $off;
  }
  
  sub read {
      @_ == 2 || @_ == 3 || die(q/Usage: $handle->read(len [, allow_partial])/ . "\n");
      my ($self, $len, $allow_partial) = @_;
  
      my $buf  = '';
      my $got = length $self->{rbuf};
  
      if ($got) {
          my $take = ($got < $len) ? $got : $len;
          $buf  = substr($self->{rbuf}, 0, $take, '');
          $len -= $take;
      }
  
      while ($len > 0) {
          $self->can_read
            or die(q/Timed out while waiting for socket to become ready for reading/ . "\n");
          my $r = sysread($self->{fh}, $buf, $len, length $buf);
          if (defined $r) {
              last unless $r;
              $len -= $r;
          }
          elsif ($! != EINTR) {
              if ($self->{fh}->can('errstr')){
                  my $err = $self->{fh}->errstr();
                  die (qq/Could not read from SSL socket: '$err'\n /);
              }
              else {
                  die(qq/Could not read from socket: '$!'\n/);
              }
          }
      }
      if ($len && !$allow_partial) {
          die(qq/Unexpected end of stream\n/);
      }
      return $buf;
  }
  
  sub readline {
      @_ == 1 || die(q/Usage: $handle->readline()/ . "\n");
      my ($self) = @_;
  
      while () {
          if ($self->{rbuf} =~ s/\A ([^\x0D\x0A]* \x0D?\x0A)//x) {
              return $1;
          }
          if (length $self->{rbuf} >= $self->{max_line_size}) {
              die(qq/Line size exceeds the maximum allowed size of $self->{max_line_size}\n/);
          }
          $self->can_read
            or die(qq/Timed out while waiting for socket to become ready for reading\n/);
          my $r = sysread($self->{fh}, $self->{rbuf}, BUFSIZE, length $self->{rbuf});
          if (defined $r) {
              last unless $r;
          }
          elsif ($! != EINTR) {
              if ($self->{fh}->can('errstr')){
                  my $err = $self->{fh}->errstr();
                  die (qq/Could not read from SSL socket: '$err'\n /);
              }
              else {
                  die(qq/Could not read from socket: '$!'\n/);
              }
          }
      }
      die(qq/Unexpected end of stream while looking for line\n/);
  }
  
  sub read_header_lines {
      @_ == 1 || @_ == 2 || die(q/Usage: $handle->read_header_lines([headers])/ . "\n");
      my ($self, $headers) = @_;
      $headers ||= {};
      my $lines   = 0;
      my $val;
  
      while () {
           my $line = $self->readline;
  
           if (++$lines >= $self->{max_header_lines}) {
               die(qq/Header lines exceeds maximum number allowed of $self->{max_header_lines}\n/);
           }
           elsif ($line =~ /\A ([^\x00-\x1F\x7F:]+) : [\x09\x20]* ([^\x0D\x0A]*)/x) {
               my ($field_name) = lc $1;
               if (exists $headers->{$field_name}) {
                   for ($headers->{$field_name}) {
                       $_ = [$_] unless ref $_ eq "ARRAY";
                       push @$_, $2;
                       $val = \$_->[-1];
                   }
               }
               else {
                   $val = \($headers->{$field_name} = $2);
               }
           }
           elsif ($line =~ /\A [\x09\x20]+ ([^\x0D\x0A]*)/x) {
               $val
                 or die(qq/Unexpected header continuation line\n/);
               next unless length $1;
               $$val .= ' ' if length $$val;
               $$val .= $1;
           }
           elsif ($line =~ /\A \x0D?\x0A \z/x) {
              last;
           }
           else {
              die(q/Malformed header line: / . $Printable->($line) . "\n");
           }
      }
      return $headers;
  }
  
  sub write_request {
      @_ == 2 || die(q/Usage: $handle->write_request(request)/ . "\n");
      my($self, $request) = @_;
      $self->write_request_header(@{$request}{qw/method uri headers/});
      $self->write_body($request) if $request->{cb};
      return;
  }
  
  my %HeaderCase = (
      'content-md5'      => 'Content-MD5',
      'etag'             => 'ETag',
      'te'               => 'TE',
      'www-authenticate' => 'WWW-Authenticate',
      'x-xss-protection' => 'X-XSS-Protection',
  );
  
  # to avoid multiple small writes and hence nagle, you can pass the method line or anything else to
  # combine writes.
  sub write_header_lines {
      (@_ == 2 || @_ == 3 && ref $_[1] eq 'HASH') || die(q/Usage: $handle->write_header_lines(headers[,prefix])/ . "\n");
      my($self, $headers, $prefix_data) = @_;
  
      my $buf = (defined $prefix_data ? $prefix_data : '');
      while (my ($k, $v) = each %$headers) {
          my $field_name = lc $k;
          if (exists $HeaderCase{$field_name}) {
              $field_name = $HeaderCase{$field_name};
          }
          else {
              $field_name =~ /\A $Token+ \z/xo
                or die(q/Invalid HTTP header field name: / . $Printable->($field_name) . "\n");
              $field_name =~ s/\b(\w)/\u$1/g;
              $HeaderCase{lc $field_name} = $field_name;
          }
          for (ref $v eq 'ARRAY' ? @$v : $v) {
              $_ = '' unless defined $_;
              $buf .= "$field_name: $_\x0D\x0A";
          }
      }
      $buf .= "\x0D\x0A";
      return $self->write($buf);
  }
  
  # return value indicates whether message length was defined; this is generally
  # true unless there was no content-length header and we just read until EOF.
  # Other message length errors are thrown as exceptions
  sub read_body {
      @_ == 3 || die(q/Usage: $handle->read_body(callback, response)/ . "\n");
      my ($self, $cb, $response) = @_;
      my $te = $response->{headers}{'transfer-encoding'} || '';
      my $chunked = grep { /chunked/i } ( ref $te eq 'ARRAY' ? @$te : $te ) ;
      return $chunked
          ? $self->read_chunked_body($cb, $response)
          : $self->read_content_body($cb, $response);
  }
  
  sub write_body {
      @_ == 2 || die(q/Usage: $handle->write_body(request)/ . "\n");
      my ($self, $request) = @_;
      if ($request->{headers}{'content-length'}) {
          return $self->write_content_body($request);
      }
      else {
          return $self->write_chunked_body($request);
      }
  }
  
  sub read_content_body {
      @_ == 3 || @_ == 4 || die(q/Usage: $handle->read_content_body(callback, response, [read_length])/ . "\n");
      my ($self, $cb, $response, $content_length) = @_;
      $content_length ||= $response->{headers}{'content-length'};
  
      if ( defined $content_length ) {
          my $len = $content_length;
          while ($len > 0) {
              my $read = ($len > BUFSIZE) ? BUFSIZE : $len;
              $cb->($self->read($read, 0), $response);
              $len -= $read;
          }
          return length($self->{rbuf}) == 0;
      }
  
      my $chunk;
      $cb->($chunk, $response) while length( $chunk = $self->read(BUFSIZE, 1) );
  
      return;
  }
  
  sub write_content_body {
      @_ == 2 || die(q/Usage: $handle->write_content_body(request)/ . "\n");
      my ($self, $request) = @_;
  
      my ($len, $content_length) = (0, $request->{headers}{'content-length'});
      while () {
          my $data = $request->{cb}->();
  
          defined $data && length $data
            or last;
  
          if ( $] ge '5.008' ) {
              utf8::downgrade($data, 1)
                  or die(qq/Wide character in write_content()\n/);
          }
  
          $len += $self->write($data);
      }
  
      $len == $content_length
        or die(qq/Content-Length mismatch (got: $len expected: $content_length)\n/);
  
      return $len;
  }
  
  sub read_chunked_body {
      @_ == 3 || die(q/Usage: $handle->read_chunked_body(callback, $response)/ . "\n");
      my ($self, $cb, $response) = @_;
  
      while () {
          my $head = $self->readline;
  
          $head =~ /\A ([A-Fa-f0-9]+)/x
            or die(q/Malformed chunk head: / . $Printable->($head) . "\n");
  
          my $len = hex($1)
            or last;
  
          $self->read_content_body($cb, $response, $len);
  
          $self->read(2) eq "\x0D\x0A"
            or die(qq/Malformed chunk: missing CRLF after chunk data\n/);
      }
      $self->read_header_lines($response->{headers});
      return 1;
  }
  
  sub write_chunked_body {
      @_ == 2 || die(q/Usage: $handle->write_chunked_body(request)/ . "\n");
      my ($self, $request) = @_;
  
      my $len = 0;
      while () {
          my $data = $request->{cb}->();
  
          defined $data && length $data
            or last;
  
          if ( $] ge '5.008' ) {
              utf8::downgrade($data, 1)
                  or die(qq/Wide character in write_chunked_body()\n/);
          }
  
          $len += length $data;
  
          my $chunk  = sprintf '%X', length $data;
             $chunk .= "\x0D\x0A";
             $chunk .= $data;
             $chunk .= "\x0D\x0A";
  
          $self->write($chunk);
      }
      $self->write("0\x0D\x0A");
      $self->write_header_lines($request->{trailer_cb}->())
          if ref $request->{trailer_cb} eq 'CODE';
      return $len;
  }
  
  sub read_response_header {
      @_ == 1 || die(q/Usage: $handle->read_response_header()/ . "\n");
      my ($self) = @_;
  
      my $line = $self->readline;
  
      $line =~ /\A (HTTP\/(0*\d+\.0*\d+)) [\x09\x20]+ ([0-9]{3}) [\x09\x20]+ ([^\x0D\x0A]*) \x0D?\x0A/x
        or die(q/Malformed Status-Line: / . $Printable->($line). "\n");
  
      my ($protocol, $version, $status, $reason) = ($1, $2, $3, $4);
  
      die (qq/Unsupported HTTP protocol: $protocol\n/)
          unless $version =~ /0*1\.0*[01]/;
  
      return {
          status       => $status,
          reason       => $reason,
          headers      => $self->read_header_lines,
          protocol     => $protocol,
      };
  }
  
  sub write_request_header {
      @_ == 4 || die(q/Usage: $handle->write_request_header(method, request_uri, headers)/ . "\n");
      my ($self, $method, $request_uri, $headers) = @_;
  
      return $self->write_header_lines($headers, "$method $request_uri HTTP/1.1\x0D\x0A");
  }
  
  sub _do_timeout {
      my ($self, $type, $timeout) = @_;
      $timeout = $self->{timeout}
          unless defined $timeout && $timeout >= 0;
  
      my $fd = fileno $self->{fh};
      defined $fd && $fd >= 0
        or die(qq/select(2): 'Bad file descriptor'\n/);
  
      my $initial = time;
      my $pending = $timeout;
      my $nfound;
  
      vec(my $fdset = '', $fd, 1) = 1;
  
      while () {
          $nfound = ($type eq 'read')
              ? select($fdset, undef, undef, $pending)
              : select(undef, $fdset, undef, $pending) ;
          if ($nfound == -1) {
              $! == EINTR
                or die(qq/select(2): '$!'\n/);
              redo if !$timeout || ($pending = $timeout - (time - $initial)) > 0;
              $nfound = 0;
          }
          last;
      }
      $! = 0;
      return $nfound;
  }
  
  sub can_read {
      @_ == 1 || @_ == 2 || die(q/Usage: $handle->can_read([timeout])/ . "\n");
      my $self = shift;
      if ( ref($self->{fh}) eq 'IO::Socket::SSL' ) {
          return 1 if $self->{fh}->pending;
      }
      return $self->_do_timeout('read', @_)
  }
  
  sub can_write {
      @_ == 1 || @_ == 2 || die(q/Usage: $handle->can_write([timeout])/ . "\n");
      my $self = shift;
      return $self->_do_timeout('write', @_)
  }
  
  sub _assert_ssl {
      my($ok, $reason) = HTTP::Tiny->can_ssl();
      die $reason unless $ok;
  }
  
  sub can_reuse {
      my ($self,$scheme,$host,$port) = @_;
      return 0 if
          $self->{pid} != $$
          || $self->{tid} != _get_tid()
          || length($self->{rbuf})
          || $scheme ne $self->{scheme}
          || $host ne $self->{host}
          || $port ne $self->{port}
          || eval { $self->can_read(0) }
          || $@ ;
          return 1;
  }
  
  # Try to find a CA bundle to validate the SSL cert,
  # prefer Mozilla::CA or fallback to a system file
  sub _find_CA_file {
      my $self = shift();
  
      if ( $self->{SSL_options}->{SSL_ca_file} ) {
          unless ( -r $self->{SSL_options}->{SSL_ca_file} ) {
              die qq/SSL_ca_file '$self->{SSL_options}->{SSL_ca_file}' not found or not readable\n/;
          }
          return $self->{SSL_options}->{SSL_ca_file};
      }
  
      return Mozilla::CA::SSL_ca_file()
          if eval { require Mozilla::CA; 1 };
  
      # cert list copied from golang src/crypto/x509/root_unix.go
      foreach my $ca_bundle (
          "/etc/ssl/certs/ca-certificates.crt",     # Debian/Ubuntu/Gentoo etc.
          "/etc/pki/tls/certs/ca-bundle.crt",       # Fedora/RHEL
          "/etc/ssl/ca-bundle.pem",                 # OpenSUSE
          "/etc/openssl/certs/ca-certificates.crt", # NetBSD
          "/etc/ssl/cert.pem",                      # OpenBSD
          "/usr/local/share/certs/ca-root-nss.crt", # FreeBSD/DragonFly
          "/etc/pki/tls/cacert.pem",                # OpenELEC
          "/etc/certs/ca-certificates.crt",         # Solaris 11.2+
      ) {
          return $ca_bundle if -e $ca_bundle;
      }
  
      die qq/Couldn't find a CA bundle with which to verify the SSL certificate.\n/
        . qq/Try installing Mozilla::CA from CPAN\n/;
  }
  
  # for thread safety, we need to know thread id if threads are loaded
  sub _get_tid {
      no warnings 'reserved'; # for 'threads'
      return threads->can("tid") ? threads->tid : 0;
  }
  
  sub _ssl_args {
      my ($self, $host) = @_;
  
      my %ssl_args;
  
      # This test reimplements IO::Socket::SSL::can_client_sni(), which wasn't
      # added until IO::Socket::SSL 1.84
      if ( Net::SSLeay::OPENSSL_VERSION_NUMBER() >= 0x01000000 ) {
          $ssl_args{SSL_hostname} = $host,          # Sane SNI support
      }
  
      if ($self->{verify_SSL}) {
          $ssl_args{SSL_verifycn_scheme}  = 'http'; # enable CN validation
          $ssl_args{SSL_verifycn_name}    = $host;  # set validation hostname
          $ssl_args{SSL_verify_mode}      = 0x01;   # enable cert validation
          $ssl_args{SSL_ca_file}          = $self->_find_CA_file;
      }
      else {
          $ssl_args{SSL_verifycn_scheme}  = 'none'; # disable CN validation
          $ssl_args{SSL_verify_mode}      = 0x00;   # disable cert validation
      }
  
      # user options override settings from verify_SSL
      for my $k ( keys %{$self->{SSL_options}} ) {
          $ssl_args{$k} = $self->{SSL_options}{$k} if $k =~ m/^SSL_/;
      }
  
      return \%ssl_args;
  }
  
  1;
  
  __END__
  
  =pod
  
  =encoding UTF-8
  
  =head1 NAME
  
  HTTP::Tiny - A small, simple, correct HTTP/1.1 client
  
  =head1 VERSION
  
  version 0.056
  
  =head1 SYNOPSIS
  
      use HTTP::Tiny;
  
      my $response = HTTP::Tiny->new->get('http://example.com/');
  
      die "Failed!\n" unless $response->{success};
  
      print "$response->{status} $response->{reason}\n";
  
      while (my ($k, $v) = each %{$response->{headers}}) {
          for (ref $v eq 'ARRAY' ? @$v : $v) {
              print "$k: $_\n";
          }
      }
  
      print $response->{content} if length $response->{content};
  
  =head1 DESCRIPTION
  
  This is a very simple HTTP/1.1 client, designed for doing simple
  requests without the overhead of a large framework like L<LWP::UserAgent>.
  
  It is more correct and more complete than L<HTTP::Lite>.  It supports
  proxies and redirection.  It also correctly resumes after EINTR.
  
  If L<IO::Socket::IP> 0.25 or later is installed, HTTP::Tiny will use it instead
  of L<IO::Socket::INET> for transparent support for both IPv4 and IPv6.
  
  Cookie support requires L<HTTP::CookieJar> or an equivalent class.
  
  =head1 METHODS
  
  =head2 new
  
      $http = HTTP::Tiny->new( %attributes );
  
  This constructor returns a new HTTP::Tiny object.  Valid attributes include:
  
  =over 4
  
  =item *
  
  C<agent> — A user-agent string (defaults to 'HTTP-Tiny/$VERSION'). If C<agent> — ends in a space character, the default user-agent string is appended.
  
  =item *
  
  C<cookie_jar> — An instance of L<HTTP::CookieJar> — or equivalent class that supports the C<add> and C<cookie_header> methods
  
  =item *
  
  C<default_headers> — A hashref of default headers to apply to requests
  
  =item *
  
  C<local_address> — The local IP address to bind to
  
  =item *
  
  C<keep_alive> — Whether to reuse the last connection (if for the same scheme, host and port) (defaults to 1)
  
  =item *
  
  C<max_redirect> — Maximum number of redirects allowed (defaults to 5)
  
  =item *
  
  C<max_size> — Maximum response size in bytes (only when not using a data callback).  If defined, responses larger than this will return an exception.
  
  =item *
  
  C<http_proxy> — URL of a proxy server to use for HTTP connections (default is C<$ENV{http_proxy}> — if set)
  
  =item *
  
  C<https_proxy> — URL of a proxy server to use for HTTPS connections (default is C<$ENV{https_proxy}> — if set)
  
  =item *
  
  C<proxy> — URL of a generic proxy server for both HTTP and HTTPS connections (default is C<$ENV{all_proxy}> — if set)
  
  =item *
  
  C<no_proxy> — List of domain suffixes that should not be proxied.  Must be a comma-separated string or an array reference. (default is C<$ENV{no_proxy}> —)
  
  =item *
  
  C<timeout> — Request timeout in seconds (default is 60)
  
  =item *
  
  C<verify_SSL> — A boolean that indicates whether to validate the SSL certificate of an C<https> — connection (default is false)
  
  =item *
  
  C<SSL_options> — A hashref of C<SSL_*> — options to pass through to L<IO::Socket::SSL>
  
  =back
  
  Passing an explicit C<undef> for C<proxy>, C<http_proxy> or C<https_proxy> will
  prevent getting the corresponding proxies from the environment.
  
  Exceptions from C<max_size>, C<timeout> or other errors will result in a
  pseudo-HTTP status code of 599 and a reason of "Internal Exception". The
  content field in the response will contain the text of the exception.
  
  The C<keep_alive> parameter enables a persistent connection, but only to a
  single destination scheme, host and port.  Also, if any connection-relevant
  attributes are modified, or if the process ID or thread ID change, the
  persistent connection will be dropped.  If you want persistent connections
  across multiple destinations, use multiple HTTP::Tiny objects.
  
  See L</SSL SUPPORT> for more on the C<verify_SSL> and C<SSL_options> attributes.
  
  =head2 get|head|put|post|delete
  
      $response = $http->get($url);
      $response = $http->get($url, \%options);
      $response = $http->head($url);
  
  These methods are shorthand for calling C<request()> for the given method.  The
  URL must have unsafe characters escaped and international domain names encoded.
  See C<request()> for valid options and a description of the response.
  
  The C<success> field of the response will be true if the status code is 2XX.
  
  =head2 post_form
  
      $response = $http->post_form($url, $form_data);
      $response = $http->post_form($url, $form_data, \%options);
  
  This method executes a C<POST> request and sends the key/value pairs from a
  form data hash or array reference to the given URL with a C<content-type> of
  C<application/x-www-form-urlencoded>.  If data is provided as an array
  reference, the order is preserved; if provided as a hash reference, the terms
  are sorted on key and value for consistency.  See documentation for the
  C<www_form_urlencode> method for details on the encoding.
  
  The URL must have unsafe characters escaped and international domain names
  encoded.  See C<request()> for valid options and a description of the response.
  Any C<content-type> header or content in the options hashref will be ignored.
  
  The C<success> field of the response will be true if the status code is 2XX.
  
  =head2 mirror
  
      $response = $http->mirror($url, $file, \%options)
      if ( $response->{success} ) {
          print "$file is up to date\n";
      }
  
  Executes a C<GET> request for the URL and saves the response body to the file
  name provided.  The URL must have unsafe characters escaped and international
  domain names encoded.  If the file already exists, the request will include an
  C<If-Modified-Since> header with the modification timestamp of the file.  You
  may specify a different C<If-Modified-Since> header yourself in the C<<
  $options->{headers} >> hash.
  
  The C<success> field of the response will be true if the status code is 2XX
  or if the status code is 304 (unmodified).
  
  If the file was modified and the server response includes a properly
  formatted C<Last-Modified> header, the file modification time will
  be updated accordingly.
  
  =head2 request
  
      $response = $http->request($method, $url);
      $response = $http->request($method, $url, \%options);
  
  Executes an HTTP request of the given method type ('GET', 'HEAD', 'POST',
  'PUT', etc.) on the given URL.  The URL must have unsafe characters escaped and
  international domain names encoded.
  
  If the URL includes a "user:password" stanza, they will be used for Basic-style
  authorization headers.  (Authorization headers will not be included in a
  redirected request.) For example:
  
      $http->request('GET', 'http://Aladdin:open sesame@example.com/');
  
  If the "user:password" stanza contains reserved characters, they must
  be percent-escaped:
  
      $http->request('GET', 'http://john%40example.com:password@example.com/');
  
  A hashref of options may be appended to modify the request.
  
  Valid options are:
  
  =over 4
  
  =item *
  
  C<headers> — A hashref containing headers to include with the request.  If the value for a header is an array reference, the header will be output multiple times with each value in the array.  These headers over-write any default headers.
  
  =item *
  
  C<content> — A scalar to include as the body of the request OR a code reference that will be called iteratively to produce the body of the request
  
  =item *
  
  C<trailer_callback> — A code reference that will be called if it exists to provide a hashref of trailing headers (only used with chunked transfer-encoding)
  
  =item *
  
  C<data_callback> — A code reference that will be called for each chunks of the response body received.
  
  =back
  
  The C<Host> header is generated from the URL in accordance with RFC 2616.  It
  is a fatal error to specify C<Host> in the C<headers> option.  Other headers
  may be ignored or overwritten if necessary for transport compliance.
  
  If the C<content> option is a code reference, it will be called iteratively
  to provide the content body of the request.  It should return the empty
  string or undef when the iterator is exhausted.
  
  If the C<content> option is the empty string, no C<content-type> or
  C<content-length> headers will be generated.
  
  If the C<data_callback> option is provided, it will be called iteratively until
  the entire response body is received.  The first argument will be a string
  containing a chunk of the response body, the second argument will be the
  in-progress response hash reference, as described below.  (This allows
  customizing the action of the callback based on the C<status> or C<headers>
  received prior to the content body.)
  
  The C<request> method returns a hashref containing the response.  The hashref
  will have the following keys:
  
  =over 4
  
  =item *
  
  C<success> — Boolean indicating whether the operation returned a 2XX status code
  
  =item *
  
  C<url> — URL that provided the response. This is the URL of the request unless there were redirections, in which case it is the last URL queried in a redirection chain
  
  =item *
  
  C<status> — The HTTP status code of the response
  
  =item *
  
  C<reason> — The response phrase returned by the server
  
  =item *
  
  C<content> — The body of the response.  If the response does not have any content or if a data callback is provided to consume the response body, this will be the empty string
  
  =item *
  
  C<headers> — A hashref of header fields.  All header field names will be normalized to be lower case. If a header is repeated, the value will be an arrayref; it will otherwise be a scalar string containing the value
  
  =back
  
  On an exception during the execution of the request, the C<status> field will
  contain 599, and the C<content> field will contain the text of the exception.
  
  =head2 www_form_urlencode
  
      $params = $http->www_form_urlencode( $data );
      $response = $http->get("http://example.com/query?$params");
  
  This method converts the key/value pairs from a data hash or array reference
  into a C<x-www-form-urlencoded> string.  The keys and values from the data
  reference will be UTF-8 encoded and escaped per RFC 3986.  If a value is an
  array reference, the key will be repeated with each of the values of the array
  reference.  If data is provided as a hash reference, the key/value pairs in the
  resulting string will be sorted by key and value for consistent ordering.
  
  =head2 can_ssl
  
      $ok         = HTTP::Tiny->can_ssl;
      ($ok, $why) = HTTP::Tiny->can_ssl;
      ($ok, $why) = $http->can_ssl;
  
  Indicates if SSL support is available.  When called as a class object, it
  checks for the correct version of L<Net::SSLeay> and L<IO::Socket::SSL>.
  When called as an object methods, if C<SSL_verify> is true or if C<SSL_verify_mode>
  is set in C<SSL_options>, it checks that a CA file is available.
  
  In scalar context, returns a boolean indicating if SSL is available.
  In list context, returns the boolean and a (possibly multi-line) string of
  errors indicating why SSL isn't available.
  
  =for Pod::Coverage SSL_options
  agent
  cookie_jar
  default_headers
  http_proxy
  https_proxy
  keep_alive
  local_address
  max_redirect
  max_size
  no_proxy
  proxy
  timeout
  verify_SSL
  
  =head1 SSL SUPPORT
  
  Direct C<https> connections are supported only if L<IO::Socket::SSL> 1.56 or
  greater and L<Net::SSLeay> 1.49 or greater are installed. An exception will be
  thrown if new enough versions of these modules are not installed or if the SSL
  encryption fails. You can also use C<HTTP::Tiny::can_ssl()> utility function
  that returns boolean to see if the required modules are installed.
  
  An C<https> connection may be made via an C<http> proxy that supports the CONNECT
  command (i.e. RFC 2817).  You may not proxy C<https> via a proxy that itself
  requires C<https> to communicate.
  
  SSL provides two distinct capabilities:
  
  =over 4
  
  =item *
  
  Encrypted communication channel
  
  =item *
  
  Verification of server identity
  
  =back
  
  B<By default, HTTP::Tiny does not verify server identity>.
  
  Server identity verification is controversial and potentially tricky because it
  depends on a (usually paid) third-party Certificate Authority (CA) trust model
  to validate a certificate as legitimate.  This discriminates against servers
  with self-signed certificates or certificates signed by free, community-driven
  CA's such as L<CAcert.org|http://cacert.org>.
  
  By default, HTTP::Tiny does not make any assumptions about your trust model,
  threat level or risk tolerance.  It just aims to give you an encrypted channel
  when you need one.
  
  Setting the C<verify_SSL> attribute to a true value will make HTTP::Tiny verify
  that an SSL connection has a valid SSL certificate corresponding to the host
  name of the connection and that the SSL certificate has been verified by a CA.
  Assuming you trust the CA, this will protect against a L<man-in-the-middle
  attack|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Man-in-the-middle_attack>.  If you are
  concerned about security, you should enable this option.
  
  Certificate verification requires a file containing trusted CA certificates.
  If the L<Mozilla::CA> module is installed, HTTP::Tiny will use the CA file
  included with it as a source of trusted CA's.  (This means you trust Mozilla,
  the author of Mozilla::CA, the CPAN mirror where you got Mozilla::CA, the
  toolchain used to install it, and your operating system security, right?)
  
  If that module is not available, then HTTP::Tiny will search several
  system-specific default locations for a CA certificate file:
  
  =over 4
  
  =item *
  
  /etc/ssl/certs/ca-certificates.crt
  
  =item *
  
  /etc/pki/tls/certs/ca-bundle.crt
  
  =item *
  
  /etc/ssl/ca-bundle.pem
  
  =back
  
  An exception will be raised if C<verify_SSL> is true and no CA certificate file
  is available.
  
  If you desire complete control over SSL connections, the C<SSL_options> attribute
  lets you provide a hash reference that will be passed through to
  C<IO::Socket::SSL::start_SSL()>, overriding any options set by HTTP::Tiny. For
  example, to provide your own trusted CA file:
  
      SSL_options => {
          SSL_ca_file => $file_path,
      }
  
  The C<SSL_options> attribute could also be used for such things as providing a
  client certificate for authentication to a server or controlling the choice of
  cipher used for the SSL connection. See L<IO::Socket::SSL> documentation for
  details.
  
  =head1 PROXY SUPPORT
  
  HTTP::Tiny can proxy both C<http> and C<https> requests.  Only Basic proxy
  authorization is supported and it must be provided as part of the proxy URL:
  C<http://user:pass@proxy.example.com/>.
  
  HTTP::Tiny supports the following proxy environment variables:
  
  =over 4
  
  =item *
  
  http_proxy or HTTP_PROXY
  
  =item *
  
  https_proxy or HTTPS_PROXY
  
  =item *
  
  all_proxy or ALL_PROXY
  
  =back
  
  If the C<REQUEST_METHOD> environment variable is set, then this might be a CGI
  process and C<HTTP_PROXY> would be set from the C<Proxy:> header, which is a
  security risk.  If C<REQUEST_METHOD> is set, C<HTTP_PROXY> (the upper case
  variant only) is ignored.
  
  Tunnelling C<https> over an C<http> proxy using the CONNECT method is
  supported.  If your proxy uses C<https> itself, you can not tunnel C<https>
  over it.
  
  Be warned that proxying an C<https> connection opens you to the risk of a
  man-in-the-middle attack by the proxy server.
  
  The C<no_proxy> environment variable is supported in the format of a
  comma-separated list of domain extensions proxy should not be used for.
  
  Proxy arguments passed to C<new> will override their corresponding
  environment variables.
  
  =head1 LIMITATIONS
  
  HTTP::Tiny is I<conditionally compliant> with the
  L<HTTP/1.1 specifications|http://www.w3.org/Protocols/>:
  
  =over 4
  
  =item *
  
  "Message Syntax and Routing" [RFC7230]
  
  =item *
  
  "Semantics and Content" [RFC7231]
  
  =item *
  
  "Conditional Requests" [RFC7232]
  
  =item *
  
  "Range Requests" [RFC7233]
  
  =item *
  
  "Caching" [RFC7234]
  
  =item *
  
  "Authentication" [RFC7235]
  
  =back
  
  It attempts to meet all "MUST" requirements of the specification, but does not
  implement all "SHOULD" requirements.  (Note: it was developed against the
  earlier RFC 2616 specification and may not yet meet the revised RFC 7230-7235
  spec.)
  
  Some particular limitations of note include:
  
  =over
  
  =item *
  
  HTTP::Tiny focuses on correct transport.  Users are responsible for ensuring
  that user-defined headers and content are compliant with the HTTP/1.1
  specification.
  
  =item *
  
  Users must ensure that URLs are properly escaped for unsafe characters and that
  international domain names are properly encoded to ASCII. See L<URI::Escape>,
  L<URI::_punycode> and L<Net::IDN::Encode>.
  
  =item *
  
  Redirection is very strict against the specification.  Redirection is only
  automatic for response codes 301, 302, 307 and 308 if the request method is
  'GET' or 'HEAD'.  Response code 303 is always converted into a 'GET'
  redirection, as mandated by the specification.  There is no automatic support
  for status 305 ("Use proxy") redirections.
  
  =item *
  
  There is no provision for delaying a request body using an C<Expect> header.
  Unexpected C<1XX> responses are silently ignored as per the specification.
  
  =item *
  
  Only 'chunked' C<Transfer-Encoding> is supported.
  
  =item *
  
  There is no support for a Request-URI of '*' for the 'OPTIONS' request.
  
  =back
  
  Despite the limitations listed above, HTTP::Tiny is considered
  feature-complete.  New feature requests should be directed to
  L<HTTP::Tiny::UA>.
  
  =head1 SEE ALSO
  
  =over 4
  
  =item *
  
  L<HTTP::Tiny::UA> - Higher level UA features for HTTP::Tiny
  
  =item *
  
  L<HTTP::Thin> - HTTP::Tiny wrapper with L<HTTP::Request>/L<HTTP::Response> compatibility
  
  =item *
  
  L<HTTP::Tiny::Mech> - Wrap L<WWW::Mechanize> instance in HTTP::Tiny compatible interface
  
  =item *
  
  L<IO::Socket::IP> - Required for IPv6 support
  
  =item *
  
  L<IO::Socket::SSL> - Required for SSL support
  
  =item *
  
  L<LWP::UserAgent> - If HTTP::Tiny isn't enough for you, this is the "standard" way to do things
  
  =item *
  
  L<Mozilla::CA> - Required if you want to validate SSL certificates
  
  =item *
  
  L<Net::SSLeay> - Required for SSL support
  
  =back
  
  =for :stopwords cpan testmatrix url annocpan anno bugtracker rt cpants kwalitee diff irc mailto metadata placeholders metacpan
  
  =head1 SUPPORT
  
  =head2 Bugs / Feature Requests
  
  Please report any bugs or feature requests through the issue tracker
  at L<https://github.com/chansen/p5-http-tiny/issues>.
  You will be notified automatically of any progress on your issue.
  
  =head2 Source Code
  
  This is open source software.  The code repository is available for
  public review and contribution under the terms of the license.
  
  L<https://github.com/chansen/p5-http-tiny>
  
    git clone https://github.com/chansen/p5-http-tiny.git
  
  =head1 AUTHORS
  
  =over 4
  
  =item *
  
  Christian Hansen <chansen@cpan.org>
  
  =item *
  
  David Golden <dagolden@cpan.org>
  
  =back
  
  =head1 CONTRIBUTORS
  
  =for stopwords Alan Gardner Alessandro Ghedini Brad Gilbert Chris Nehren Weyl Claes Jakobsson Clinton Gormley Dean Pearce Edward Zborowski James Raspass Jeremy Mates Jess Robinson Lukas Eklund Martin J. Evans Martin-Louis Bright Mike Doherty Olaf Alders Olivier Mengué Petr Písař Sören Kornetzki Syohei YOSHIDA Tatsuhiko Miyagawa Tom Hukins Tony Cook
  
  =over 4
  
  =item *
  
  Alan Gardner <gardner@pythian.com>
  
  =item *
  
  Alessandro Ghedini <al3xbio@gmail.com>
  
  =item *
  
  Brad Gilbert <bgills@cpan.org>
  
  =item *
  
  Chris Nehren <apeiron@cpan.org>
  
  =item *
  
  Chris Weyl <cweyl@alumni.drew.edu>
  
  =item *
  
  Claes Jakobsson <claes@surfar.nu>
  
  =item *
  
  Clinton Gormley <clint@traveljury.com>
  
  =item *
  
  Dean Pearce <pearce@pythian.com>
  
  =item *
  
  Edward Zborowski <ed@rubensteintech.com>
  
  =item *
  
  James Raspass <jraspass@gmail.com>
  
  =item *
  
  Jeremy Mates <jmates@cpan.org>
  
  =item *
  
  Jess Robinson <castaway@desert-island.me.uk>
  
  =item *
  
  Lukas Eklund <leklund@gmail.com>
  
  =item *
  
  Martin J. Evans <mjegh@ntlworld.com>
  
  =item *
  
  Martin-Louis Bright <mlbright@gmail.com>
  
  =item *
  
  Mike Doherty <doherty@cpan.org>
  
  =item *
  
  Olaf Alders <olaf@wundersolutions.com>
  
  =item *
  
  Olivier Mengué <dolmen@cpan.org>
  
  =item *
  
  Petr Písař <ppisar@redhat.com>
  
  =item *
  
  Sören Kornetzki <soeren.kornetzki@delti.com>
  
  =item *
  
  Syohei YOSHIDA <syohex@gmail.com>
  
  =item *
  
  Tatsuhiko Miyagawa <miyagawa@bulknews.net>
  
  =item *
  
  Tom Hukins <tom@eborcom.com>
  
  =item *
  
  Tony Cook <tony@develop-help.com>
  
  =back
  
  =head1 COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE
  
  This software is copyright (c) 2015 by Christian Hansen.
  
  This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
  the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.
  
  =cut
HTTP_TINY

$fatpacked{"JSON/PP.pm"} = '#line '.(1+__LINE__).' "'.__FILE__."\"\n".<<'JSON_PP';
  package JSON::PP;
  
  # JSON-2.0
  
  use 5.005;
  use strict;
  use base qw(Exporter);
  use overload ();
  
  use Carp ();
  use B ();
  #use Devel::Peek;
  
  $JSON::PP::VERSION = '2.27300';
  
  @JSON::PP::EXPORT = qw(encode_json decode_json from_json to_json);
  
  # instead of hash-access, i tried index-access for speed.
  # but this method is not faster than what i expected. so it will be changed.
  
  use constant P_ASCII                => 0;
  use constant P_LATIN1               => 1;
  use constant P_UTF8                 => 2;
  use constant P_INDENT               => 3;
  use constant P_CANONICAL            => 4;
  use constant P_SPACE_BEFORE         => 5;
  use constant P_SPACE_AFTER          => 6;
  use constant P_ALLOW_NONREF         => 7;
  use constant P_SHRINK               => 8;
  use constant P_ALLOW_BLESSED        => 9;
  use constant P_CONVERT_BLESSED      => 10;
  use constant P_RELAXED              => 11;
  
  use constant P_LOOSE                => 12;
  use constant P_ALLOW_BIGNUM         => 13;
  use constant P_ALLOW_BAREKEY        => 14;
  use constant P_ALLOW_SINGLEQUOTE    => 15;
  use constant P_ESCAPE_SLASH         => 16;
  use constant P_AS_NONBLESSED        => 17;
  
  use constant P_ALLOW_UNKNOWN        => 18;
  
  use constant OLD_PERL => $] < 5.008 ? 1 : 0;
  
  BEGIN {
      my @xs_compati_bit_properties = qw(
              latin1 ascii utf8 indent canonical space_before space_after allow_nonref shrink
              allow_blessed convert_blessed relaxed allow_unknown
      );
      my @pp_bit_properties = qw(
              allow_singlequote allow_bignum loose
              allow_barekey escape_slash as_nonblessed
      );
  
      # Perl version check, Unicode handling is enable?
      # Helper module sets @JSON::PP::_properties.
      if ($] < 5.008 ) {
          my $helper = $] >= 5.006 ? 'JSON::PP::Compat5006' : 'JSON::PP::Compat5005';
          eval qq| require $helper |;
          if ($@) { Carp::croak $@; }
      }
  
      for my $name (@xs_compati_bit_properties, @pp_bit_properties) {
          my $flag_name = 'P_' . uc($name);
  
          eval qq/
              sub $name {
                  my \$enable = defined \$_[1] ? \$_[1] : 1;
  
                  if (\$enable) {
                      \$_[0]->{PROPS}->[$flag_name] = 1;
                  }
                  else {
                      \$_[0]->{PROPS}->[$flag_name] = 0;
                  }
  
                  \$_[0];
              }
  
              sub get_$name {
                  \$_[0]->{PROPS}->[$flag_name] ? 1 : '';
              }
          /;
      }
  
  }
  
  
  
  # Functions
  
  my %encode_allow_method
       = map {($_ => 1)} qw/utf8 pretty allow_nonref latin1 self_encode escape_slash
                            allow_blessed convert_blessed indent indent_length allow_bignum
                            as_nonblessed
                          /;
  my %decode_allow_method
       = map {($_ => 1)} qw/utf8 allow_nonref loose allow_singlequote allow_bignum
                            allow_barekey max_size relaxed/;
  
  
  my $JSON; # cache
  
  sub encode_json ($) { # encode
      ($JSON ||= __PACKAGE__->new->utf8)->encode(@_);
  }
  
  
  sub decode_json { # decode
      ($JSON ||= __PACKAGE__->new->utf8)->decode(@_);
  }
  
  # Obsoleted
  
  sub to_json($) {
     Carp::croak ("JSON::PP::to_json has been renamed to encode_json.");
  }
  
  
  sub from_json($) {
     Carp::croak ("JSON::PP::from_json has been renamed to decode_json.");
  }
  
  
  # Methods
  
  sub new {
      my $class = shift;
      my $self  = {
          max_depth   => 512,
          max_size    => 0,
          indent      => 0,
          FLAGS       => 0,
          fallback      => sub { encode_error('Invalid value. JSON can only reference.') },
          indent_length => 3,
      };
  
      bless $self, $class;
  }
  
  
  sub encode {
      return $_[0]->PP_encode_json($_[1]);
  }
  
  
  sub decode {
      return $_[0]->PP_decode_json($_[1], 0x00000000);
  }
  
  
  sub decode_prefix {
      return $_[0]->PP_decode_json($_[1], 0x00000001);
  }
  
  
  # accessor
  
  
  # pretty printing
  
  sub pretty {
      my ($self, $v) = @_;
      my $enable = defined $v ? $v : 1;
  
      if ($enable) { # indent_length(3) for JSON::XS compatibility
          $self->indent(1)->indent_length(3)->space_before(1)->space_after(1);
      }
      else {
          $self->indent(0)->space_before(0)->space_after(0);
      }
  
      $self;
  }
  
  # etc
  
  sub max_depth {
      my $max  = defined $_[1] ? $_[1] : 0x80000000;
      $_[0]->{max_depth} = $max;
      $_[0];
  }
  
  
  sub get_max_depth { $_[0]->{max_depth}; }
  
  
  sub max_size {
      my $max  = defined $_[1] ? $_[1] : 0;
      $_[0]->{max_size} = $max;
      $_[0];
  }
  
  
  sub get_max_size { $_[0]->{max_size}; }
  
  
  sub filter_json_object {
      $_[0]->{cb_object} = defined $_[1] ? $_[1] : 0;
      $_[0]->{F_HOOK} = ($_[0]->{cb_object} or $_[0]->{cb_sk_object}) ? 1 : 0;
      $_[0];
  }
  
  sub filter_json_single_key_object {
      if (@_ > 1) {
          $_[0]->{cb_sk_object}->{$_[1]} = $_[2];
      }
      $_[0]->{F_HOOK} = ($_[0]->{cb_object} or $_[0]->{cb_sk_object}) ? 1 : 0;
      $_[0];
  }
  
  sub indent_length {
      if (!defined $_[1] or $_[1] > 15 or $_[1] < 0) {
          Carp::carp "The acceptable range of indent_length() is 0 to 15.";
      }
      else {
          $_[0]->{indent_length} = $_[1];
      }
      $_[0];
  }
  
  sub get_indent_length {
      $_[0]->{indent_length};
  }
  
  sub sort_by {
      $_[0]->{sort_by} = defined $_[1] ? $_[1] : 1;
      $_[0];
  }
  
  sub allow_bigint {
      Carp::carp("allow_bigint() is obsoleted. use allow_bignum() insted.");
  }
  
  ###############################
  
  ###
  ### Perl => JSON
  ###
  
  
  { # Convert
  
      my $max_depth;
      my $indent;
      my $ascii;
      my $latin1;
      my $utf8;
      my $space_before;
      my $space_after;
      my $canonical;
      my $allow_blessed;
      my $convert_blessed;
  
      my $indent_length;
      my $escape_slash;
      my $bignum;
      my $as_nonblessed;
  
      my $depth;
      my $indent_count;
      my $keysort;
  
  
      sub PP_encode_json {
          my $self = shift;
          my $obj  = shift;
  
          $indent_count = 0;
          $depth        = 0;
  
          my $idx = $self->{PROPS};
  
          ($ascii, $latin1, $utf8, $indent, $canonical, $space_before, $space_after, $allow_blessed,
              $convert_blessed, $escape_slash, $bignum, $as_nonblessed)
           = @{$idx}[P_ASCII .. P_SPACE_AFTER, P_ALLOW_BLESSED, P_CONVERT_BLESSED,
                      P_ESCAPE_SLASH, P_ALLOW_BIGNUM, P_AS_NONBLESSED];
  
          ($max_depth, $indent_length) = @{$self}{qw/max_depth indent_length/};
  
          $keysort = $canonical ? sub { $a cmp $b } : undef;
  
          if ($self->{sort_by}) {
              $keysort = ref($self->{sort_by}) eq 'CODE' ? $self->{sort_by}
                       : $self->{sort_by} =~ /\D+/       ? $self->{sort_by}
                       : sub { $a cmp $b };
          }
  
          encode_error("hash- or arrayref expected (not a simple scalar, use allow_nonref to allow this)")
               if(!ref $obj and !$idx->[ P_ALLOW_NONREF ]);
  
          my $str  = $self->object_to_json($obj);
  
          $str .= "\n" if ( $indent ); # JSON::XS 2.26 compatible
  
          unless ($ascii or $latin1 or $utf8) {
              utf8::upgrade($str);
          }
  
          if ($idx->[ P_SHRINK ]) {
              utf8::downgrade($str, 1);
          }
  
          return $str;
      }
  
  
      sub object_to_json {
          my ($self, $obj) = @_;
          my $type = ref($obj);
  
          if($type eq 'HASH'){
              return $self->hash_to_json($obj);
          }
          elsif($type eq 'ARRAY'){
              return $self->array_to_json($obj);
          }
          elsif ($type) { # blessed object?
              if (blessed($obj)) {
  
                  return $self->value_to_json($obj) if ( $obj->isa('JSON::PP::Boolean') );
  
                  if ( $convert_blessed and $obj->can('TO_JSON') ) {
                      my $result = $obj->TO_JSON();
                      if ( defined $result and ref( $result ) ) {
                          if ( refaddr( $obj ) eq refaddr( $result ) ) {
                              encode_error( sprintf(
                                  "%s::TO_JSON method returned same object as was passed instead of a new one",
                                  ref $obj
                              ) );
                          }
                      }
  
                      return $self->object_to_json( $result );
                  }
  
                  return "$obj" if ( $bignum and _is_bignum($obj) );
                  return $self->blessed_to_json($obj) if ($allow_blessed and $as_nonblessed); # will be removed.
  
                  encode_error( sprintf("encountered object '%s', but neither allow_blessed "
                      . "nor convert_blessed settings are enabled", $obj)
                  ) unless ($allow_blessed);
  
                  return 'null';
              }
              else {
                  return $self->value_to_json($obj);
              }
          }
          else{
              return $self->value_to_json($obj);
          }
      }
  
  
      sub hash_to_json {
          my ($self, $obj) = @_;
          my @res;
  
          encode_error("json text or perl structure exceeds maximum nesting level (max_depth set too low?)")
                                           if (++$depth > $max_depth);
  
          my ($pre, $post) = $indent ? $self->_up_indent() : ('', '');
          my $del = ($space_before ? ' ' : '') . ':' . ($space_after ? ' ' : '');
  
          for my $k ( _sort( $obj ) ) {
              if ( OLD_PERL ) { utf8::decode($k) } # key for Perl 5.6 / be optimized
              push @res, string_to_json( $self, $k )
                            .  $del
                            . ( $self->object_to_json( $obj->{$k} ) || $self->value_to_json( $obj->{$k} ) );
          }
  
          --$depth;
          $self->_down_indent() if ($indent);
  
          return   '{' . ( @res ? $pre : '' ) . ( @res ? join( ",$pre", @res ) . $post : '' )  . '}';
      }
  
  
      sub array_to_json {
          my ($self, $obj) = @_;
          my @res;
  
          encode_error("json text or perl structure exceeds maximum nesting level (max_depth set too low?)")
                                           if (++$depth > $max_depth);
  
          my ($pre, $post) = $indent ? $self->_up_indent() : ('', '');
  
          for my $v (@$obj){
              push @res, $self->object_to_json($v) || $self->value_to_json($v);
          }
  
          --$depth;
          $self->_down_indent() if ($indent);
  
          return '[' . ( @res ? $pre : '' ) . ( @res ? join( ",$pre", @res ) . $post : '' ) . ']';
      }
  
  
      sub value_to_json {
          my ($self, $value) = @_;
  
          return 'null' if(!defined $value);
  
          my $b_obj = B::svref_2object(\$value);  # for round trip problem
          my $flags = $b_obj->FLAGS;
  
          return $value # as is 
              if $flags & ( B::SVp_IOK | B::SVp_NOK ) and !( $flags & B::SVp_POK ); # SvTYPE is IV or NV?
  
          my $type = ref($value);
  
          if(!$type){
              return string_to_json($self, $value);
          }
          elsif( blessed($value) and  $value->isa('JSON::PP::Boolean') ){
              return $$value == 1 ? 'true' : 'false';
          }
          elsif ($type) {
              if ((overload::StrVal($value) =~ /=(\w+)/)[0]) {
                  return $self->value_to_json("$value");
              }
  
              if ($type eq 'SCALAR' and defined $$value) {
                  return   $$value eq '1' ? 'true'
                         : $$value eq '0' ? 'false'
                         : $self->{PROPS}->[ P_ALLOW_UNKNOWN ] ? 'null'
                         : encode_error("cannot encode reference to scalar");
              }
  
               if ( $self->{PROPS}->[ P_ALLOW_UNKNOWN ] ) {
                   return 'null';
               }
               else {
                   if ( $type eq 'SCALAR' or $type eq 'REF' ) {
                      encode_error("cannot encode reference to scalar");
                   }
                   else {
                      encode_error("encountered $value, but JSON can only represent references to arrays or hashes");
                   }
               }
  
          }
          else {
              return $self->{fallback}->($value)
                   if ($self->{fallback} and ref($self->{fallback}) eq 'CODE');
              return 'null';
          }
  
      }
  
  
      my %esc = (
          "\n" => '\n',
          "\r" => '\r',
          "\t" => '\t',
          "\f" => '\f',
          "\b" => '\b',
          "\"" => '\"',
          "\\" => '\\\\',
          "\'" => '\\\'',
      );
  
  
      sub string_to_json {
          my ($self, $arg) = @_;
  
          $arg =~ s/([\x22\x5c\n\r\t\f\b])/$esc{$1}/g;
          $arg =~ s/\//\\\//g if ($escape_slash);
          $arg =~ s/([\x00-\x08\x0b\x0e-\x1f])/'\\u00' . unpack('H2', $1)/eg;
  
          if ($ascii) {
              $arg = JSON_PP_encode_ascii($arg);
          }
  
          if ($latin1) {
              $arg = JSON_PP_encode_latin1($arg);
          }
  
          if ($utf8) {
              utf8::encode($arg);
          }
  
          return '"' . $arg . '"';
      }
  
  
      sub blessed_to_json {
          my $reftype = reftype($_[1]) || '';
          if ($reftype eq 'HASH') {
              return $_[0]->hash_to_json($_[1]);
          }
          elsif ($reftype eq 'ARRAY') {
              return $_[0]->array_to_json($_[1]);
          }
          else {
              return 'null';
          }
      }
  
  
      sub encode_error {
          my $error  = shift;
          Carp::croak "$error";
      }
  
  
      sub _sort {
          defined $keysort ? (sort $keysort (keys %{$_[0]})) : keys %{$_[0]};
      }
  
  
      sub _up_indent {
          my $self  = shift;
          my $space = ' ' x $indent_length;
  
          my ($pre,$post) = ('','');
  
          $post = "\n" . $space x $indent_count;
  
          $indent_count++;
  
          $pre = "\n" . $space x $indent_count;
  
          return ($pre,$post);
      }
  
  
      sub _down_indent { $indent_count--; }
  
  
      sub PP_encode_box {
          {
              depth        => $depth,
              indent_count => $indent_count,
          };
      }
  
  } # Convert
  
  
  sub _encode_ascii {
      join('',
          map {
              $_ <= 127 ?
                  chr($_) :
              $_ <= 65535 ?
                  sprintf('\u%04x', $_) : sprintf('\u%x\u%x', _encode_surrogates($_));
          } unpack('U*', $_[0])
      );
  }
  
  
  sub _encode_latin1 {
      join('',
          map {
              $_ <= 255 ?
                  chr($_) :
              $_ <= 65535 ?
                  sprintf('\u%04x', $_) : sprintf('\u%x\u%x', _encode_surrogates($_));
          } unpack('U*', $_[0])
      );
  }
  
  
  sub _encode_surrogates { # from perlunicode
      my $uni = $_[0] - 0x10000;
      return ($uni / 0x400 + 0xD800, $uni % 0x400 + 0xDC00);
  }
  
  
  sub _is_bignum {
      $_[0]->isa('Math::BigInt') or $_[0]->isa('Math::BigFloat');
  }
  
  
  
  #
  # JSON => Perl
  #
  
  my $max_intsize;
  
  BEGIN {
      my $checkint = 1111;
      for my $d (5..64) {
          $checkint .= 1;
          my $int   = eval qq| $checkint |;
          if ($int =~ /[eE]/) {
              $max_intsize = $d - 1;
              last;
          }
      }
  }
  
  { # PARSE 
  
      my %escapes = ( #  by Jeremy Muhlich <jmuhlich [at] bitflood.org>
          b    => "\x8",
          t    => "\x9",
          n    => "\xA",
          f    => "\xC",
          r    => "\xD",
          '\\' => '\\',
          '"'  => '"',
          '/'  => '/',
      );
  
      my $text; # json data
      my $at;   # offset
      my $ch;   # 1chracter
      my $len;  # text length (changed according to UTF8 or NON UTF8)
      # INTERNAL
      my $depth;          # nest counter
      my $encoding;       # json text encoding
      my $is_valid_utf8;  # temp variable
      my $utf8_len;       # utf8 byte length
      # FLAGS
      my $utf8;           # must be utf8
      my $max_depth;      # max nest nubmer of objects and arrays
      my $max_size;
      my $relaxed;
      my $cb_object;
      my $cb_sk_object;
  
      my $F_HOOK;
  
      my $allow_bigint;   # using Math::BigInt
      my $singlequote;    # loosely quoting
      my $loose;          # 
      my $allow_barekey;  # bareKey
  
      # $opt flag
      # 0x00000001 .... decode_prefix
      # 0x10000000 .... incr_parse
  
      sub PP_decode_json {
          my ($self, $opt); # $opt is an effective flag during this decode_json.
  
          ($self, $text, $opt) = @_;
  
          ($at, $ch, $depth) = (0, '', 0);
  
          if ( !defined $text or ref $text ) {
              decode_error("malformed JSON string, neither array, object, number, string or atom");
          }
  
          my $idx = $self->{PROPS};
  
          ($utf8, $relaxed, $loose, $allow_bigint, $allow_barekey, $singlequote)
              = @{$idx}[P_UTF8, P_RELAXED, P_LOOSE .. P_ALLOW_SINGLEQUOTE];
  
          if ( $utf8 ) {
              utf8::downgrade( $text, 1 ) or Carp::croak("Wide character in subroutine entry");
          }
          else {
              utf8::upgrade( $text );
              utf8::encode( $text );
          }
  
          $len = length $text;
  
          ($max_depth, $max_size, $cb_object, $cb_sk_object, $F_HOOK)
               = @{$self}{qw/max_depth  max_size cb_object cb_sk_object F_HOOK/};
  
          if ($max_size > 1) {
              use bytes;
              my $bytes = length $text;
              decode_error(
                  sprintf("attempted decode of JSON text of %s bytes size, but max_size is set to %s"
                      , $bytes, $max_size), 1
              ) if ($bytes > $max_size);
          }
  
          # Currently no effect
          # should use regexp
          my @octets = unpack('C4', $text);
          $encoding =   ( $octets[0] and  $octets[1]) ? 'UTF-8'
                      : (!$octets[0] and  $octets[1]) ? 'UTF-16BE'
                      : (!$octets[0] and !$octets[1]) ? 'UTF-32BE'
                      : ( $octets[2]                ) ? 'UTF-16LE'
                      : (!$octets[2]                ) ? 'UTF-32LE'
                      : 'unknown';
  
          white(); # remove head white space
  
          my $valid_start = defined $ch; # Is there a first character for JSON structure?
  
          my $result = value();
  
          return undef if ( !$result && ( $opt & 0x10000000 ) ); # for incr_parse
  
          decode_error("malformed JSON string, neither array, object, number, string or atom") unless $valid_start;
  
          if ( !$idx->[ P_ALLOW_NONREF ] and !ref $result ) {
                  decode_error(
                  'JSON text must be an object or array (but found number, string, true, false or null,'
                         . ' use allow_nonref to allow this)', 1);
          }
  
          Carp::croak('something wrong.') if $len < $at; # we won't arrive here.
  
          my $consumed = defined $ch ? $at - 1 : $at; # consumed JSON text length
  
          white(); # remove tail white space
  
          if ( $ch ) {
              return ( $result, $consumed ) if ($opt & 0x00000001); # all right if decode_prefix
              decode_error("garbage after JSON object");
          }
  
          ( $opt & 0x00000001 ) ? ( $result, $consumed ) : $result;
      }
  
  
      sub next_chr {
          return $ch = undef if($at >= $len);
          $ch = substr($text, $at++, 1);
      }
  
  
      sub value {
          white();
          return          if(!defined $ch);
          return object() if($ch eq '{');
          return array()  if($ch eq '[');
          return string() if($ch eq '"' or ($singlequote and $ch eq "'"));
          return number() if($ch =~ /[0-9]/ or $ch eq '-');
          return word();
      }
  
      sub string {
          my ($i, $s, $t, $u);
          my $utf16;
          my $is_utf8;
  
          ($is_valid_utf8, $utf8_len) = ('', 0);
  
          $s = ''; # basically UTF8 flag on
  
          if($ch eq '"' or ($singlequote and $ch eq "'")){
              my $boundChar = $ch;
  
              OUTER: while( defined(next_chr()) ){
  
                  if($ch eq $boundChar){
                      next_chr();
  
                      if ($utf16) {
                          decode_error("missing low surrogate character in surrogate pair");
                      }
  
                      utf8::decode($s) if($is_utf8);
  
                      return $s;
                  }
                  elsif($ch eq '\\'){
                      next_chr();
                      if(exists $escapes{$ch}){
                          $s .= $escapes{$ch};
                      }
                      elsif($ch eq 'u'){ # UNICODE handling
                          my $u = '';
  
                          for(1..4){
                              $ch = next_chr();
                              last OUTER if($ch !~ /[0-9a-fA-F]/);
                              $u .= $ch;
                          }
  
                          # U+D800 - U+DBFF
                          if ($u =~ /^[dD][89abAB][0-9a-fA-F]{2}/) { # UTF-16 high surrogate?
                              $utf16 = $u;
                          }
                          # U+DC00 - U+DFFF
                          elsif ($u =~ /^[dD][c-fC-F][0-9a-fA-F]{2}/) { # UTF-16 low surrogate?
                              unless (defined $utf16) {
                                  decode_error("missing high surrogate character in surrogate pair");
                              }
                              $is_utf8 = 1;
                              $s .= JSON_PP_decode_surrogates($utf16, $u) || next;
                              $utf16 = undef;
                          }
                          else {
                              if (defined $utf16) {
                                  decode_error("surrogate pair expected");
                              }
  
                              if ( ( my $hex = hex( $u ) ) > 127 ) {
                                  $is_utf8 = 1;
                                  $s .= JSON_PP_decode_unicode($u) || next;
                              }
                              else {
                                  $s .= chr $hex;
                              }
                          }
  
                      }
                      else{
                          unless ($loose) {
                              $at -= 2;
                              decode_error('illegal backslash escape sequence in string');
                          }
                          $s .= $ch;
                      }
                  }
                  else{
  
                      if ( ord $ch  > 127 ) {
                          unless( $ch = is_valid_utf8($ch) ) {
                              $at -= 1;
                              decode_error("malformed UTF-8 character in JSON string");
                          }
                          else {
                              $at += $utf8_len - 1;
                          }
  
                          $is_utf8 = 1;
                      }
  
                      if (!$loose) {
                          if ($ch =~ /[\x00-\x1f\x22\x5c]/)  { # '/' ok
                              $at--;
                              decode_error('invalid character encountered while parsing JSON string');
                          }
                      }
  
                      $s .= $ch;
                  }
              }
          }
  
          decode_error("unexpected end of string while parsing JSON string");
      }
  
  
      sub white {
          while( defined $ch  ){
              if($ch le ' '){
                  next_chr();
              }
              elsif($ch eq '/'){
                  next_chr();
                  if(defined $ch and $ch eq '/'){
                      1 while(defined(next_chr()) and $ch ne "\n" and $ch ne "\r");
                  }
                  elsif(defined $ch and $ch eq '*'){
                      next_chr();
                      while(1){
                          if(defined $ch){
                              if($ch eq '*'){
                                  if(defined(next_chr()) and $ch eq '/'){
                                      next_chr();
                                      last;
                                  }
                              }
                              else{
                                  next_chr();
                              }
                          }
                          else{
                              decode_error("Unterminated comment");
                          }
                      }
                      next;
                  }
                  else{
                      $at--;
                      decode_error("malformed JSON string, neither array, object, number, string or atom");
                  }
              }
              else{
                  if ($relaxed and $ch eq '#') { # correctly?
                      pos($text) = $at;
                      $text =~ /\G([^\n]*(?:\r\n|\r|\n|$))/g;
                      $at = pos($text);
                      next_chr;
                      next;
                  }
  
                  last;
              }
          }
      }
  
  
      sub array {
          my $a  = $_[0] || []; # you can use this code to use another array ref object.
  
          decode_error('json text or perl structure exceeds maximum nesting level (max_depth set too low?)')
                                                      if (++$depth > $max_depth);
  
          next_chr();
          white();
  
          if(defined $ch and $ch eq ']'){
              --$depth;
              next_chr();
              return $a;
          }
          else {
              while(defined($ch)){
                  push @$a, value();
  
                  white();
  
                  if (!defined $ch) {
                      last;
                  }
  
                  if($ch eq ']'){
                      --$depth;
                      next_chr();
                      return $a;
                  }
  
                  if($ch ne ','){
                      last;
                  }
  
                  next_chr();
                  white();
  
                  if ($relaxed and $ch eq ']') {
                      --$depth;
                      next_chr();
                      return $a;
                  }
  
              }
          }
  
          decode_error(", or ] expected while parsing array");
      }
  
  
      sub object {
          my $o = $_[0] || {}; # you can use this code to use another hash ref object.
          my $k;
  
          decode_error('json text or perl structure exceeds maximum nesting level (max_depth set too low?)')
                                                  if (++$depth > $max_depth);
          next_chr();
          white();
  
          if(defined $ch and $ch eq '}'){
              --$depth;
              next_chr();
              if ($F_HOOK) {
                  return _json_object_hook($o);
              }
              return $o;
          }
          else {
              while (defined $ch) {
                  $k = ($allow_barekey and $ch ne '"' and $ch ne "'") ? bareKey() : string();
                  white();
  
                  if(!defined $ch or $ch ne ':'){
                      $at--;
                      decode_error("':' expected");
                  }
  
                  next_chr();
                  $o->{$k} = value();
                  white();
  
                  last if (!defined $ch);
  
                  if($ch eq '}'){
                      --$depth;
                      next_chr();
                      if ($F_HOOK) {
                          return _json_object_hook($o);
                      }
                      return $o;
                  }
  
                  if($ch ne ','){
                      last;
                  }
  
                  next_chr();
                  white();
  
                  if ($relaxed and $ch eq '}') {
                      --$depth;
                      next_chr();
                      if ($F_HOOK) {
                          return _json_object_hook($o);
                      }
                      return $o;
                  }
  
              }
  
          }
  
          $at--;
          decode_error(", or } expected while parsing object/hash");
      }
  
  
      sub bareKey { # doesn't strictly follow Standard ECMA-262 3rd Edition
          my $key;
          while($ch =~ /[^\x00-\x23\x25-\x2F\x3A-\x40\x5B-\x5E\x60\x7B-\x7F]/){
              $key .= $ch;
              next_chr();
          }
          return $key;
      }
  
  
      sub word {
          my $word =  substr($text,$at-1,4);
  
          if($word eq 'true'){
              $at += 3;
              next_chr;
              return $JSON::PP::true;
          }
          elsif($word eq 'null'){
              $at += 3;
              next_chr;
              return undef;
          }
          elsif($word eq 'fals'){
              $at += 3;
              if(substr($text,$at,1) eq 'e'){
                  $at++;
                  next_chr;
                  return $JSON::PP::false;
              }
          }
  
          $at--; # for decode_error report
  
          decode_error("'null' expected")  if ($word =~ /^n/);
          decode_error("'true' expected")  if ($word =~ /^t/);
          decode_error("'false' expected") if ($word =~ /^f/);
          decode_error("malformed JSON string, neither array, object, number, string or atom");
      }
  
  
      sub number {
          my $n    = '';
          my $v;
  
          # According to RFC4627, hex or oct digts are invalid.
          if($ch eq '0'){
              my $peek = substr($text,$at,1);
              my $hex  = $peek =~ /[xX]/; # 0 or 1
  
              if($hex){
                  decode_error("malformed number (leading zero must not be followed by another digit)");
                  ($n) = ( substr($text, $at+1) =~ /^([0-9a-fA-F]+)/);
              }
              else{ # oct
                  ($n) = ( substr($text, $at) =~ /^([0-7]+)/);
                  if (defined $n and length $n > 1) {
                      decode_error("malformed number (leading zero must not be followed by another digit)");
                  }
              }
  
              if(defined $n and length($n)){
                  if (!$hex and length($n) == 1) {
                     decode_error("malformed number (leading zero must not be followed by another digit)");
                  }
                  $at += length($n) + $hex;
                  next_chr;
                  return $hex ? hex($n) : oct($n);
              }
          }
  
          if($ch eq '-'){
              $n = '-';
              next_chr;
              if (!defined $ch or $ch !~ /\d/) {
                  decode_error("malformed number (no digits after initial minus)");
              }
          }
  
          while(defined $ch and $ch =~ /\d/){
              $n .= $ch;
              next_chr;
          }
  
          if(defined $ch and $ch eq '.'){
              $n .= '.';
  
              next_chr;
              if (!defined $ch or $ch !~ /\d/) {
                  decode_error("malformed number (no digits after decimal point)");
              }
              else {
                  $n .= $ch;
              }
  
              while(defined(next_chr) and $ch =~ /\d/){
                  $n .= $ch;
              }
          }
  
          if(defined $ch and ($ch eq 'e' or $ch eq 'E')){
              $n .= $ch;
              next_chr;
  
              if(defined($ch) and ($ch eq '+' or $ch eq '-')){
                  $n .= $ch;
                  next_chr;
                  if (!defined $ch or $ch =~ /\D/) {
                      decode_error("malformed number (no digits after exp sign)");
                  }
                  $n .= $ch;
              }
              elsif(defined($ch) and $ch =~ /\d/){
                  $n .= $ch;
              }
              else {
                  decode_error("malformed number (no digits after exp sign)");
              }
  
              while(defined(next_chr) and $ch =~ /\d/){
                  $n .= $ch;
              }
  
          }
  
          $v .= $n;
  
          if ($v !~ /[.eE]/ and length $v > $max_intsize) {
              if ($allow_bigint) { # from Adam Sussman
                  require Math::BigInt;
                  return Math::BigInt->new($v);
              }
              else {
                  return "$v";
              }
          }
          elsif ($allow_bigint) {
              require Math::BigFloat;
              return Math::BigFloat->new($v);
          }
  
          return 0+$v;
      }
  
  
      sub is_valid_utf8 {
  
          $utf8_len = $_[0] =~ /[\x00-\x7F]/  ? 1
                    : $_[0] =~ /[\xC2-\xDF]/  ? 2
                    : $_[0] =~ /[\xE0-\xEF]/  ? 3
                    : $_[0] =~ /[\xF0-\xF4]/  ? 4
                    : 0
                    ;
  
          return unless $utf8_len;
  
          my $is_valid_utf8 = substr($text, $at - 1, $utf8_len);
  
          return ( $is_valid_utf8 =~ /^(?:
               [\x00-\x7F]
              |[\xC2-\xDF][\x80-\xBF]
              |[\xE0][\xA0-\xBF][\x80-\xBF]
              |[\xE1-\xEC][\x80-\xBF][\x80-\xBF]
              |[\xED][\x80-\x9F][\x80-\xBF]
              |[\xEE-\xEF][\x80-\xBF][\x80-\xBF]
              |[\xF0][\x90-\xBF][\x80-\xBF][\x80-\xBF]
              |[\xF1-\xF3][\x80-\xBF][\x80-\xBF][\x80-\xBF]
              |[\xF4][\x80-\x8F][\x80-\xBF][\x80-\xBF]
          )$/x )  ? $is_valid_utf8 : '';
      }
  
  
      sub decode_error {
          my $error  = shift;
          my $no_rep = shift;
          my $str    = defined $text ? substr($text, $at) : '';
          my $mess   = '';
          my $type   = $] >= 5.008           ? 'U*'
                     : $] <  5.006           ? 'C*'
                     : utf8::is_utf8( $str ) ? 'U*' # 5.6
                     : 'C*'
                     ;
  
          for my $c ( unpack( $type, $str ) ) { # emulate pv_uni_display() ?
              $mess .=  $c == 0x07 ? '\a'
                      : $c == 0x09 ? '\t'
                      : $c == 0x0a ? '\n'
                      : $c == 0x0d ? '\r'
                      : $c == 0x0c ? '\f'
                      : $c <  0x20 ? sprintf('\x{%x}', $c)
                      : $c == 0x5c ? '\\\\'
                      : $c <  0x80 ? chr($c)
                      : sprintf('\x{%x}', $c)
                      ;
              if ( length $mess >= 20 ) {
                  $mess .= '...';
                  last;
              }
          }
  
          unless ( length $mess ) {
              $mess = '(end of string)';
          }
  
          Carp::croak (
              $no_rep ? "$error" : "$error, at character offset $at (before \"$mess\")"
          );
  
      }
  
  
      sub _json_object_hook {
          my $o    = $_[0];
          my @ks = keys %{$o};
  
          if ( $cb_sk_object and @ks == 1 and exists $cb_sk_object->{ $ks[0] } and ref $cb_sk_object->{ $ks[0] } ) {
              my @val = $cb_sk_object->{ $ks[0] }->( $o->{$ks[0]} );
              if (@val == 1) {
                  return $val[0];
              }
          }
  
          my @val = $cb_object->($o) if ($cb_object);
          if (@val == 0 or @val > 1) {
              return $o;
          }
          else {
              return $val[0];
          }
      }
  
  
      sub PP_decode_box {
          {
              text    => $text,
              at      => $at,
              ch      => $ch,
              len     => $len,
              depth   => $depth,
              encoding      => $encoding,
              is_valid_utf8 => $is_valid_utf8,
          };
      }
  
  } # PARSE
  
  
  sub _decode_surrogates { # from perlunicode
      my $uni = 0x10000 + (hex($_[0]) - 0xD800) * 0x400 + (hex($_[1]) - 0xDC00);
      my $un  = pack('U*', $uni);
      utf8::encode( $un );
      return $un;
  }
  
  
  sub _decode_unicode {
      my $un = pack('U', hex shift);
      utf8::encode( $un );
      return $un;
  }
  
  #
  # Setup for various Perl versions (the code from JSON::PP58)
  #
  
  BEGIN {
  
      unless ( defined &utf8::is_utf8 ) {
         require Encode;
         *utf8::is_utf8 = *Encode::is_utf8;
      }
  
      if ( $] >= 5.008 ) {
          *JSON::PP::JSON_PP_encode_ascii      = \&_encode_ascii;
          *JSON::PP::JSON_PP_encode_latin1     = \&_encode_latin1;
          *JSON::PP::JSON_PP_decode_surrogates = \&_decode_surrogates;
          *JSON::PP::JSON_PP_decode_unicode    = \&_decode_unicode;
      }
  
      if ($] >= 5.008 and $] < 5.008003) { # join() in 5.8.0 - 5.8.2 is broken.
          package JSON::PP;
          require subs;
          subs->import('join');
          eval q|
              sub join {
                  return '' if (@_ < 2);
                  my $j   = shift;
                  my $str = shift;
                  for (@_) { $str .= $j . $_; }
                  return $str;
              }
          |;
      }
  
  
      sub JSON::PP::incr_parse {
          local $Carp::CarpLevel = 1;
          ( $_[0]->{_incr_parser} ||= JSON::PP::IncrParser->new )->incr_parse( @_ );
      }
  
  
      sub JSON::PP::incr_skip {
          ( $_[0]->{_incr_parser} ||= JSON::PP::IncrParser->new )->incr_skip;
      }
  
  
      sub JSON::PP::incr_reset {
          ( $_[0]->{_incr_parser} ||= JSON::PP::IncrParser->new )->incr_reset;
      }
  
      eval q{
          sub JSON::PP::incr_text : lvalue {
              $_[0]->{_incr_parser} ||= JSON::PP::IncrParser->new;
  
              if ( $_[0]->{_incr_parser}->{incr_parsing} ) {
                  Carp::croak("incr_text can not be called when the incremental parser already started parsing");
              }
              $_[0]->{_incr_parser}->{incr_text};
          }
      } if ( $] >= 5.006 );
  
  } # Setup for various Perl versions (the code from JSON::PP58)
  
  
  ###############################
  # Utilities
  #
  
  BEGIN {
      eval 'require Scalar::Util';
      unless($@){
          *JSON::PP::blessed = \&Scalar::Util::blessed;
          *JSON::PP::reftype = \&Scalar::Util::reftype;
          *JSON::PP::refaddr = \&Scalar::Util::refaddr;
      }
      else{ # This code is from Sclar::Util.
          # warn $@;
          eval 'sub UNIVERSAL::a_sub_not_likely_to_be_here { ref($_[0]) }';
          *JSON::PP::blessed = sub {
              local($@, $SIG{__DIE__}, $SIG{__WARN__});
              ref($_[0]) ? eval { $_[0]->a_sub_not_likely_to_be_here } : undef;
          };
          my %tmap = qw(
              B::NULL   SCALAR
              B::HV     HASH
              B::AV     ARRAY
              B::CV     CODE
              B::IO     IO
              B::GV     GLOB
              B::REGEXP REGEXP
          );
          *JSON::PP::reftype = sub {
              my $r = shift;
  
              return undef unless length(ref($r));
  
              my $t = ref(B::svref_2object($r));
  
              return
                  exists $tmap{$t} ? $tmap{$t}
                : length(ref($$r)) ? 'REF'
                :                    'SCALAR';
          };
          *JSON::PP::refaddr = sub {
            return undef unless length(ref($_[0]));
  
            my $addr;
            if(defined(my $pkg = blessed($_[0]))) {
              $addr .= bless $_[0], 'Scalar::Util::Fake';
              bless $_[0], $pkg;
            }
            else {
              $addr .= $_[0]
            }
  
            $addr =~ /0x(\w+)/;
            local $^W;
            #no warnings 'portable';
            hex($1);
          }
      }
  }
  
  
  # shamely copied and modified from JSON::XS code.
  
  $JSON::PP::true  = do { bless \(my $dummy = 1), "JSON::PP::Boolean" };
  $JSON::PP::false = do { bless \(my $dummy = 0), "JSON::PP::Boolean" };
  
  sub is_bool { defined $_[0] and UNIVERSAL::isa($_[0], "JSON::PP::Boolean"); }
  
  sub true  { $JSON::PP::true  }
  sub false { $JSON::PP::false }
  sub null  { undef; }
  
  ###############################
  
  package JSON::PP::Boolean;
  
  use overload (
     "0+"     => sub { ${$_[0]} },
     "++"     => sub { $_[0] = ${$_[0]} + 1 },
     "--"     => sub { $_[0] = ${$_[0]} - 1 },
     fallback => 1,
  );
  
  
  ###############################
  
  package JSON::PP::IncrParser;
  
  use strict;
  
  use constant INCR_M_WS   => 0; # initial whitespace skipping
  use constant INCR_M_STR  => 1; # inside string
  use constant INCR_M_BS   => 2; # inside backslash
  use constant INCR_M_JSON => 3; # outside anything, count nesting
  use constant INCR_M_C0   => 4;
  use constant INCR_M_C1   => 5;
  
  $JSON::PP::IncrParser::VERSION = '1.01';
  
  my $unpack_format = $] < 5.006 ? 'C*' : 'U*';
  
  sub new {
      my ( $class ) = @_;
  
      bless {
          incr_nest    => 0,
          incr_text    => undef,
          incr_parsing => 0,
          incr_p       => 0,
      }, $class;
  }
  
  
  sub incr_parse {
      my ( $self, $coder, $text ) = @_;
  
      $self->{incr_text} = '' unless ( defined $self->{incr_text} );
  
      if ( defined $text ) {
          if ( utf8::is_utf8( $text ) and !utf8::is_utf8( $self->{incr_text} ) ) {
              utf8::upgrade( $self->{incr_text} ) ;
              utf8::decode( $self->{incr_text} ) ;
          }
          $self->{incr_text} .= $text;
      }
  
  
      my $max_size = $coder->get_max_size;
  
      if ( defined wantarray ) {
  
          $self->{incr_mode} = INCR_M_WS unless defined $self->{incr_mode};
  
          if ( wantarray ) {
              my @ret;
  
              $self->{incr_parsing} = 1;
  
              do {
                  push @ret, $self->_incr_parse( $coder, $self->{incr_text} );
  
                  unless ( !$self->{incr_nest} and $self->{incr_mode} == INCR_M_JSON ) {
                      $self->{incr_mode} = INCR_M_WS if $self->{incr_mode} != INCR_M_STR;
                  }
  
              } until ( length $self->{incr_text} >= $self->{incr_p} );
  
              $self->{incr_parsing} = 0;
  
              return @ret;
          }
          else { # in scalar context
              $self->{incr_parsing} = 1;
              my $obj = $self->_incr_parse( $coder, $self->{incr_text} );
              $self->{incr_parsing} = 0 if defined $obj; # pointed by Martin J. Evans
              return $obj ? $obj : undef; # $obj is an empty string, parsing was completed.
          }
  
      }
  
  }
  
  
  sub _incr_parse {
      my ( $self, $coder, $text, $skip ) = @_;
      my $p = $self->{incr_p};
      my $restore = $p;
  
      my @obj;
      my $len = length $text;
  
      if ( $self->{incr_mode} == INCR_M_WS ) {
          while ( $len > $p ) {
              my $s = substr( $text, $p, 1 );
              $p++ and next if ( 0x20 >= unpack($unpack_format, $s) );
              $self->{incr_mode} = INCR_M_JSON;
              last;
         }
      }
  
      while ( $len > $p ) {
          my $s = substr( $text, $p++, 1 );
  
          if ( $s eq '"' ) {
              if (substr( $text, $p - 2, 1 ) eq '\\' ) {
                  next;
              }
  
              if ( $self->{incr_mode} != INCR_M_STR  ) {
                  $self->{incr_mode} = INCR_M_STR;
              }
              else {
                  $self->{incr_mode} = INCR_M_JSON;
                  unless ( $self->{incr_nest} ) {
                      last;
                  }
              }
          }
  
          if ( $self->{incr_mode} == INCR_M_JSON ) {
  
              if ( $s eq '[' or $s eq '{' ) {
                  if ( ++$self->{incr_nest} > $coder->get_max_depth ) {
                      Carp::croak('json text or perl structure exceeds maximum nesting level (max_depth set too low?)');
                  }
              }
              elsif ( $s eq ']' or $s eq '}' ) {
                  last if ( --$self->{incr_nest} <= 0 );
              }
              elsif ( $s eq '#' ) {
                  while ( $len > $p ) {
                      last if substr( $text, $p++, 1 ) eq "\n";
                  }
              }
  
          }
  
      }
  
      $self->{incr_p} = $p;
  
      return if ( $self->{incr_mode} == INCR_M_STR and not $self->{incr_nest} );
      return if ( $self->{incr_mode} == INCR_M_JSON and $self->{incr_nest} > 0 );
  
      return '' unless ( length substr( $self->{incr_text}, 0, $p ) );
  
      local $Carp::CarpLevel = 2;
  
      $self->{incr_p} = $restore;
      $self->{incr_c} = $p;
  
      my ( $obj, $tail ) = $coder->PP_decode_json( substr( $self->{incr_text}, 0, $p ), 0x10000001 );
  
      $self->{incr_text} = substr( $self->{incr_text}, $p );
      $self->{incr_p} = 0;
  
      return $obj || '';
  }
  
  
  sub incr_text {
      if ( $_[0]->{incr_parsing} ) {
          Carp::croak("incr_text can not be called when the incremental parser already started parsing");
      }
      $_[0]->{incr_text};
  }
  
  
  sub incr_skip {
      my $self  = shift;
      $self->{incr_text} = substr( $self->{incr_text}, $self->{incr_c} );
      $self->{incr_p} = 0;
  }
  
  
  sub incr_reset {
      my $self = shift;
      $self->{incr_text}    = undef;
      $self->{incr_p}       = 0;
      $self->{incr_mode}    = 0;
      $self->{incr_nest}    = 0;
      $self->{incr_parsing} = 0;
  }
  
  ###############################
  
  
  1;
  __END__
  =pod
  
  =head1 NAME
  
  JSON::PP - JSON::XS compatible pure-Perl module.
  
  =head1 SYNOPSIS
  
   use JSON::PP;
  
   # exported functions, they croak on error
   # and expect/generate UTF-8
  
   $utf8_encoded_json_text = encode_json $perl_hash_or_arrayref;
   $perl_hash_or_arrayref  = decode_json $utf8_encoded_json_text;
  
   # OO-interface
  
   $coder = JSON::PP->new->ascii->pretty->allow_nonref;
   
   $json_text   = $json->encode( $perl_scalar );
   $perl_scalar = $json->decode( $json_text );
   
   $pretty_printed = $json->pretty->encode( $perl_scalar ); # pretty-printing
   
   # Note that JSON version 2.0 and above will automatically use
   # JSON::XS or JSON::PP, so you should be able to just:
   
   use JSON;
  
  
  =head1 VERSION
  
      2.27300
  
  L<JSON::XS> 2.27 (~2.30) compatible.
  
  =head1 NOTE
  
  JSON::PP had been inculded in JSON distribution (CPAN module).
  It was a perl core module in Perl 5.14.
  
  =head1 DESCRIPTION
  
  This module is L<JSON::XS> compatible pure Perl module.
  (Perl 5.8 or later is recommended)
  
  JSON::XS is the fastest and most proper JSON module on CPAN.
  It is written by Marc Lehmann in C, so must be compiled and
  installed in the used environment.
  
  JSON::PP is a pure-Perl module and has compatibility to JSON::XS.
  
  
  =head2 FEATURES
  
  =over
  
  =item * correct unicode handling
  
  This module knows how to handle Unicode (depending on Perl version).
  
  See to L<JSON::XS/A FEW NOTES ON UNICODE AND PERL> and L<UNICODE HANDLING ON PERLS>.
  
  
  =item * round-trip integrity
  
  When you serialise a perl data structure using only data types supported
  by JSON and Perl, the deserialised data structure is identical on the Perl
  level. (e.g. the string "2.0" doesn't suddenly become "2" just because
  it looks like a number). There I<are> minor exceptions to this, read the
  MAPPING section below to learn about those.
  
  
  =item * strict checking of JSON correctness
  
  There is no guessing, no generating of illegal JSON texts by default,
  and only JSON is accepted as input by default (the latter is a security feature).
  But when some options are set, loose chcking features are available.
  
  =back
  
  =head1 FUNCTIONAL INTERFACE
  
  Some documents are copied and modified from L<JSON::XS/FUNCTIONAL INTERFACE>.
  
  =head2 encode_json
  
      $json_text = encode_json $perl_scalar
  
  Converts the given Perl data structure to a UTF-8 encoded, binary string.
  
  This function call is functionally identical to:
  
      $json_text = JSON::PP->new->utf8->encode($perl_scalar)
  
  =head2 decode_json
  
      $perl_scalar = decode_json $json_text
  
  The opposite of C<encode_json>: expects an UTF-8 (binary) string and tries
  to parse that as an UTF-8 encoded JSON text, returning the resulting
  reference.
  
  This function call is functionally identical to:
  
      $perl_scalar = JSON::PP->new->utf8->decode($json_text)
  
  =head2 JSON::PP::is_bool
  
      $is_boolean = JSON::PP::is_bool($scalar)
  
  Returns true if the passed scalar represents either JSON::PP::true or
  JSON::PP::false, two constants that act like C<1> and C<0> respectively
  and are also used to represent JSON C<true> and C<false> in Perl strings.
  
  =head2 JSON::PP::true
  
  Returns JSON true value which is blessed object.
  It C<isa> JSON::PP::Boolean object.
  
  =head2 JSON::PP::false
  
  Returns JSON false value which is blessed object.
  It C<isa> JSON::PP::Boolean object.
  
  =head2 JSON::PP::null
  
  Returns C<undef>.
  
  See L<MAPPING>, below, for more information on how JSON values are mapped to
  Perl.
  
  
  =head1 HOW DO I DECODE A DATA FROM OUTER AND ENCODE TO OUTER
  
  This section supposes that your perl vresion is 5.8 or later.
  
  If you know a JSON text from an outer world - a network, a file content, and so on,
  is encoded in UTF-8, you should use C<decode_json> or C<JSON> module object
  with C<utf8> enable. And the decoded result will contain UNICODE characters.
  
    # from network
    my $json        = JSON::PP->new->utf8;
    my $json_text   = CGI->new->param( 'json_data' );
    my $perl_scalar = $json->decode( $json_text );
    
    # from file content
    local $/;
    open( my $fh, '<', 'json.data' );
    $json_text   = <$fh>;
    $perl_scalar = decode_json( $json_text );
  
  If an outer data is not encoded in UTF-8, firstly you should C<decode> it.
  
    use Encode;
    local $/;
    open( my $fh, '<', 'json.data' );
    my $encoding = 'cp932';
    my $unicode_json_text = decode( $encoding, <$fh> ); # UNICODE
    
    # or you can write the below code.
    #
    # open( my $fh, "<:encoding($encoding)", 'json.data' );
    # $unicode_json_text = <$fh>;
  
  In this case, C<$unicode_json_text> is of course UNICODE string.
  So you B<cannot> use C<decode_json> nor C<JSON> module object with C<utf8> enable.
  Instead of them, you use C<JSON> module object with C<utf8> disable.
  
    $perl_scalar = $json->utf8(0)->decode( $unicode_json_text );
  
  Or C<encode 'utf8'> and C<decode_json>:
  
    $perl_scalar = decode_json( encode( 'utf8', $unicode_json_text ) );
    # this way is not efficient.
  
  And now, you want to convert your C<$perl_scalar> into JSON data and
  send it to an outer world - a network or a file content, and so on.
  
  Your data usually contains UNICODE strings and you want the converted data to be encoded
  in UTF-8, you should use C<encode_json> or C<JSON> module object with C<utf8> enable.
  
    print encode_json( $perl_scalar ); # to a network? file? or display?
    # or
    print $json->utf8->encode( $perl_scalar );
  
  If C<$perl_scalar> does not contain UNICODE but C<$encoding>-encoded strings
  for some reason, then its characters are regarded as B<latin1> for perl
  (because it does not concern with your $encoding).
  You B<cannot> use C<encode_json> nor C<JSON> module object with C<utf8> enable.
  Instead of them, you use C<JSON> module object with C<utf8> disable.
  Note that the resulted text is a UNICODE string but no problem to print it.
  
    # $perl_scalar contains $encoding encoded string values
    $unicode_json_text = $json->utf8(0)->encode( $perl_scalar );
    # $unicode_json_text consists of characters less than 0x100
    print $unicode_json_text;
  
  Or C<decode $encoding> all string values and C<encode_json>:
  
    $perl_scalar->{ foo } = decode( $encoding, $perl_scalar->{ foo } );
    # ... do it to each string values, then encode_json
    $json_text = encode_json( $perl_scalar );
  
  This method is a proper way but probably not efficient.
  
  See to L<Encode>, L<perluniintro>.
  
  
  =head1 METHODS
  
  Basically, check to L<JSON> or L<JSON::XS>.
  
  =head2 new
  
      $json = JSON::PP->new
  
  Rturns a new JSON::PP object that can be used to de/encode JSON
  strings.
  
  All boolean flags described below are by default I<disabled>.
  
  The mutators for flags all return the JSON object again and thus calls can
  be chained:
  
     my $json = JSON::PP->new->utf8->space_after->encode({a => [1,2]})
     => {"a": [1, 2]}
  
  =head2 ascii
  
      $json = $json->ascii([$enable])
      
      $enabled = $json->get_ascii
  
  If $enable is true (or missing), then the encode method will not generate characters outside
  the code range 0..127. Any Unicode characters outside that range will be escaped using either
  a single \uXXXX or a double \uHHHH\uLLLLL escape sequence, as per RFC4627.
  (See to L<JSON::XS/OBJECT-ORIENTED INTERFACE>).
  
  In Perl 5.005, there is no character having high value (more than 255).
  See to L<UNICODE HANDLING ON PERLS>.
  
  If $enable is false, then the encode method will not escape Unicode characters unless
  required by the JSON syntax or other flags. This results in a faster and more compact format.
  
    JSON::PP->new->ascii(1)->encode([chr 0x10401])
    => ["\ud801\udc01"]
  
  =head2 latin1
  
      $json = $json->latin1([$enable])
      
      $enabled = $json->get_latin1
  
  If $enable is true (or missing), then the encode method will encode the resulting JSON
  text as latin1 (or iso-8859-1), escaping any characters outside the code range 0..255.
  
  If $enable is false, then the encode method will not escape Unicode characters
  unless required by the JSON syntax or other flags.
  
    JSON::XS->new->latin1->encode (["\x{89}\x{abc}"]
    => ["\x{89}\\u0abc"]    # (perl syntax, U+abc escaped, U+89 not)
  
  See to L<UNICODE HANDLING ON PERLS>.
  
  =head2 utf8
  
      $json = $json->utf8([$enable])
      
      $enabled = $json->get_utf8
  
  If $enable is true (or missing), then the encode method will encode the JSON result
  into UTF-8, as required by many protocols, while the decode method expects to be handled
  an UTF-8-encoded string. Please note that UTF-8-encoded strings do not contain any
  characters outside the range 0..255, they are thus useful for bytewise/binary I/O.
  
  (In Perl 5.005, any character outside the range 0..255 does not exist.
  See to L<UNICODE HANDLING ON PERLS>.)
  
  In future versions, enabling this option might enable autodetection of the UTF-16 and UTF-32
  encoding families, as described in RFC4627.
  
  If $enable is false, then the encode method will return the JSON string as a (non-encoded)
  Unicode string, while decode expects thus a Unicode string. Any decoding or encoding
  (e.g. to UTF-8 or UTF-16) needs to be done yourself, e.g. using the Encode module.
  
  Example, output UTF-16BE-encoded JSON:
  
    use Encode;
    $jsontext = encode "UTF-16BE", JSON::PP->new->encode ($object);
  
  Example, decode UTF-32LE-encoded JSON:
  
    use Encode;
    $object = JSON::PP->new->decode (decode "UTF-32LE", $jsontext);
  
  
  =head2 pretty
  
      $json = $json->pretty([$enable])
  
  This enables (or disables) all of the C<indent>, C<space_before> and
  C<space_after> flags in one call to generate the most readable
  (or most compact) form possible.
  
  Equivalent to:
  
     $json->indent->space_before->space_after
  
  =head2 indent
  
      $json = $json->indent([$enable])
      
      $enabled = $json->get_indent
  
  The default indent space length is three.
  You can use C<indent_length> to change the length.
  
  =head2 space_before
  
      $json = $json->space_before([$enable])
      
      $enabled = $json->get_space_before
  
  If C<$enable> is true (or missing), then the C<encode> method will add an extra
  optional space before the C<:> separating keys from values in JSON objects.
  
  If C<$enable> is false, then the C<encode> method will not add any extra
  space at those places.
  
  This setting has no effect when decoding JSON texts.
  
  Example, space_before enabled, space_after and indent disabled:
  
     {"key" :"value"}
  
  =head2 space_after
  
      $json = $json->space_after([$enable])
      
      $enabled = $json->get_space_after
  
  If C<$enable> is true (or missing), then the C<encode> method will add an extra
  optional space after the C<:> separating keys from values in JSON objects
  and extra whitespace after the C<,> separating key-value pairs and array
  members.
  
  If C<$enable> is false, then the C<encode> method will not add any extra
  space at those places.
  
  This setting has no effect when decoding JSON texts.
  
  Example, space_before and indent disabled, space_after enabled:
  
     {"key": "value"}
  
  =head2 relaxed
  
      $json = $json->relaxed([$enable])
      
      $enabled = $json->get_relaxed
  
  If C<$enable> is true (or missing), then C<decode> will accept some
  extensions to normal JSON syntax (see below). C<encode> will not be
  affected in anyway. I<Be aware that this option makes you accept invalid
  JSON texts as if they were valid!>. I suggest only to use this option to
  parse application-specific files written by humans (configuration files,
  resource files etc.)
  
  If C<$enable> is false (the default), then C<decode> will only accept
  valid JSON texts.
  
  Currently accepted extensions are:
  
  =over 4
  
  =item * list items can have an end-comma
  
  JSON I<separates> array elements and key-value pairs with commas. This
  can be annoying if you write JSON texts manually and want to be able to
  quickly append elements, so this extension accepts comma at the end of
  such items not just between them:
  
     [
        1,
        2, <- this comma not normally allowed
     ]
     {
        "k1": "v1",
        "k2": "v2", <- this comma not normally allowed
     }
  
  =item * shell-style '#'-comments
  
  Whenever JSON allows whitespace, shell-style comments are additionally
  allowed. They are terminated by the first carriage-return or line-feed
  character, after which more white-space and comments are allowed.
  
    [
       1, # this comment not allowed in JSON
          # neither this one...
    ]
  
  =back
  
  =head2 canonical
  
      $json = $json->canonical([$enable])
      
      $enabled = $json->get_canonical
  
  If C<$enable> is true (or missing), then the C<encode> method will output JSON objects
  by sorting their keys. This is adding a comparatively high overhead.
  
  If C<$enable> is false, then the C<encode> method will output key-value
  pairs in the order Perl stores them (which will likely change between runs
  of the same script).
  
  This option is useful if you want the same data structure to be encoded as
  the same JSON text (given the same overall settings). If it is disabled,
  the same hash might be encoded differently even if contains the same data,
  as key-value pairs have no inherent ordering in Perl.
  
  This setting has no effect when decoding JSON texts.
  
  If you want your own sorting routine, you can give a code referece
  or a subroutine name to C<sort_by>. See to C<JSON::PP OWN METHODS>.
  
  =head2 allow_nonref
  
      $json = $json->allow_nonref([$enable])
      
      $enabled = $json->get_allow_nonref
  
  If C<$enable> is true (or missing), then the C<encode> method can convert a
  non-reference into its corresponding string, number or null JSON value,
  which is an extension to RFC4627. Likewise, C<decode> will accept those JSON
  values instead of croaking.
  
  If C<$enable> is false, then the C<encode> method will croak if it isn't
  passed an arrayref or hashref, as JSON texts must either be an object
  or array. Likewise, C<decode> will croak if given something that is not a
  JSON object or array.
  
     JSON::PP->new->allow_nonref->encode ("Hello, World!")
     => "Hello, World!"
  
  =head2 allow_unknown
  
      $json = $json->allow_unknown ([$enable])
      
      $enabled = $json->get_allow_unknown
  
  If $enable is true (or missing), then "encode" will *not* throw an
  exception when it encounters values it cannot represent in JSON (for
  example, filehandles) but instead will encode a JSON "null" value.
  Note that blessed objects are not included here and are handled
  separately by c<allow_nonref>.
  
  If $enable is false (the default), then "encode" will throw an
  exception when it encounters anything it cannot encode as JSON.
  
  This option does not affect "decode" in any way, and it is
  recommended to leave it off unless you know your communications
  partner.
  
  =head2 allow_blessed
  
      $json = $json->allow_blessed([$enable])
      
      $enabled = $json->get_allow_blessed
  
  If C<$enable> is true (or missing), then the C<encode> method will not
  barf when it encounters a blessed reference. Instead, the value of the
  B<convert_blessed> option will decide whether C<null> (C<convert_blessed>
  disabled or no C<TO_JSON> method found) or a representation of the
  object (C<convert_blessed> enabled and C<TO_JSON> method found) is being
  encoded. Has no effect on C<decode>.
  
  If C<$enable> is false (the default), then C<encode> will throw an
  exception when it encounters a blessed object.
  
  =head2 convert_blessed
  
      $json = $json->convert_blessed([$enable])
      
      $enabled = $json->get_convert_blessed
  
  If C<$enable> is true (or missing), then C<encode>, upon encountering a
  blessed object, will check for the availability of the C<TO_JSON> method
  on the object's class. If found, it will be called in scalar context
  and the resulting scalar will be encoded instead of the object. If no
  C<TO_JSON> method is found, the value of C<allow_blessed> will decide what
  to do.
  
  The C<TO_JSON> method may safely call die if it wants. If C<TO_JSON>
  returns other blessed objects, those will be handled in the same
  way. C<TO_JSON> must take care of not causing an endless recursion cycle
  (== crash) in this case. The name of C<TO_JSON> was chosen because other
  methods called by the Perl core (== not by the user of the object) are
  usually in upper case letters and to avoid collisions with the C<to_json>
  function or method.
  
  This setting does not yet influence C<decode> in any way.
  
  If C<$enable> is false, then the C<allow_blessed> setting will decide what
  to do when a blessed object is found.
  
  =head2 filter_json_object
  
      $json = $json->filter_json_object([$coderef])
  
  When C<$coderef> is specified, it will be called from C<decode> each
  time it decodes a JSON object. The only argument passed to the coderef
  is a reference to the newly-created hash. If the code references returns
  a single scalar (which need not be a reference), this value
  (i.e. a copy of that scalar to avoid aliasing) is inserted into the
  deserialised data structure. If it returns an empty list
  (NOTE: I<not> C<undef>, which is a valid scalar), the original deserialised
  hash will be inserted. This setting can slow down decoding considerably.
  
  When C<$coderef> is omitted or undefined, any existing callback will
  be removed and C<decode> will not change the deserialised hash in any
  way.
  
  Example, convert all JSON objects into the integer 5:
  
     my $js = JSON::PP->new->filter_json_object (sub { 5 });
     # returns [5]
     $js->decode ('[{}]'); # the given subroutine takes a hash reference.
     # throw an exception because allow_nonref is not enabled
     # so a lone 5 is not allowed.
     $js->decode ('{"a":1, "b":2}');
  
  =head2 filter_json_single_key_object
  
      $json = $json->filter_json_single_key_object($key [=> $coderef])
  
  Works remotely similar to C<filter_json_object>, but is only called for
  JSON objects having a single key named C<$key>.
  
  This C<$coderef> is called before the one specified via
  C<filter_json_object>, if any. It gets passed the single value in the JSON
  object. If it returns a single value, it will be inserted into the data
  structure. If it returns nothing (not even C<undef> but the empty list),
  the callback from C<filter_json_object> will be called next, as if no
  single-key callback were specified.
  
  If C<$coderef> is omitted or undefined, the corresponding callback will be
  disabled. There can only ever be one callback for a given key.
  
  As this callback gets called less often then the C<filter_json_object>
  one, decoding speed will not usually suffer as much. Therefore, single-key
  objects make excellent targets to serialise Perl objects into, especially
  as single-key JSON objects are as close to the type-tagged value concept
  as JSON gets (it's basically an ID/VALUE tuple). Of course, JSON does not
  support this in any way, so you need to make sure your data never looks
  like a serialised Perl hash.
  
  Typical names for the single object key are C<__class_whatever__>, or
  C<$__dollars_are_rarely_used__$> or C<}ugly_brace_placement>, or even
  things like C<__class_md5sum(classname)__>, to reduce the risk of clashing
  with real hashes.
  
  Example, decode JSON objects of the form C<< { "__widget__" => <id> } >>
  into the corresponding C<< $WIDGET{<id>} >> object:
  
     # return whatever is in $WIDGET{5}:
     JSON::PP
        ->new
        ->filter_json_single_key_object (__widget__ => sub {
              $WIDGET{ $_[0] }
           })
        ->decode ('{"__widget__": 5')
  
     # this can be used with a TO_JSON method in some "widget" class
     # for serialisation to json:
     sub WidgetBase::TO_JSON {
        my ($self) = @_;
  
        unless ($self->{id}) {
           $self->{id} = ..get..some..id..;
           $WIDGET{$self->{id}} = $self;
        }
  
        { __widget__ => $self->{id} }
     }
  
  =head2 shrink
  
      $json = $json->shrink([$enable])
      
      $enabled = $json->get_shrink
  
  In JSON::XS, this flag resizes strings generated by either
  C<encode> or C<decode> to their minimum size possible.
  It will also try to downgrade any strings to octet-form if possible.
  
  In JSON::PP, it is noop about resizing strings but tries
  C<utf8::downgrade> to the returned string by C<encode>.
  See to L<utf8>.
  
  See to L<JSON::XS/OBJECT-ORIENTED INTERFACE>
  
  =head2 max_depth
  
      $json = $json->max_depth([$maximum_nesting_depth])
      
      $max_depth = $json->get_max_depth
  
  Sets the maximum nesting level (default C<512>) accepted while encoding
  or decoding. If a higher nesting level is detected in JSON text or a Perl
  data structure, then the encoder and decoder will stop and croak at that
  point.
  
  Nesting level is defined by number of hash- or arrayrefs that the encoder
  needs to traverse to reach a given point or the number of C<{> or C<[>
  characters without their matching closing parenthesis crossed to reach a
  given character in a string.
  
  If no argument is given, the highest possible setting will be used, which
  is rarely useful.
  
  See L<JSON::XS/SSECURITY CONSIDERATIONS> for more info on why this is useful.
  
  When a large value (100 or more) was set and it de/encodes a deep nested object/text,
  it may raise a warning 'Deep recursion on subroutin' at the perl runtime phase.
  
  =head2 max_size
  
      $json = $json->max_size([$maximum_string_size])
      
      $max_size = $json->get_max_size
  
  Set the maximum length a JSON text may have (in bytes) where decoding is
  being attempted. The default is C<0>, meaning no limit. When C<decode>
  is called on a string that is longer then this many bytes, it will not
  attempt to decode the string but throw an exception. This setting has no
  effect on C<encode> (yet).
  
  If no argument is given, the limit check will be deactivated (same as when
  C<0> is specified).
  
  See L<JSON::XS/SSECURITY CONSIDERATIONS> for more info on why this is useful.
  
  =head2 encode
  
      $json_text = $json->encode($perl_scalar)
  
  Converts the given Perl data structure (a simple scalar or a reference
  to a hash or array) to its JSON representation. Simple scalars will be
  converted into JSON string or number sequences, while references to arrays
  become JSON arrays and references to hashes become JSON objects. Undefined
  Perl values (e.g. C<undef>) become JSON C<null> values.
  References to the integers C<0> and C<1> are converted into C<true> and C<false>.
  
  =head2 decode
  
      $perl_scalar = $json->decode($json_text)
  
  The opposite of C<encode>: expects a JSON text and tries to parse it,
  returning the resulting simple scalar or reference. Croaks on error.
  
  JSON numbers and strings become simple Perl scalars. JSON arrays become
  Perl arrayrefs and JSON objects become Perl hashrefs. C<true> becomes
  C<1> (C<JSON::true>), C<false> becomes C<0> (C<JSON::false>) and
  C<null> becomes C<undef>.
  
  =head2 decode_prefix
  
      ($perl_scalar, $characters) = $json->decode_prefix($json_text)
  
  This works like the C<decode> method, but instead of raising an exception
  when there is trailing garbage after the first JSON object, it will
  silently stop parsing there and return the number of characters consumed
  so far.
  
     JSON->new->decode_prefix ("[1] the tail")
     => ([], 3)
  
  =head1 INCREMENTAL PARSING
  
  Most of this section are copied and modified from L<JSON::XS/INCREMENTAL PARSING>.
  
  In some cases, there is the need for incremental parsing of JSON texts.
  This module does allow you to parse a JSON stream incrementally.
  It does so by accumulating text until it has a full JSON object, which
  it then can decode. This process is similar to using C<decode_prefix>
  to see if a full JSON object is available, but is much more efficient
  (and can be implemented with a minimum of method calls).
  
  This module will only attempt to parse the JSON text once it is sure it
  has enough text to get a decisive result, using a very simple but
  truly incremental parser. This means that it sometimes won't stop as
  early as the full parser, for example, it doesn't detect parenthese
  mismatches. The only thing it guarantees is that it starts decoding as
  soon as a syntactically valid JSON text has been seen. This means you need
  to set resource limits (e.g. C<max_size>) to ensure the parser will stop
  parsing in the presence if syntax errors.
  
  The following methods implement this incremental parser.
  
  =head2 incr_parse
  
      $json->incr_parse( [$string] ) # void context
      
      $obj_or_undef = $json->incr_parse( [$string] ) # scalar context
      
      @obj_or_empty = $json->incr_parse( [$string] ) # list context
  
  This is the central parsing function. It can both append new text and
  extract objects from the stream accumulated so far (both of these
  functions are optional).
  
  If C<$string> is given, then this string is appended to the already
  existing JSON fragment stored in the C<$json> object.
  
  After that, if the function is called in void context, it will simply
  return without doing anything further. This can be used to add more text
  in as many chunks as you want.
  
  If the method is called in scalar context, then it will try to extract
  exactly I<one> JSON object. If that is successful, it will return this
  object, otherwise it will return C<undef>. If there is a parse error,
  this method will croak just as C<decode> would do (one can then use
  C<incr_skip> to skip the errornous part). This is the most common way of
  using the method.
  
  And finally, in list context, it will try to extract as many objects
  from the stream as it can find and return them, or the empty list
  otherwise. For this to work, there must be no separators between the JSON
  objects or arrays, instead they must be concatenated back-to-back. If
  an error occurs, an exception will be raised as in the scalar context
  case. Note that in this case, any previously-parsed JSON texts will be
  lost.
  
  Example: Parse some JSON arrays/objects in a given string and return them.
  
      my @objs = JSON->new->incr_parse ("[5][7][1,2]");
  
  =head2 incr_text
  
      $lvalue_string = $json->incr_text
  
  This method returns the currently stored JSON fragment as an lvalue, that
  is, you can manipulate it. This I<only> works when a preceding call to
  C<incr_parse> in I<scalar context> successfully returned an object. Under
  all other circumstances you must not call this function (I mean it.
  although in simple tests it might actually work, it I<will> fail under
  real world conditions). As a special exception, you can also call this
  method before having parsed anything.
  
  This function is useful in two cases: a) finding the trailing text after a
  JSON object or b) parsing multiple JSON objects separated by non-JSON text
  (such as commas).
  
      $json->incr_text =~ s/\s*,\s*//;
  
  In Perl 5.005, C<lvalue> attribute is not available.
  You must write codes like the below:
  
      $string = $json->incr_text;
      $string =~ s/\s*,\s*//;
      $json->incr_text( $string );
  
  =head2 incr_skip
  
      $json->incr_skip
  
  This will reset the state of the incremental parser and will remove the
  parsed text from the input buffer. This is useful after C<incr_parse>
  died, in which case the input buffer and incremental parser state is left
  unchanged, to skip the text parsed so far and to reset the parse state.
  
  =head2 incr_reset
  
      $json->incr_reset
  
  This completely resets the incremental parser, that is, after this call,
  it will be as if the parser had never parsed anything.
  
  This is useful if you want ot repeatedly parse JSON objects and want to
  ignore any trailing data, which means you have to reset the parser after
  each successful decode.
  
  See to L<JSON::XS/INCREMENTAL PARSING> for examples.
  
  
  =head1 JSON::PP OWN METHODS
  
  =head2 allow_singlequote
  
      $json = $json->allow_singlequote([$enable])
  
  If C<$enable> is true (or missing), then C<decode> will accept
  JSON strings quoted by single quotations that are invalid JSON
  format.
  
      $json->allow_singlequote->decode({"foo":'bar'});
      $json->allow_singlequote->decode({'foo':"bar"});
      $json->allow_singlequote->decode({'foo':'bar'});
  
  As same as the C<relaxed> option, this option may be used to parse
  application-specific files written by humans.
  
  
  =head2 allow_barekey
  
      $json = $json->allow_barekey([$enable])
  
  If C<$enable> is true (or missing), then C<decode> will accept
  bare keys of JSON object that are invalid JSON format.
  
  As same as the C<relaxed> option, this option may be used to parse
  application-specific files written by humans.
  
      $json->allow_barekey->decode('{foo:"bar"}');
  
  =head2 allow_bignum
  
      $json = $json->allow_bignum([$enable])
  
  If C<$enable> is true (or missing), then C<decode> will convert
  the big integer Perl cannot handle as integer into a L<Math::BigInt>
  object and convert a floating number (any) into a L<Math::BigFloat>.
  
  On the contary, C<encode> converts C<Math::BigInt> objects and C<Math::BigFloat>
  objects into JSON numbers with C<allow_blessed> enable.
  
     $json->allow_nonref->allow_blessed->allow_bignum;
     $bigfloat = $json->decode('2.000000000000000000000000001');
     print $json->encode($bigfloat);
     # => 2.000000000000000000000000001
  
  See to L<JSON::XS/MAPPING> aboout the normal conversion of JSON number.
  
  =head2 loose
  
      $json = $json->loose([$enable])
  
  The unescaped [\x00-\x1f\x22\x2f\x5c] strings are invalid in JSON strings
  and the module doesn't allow to C<decode> to these (except for \x2f).
  If C<$enable> is true (or missing), then C<decode>  will accept these
  unescaped strings.
  
      $json->loose->decode(qq|["abc
                                     def"]|);
  
  See L<JSON::XS/SSECURITY CONSIDERATIONS>.
  
  =head2 escape_slash
  
      $json = $json->escape_slash([$enable])
  
  According to JSON Grammar, I<slash> (U+002F) is escaped. But default
  JSON::PP (as same as JSON::XS) encodes strings without escaping slash.
  
  If C<$enable> is true (or missing), then C<encode> will escape slashes.
  
  =head2 indent_length
  
      $json = $json->indent_length($length)
  
  JSON::XS indent space length is 3 and cannot be changed.
  JSON::PP set the indent space length with the given $length.
  The default is 3. The acceptable range is 0 to 15.
  
  =head2 sort_by
  
      $json = $json->sort_by($function_name)
      $json = $json->sort_by($subroutine_ref)
  
  If $function_name or $subroutine_ref are set, its sort routine are used
  in encoding JSON objects.
  
     $js = $pc->sort_by(sub { $JSON::PP::a cmp $JSON::PP::b })->encode($obj);
     # is($js, q|{"a":1,"b":2,"c":3,"d":4,"e":5,"f":6,"g":7,"h":8,"i":9}|);
  
     $js = $pc->sort_by('own_sort')->encode($obj);
     # is($js, q|{"a":1,"b":2,"c":3,"d":4,"e":5,"f":6,"g":7,"h":8,"i":9}|);
  
     sub JSON::PP::own_sort { $JSON::PP::a cmp $JSON::PP::b }
  
  As the sorting routine runs in the JSON::PP scope, the given
  subroutine name and the special variables C<$a>, C<$b> will begin
  'JSON::PP::'.
  
  If $integer is set, then the effect is same as C<canonical> on.
  
  =head1 INTERNAL
  
  For developers.
  
  =over
  
  =item PP_encode_box
  
  Returns
  
          {
              depth        => $depth,
              indent_count => $indent_count,
          }
  
  
  =item PP_decode_box
  
  Returns
  
          {
              text    => $text,
              at      => $at,
              ch      => $ch,
              len     => $len,
              depth   => $depth,
              encoding      => $encoding,
              is_valid_utf8 => $is_valid_utf8,
          };
  
  =back
  
  =head1 MAPPING
  
  This section is copied from JSON::XS and modified to C<JSON::PP>.
  JSON::XS and JSON::PP mapping mechanisms are almost equivalent.
  
  See to L<JSON::XS/MAPPING>.
  
  =head2 JSON -> PERL
  
  =over 4
  
  =item object
  
  A JSON object becomes a reference to a hash in Perl. No ordering of object
  keys is preserved (JSON does not preserver object key ordering itself).
  
  =item array
  
  A JSON array becomes a reference to an array in Perl.
  
  =item string
  
  A JSON string becomes a string scalar in Perl - Unicode codepoints in JSON
  are represented by the same codepoints in the Perl string, so no manual
  decoding is necessary.
  
  =item number
  
  A JSON number becomes either an integer, numeric (floating point) or
  string scalar in perl, depending on its range and any fractional parts. On
  the Perl level, there is no difference between those as Perl handles all
  the conversion details, but an integer may take slightly less memory and
  might represent more values exactly than floating point numbers.
  
  If the number consists of digits only, C<JSON> will try to represent
  it as an integer value. If that fails, it will try to represent it as
  a numeric (floating point) value if that is possible without loss of
  precision. Otherwise it will preserve the number as a string value (in
  which case you lose roundtripping ability, as the JSON number will be
  re-encoded toa JSON string).
  
  Numbers containing a fractional or exponential part will always be
  represented as numeric (floating point) values, possibly at a loss of
  precision (in which case you might lose perfect roundtripping ability, but
  the JSON number will still be re-encoded as a JSON number).
  
  Note that precision is not accuracy - binary floating point values cannot
  represent most decimal fractions exactly, and when converting from and to
  floating point, C<JSON> only guarantees precision up to but not including
  the leats significant bit.
  
  When C<allow_bignum> is enable, the big integers 
  and the numeric can be optionally converted into L<Math::BigInt> and
  L<Math::BigFloat> objects.
  
  =item true, false
  
  These JSON atoms become C<JSON::PP::true> and C<JSON::PP::false>,
  respectively. They are overloaded to act almost exactly like the numbers
  C<1> and C<0>. You can check wether a scalar is a JSON boolean by using
  the C<JSON::is_bool> function.
  
     print JSON::PP::true . "\n";
      => true
     print JSON::PP::true + 1;
      => 1
  
     ok(JSON::true eq  '1');
     ok(JSON::true == 1);
  
  C<JSON> will install these missing overloading features to the backend modules.
  
  
  =item null
  
  A JSON null atom becomes C<undef> in Perl.
  
  C<JSON::PP::null> returns C<unddef>.
  
  =back
  
  
  =head2 PERL -> JSON
  
  The mapping from Perl to JSON is slightly more difficult, as Perl is a
  truly typeless language, so we can only guess which JSON type is meant by
  a Perl value.
  
  =over 4
  
  =item hash references
  
  Perl hash references become JSON objects. As there is no inherent ordering
  in hash keys (or JSON objects), they will usually be encoded in a
  pseudo-random order that can change between runs of the same program but
  stays generally the same within a single run of a program. C<JSON>
  optionally sort the hash keys (determined by the I<canonical> flag), so
  the same datastructure will serialise to the same JSON text (given same
  settings and version of JSON::XS), but this incurs a runtime overhead
  and is only rarely useful, e.g. when you want to compare some JSON text
  against another for equality.
  
  
  =item array references
  
  Perl array references become JSON arrays.
  
  =item other references
  
  Other unblessed references are generally not allowed and will cause an
  exception to be thrown, except for references to the integers C<0> and
  C<1>, which get turned into C<false> and C<true> atoms in JSON. You can
  also use C<JSON::false> and C<JSON::true> to improve readability.
  
     to_json [\0,JSON::PP::true]      # yields [false,true]
  
  =item JSON::PP::true, JSON::PP::false, JSON::PP::null
  
  These special values become JSON true and JSON false values,
  respectively. You can also use C<\1> and C<\0> directly if you want.
  
  JSON::PP::null returns C<undef>.
  
  =item blessed objects
  
  Blessed objects are not directly representable in JSON. See the
  C<allow_blessed> and C<convert_blessed> methods on various options on
  how to deal with this: basically, you can choose between throwing an
  exception, encoding the reference as if it weren't blessed, or provide
  your own serialiser method.
  
  See to L<convert_blessed>.
  
  =item simple scalars
  
  Simple Perl scalars (any scalar that is not a reference) are the most
  difficult objects to encode: JSON::XS and JSON::PP will encode undefined scalars as
  JSON C<null> values, scalars that have last been used in a string context
  before encoding as JSON strings, and anything else as number value:
  
     # dump as number
     encode_json [2]                      # yields [2]
     encode_json [-3.0e17]                # yields [-3e+17]
     my $value = 5; encode_json [$value]  # yields [5]
  
     # used as string, so dump as string
     print $value;
     encode_json [$value]                 # yields ["5"]
  
     # undef becomes null
     encode_json [undef]                  # yields [null]
  
  You can force the type to be a string by stringifying it:
  
     my $x = 3.1; # some variable containing a number
     "$x";        # stringified
     $x .= "";    # another, more awkward way to stringify
     print $x;    # perl does it for you, too, quite often
  
  You can force the type to be a number by numifying it:
  
     my $x = "3"; # some variable containing a string
     $x += 0;     # numify it, ensuring it will be dumped as a number
     $x *= 1;     # same thing, the choise is yours.
  
  You can not currently force the type in other, less obscure, ways.
  
  Note that numerical precision has the same meaning as under Perl (so
  binary to decimal conversion follows the same rules as in Perl, which
  can differ to other languages). Also, your perl interpreter might expose
  extensions to the floating point numbers of your platform, such as
  infinities or NaN's - these cannot be represented in JSON, and it is an
  error to pass those in.
  
  =item Big Number
  
  When C<allow_bignum> is enable, 
  C<encode> converts C<Math::BigInt> objects and C<Math::BigFloat>
  objects into JSON numbers.
  
  
  =back
  
  =head1 UNICODE HANDLING ON PERLS
  
  If you do not know about Unicode on Perl well,
  please check L<JSON::XS/A FEW NOTES ON UNICODE AND PERL>.
  
  =head2 Perl 5.8 and later
  
  Perl can handle Unicode and the JSON::PP de/encode methods also work properly.
  
      $json->allow_nonref->encode(chr hex 3042);
      $json->allow_nonref->encode(chr hex 12345);
  
  Reuturns C<"\u3042"> and C<"\ud808\udf45"> respectively.
  
      $json->allow_nonref->decode('"\u3042"');
      $json->allow_nonref->decode('"\ud808\udf45"');
  
  Returns UTF-8 encoded strings with UTF8 flag, regarded as C<U+3042> and C<U+12345>.
  
  Note that the versions from Perl 5.8.0 to 5.8.2, Perl built-in C<join> was broken,
  so JSON::PP wraps the C<join> with a subroutine. Thus JSON::PP works slow in the versions.
  
  
  =head2 Perl 5.6
  
  Perl can handle Unicode and the JSON::PP de/encode methods also work.
  
  =head2 Perl 5.005
  
  Perl 5.005 is a byte sementics world -- all strings are sequences of bytes.
  That means the unicode handling is not available.
  
  In encoding,
  
      $json->allow_nonref->encode(chr hex 3042);  # hex 3042 is 12354.
      $json->allow_nonref->encode(chr hex 12345); # hex 12345 is 74565.
  
  Returns C<B> and C<E>, as C<chr> takes a value more than 255, it treats
  as C<$value % 256>, so the above codes are equivalent to :
  
      $json->allow_nonref->encode(chr 66);
      $json->allow_nonref->encode(chr 69);
  
  In decoding,
  
      $json->decode('"\u00e3\u0081\u0082"');
  
  The returned is a byte sequence C<0xE3 0x81 0x82> for UTF-8 encoded
  japanese character (C<HIRAGANA LETTER A>).
  And if it is represented in Unicode code point, C<U+3042>.
  
  Next, 
  
      $json->decode('"\u3042"');
  
  We ordinary expect the returned value is a Unicode character C<U+3042>.
  But here is 5.005 world. This is C<0xE3 0x81 0x82>.
  
      $json->decode('"\ud808\udf45"');
  
  This is not a character C<U+12345> but bytes - C<0xf0 0x92 0x8d 0x85>.
  
  
  =head1 TODO
  
  =over
  
  =item speed
  
  =item memory saving
  
  =back
  
  
  =head1 SEE ALSO
  
  Most of the document are copied and modified from JSON::XS doc.
  
  L<JSON::XS>
  
  RFC4627 (L<http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4627.txt>)
  
  =head1 AUTHOR
  
  Makamaka Hannyaharamitu, E<lt>makamaka[at]cpan.orgE<gt>
  
  
  =head1 COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE
  
  Copyright 2007-2014 by Makamaka Hannyaharamitu
  
  This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
  it under the same terms as Perl itself. 
  
  =cut
JSON_PP

$fatpacked{"JSON/PP/Boolean.pm"} = '#line '.(1+__LINE__).' "'.__FILE__."\"\n".<<'JSON_PP_BOOLEAN';
  =head1 NAME
  
  JSON::PP::Boolean - dummy module providing JSON::PP::Boolean
  
  =head1 SYNOPSIS
  
   # do not "use" yourself
  
  =head1 DESCRIPTION
  
  This module exists only to provide overload resolution for Storable and similar modules. See
  L<JSON::PP> for more info about this class.
  
  =cut
  
  use JSON::PP ();
  use strict;
  
  1;
  
  =head1 AUTHOR
  
  This idea is from L<JSON::XS::Boolean> written by Marc Lehmann <schmorp[at]schmorp.de>
  
  =cut
  
JSON_PP_BOOLEAN

$fatpacked{"Module/CPANfile.pm"} = '#line '.(1+__LINE__).' "'.__FILE__."\"\n".<<'MODULE_CPANFILE';
  package Module::CPANfile;
  use strict;
  use warnings;
  use Cwd;
  use Carp ();
  use Module::CPANfile::Environment;
  use Module::CPANfile::Requirement;
  
  our $VERSION = '1.1000';
  
  sub new {
      my($class, $file) = @_;
      bless {}, $class;
  }
  
  sub load {
      my($proto, $file) = @_;
  
      my $self = ref $proto ? $proto : $proto->new;
      $self->parse($file || Cwd::abs_path('cpanfile'));
      $self;
  }
  
  sub save {
      my($self, $path) = @_;
  
      open my $out, ">", $path or die "$path: $!";
      print {$out} $self->to_string;
  }
  
  sub parse {
      my($self, $file) = @_;
  
      my $code = do {
          open my $fh, "<", $file or die "$file: $!";
          join '', <$fh>;
      };
  
      my $env = Module::CPANfile::Environment->new($file);
      $env->parse($code) or die $@;
  
      $self->{_mirrors} = $env->mirrors;
      $self->{_prereqs} = $env->prereqs;
  }
  
  sub from_prereqs {
      my($proto, $prereqs) = @_;
  
      my $self = $proto->new;
      $self->{_prereqs} = Module::CPANfile::Prereqs->from_cpan_meta($prereqs);
  
      $self;
  }
  
  sub mirrors {
      my $self = shift;
      $self->{_mirrors} || [];
  }
  
  sub features {
      my $self = shift;
      map $self->feature($_), $self->{_prereqs}->identifiers;
  }
  
  sub feature {
      my($self, $identifier) = @_;
      $self->{_prereqs}->feature($identifier);
  }
  
  sub prereq { shift->prereqs }
  
  sub prereqs {
      my $self = shift;
      $self->{_prereqs}->as_cpan_meta;
  }
  
  sub merged_requirements {
      my $self = shift;
      $self->{_prereqs}->merged_requirements;
  }
  
  sub effective_prereqs {
      my($self, $features) = @_;
      $self->prereqs_with(@{$features || []});
  }
  
  sub prereqs_with {
      my($self, @feature_identifiers) = @_;
  
      my $prereqs = $self->prereqs;
      my @others = map { $self->feature($_)->prereqs } @feature_identifiers;
  
      $prereqs->with_merged_prereqs(\@others);
  }
  
  sub prereq_specs {
      my $self = shift;
      $self->prereqs->as_string_hash;
  }
  
  sub prereq_for_module {
      my($self, $module) = @_;
      $self->{_prereqs}->find($module);
  }
  
  sub options_for_module {
      my($self, $module) = @_;
      my $prereq = $self->prereq_for_module($module) or return;
      $prereq->requirement->options;
  }
  
  sub merge_meta {
      my($self, $file, $version) = @_;
  
      require CPAN::Meta;
  
      $version ||= $file =~ /\.yml$/ ? '1.4' : '2';
  
      my $prereq = $self->prereqs;
  
      my $meta = CPAN::Meta->load_file($file);
      my $prereqs_hash = $prereq->with_merged_prereqs($meta->effective_prereqs)->as_string_hash;
      my $struct = { %{$meta->as_struct}, prereqs => $prereqs_hash };
  
      CPAN::Meta->new($struct)->save($file, { version => $version });
  }
  
  sub _dump {
      my $str = shift;
      require Data::Dumper;
      chomp(my $value = Data::Dumper->new([$str])->Terse(1)->Dump);
      $value;
  }
  
  sub to_string {
      my($self, $include_empty) = @_;
  
      my $mirrors = $self->mirrors;
      my $prereqs = $self->prereq_specs;
  
      my $code = '';
      $code .= $self->_dump_mirrors($mirrors);
      $code .= $self->_dump_prereqs($prereqs, $include_empty);
  
      for my $feature ($self->features) {
          $code .= sprintf "feature %s, %s => sub {\n", _dump($feature->{identifier}), _dump($feature->{description});
          $code .= $self->_dump_prereqs($feature->{spec}, $include_empty, 4);
          $code .= "}\n\n";
      }
  
      $code =~ s/\n+$/\n/s;
      $code;
  }
  
  sub _dump_mirrors {
      my($self, $mirrors) = @_;
  
      my $code = "";
  
      for my $url (@$mirrors) {
          $code .= "mirror '$url';\n";
      }
  
      $code =~ s/\n+$/\n/s;
      $code;
  }
  
  sub _dump_prereqs {
      my($self, $prereqs, $include_empty, $base_indent) = @_;
  
      my $code = '';
      for my $phase (qw(runtime configure build test develop)) {
          my $indent = $phase eq 'runtime' ? '' : '    ';
          $indent = (' ' x ($base_indent || 0)) . $indent;
  
          my($phase_code, $requirements);
          $phase_code .= "on $phase => sub {\n" unless $phase eq 'runtime';
  
          for my $type (qw(requires recommends suggests conflicts)) {
              for my $mod (sort keys %{$prereqs->{$phase}{$type}}) {
                  my $ver = $prereqs->{$phase}{$type}{$mod};
                  $phase_code .= $ver eq '0'
                               ? "${indent}$type '$mod';\n"
                               : "${indent}$type '$mod', '$ver';\n";
                  $requirements++;
              }
          }
  
          $phase_code .= "\n" unless $requirements;
          $phase_code .= "};\n" unless $phase eq 'runtime';
  
          $code .= $phase_code . "\n" if $requirements or $include_empty;
      }
  
      $code =~ s/\n+$/\n/s;
      $code;
  }
  
  1;
  
  __END__
  
  =head1 NAME
  
  Module::CPANfile - Parse cpanfile
  
  =head1 SYNOPSIS
  
    use Module::CPANfile;
  
    my $file = Module::CPANfile->load("cpanfile");
    my $prereqs = $file->prereqs; # CPAN::Meta::Prereqs object
  
    my @features = $file->features; # CPAN::Meta::Feature objects
    my $merged_prereqs = $file->prereqs_with(@identifiers); # CPAN::Meta::Prereqs
  
    $file->merge_meta('MYMETA.json');
  
  =head1 DESCRIPTION
  
  Module::CPANfile is a tool to handle L<cpanfile> format to load application
  specific dependencies, not just for CPAN distributions.
  
  =head1 METHODS
  
  =over 4
  
  =item load
  
    $file = Module::CPANfile->load;
    $file = Module::CPANfile->load('cpanfile');
  
  Load and parse a cpanfile. By default it tries to load C<cpanfile> in
  the current directory, unless you pass the path to its argument.
  
  =item from_prereqs
  
    $file = Module::CPANfile->from_prereqs({
      runtime => { requires => { DBI => '1.000' } },
    });
  
  Creates a new Module::CPANfile object from prereqs hash you can get
  via L<CPAN::Meta>'s C<prereqs>, or L<CPAN::Meta::Prereqs>'
  C<as_string_hash>.
  
    # read MYMETA, then feed the prereqs to create Module::CPANfile
    my $meta = CPAN::Meta->load_file('MYMETA.json');
    my $file = Module::CPANfile->from_prereqs($meta->prereqs);
  
    # load cpanfile, then recreate it with round-trip
    my $file = Module::CPANfile->load('cpanfile');
    $file = Module::CPANfile->from_prereqs($file->prereq_specs);
                                      # or $file->prereqs->as_string_hash
  
  =item prereqs
  
  Returns L<CPAN::Meta::Prereqs> object out of the parsed cpanfile.
  
  =item prereq_specs
  
  Returns a hash reference that should be passed to C<< CPAN::Meta::Prereqs->new >>.
  
  =item features
  
  Returns a list of features available in the cpanfile as L<CPAN::Meta::Feature>.
  
  =item prereqs_with(@identifiers), effective_prereqs(\@identifiers)
  
  Returns L<CPAN::Meta::Prereqs> object, with merged prereqs for
  features identified with the C<@identifiers>.
  
  =item to_string($include_empty)
  
    $file->to_string;
    $file->to_string(1);
  
  Returns a canonical string (code) representation for cpanfile. Useful
  if you want to convert L<CPAN::Meta::Prereqs> to a new cpanfile.
  
    # read MYMETA's prereqs and print cpanfile representation of it
    my $meta = CPAN::Meta->load_file('MYMETA.json');
    my $file = Module::CPANfile->from_prereqs($meta->prereqs);
    print $file->to_string;
  
  By default, it omits the phase where there're no modules
  registered. If you pass the argument of a true value, it will print
  them as well.
  
  =item save
  
    $file->save('cpanfile');
  
  Saves the currently loaded prereqs as a new C<cpanfile> by calling
  C<to_string>. Beware B<this method will overwrite the existing
  cpanfile without any warning or backup>. Taking a backup or giving
  warnings to users is a caller's responsibility.
  
    # Read MYMETA.json and creates a new cpanfile
    my $meta = CPAN::Meta->load_file('MYMETA.json');
    my $file = Module::CPANfile->from_prereqs($meta->prereqs);
    $file->save('cpanfile');
  
  =item merge_meta
  
    $file->merge_meta('META.yml');
    $file->merge_meta('MYMETA.json', '2.0');
  
  Merge the effective prereqs with Meta specification loaded from the
  given META file, using CPAN::Meta. You can specify the META spec
  version in the second argument, which defaults to 1.4 in case the
  given file is YAML, and 2 if it is JSON.
  
  =back
  
  =head1 AUTHOR
  
  Tatsuhiko Miyagawa
  
  =head1 SEE ALSO
  
  L<cpanfile>, L<CPAN::Meta>, L<CPAN::Meta::Spec>
  
  =cut
MODULE_CPANFILE

$fatpacked{"Module/CPANfile/Environment.pm"} = '#line '.(1+__LINE__).' "'.__FILE__."\"\n".<<'MODULE_CPANFILE_ENVIRONMENT';
  package Module::CPANfile::Environment;
  use strict;
  use warnings;
  use Module::CPANfile::Prereqs;
  use Carp ();
  
  my @bindings = qw(
      on requires recommends suggests conflicts
      feature
      osname
      mirror
      configure_requires build_requires test_requires author_requires
  );
  
  my $file_id = 1;
  
  sub new {
      my($class, $file) = @_;
      bless {
          file     => $file,
          phase    => 'runtime', # default phase
          feature  => undef,
          features => {},
          prereqs  => Module::CPANfile::Prereqs->new,
          mirrors  => [],
      }, $class;
  }
  
  sub bind {
      my $self = shift;
      my $pkg = caller;
  
      for my $binding (@bindings) {
          no strict 'refs';
          *{"$pkg\::$binding"} = sub { $self->$binding(@_) };
      }
  }
  
  sub parse {
      my($self, $code) = @_;
  
      my $err;
      {
          local $@;
          $file_id++;
          $self->_evaluate(<<EVAL);
  package Module::CPANfile::Sandbox$file_id;
  no warnings;
  BEGIN { \$_environment->bind }
  
  # line 1 "$self->{file}"
  $code;
  EVAL
          $err = $@;
      }
  
      if ($err) { die "Parsing $self->{file} failed: $err" };
  
      return 1;
  }
  
  sub _evaluate {
      my $_environment = $_[0];
      eval $_[1];
  }
  
  sub prereqs { $_[0]->{prereqs} }
  
  sub mirrors { $_[0]->{mirrors} }
  
  # DSL goes from here
  
  sub on {
      my($self, $phase, $code) = @_;
      local $self->{phase} = $phase;
      $code->();
  }
  
  sub feature {
      my($self, $identifier, $description, $code) = @_;
  
      # shortcut: feature identifier => sub { ... }
      if (@_ == 3 && ref($description) eq 'CODE') {
          $code = $description;
          $description = $identifier;
      }
  
      unless (ref $description eq '' && ref $code eq 'CODE') {
          Carp::croak("Usage: feature 'identifier', 'Description' => sub { ... }");
      }
  
      local $self->{feature} = $identifier;
      $self->prereqs->add_feature($identifier, $description);
  
      $code->();
  }
  
  sub osname { die "TODO" }
  
  sub mirror {
      my($self, $url) = @_;
      push @{$self->{mirrors}}, $url;
  }
  
  sub requirement_for {
      my($self, $module, @args) = @_;
  
      my $requirement = 0;
      $requirement = shift @args if @args % 2;
  
      return Module::CPANfile::Requirement->new(
          name    => $module,
          version => $requirement,
          @args,
      );
  }
  
  sub requires {
      my $self = shift;
      $self->add_prereq(requires => @_);
  }
  
  sub recommends {
      my $self = shift;
      $self->add_prereq(recommends => @_);
  }
  
  sub suggests {
      my $self = shift;
      $self->add_prereq(suggests => @_);
  }
  
  sub conflicts {
      my $self = shift;
      $self->add_prereq(conflicts => @_);
  }
  
  sub add_prereq {
      my($self, $type, $module, @args) = @_;
  
      $self->prereqs->add_prereq(
          feature => $self->{feature},
          phase   => $self->{phase},
          type    => $type,
          module  => $module,
          requirement => $self->requirement_for($module, @args),
      );
  }
  
  # Module::Install compatible shortcuts
  
  sub configure_requires {
      my($self, @args) = @_;
      $self->on(configure => sub { $self->requires(@args) });
  }
  
  sub build_requires {
      my($self, @args) = @_;
      $self->on(build => sub { $self->requires(@args) });
  }
  
  sub test_requires {
      my($self, @args) = @_;
      $self->on(test => sub { $self->requires(@args) });
  }
  
  sub author_requires {
      my($self, @args) = @_;
      $self->on(develop => sub { $self->requires(@args) });
  }
  
  1;
  
MODULE_CPANFILE_ENVIRONMENT

$fatpacked{"Module/CPANfile/Prereq.pm"} = '#line '.(1+__LINE__).' "'.__FILE__."\"\n".<<'MODULE_CPANFILE_PREREQ';
  package Module::CPANfile::Prereq;
  use strict;
  
  sub new {
      my($class, %options) = @_;
      bless \%options, $class;
  }
  
  sub feature { $_[0]->{feature} }
  sub phase   { $_[0]->{phase} }
  sub type    { $_[0]->{type} }
  sub module  { $_[0]->{module} }
  sub requirement { $_[0]->{requirement} }
  
  sub match_feature {
      my($self, $identifier) = @_;
      no warnings 'uninitialized';
      $self->feature eq $identifier;
  }
  
  1;
MODULE_CPANFILE_PREREQ

$fatpacked{"Module/CPANfile/Prereqs.pm"} = '#line '.(1+__LINE__).' "'.__FILE__."\"\n".<<'MODULE_CPANFILE_PREREQS';
  package Module::CPANfile::Prereqs;
  use strict;
  use Carp ();
  use CPAN::Meta::Feature;
  use Module::CPANfile::Prereq;
  
  sub from_cpan_meta {
      my($class, $prereqs) = @_;
  
      my $self = $class->new;
  
      for my $phase (keys %$prereqs) {
          for my $type (keys %{ $prereqs->{$phase} }) {
              while (my($module, $requirement) = each %{ $prereqs->{$phase}{$type} }) {
                  $self->add_prereq(
                      phase => $phase,
                      type  => $type,
                      module => $module,
                      requirement => Module::CPANfile::Requirement->new(name => $module, version => $requirement),
                  );
              }
          }
      }
  
      $self;
  }
  
  sub new {
      my $class = shift;
      bless {
          prereqs => [],
          features => {},
      }, $class;
  }
  
  sub add_feature {
      my($self, $identifier, $description) = @_;
      $self->{features}{$identifier} = { description => $description };
  }
  
  sub add_prereq {
      my($self, %args) = @_;
      $self->add( Module::CPANfile::Prereq->new(%args) );
  }
  
  sub add {
      my($self, $prereq) = @_;
      push @{$self->{prereqs}}, $prereq;
  }
  
  sub as_cpan_meta {
      my $self = shift;
      $self->{cpanmeta} ||= $self->build_cpan_meta;
  }
  
  sub build_cpan_meta {
      my($self, $identifier) = @_;
  
      my $prereq_spec = {};
      $self->prereq_each($identifier, sub {
          my $prereq = shift;
          $prereq_spec->{$prereq->phase}{$prereq->type}{$prereq->module} = $prereq->requirement->version;
      });
  
      CPAN::Meta::Prereqs->new($prereq_spec);
  }
  
  sub prereq_each {
      my($self, $identifier, $code) = @_;
  
      for my $prereq (@{$self->{prereqs}}) {
          next unless $prereq->match_feature($identifier);
          $code->($prereq);
      }
  }
  
  sub merged_requirements {
      my $self = shift;
  
      my $reqs = CPAN::Meta::Requirements->new;
      for my $prereq (@{$self->{prereqs}}) {
          $reqs->add_string_requirement($prereq->module, $prereq->requirement->version);
      }
  
      $reqs;
  }
  
  sub find {
      my($self, $module) = @_;
  
      for my $prereq (@{$self->{prereqs}}) {
          return $prereq if $prereq->module eq $module;
      }
  
      return;
  }
  
  sub identifiers {
      my $self = shift;
      keys %{$self->{features}};
  }
  
  sub feature {
      my($self, $identifier) = @_;
  
      my $data = $self->{features}{$identifier}
        or Carp::croak("Unknown feature '$identifier'");
  
      my $prereqs = $self->build_cpan_meta($identifier);
  
      CPAN::Meta::Feature->new($identifier, {
          description => $data->{description},
          prereqs => $prereqs->as_string_hash,
      });
  }
  
  1;
MODULE_CPANFILE_PREREQS

$fatpacked{"Module/CPANfile/Requirement.pm"} = '#line '.(1+__LINE__).' "'.__FILE__."\"\n".<<'MODULE_CPANFILE_REQUIREMENT';
  package Module::CPANfile::Requirement;
  use strict;
  
  sub new {
      my ($class, %args) = @_;
  
      $args{version} ||= 0;
  
      bless +{
          name    => delete $args{name},
          version => delete $args{version},
          options => \%args,
      }, $class;
  }
  
  sub name    { $_[0]->{name} }
  sub version { $_[0]->{version} }
  
  sub options { $_[0]->{options} }
  
  sub has_options {
      keys %{$_[0]->{options}} > 0;
  }
  
  1;
MODULE_CPANFILE_REQUIREMENT

$fatpacked{"Module/Metadata.pm"} = '#line '.(1+__LINE__).' "'.__FILE__."\"\n".<<'MODULE_METADATA';
  # -*- mode: cperl; tab-width: 8; indent-tabs-mode: nil; basic-offset: 2 -*-
  # vim:ts=8:sw=2:et:sta:sts=2
  package Module::Metadata; # git description: v1.000026-12-g9b12bf1
  
  # Adapted from Perl-licensed code originally distributed with
  # Module-Build by Ken Williams
  
  # This module provides routines to gather information about
  # perl modules (assuming this may be expanded in the distant
  # parrot future to look at other types of modules).
  
  sub __clean_eval { eval $_[0] }
  use strict;
  use warnings;
  
  our $VERSION = '1.000027';
  
  use Carp qw/croak/;
  use File::Spec;
  BEGIN {
         # Try really hard to not depend ony any DynaLoaded module, such as IO::File or Fcntl
         eval {
                 require Fcntl; Fcntl->import('SEEK_SET'); 1;
         } or *SEEK_SET = sub { 0 }
  }
  use version 0.87;
  BEGIN {
    if ($INC{'Log/Contextual.pm'}) {
      require "Log/Contextual/WarnLogger.pm"; # Hide from AutoPrereqs
      Log::Contextual->import('log_info',
        '-default_logger' => Log::Contextual::WarnLogger->new({ env_prefix => 'MODULE_METADATA', }),
      );
    } else {
      *log_info = sub (&) { warn $_[0]->() };
    }
  }
  use File::Find qw(find);
  
  my $V_NUM_REGEXP = qr{v?[0-9._]+};  # crudely, a v-string or decimal
  
  my $PKG_FIRST_WORD_REGEXP = qr{ # the FIRST word in a package name
    [a-zA-Z_]                     # the first word CANNOT start with a digit
      (?:
        [\w']?                    # can contain letters, digits, _, or ticks
        \w                        # But, NO multi-ticks or trailing ticks
      )*
  }x;
  
  my $PKG_ADDL_WORD_REGEXP = qr{ # the 2nd+ word in a package name
    \w                           # the 2nd+ word CAN start with digits
      (?:
        [\w']?                   # and can contain letters or ticks
        \w                       # But, NO multi-ticks or trailing ticks
      )*
  }x;
  
  my $PKG_NAME_REGEXP = qr{ # match a package name
    (?: :: )?               # a pkg name can start with arisdottle
    $PKG_FIRST_WORD_REGEXP  # a package word
    (?:
      (?: :: )+             ### arisdottle (allow one or many times)
      $PKG_ADDL_WORD_REGEXP ### a package word
    )*                      # ^ zero, one or many times
    (?:
      ::                    # allow trailing arisdottle
    )?
  }x;
  
  my $PKG_REGEXP  = qr{   # match a package declaration
    ^[\s\{;]*             # intro chars on a line
    package               # the word 'package'
    \s+                   # whitespace
    ($PKG_NAME_REGEXP)    # a package name
    \s*                   # optional whitespace
    ($V_NUM_REGEXP)?        # optional version number
    \s*                   # optional whitesapce
    [;\{]                 # semicolon line terminator or block start (since 5.16)
  }x;
  
  my $VARNAME_REGEXP = qr{ # match fully-qualified VERSION name
    ([\$*])         # sigil - $ or *
    (
      (             # optional leading package name
        (?:::|\')?  # possibly starting like just :: (a la $::VERSION)
        (?:\w+(?:::|\'))*  # Foo::Bar:: ...
      )?
      VERSION
    )\b
  }x;
  
  my $VERS_REGEXP = qr{ # match a VERSION definition
    (?:
      \(\s*$VARNAME_REGEXP\s*\) # with parens
    |
      $VARNAME_REGEXP           # without parens
    )
    \s*
    =[^=~>]  # = but not ==, nor =~, nor =>
  }x;
  
  sub new_from_file {
    my $class    = shift;
    my $filename = File::Spec->rel2abs( shift );
  
    return undef unless defined( $filename ) && -f $filename;
    return $class->_init(undef, $filename, @_);
  }
  
  sub new_from_handle {
    my $class    = shift;
    my $handle   = shift;
    my $filename = shift;
    return undef unless defined($handle) && defined($filename);
    $filename = File::Spec->rel2abs( $filename );
  
    return $class->_init(undef, $filename, @_, handle => $handle);
  
  }
  
  
  sub new_from_module {
    my $class   = shift;
    my $module  = shift;
    my %props   = @_;
  
    $props{inc} ||= \@INC;
    my $filename = $class->find_module_by_name( $module, $props{inc} );
    return undef unless defined( $filename ) && -f $filename;
    return $class->_init($module, $filename, %props);
  }
  
  {
  
    my $compare_versions = sub {
      my ($v1, $op, $v2) = @_;
      $v1 = version->new($v1)
        unless UNIVERSAL::isa($v1,'version');
  
      my $eval_str = "\$v1 $op \$v2";
      my $result   = eval $eval_str;
      log_info { "error comparing versions: '$eval_str' $@" } if $@;
  
      return $result;
    };
  
    my $normalize_version = sub {
      my ($version) = @_;
      if ( $version =~ /[=<>!,]/ ) { # logic, not just version
        # take as is without modification
      }
      elsif ( ref $version eq 'version' ) { # version objects
        $version = $version->is_qv ? $version->normal : $version->stringify;
      }
      elsif ( $version =~ /^[^v][^.]*\.[^.]+\./ ) { # no leading v, multiple dots
        # normalize string tuples without "v": "1.2.3" -> "v1.2.3"
        $version = "v$version";
      }
      else {
        # leave alone
      }
      return $version;
    };
  
    # separate out some of the conflict resolution logic
  
    my $resolve_module_versions = sub {
      my $packages = shift;
  
      my( $file, $version );
      my $err = '';
        foreach my $p ( @$packages ) {
          if ( defined( $p->{version} ) ) {
            if ( defined( $version ) ) {
              if ( $compare_versions->( $version, '!=', $p->{version} ) ) {
                $err .= "  $p->{file} ($p->{version})\n";
              } else {
                # same version declared multiple times, ignore
              }
            } else {
              $file    = $p->{file};
              $version = $p->{version};
            }
          }
        $file ||= $p->{file} if defined( $p->{file} );
      }
  
      if ( $err ) {
        $err = "  $file ($version)\n" . $err;
      }
  
      my %result = (
        file    => $file,
        version => $version,
        err     => $err
      );
  
      return \%result;
    };
  
    sub provides {
      my $class = shift;
  
      croak "provides() requires key/value pairs \n" if @_ % 2;
      my %args = @_;
  
      croak "provides() takes only one of 'dir' or 'files'\n"
        if $args{dir} && $args{files};
  
      croak "provides() requires a 'version' argument"
        unless defined $args{version};
  
      croak "provides() does not support version '$args{version}' metadata"
          unless grep { $args{version} eq $_ } qw/1.4 2/;
  
      $args{prefix} = 'lib' unless defined $args{prefix};
  
      my $p;
      if ( $args{dir} ) {
        $p = $class->package_versions_from_directory($args{dir});
      }
      else {
        croak "provides() requires 'files' to be an array reference\n"
          unless ref $args{files} eq 'ARRAY';
        $p = $class->package_versions_from_directory($args{files});
      }
  
      # Now, fix up files with prefix
      if ( length $args{prefix} ) { # check in case disabled with q{}
        $args{prefix} =~ s{/$}{};
        for my $v ( values %$p ) {
          $v->{file} = "$args{prefix}/$v->{file}";
        }
      }
  
      return $p
    }
  
    sub package_versions_from_directory {
      my ( $class, $dir, $files ) = @_;
  
      my @files;
  
      if ( $files ) {
        @files = @$files;
      } else {
        find( {
          wanted => sub {
            push @files, $_ if -f $_ && /\.pm$/;
          },
          no_chdir => 1,
        }, $dir );
      }
  
      # First, we enumerate all packages & versions,
      # separating into primary & alternative candidates
      my( %prime, %alt );
      foreach my $file (@files) {
        my $mapped_filename = File::Spec::Unix->abs2rel( $file, $dir );
        my @path = split( /\//, $mapped_filename );
        (my $prime_package = join( '::', @path )) =~ s/\.pm$//;
  
        my $pm_info = $class->new_from_file( $file );
  
        foreach my $package ( $pm_info->packages_inside ) {
          next if $package eq 'main';  # main can appear numerous times, ignore
          next if $package eq 'DB';    # special debugging package, ignore
          next if grep /^_/, split( /::/, $package ); # private package, ignore
  
          my $version = $pm_info->version( $package );
  
          $prime_package = $package if lc($prime_package) eq lc($package);
          if ( $package eq $prime_package ) {
            if ( exists( $prime{$package} ) ) {
              croak "Unexpected conflict in '$package'; multiple versions found.\n";
            } else {
              $mapped_filename = "$package.pm" if lc("$package.pm") eq lc($mapped_filename);
              $prime{$package}{file} = $mapped_filename;
              $prime{$package}{version} = $version if defined( $version );
            }
          } else {
            push( @{$alt{$package}}, {
                                      file    => $mapped_filename,
                                      version => $version,
                                     } );
          }
        }
      }
  
      # Then we iterate over all the packages found above, identifying conflicts
      # and selecting the "best" candidate for recording the file & version
      # for each package.
      foreach my $package ( keys( %alt ) ) {
        my $result = $resolve_module_versions->( $alt{$package} );
  
        if ( exists( $prime{$package} ) ) { # primary package selected
  
          if ( $result->{err} ) {
          # Use the selected primary package, but there are conflicting
          # errors among multiple alternative packages that need to be
          # reported
            log_info {
              "Found conflicting versions for package '$package'\n" .
              "  $prime{$package}{file} ($prime{$package}{version})\n" .
              $result->{err}
            };
  
          } elsif ( defined( $result->{version} ) ) {
          # There is a primary package selected, and exactly one
          # alternative package
  
          if ( exists( $prime{$package}{version} ) &&
               defined( $prime{$package}{version} ) ) {
            # Unless the version of the primary package agrees with the
            # version of the alternative package, report a conflict
          if ( $compare_versions->(
                   $prime{$package}{version}, '!=', $result->{version}
                 )
               ) {
  
              log_info {
                "Found conflicting versions for package '$package'\n" .
                "  $prime{$package}{file} ($prime{$package}{version})\n" .
                "  $result->{file} ($result->{version})\n"
              };
            }
  
          } else {
            # The prime package selected has no version so, we choose to
            # use any alternative package that does have a version
            $prime{$package}{file}    = $result->{file};
            $prime{$package}{version} = $result->{version};
          }
  
          } else {
          # no alt package found with a version, but we have a prime
          # package so we use it whether it has a version or not
          }
  
        } else { # No primary package was selected, use the best alternative
  
          if ( $result->{err} ) {
            log_info {
              "Found conflicting versions for package '$package'\n" .
              $result->{err}
            };
          }
  
          # Despite possible conflicting versions, we choose to record
          # something rather than nothing
          $prime{$package}{file}    = $result->{file};
          $prime{$package}{version} = $result->{version}
            if defined( $result->{version} );
        }
      }
  
      # Normalize versions.  Can't use exists() here because of bug in YAML::Node.
      # XXX "bug in YAML::Node" comment seems irrelevant -- dagolden, 2009-05-18
      for (grep defined $_->{version}, values %prime) {
        $_->{version} = $normalize_version->( $_->{version} );
      }
  
      return \%prime;
    }
  }
  
  
  sub _init {
    my $class    = shift;
    my $module   = shift;
    my $filename = shift;
    my %props = @_;
  
    my $handle = delete $props{handle};
    my( %valid_props, @valid_props );
    @valid_props = qw( collect_pod inc );
    @valid_props{@valid_props} = delete( @props{@valid_props} );
    warn "Unknown properties: @{[keys %props]}\n" if scalar( %props );
  
    my %data = (
      module       => $module,
      filename     => $filename,
      version      => undef,
      packages     => [],
      versions     => {},
      pod          => {},
      pod_headings => [],
      collect_pod  => 0,
  
      %valid_props,
    );
  
    my $self = bless(\%data, $class);
  
    if ( not $handle ) {
      my $filename = $self->{filename};
      open $handle, '<', $filename
        or croak( "Can't open '$filename': $!" );
  
      $self->_handle_bom($handle, $filename);
    }
    $self->_parse_fh($handle);
  
    unless($self->{module} and length($self->{module})) {
      my ($v, $d, $f) = File::Spec->splitpath($self->{filename});
      if($f =~ /\.pm$/) {
        $f =~ s/\..+$//;
        my @candidates = grep /$f$/, @{$self->{packages}};
        $self->{module} = shift(@candidates); # punt
      }
      else {
        if(grep /main/, @{$self->{packages}}) {
          $self->{module} = 'main';
        }
        else {
          $self->{module} = $self->{packages}[0] || '';
        }
      }
    }
  
    $self->{version} = $self->{versions}{$self->{module}}
        if defined( $self->{module} );
  
    return $self;
  }
  
  # class method
  sub _do_find_module {
    my $class   = shift;
    my $module  = shift || croak 'find_module_by_name() requires a package name';
    my $dirs    = shift || \@INC;
  
    my $file = File::Spec->catfile(split( /::/, $module));
    foreach my $dir ( @$dirs ) {
      my $testfile = File::Spec->catfile($dir, $file);
      return [ File::Spec->rel2abs( $testfile ), $dir ]
        if -e $testfile and !-d _;  # For stuff like ExtUtils::xsubpp
      $testfile .= '.pm';
      return [ File::Spec->rel2abs( $testfile ), $dir ]
        if -e $testfile;
    }
    return;
  }
  
  # class method
  sub find_module_by_name {
    my $found = shift()->_do_find_module(@_) or return;
    return $found->[0];
  }
  
  # class method
  sub find_module_dir_by_name {
    my $found = shift()->_do_find_module(@_) or return;
    return $found->[1];
  }
  
  
  # given a line of perl code, attempt to parse it if it looks like a
  # $VERSION assignment, returning sigil, full name, & package name
  sub _parse_version_expression {
    my $self = shift;
    my $line = shift;
  
    my( $sigil, $variable_name, $package);
    if ( $line =~ /$VERS_REGEXP/o ) {
      ( $sigil, $variable_name, $package) = $2 ? ( $1, $2, $3 ) : ( $4, $5, $6 );
      if ( $package ) {
        $package = ($package eq '::') ? 'main' : $package;
        $package =~ s/::$//;
      }
    }
  
    return ( $sigil, $variable_name, $package );
  }
  
  # Look for a UTF-8/UTF-16BE/UTF-16LE BOM at the beginning of the stream.
  # If there's one, then skip it and set the :encoding layer appropriately.
  sub _handle_bom {
    my ($self, $fh, $filename) = @_;
  
    my $pos = tell $fh;
    return unless defined $pos;
  
    my $buf = ' ' x 2;
    my $count = read $fh, $buf, length $buf;
    return unless defined $count and $count >= 2;
  
    my $encoding;
    if ( $buf eq "\x{FE}\x{FF}" ) {
      $encoding = 'UTF-16BE';
    } elsif ( $buf eq "\x{FF}\x{FE}" ) {
      $encoding = 'UTF-16LE';
    } elsif ( $buf eq "\x{EF}\x{BB}" ) {
      $buf = ' ';
      $count = read $fh, $buf, length $buf;
      if ( defined $count and $count >= 1 and $buf eq "\x{BF}" ) {
        $encoding = 'UTF-8';
      }
    }
  
    if ( defined $encoding ) {
      if ( "$]" >= 5.008 ) {
        binmode( $fh, ":encoding($encoding)" );
      }
    } else {
      seek $fh, $pos, SEEK_SET
        or croak( sprintf "Can't reset position to the top of '$filename'" );
    }
  
    return $encoding;
  }
  
  sub _parse_fh {
    my ($self, $fh) = @_;
  
    my( $in_pod, $seen_end, $need_vers ) = ( 0, 0, 0 );
    my( @packages, %vers, %pod, @pod );
    my $package = 'main';
    my $pod_sect = '';
    my $pod_data = '';
    my $in_end = 0;
  
    while (defined( my $line = <$fh> )) {
      my $line_num = $.;
  
      chomp( $line );
  
      # From toke.c : any line that begins by "=X", where X is an alphabetic
      # character, introduces a POD segment.
      my $is_cut;
      if ( $line =~ /^=([a-zA-Z].*)/ ) {
        my $cmd = $1;
        # Then it goes back to Perl code for "=cutX" where X is a non-alphabetic
        # character (which includes the newline, but here we chomped it away).
        $is_cut = $cmd =~ /^cut(?:[^a-zA-Z]|$)/;
        $in_pod = !$is_cut;
      }
  
      if ( $in_pod ) {
  
        if ( $line =~ /^=head[1-4]\s+(.+)\s*$/ ) {
          push( @pod, $1 );
          if ( $self->{collect_pod} && length( $pod_data ) ) {
            $pod{$pod_sect} = $pod_data;
            $pod_data = '';
          }
          $pod_sect = $1;
  
        } elsif ( $self->{collect_pod} ) {
          $pod_data .= "$line\n";
  
        }
  
      } elsif ( $is_cut ) {
  
        if ( $self->{collect_pod} && length( $pod_data ) ) {
          $pod{$pod_sect} = $pod_data;
          $pod_data = '';
        }
        $pod_sect = '';
  
      } else {
  
        # Skip after __END__
        next if $in_end;
  
        # Skip comments in code
        next if $line =~ /^\s*#/;
  
        # Would be nice if we could also check $in_string or something too
        if ($line eq '__END__') {
          $in_end++;
          next;
        }
        last if $line eq '__DATA__';
  
        # parse $line to see if it's a $VERSION declaration
        my( $version_sigil, $version_fullname, $version_package ) =
            index($line, 'VERSION') >= 1
                ? $self->_parse_version_expression( $line )
                : ();
  
        if ( $line =~ /$PKG_REGEXP/o ) {
          $package = $1;
          my $version = $2;
          push( @packages, $package ) unless grep( $package eq $_, @packages );
          $need_vers = defined $version ? 0 : 1;
  
          if ( not exists $vers{$package} and defined $version ){
            # Upgrade to a version object.
            my $dwim_version = eval { _dwim_version($version) };
            croak "Version '$version' from $self->{filename} does not appear to be valid:\n$line\n\nThe fatal error was: $@\n"
                unless defined $dwim_version;  # "0" is OK!
            $vers{$package} = $dwim_version;
          }
  
        # VERSION defined with full package spec, i.e. $Module::VERSION
        } elsif ( $version_fullname && $version_package ) {
          push( @packages, $version_package ) unless grep( $version_package eq $_, @packages );
          $need_vers = 0 if $version_package eq $package;
  
          unless ( defined $vers{$version_package} && length $vers{$version_package} ) {
          $vers{$version_package} = $self->_evaluate_version_line( $version_sigil, $version_fullname, $line );
        }
  
        # first non-comment line in undeclared package main is VERSION
        } elsif ( $package eq 'main' && $version_fullname && !exists($vers{main}) ) {
          $need_vers = 0;
          my $v = $self->_evaluate_version_line( $version_sigil, $version_fullname, $line );
          $vers{$package} = $v;
          push( @packages, 'main' );
  
        # first non-comment line in undeclared package defines package main
        } elsif ( $package eq 'main' && !exists($vers{main}) && $line =~ /\w/ ) {
          $need_vers = 1;
          $vers{main} = '';
          push( @packages, 'main' );
  
        # only keep if this is the first $VERSION seen
        } elsif ( $version_fullname && $need_vers ) {
          $need_vers = 0;
          my $v = $self->_evaluate_version_line( $version_sigil, $version_fullname, $line );
  
          unless ( defined $vers{$package} && length $vers{$package} ) {
            $vers{$package} = $v;
          }
        }
      }
    }
  
    if ( $self->{collect_pod} && length($pod_data) ) {
      $pod{$pod_sect} = $pod_data;
    }
  
    $self->{versions} = \%vers;
    $self->{packages} = \@packages;
    $self->{pod} = \%pod;
    $self->{pod_headings} = \@pod;
  }
  
  {
  my $pn = 0;
  sub _evaluate_version_line {
    my $self = shift;
    my( $sigil, $variable_name, $line ) = @_;
  
    # We compile into a local sub because 'use version' would cause
    # compiletime/runtime issues with local()
    $pn++; # everybody gets their own package
    my $eval = qq{ my \$dummy = q#  Hide from _packages_inside()
      #; package Module::Metadata::_version::p${pn};
      use version;
      sub {
        local $sigil$variable_name;
        $line;
        \$$variable_name
      };
    };
  
    $eval = $1 if $eval =~ m{^(.+)}s;
  
    local $^W;
    # Try to get the $VERSION
    my $vsub = __clean_eval($eval);
    # some modules say $VERSION <equal sign> $Foo::Bar::VERSION, but Foo::Bar isn't
    # installed, so we need to hunt in ./lib for it
    if ( $@ =~ /Can't locate/ && -d 'lib' ) {
      local @INC = ('lib',@INC);
      $vsub = __clean_eval($eval);
    }
    warn "Error evaling version line '$eval' in $self->{filename}: $@\n"
      if $@;
  
    (ref($vsub) eq 'CODE') or
      croak "failed to build version sub for $self->{filename}";
  
    my $result = eval { $vsub->() };
    # FIXME: $eval is not the right thing to print here
    croak "Could not get version from $self->{filename} by executing:\n$eval\n\nThe fatal error was: $@\n"
      if $@;
  
    # Upgrade it into a version object
    my $version = eval { _dwim_version($result) };
  
    # FIXME: $eval is not the right thing to print here
    croak "Version '$result' from $self->{filename} does not appear to be valid:\n$eval\n\nThe fatal error was: $@\n"
      unless defined $version; # "0" is OK!
  
    return $version;
  }
  }
  
  # Try to DWIM when things fail the lax version test in obvious ways
  {
    my @version_prep = (
      # Best case, it just works
      sub { return shift },
  
      # If we still don't have a version, try stripping any
      # trailing junk that is prohibited by lax rules
      sub {
        my $v = shift;
        $v =~ s{([0-9])[a-z-].*$}{$1}i; # 1.23-alpha or 1.23b
        return $v;
      },
  
      # Activestate apparently creates custom versions like '1.23_45_01', which
      # cause version.pm to think it's an invalid alpha.  So check for that
      # and strip them
      sub {
        my $v = shift;
        my $num_dots = () = $v =~ m{(\.)}g;
        my $num_unders = () = $v =~ m{(_)}g;
        my $leading_v = substr($v,0,1) eq 'v';
        if ( ! $leading_v && $num_dots < 2 && $num_unders > 1 ) {
          $v =~ s{_}{}g;
          $num_unders = () = $v =~ m{(_)}g;
        }
        return $v;
      },
  
      # Worst case, try numifying it like we would have before version objects
      sub {
        my $v = shift;
        no warnings 'numeric';
        return 0 + $v;
      },
  
    );
  
    sub _dwim_version {
      my ($result) = shift;
  
      return $result if ref($result) eq 'version';
  
      my ($version, $error);
      for my $f (@version_prep) {
        $result = $f->($result);
        $version = eval { version->new($result) };
        $error ||= $@ if $@; # capture first failure
        last if defined $version;
      }
  
      croak $error unless defined $version;
  
      return $version;
    }
  }
  
  ############################################################
  
  # accessors
  sub name            { $_[0]->{module}            }
  
  sub filename        { $_[0]->{filename}          }
  sub packages_inside { @{$_[0]->{packages}}       }
  sub pod_inside      { @{$_[0]->{pod_headings}}   }
  sub contains_pod    { 0+@{$_[0]->{pod_headings}} }
  
  sub version {
      my $self = shift;
      my $mod  = shift || $self->{module};
      my $vers;
      if ( defined( $mod ) && length( $mod ) &&
           exists( $self->{versions}{$mod} ) ) {
          return $self->{versions}{$mod};
      } else {
          return undef;
      }
  }
  
  sub pod {
      my $self = shift;
      my $sect = shift;
      if ( defined( $sect ) && length( $sect ) &&
           exists( $self->{pod}{$sect} ) ) {
          return $self->{pod}{$sect};
      } else {
          return undef;
      }
  }
  
  sub is_indexable {
    my ($self, $package) = @_;
  
    my @indexable_packages = grep { $_ ne 'main' } $self->packages_inside;
  
    # check for specific package, if provided
    return !! grep { $_ eq $package } @indexable_packages if $package;
  
    # otherwise, check for any indexable packages at all
    return !! @indexable_packages;
  }
  
  1;
  
  =head1 NAME
  
  Module::Metadata - Gather package and POD information from perl module files
  
  =head1 SYNOPSIS
  
    use Module::Metadata;
  
    # information about a .pm file
    my $info = Module::Metadata->new_from_file( $file );
    my $version = $info->version;
  
    # CPAN META 'provides' field for .pm files in a directory
    my $provides = Module::Metadata->provides(
      dir => 'lib', version => 2
    );
  
  =head1 DESCRIPTION
  
  This module provides a standard way to gather metadata about a .pm file through
  (mostly) static analysis and (some) code execution.  When determining the
  version of a module, the C<$VERSION> assignment is C<eval>ed, as is traditional
  in the CPAN toolchain.
  
  =head1 CLASS METHODS
  
  =head2 C<< new_from_file($filename, collect_pod => 1) >>
  
  Constructs a C<Module::Metadata> object given the path to a file.  Returns
  undef if the filename does not exist.
  
  C<collect_pod> is a optional boolean argument that determines whether POD
  data is collected and stored for reference.  POD data is not collected by
  default.  POD headings are always collected.
  
  If the file begins by an UTF-8, UTF-16BE or UTF-16LE byte-order mark, then
  it is skipped before processing, and the content of the file is also decoded
  appropriately starting from perl 5.8.
  
  =head2 C<< new_from_handle($handle, $filename, collect_pod => 1) >>
  
  This works just like C<new_from_file>, except that a handle can be provided
  as the first argument.
  
  Note that there is no validation to confirm that the handle is a handle or
  something that can act like one.  Passing something that isn't a handle will
  cause a exception when trying to read from it.  The C<filename> argument is
  mandatory or undef will be returned.
  
  You are responsible for setting the decoding layers on C<$handle> if
  required.
  
  =head2 C<< new_from_module($module, collect_pod => 1, inc => \@dirs) >>
  
  Constructs a C<Module::Metadata> object given a module or package name.
  Returns undef if the module cannot be found.
  
  In addition to accepting the C<collect_pod> argument as described above,
  this method accepts a C<inc> argument which is a reference to an array of
  directories to search for the module.  If none are given, the default is
  @INC.
  
  If the file that contains the module begins by an UTF-8, UTF-16BE or
  UTF-16LE byte-order mark, then it is skipped before processing, and the
  content of the file is also decoded appropriately starting from perl 5.8.
  
  =head2 C<< find_module_by_name($module, \@dirs) >>
  
  Returns the path to a module given the module or package name. A list
  of directories can be passed in as an optional parameter, otherwise
  @INC is searched.
  
  Can be called as either an object or a class method.
  
  =head2 C<< find_module_dir_by_name($module, \@dirs) >>
  
  Returns the entry in C<@dirs> (or C<@INC> by default) that contains
  the module C<$module>. A list of directories can be passed in as an
  optional parameter, otherwise @INC is searched.
  
  Can be called as either an object or a class method.
  
  =head2 C<< provides( %options ) >>
  
  This is a convenience wrapper around C<package_versions_from_directory>
  to generate a CPAN META C<provides> data structure.  It takes key/value
  pairs.  Valid option keys include:
  
  =over
  
  =item version B<(required)>
  
  Specifies which version of the L<CPAN::Meta::Spec> should be used as
  the format of the C<provides> output.  Currently only '1.4' and '2'
  are supported (and their format is identical).  This may change in
  the future as the definition of C<provides> changes.
  
  The C<version> option is required.  If it is omitted or if
  an unsupported version is given, then C<provides> will throw an error.
  
  =item dir
  
  Directory to search recursively for F<.pm> files.  May not be specified with
  C<files>.
  
  =item files
  
  Array reference of files to examine.  May not be specified with C<dir>.
  
  =item prefix
  
  String to prepend to the C<file> field of the resulting output. This defaults
  to F<lib>, which is the common case for most CPAN distributions with their
  F<.pm> files in F<lib>.  This option ensures the META information has the
  correct relative path even when the C<dir> or C<files> arguments are
  absolute or have relative paths from a location other than the distribution
  root.
  
  =back
  
  For example, given C<dir> of 'lib' and C<prefix> of 'lib', the return value
  is a hashref of the form:
  
    {
      'Package::Name' => {
        version => '0.123',
        file => 'lib/Package/Name.pm'
      },
      'OtherPackage::Name' => ...
    }
  
  =head2 C<< package_versions_from_directory($dir, \@files?) >>
  
  Scans C<$dir> for .pm files (unless C<@files> is given, in which case looks
  for those files in C<$dir> - and reads each file for packages and versions,
  returning a hashref of the form:
  
    {
      'Package::Name' => {
        version => '0.123',
        file => 'Package/Name.pm'
      },
      'OtherPackage::Name' => ...
    }
  
  The C<DB> and C<main> packages are always omitted, as are any "private"
  packages that have leading underscores in the namespace (e.g.
  C<Foo::_private>)
  
  Note that the file path is relative to C<$dir> if that is specified.
  This B<must not> be used directly for CPAN META C<provides>.  See
  the C<provides> method instead.
  
  =head2 C<< log_info (internal) >>
  
  Used internally to perform logging; imported from Log::Contextual if
  Log::Contextual has already been loaded, otherwise simply calls warn.
  
  =head1 OBJECT METHODS
  
  =head2 C<< name() >>
  
  Returns the name of the package represented by this module. If there
  is more than one package, it makes a best guess based on the
  filename. If it's a script (i.e. not a *.pm) the package name is
  'main'.
  
  =head2 C<< version($package) >>
  
  Returns the version as defined by the $VERSION variable for the
  package as returned by the C<name> method if no arguments are
  given. If given the name of a package it will attempt to return the
  version of that package if it is specified in the file.
  
  =head2 C<< filename() >>
  
  Returns the absolute path to the file.
  Note that this file may not actually exist on disk yet, e.g. if the module was read from an in-memory filehandle.
  
  =head2 C<< packages_inside() >>
  
  Returns a list of packages. Note: this is a raw list of packages
  discovered (or assumed, in the case of C<main>).  It is not
  filtered for C<DB>, C<main> or private packages the way the
  C<provides> method does.  Invalid package names are not returned,
  for example "Foo:Bar".  Strange but valid package names are
  returned, for example "Foo::Bar::", and are left up to the caller
  on how to handle.
  
  =head2 C<< pod_inside() >>
  
  Returns a list of POD sections.
  
  =head2 C<< contains_pod() >>
  
  Returns true if there is any POD in the file.
  
  =head2 C<< pod($section) >>
  
  Returns the POD data in the given section.
  
  =head2 C<< is_indexable($package) >> or C<< is_indexable() >>
  
  Returns a boolean indicating whether the package (if provided) or any package
  (otherwise) is eligible for indexing by PAUSE, the Perl Authors Upload Server.
  Note This only checks for valid C<package> declarations, and does not take any
  ownership information into account.
  
  =head1 AUTHOR
  
  Original code from Module::Build::ModuleInfo by Ken Williams
  <kwilliams@cpan.org>, Randy W. Sims <RandyS@ThePierianSpring.org>
  
  Released as Module::Metadata by Matt S Trout (mst) <mst@shadowcat.co.uk> with
  assistance from David Golden (xdg) <dagolden@cpan.org>.
  
  =head1 COPYRIGHT & LICENSE
  
  Original code Copyright (c) 2001-2011 Ken Williams.
  Additional code Copyright (c) 2010-2011 Matt Trout and David Golden.
  All rights reserved.
  
  This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
  modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.
  
  =cut
MODULE_METADATA

$fatpacked{"Parse/CPAN/Meta.pm"} = '#line '.(1+__LINE__).' "'.__FILE__."\"\n".<<'PARSE_CPAN_META';
  use 5.008001;
  use strict;
  package Parse::CPAN::Meta;
  # ABSTRACT: Parse META.yml and META.json CPAN metadata files
  our $VERSION = '1.4414'; # VERSION
  
  use Exporter;
  use Carp 'croak';
  
  our @ISA = qw/Exporter/;
  our @EXPORT_OK = qw/Load LoadFile/;
  
  sub load_file {
    my ($class, $filename) = @_;
  
    my $meta = _slurp($filename);
  
    if ($filename =~ /\.ya?ml$/) {
      return $class->load_yaml_string($meta);
    }
    elsif ($filename =~ /\.json$/) {
      return $class->load_json_string($meta);
    }
    else {
      $class->load_string($meta); # try to detect yaml/json
    }
  }
  
  sub load_string {
    my ($class, $string) = @_;
    if ( $string =~ /^---/ ) { # looks like YAML
      return $class->load_yaml_string($string);
    }
    elsif ( $string =~ /^\s*\{/ ) { # looks like JSON
      return $class->load_json_string($string);
    }
    else { # maybe doc-marker-free YAML
      return $class->load_yaml_string($string);
    }
  }
  
  sub load_yaml_string {
    my ($class, $string) = @_;
    my $backend = $class->yaml_backend();
    my $data = eval { no strict 'refs'; &{"$backend\::Load"}($string) };
    croak $@ if $@;
    return $data || {}; # in case document was valid but empty
  }
  
  sub load_json_string {
    my ($class, $string) = @_;
    my $data = eval { $class->json_backend()->new->decode($string) };
    croak $@ if $@;
    return $data || {};
  }
  
  sub yaml_backend {
    if (! defined $ENV{PERL_YAML_BACKEND} ) {
      _can_load( 'CPAN::Meta::YAML', 0.011 )
        or croak "CPAN::Meta::YAML 0.011 is not available\n";
      return "CPAN::Meta::YAML";
    }
    else {
      my $backend = $ENV{PERL_YAML_BACKEND};
      _can_load( $backend )
        or croak "Could not load PERL_YAML_BACKEND '$backend'\n";
      $backend->can("Load")
        or croak "PERL_YAML_BACKEND '$backend' does not implement Load()\n";
      return $backend;
    }
  }
  
  sub json_backend {
    if (! $ENV{PERL_JSON_BACKEND} or $ENV{PERL_JSON_BACKEND} eq 'JSON::PP') {
      _can_load( 'JSON::PP' => 2.27103 )
        or croak "JSON::PP 2.27103 is not available\n";
      return 'JSON::PP';
    }
    else {
      _can_load( 'JSON' => 2.5 )
        or croak  "JSON 2.5 is required for " .
                  "\$ENV{PERL_JSON_BACKEND} = '$ENV{PERL_JSON_BACKEND}'\n";
      return "JSON";
    }
  }
  
  sub _slurp {
    require Encode;
    open my $fh, "<:raw", "$_[0]" ## no critic
      or die "can't open $_[0] for reading: $!";
    my $content = do { local $/; <$fh> };
    $content = Encode::decode('UTF-8', $content, Encode::PERLQQ());
    return $content;
  }
    
  sub _can_load {
    my ($module, $version) = @_;
    (my $file = $module) =~ s{::}{/}g;
    $file .= ".pm";
    return 1 if $INC{$file};
    return 0 if exists $INC{$file}; # prior load failed
    eval { require $file; 1 }
      or return 0;
    if ( defined $version ) {
      eval { $module->VERSION($version); 1 }
        or return 0;
    }
    return 1;
  }
  
  # Kept for backwards compatibility only
  # Create an object from a file
  sub LoadFile ($) {
    return Load(_slurp(shift));
  }
  
  # Parse a document from a string.
  sub Load ($) {
    require CPAN::Meta::YAML;
    my $object = eval { CPAN::Meta::YAML::Load(shift) };
    croak $@ if $@;
    return $object;
  }
  
  1;
  
  __END__
  
  =pod
  
  =encoding UTF-8
  
  =head1 NAME
  
  Parse::CPAN::Meta - Parse META.yml and META.json CPAN metadata files
  
  =head1 VERSION
  
  version 1.4414
  
  =head1 SYNOPSIS
  
      #############################################
      # In your file
      
      ---
      name: My-Distribution
      version: 1.23
      resources:
        homepage: "http://example.com/dist/My-Distribution"
      
      
      #############################################
      # In your program
      
      use Parse::CPAN::Meta;
      
      my $distmeta = Parse::CPAN::Meta->load_file('META.yml');
      
      # Reading properties
      my $name     = $distmeta->{name};
      my $version  = $distmeta->{version};
      my $homepage = $distmeta->{resources}{homepage};
  
  =head1 DESCRIPTION
  
  B<Parse::CPAN::Meta> is a parser for F<META.json> and F<META.yml> files, using
  L<JSON::PP> and/or L<CPAN::Meta::YAML>.
  
  B<Parse::CPAN::Meta> provides three methods: C<load_file>, C<load_json_string>,
  and C<load_yaml_string>.  These will read and deserialize CPAN metafiles, and
  are described below in detail.
  
  B<Parse::CPAN::Meta> provides a legacy API of only two functions,
  based on the YAML functions of the same name. Wherever possible,
  identical calling semantics are used.  These may only be used with YAML sources.
  
  All error reporting is done with exceptions (die'ing).
  
  Note that META files are expected to be in UTF-8 encoding, only.  When
  converted string data, it must first be decoded from UTF-8.
  
  =begin Pod::Coverage
  
  
  
  
  =end Pod::Coverage
  
  =head1 METHODS
  
  =head2 load_file
  
    my $metadata_structure = Parse::CPAN::Meta->load_file('META.json');
  
    my $metadata_structure = Parse::CPAN::Meta->load_file('META.yml');
  
  This method will read the named file and deserialize it to a data structure,
  determining whether it should be JSON or YAML based on the filename.
  The file will be read using the ":utf8" IO layer.
  
  =head2 load_yaml_string
  
    my $metadata_structure = Parse::CPAN::Meta->load_yaml_string($yaml_string);
  
  This method deserializes the given string of YAML and returns the first
  document in it.  (CPAN metadata files should always have only one document.)
  If the source was UTF-8 encoded, the string must be decoded before calling
  C<load_yaml_string>.
  
  =head2 load_json_string
  
    my $metadata_structure = Parse::CPAN::Meta->load_json_string($json_string);
  
  This method deserializes the given string of JSON and the result.  
  If the source was UTF-8 encoded, the string must be decoded before calling
  C<load_json_string>.
  
  =head2 load_string
  
    my $metadata_structure = Parse::CPAN::Meta->load_string($some_string);
  
  If you don't know whether a string contains YAML or JSON data, this method
  will use some heuristics and guess.  If it can't tell, it assumes YAML.
  
  =head2 yaml_backend
  
    my $backend = Parse::CPAN::Meta->yaml_backend;
  
  Returns the module name of the YAML serializer. See L</ENVIRONMENT>
  for details.
  
  =head2 json_backend
  
    my $backend = Parse::CPAN::Meta->json_backend;
  
  Returns the module name of the JSON serializer.  This will either
  be L<JSON::PP> or L<JSON>.  Even if C<PERL_JSON_BACKEND> is set,
  this will return L<JSON> as further delegation is handled by
  the L<JSON> module.  See L</ENVIRONMENT> for details.
  
  =head1 FUNCTIONS
  
  For maintenance clarity, no functions are exported by default.  These functions
  are available for backwards compatibility only and are best avoided in favor of
  C<load_file>.
  
  =head2 Load
  
    my @yaml = Parse::CPAN::Meta::Load( $string );
  
  Parses a string containing a valid YAML stream into a list of Perl data
  structures.
  
  =head2 LoadFile
  
    my @yaml = Parse::CPAN::Meta::LoadFile( 'META.yml' );
  
  Reads the YAML stream from a file instead of a string.
  
  =head1 ENVIRONMENT
  
  =head2 PERL_JSON_BACKEND
  
  By default, L<JSON::PP> will be used for deserializing JSON data. If the
  C<PERL_JSON_BACKEND> environment variable exists, is true and is not
  "JSON::PP", then the L<JSON> module (version 2.5 or greater) will be loaded and
  used to interpret C<PERL_JSON_BACKEND>.  If L<JSON> is not installed or is too
  old, an exception will be thrown.
  
  =head2 PERL_YAML_BACKEND
  
  By default, L<CPAN::Meta::YAML> will be used for deserializing YAML data. If
  the C<PERL_YAML_BACKEND> environment variable is defined, then it is interpreted
  as a module to use for deserialization.  The given module must be installed,
  must load correctly and must implement the C<Load()> function or an exception
  will be thrown.
  
  =for :stopwords cpan testmatrix url annocpan anno bugtracker rt cpants kwalitee diff irc mailto metadata placeholders metacpan
  
  =head1 SUPPORT
  
  =head2 Bugs / Feature Requests
  
  Please report any bugs or feature requests through the issue tracker
  at L<http://rt.cpan.org/Public/Dist/Display.html?Name=Parse-CPAN-Meta>.
  You will be notified automatically of any progress on your issue.
  
  =head2 Source Code
  
  This is open source software.  The code repository is available for
  public review and contribution under the terms of the license.
  
  L<https://github.com/Perl-Toolchain-Gang/Parse-CPAN-Meta>
  
    git clone https://github.com/Perl-Toolchain-Gang/Parse-CPAN-Meta.git
  
  =head1 AUTHORS
  
  =over 4
  
  =item *
  
  Adam Kennedy <adamk@cpan.org>
  
  =item *
  
  David Golden <dagolden@cpan.org>
  
  =back
  
  =head1 CONTRIBUTORS
  
  =over 4
  
  =item *
  
  Graham Knop <haarg@haarg.org>
  
  =item *
  
  Joshua ben Jore <jjore@cpan.org>
  
  =item *
  
  Neil Bowers <neil@bowers.com>
  
  =item *
  
  Ricardo Signes <rjbs@cpan.org>
  
  =item *
  
  Steffen Mueller <smueller@cpan.org>
  
  =back
  
  =head1 COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE
  
  This software is copyright (c) 2014 by Adam Kennedy and Contributors.
  
  This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
  the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.
  
  =cut
PARSE_CPAN_META

$fatpacked{"Parse/PMFile.pm"} = '#line '.(1+__LINE__).' "'.__FILE__."\"\n".<<'PARSE_PMFILE';
  package Parse::PMFile;
  
  sub __clean_eval { eval $_[0] } # needs to be here (RT#101273)
  
  use strict;
  use warnings;
  use Safe;
  use JSON::PP ();
  use Dumpvalue;
  use version ();
  use File::Spec ();
  
  our $VERSION = '0.36';
  our $VERBOSE = 0;
  our $ALLOW_DEV_VERSION = 0;
  our $FORK = 0;
  our $UNSAFE = $] < 5.010000 ? 1 : 0;
  
  sub new {
      my ($class, $meta, $opts) = @_;
      bless {%{ $opts || {} }, META_CONTENT => $meta}, $class;
  }
  
  # from PAUSE::pmfile::examine_fio
  sub parse {
      my ($self, $pmfile) = @_;
  
      $pmfile =~ s|\\|/|g;
  
      my($filemtime) = (stat $pmfile)[9];
      $self->{MTIME} = $filemtime;
      $self->{PMFILE} = $pmfile;
  
      unless ($self->_version_from_meta_ok) {
          my $version;
          unless (eval { $version = $self->_parse_version; 1 }) {
            $self->_verbose(1, "error with version in $pmfile: $@");
            return;
          }
  
          $self->{VERSION} = $version;
          if ($self->{VERSION} =~ /^\{.*\}$/) {
              # JSON error message
          } elsif ($self->{VERSION} =~ /[_\s]/ && !$self->{ALLOW_DEV_VERSION} && !$ALLOW_DEV_VERSION){   # ignore developer releases and "You suck!"
              return;
          }
      }
  
      my($ppp) = $self->_packages_per_pmfile;
      my @keys_ppp = $self->_filter_ppps(sort keys %$ppp);
      $self->_verbose(1,"Will check keys_ppp[@keys_ppp]\n");
  
      #
      # Immediately after each package (pmfile) examined contact
      # the database
      #
  
      my ($package, %errors);
      my %checked_in;
    DBPACK: foreach $package (@keys_ppp) {
          # this part is taken from PAUSE::package::examine_pkg
          # and PAUSE::package::_pkg_name_insane
          if ($package !~ /^\w[\w\:\']*\w?\z/
           || $package !~ /\w\z/
           || $package =~ /:/ && $package !~ /::/
           || $package =~ /\w:\w/
           || $package =~ /:::/
          ){
              $self->_verbose(1,"Package[$package] did not pass the ultimate sanity check");
              delete $ppp->{$package};
              next;
          }
  
          if ($self->{USERID} && $self->{PERMISSIONS} && !$self->_perm_check($package)) {
              delete $ppp->{$package};
              next;
          }
  
          # Check that package name matches case of file name
          {
            my (undef, $module) = split m{/lib/}, $self->{PMFILE}, 2;
            if ($module) {
              $module =~ s{\.pm\z}{};
              $module =~ s{/}{::}g;
  
              if (lc $module eq lc $package && $module ne $package) {
                # warn "/// $self->{PMFILE} vs. $module vs. $package\n";
                $errors{$package} = {
                  indexing_warning => "Capitalization of package ($package) does not match filename!",
                  infile => $self->{PMFILE},
                };
              }
            }
          }
  
          my $pp = $ppp->{$package};
          if ($pp->{version} && $pp->{version} =~ /^\{.*\}$/) { # JSON parser error
              my $err = JSON::PP::decode_json($pp->{version});
              if ($err->{x_normalize}) {
                  $errors{$package} = {
                      normalize => $err->{version},
                      infile => $pp->{infile},
                  };
                  $pp->{version} = "undef";
              } elsif ($err->{openerr}) {
                  $pp->{version} = "undef";
                  $self->_verbose(1,
                                qq{Parse::PMFile was not able to
          read the file. It issued the following error: C< $err->{r} >},
                                );
                  $errors{$package} = {
                      open => $err->{r},
                      infile => $pp->{infile},
                  };
              } else {
                  $pp->{version} = "undef";
                  $self->_verbose(1, 
                                qq{Parse::PMFile was not able to
          parse the following line in that file: C< $err->{line} >
  
          Note: the indexer is running in a Safe compartement and cannot
          provide the full functionality of perl in the VERSION line. It
          is trying hard, but sometime it fails. As a workaround, please
          consider writing a META.yml that contains a 'provides'
          attribute or contact the CPAN admins to investigate (yet
          another) workaround against "Safe" limitations.)},
  
                                );
                  $errors{$package} = {
                      parse_version => $err->{line},
                      infile => $err->{file},
                  };
              }
          }
  
          # Sanity checks
  
          for (
              $package,
              $pp->{version},
          ) {
              if (!defined || /^\s*$/ || /\s/){  # for whatever reason I come here
                  delete $ppp->{$package};
                  next;            # don't screw up 02packages
              }
          }
          $checked_in{$package} = $ppp->{$package};
      }                       # end foreach package
  
      return (wantarray && %errors) ? (\%checked_in, \%errors) : \%checked_in;
  }
  
  sub _perm_check {
      my ($self, $package) = @_;
      my $userid = $self->{USERID};
      my $module = $self->{PERMISSIONS}->module_permissions($package);
      return 1 if !$module; # not listed yet
      return 1 if defined $module->m && $module->m eq $userid;
      return 1 if defined $module->f && $module->f eq $userid;
      return 1 if defined $module->c && grep {$_ eq $userid} @{$module->c};
      return;
  }
  
  # from PAUSE::pmfile;
  sub _parse_version {
      my $self = shift;
  
      use strict;
  
      my $pmfile = $self->{PMFILE};
      my $tmpfile = File::Spec->catfile(File::Spec->tmpdir, "ParsePMFile$$" . rand(1000));
  
      my $pmcp = $pmfile;
      for ($pmcp) {
          s/([^\\](\\\\)*)@/$1\\@/g; # thanks to Raphael Manfredi for the
          # solution to escape @s and \
      }
      my($v);
      {
  
          package main; # seems necessary
  
          # XXX: do we need to fork as PAUSE does?
          # or, is alarm() just fine?
          my $pid;
          if ($self->{FORK} || $FORK) {
              $pid = fork();
              die "Can't fork: $!" unless defined $pid;
          }
          if ($pid) {
              waitpid($pid, 0);
              if (open my $fh, '<', $tmpfile) {
                  $v = <$fh>;
              }
          } else {
              # XXX Limit Resources too
  
              my($comp) = Safe->new;
              my $eval = qq{
                  local(\$^W) = 0;
                  Parse::PMFile::_parse_version_safely("$pmcp");
              };
              $comp->permit("entereval"); # for MBARBON/Module-Info-0.30.tar.gz
              $comp->share("*Parse::PMFile::_parse_version_safely");
              $comp->share("*version::new");
              $comp->share("*version::numify");
              $comp->share_from('main', ['*version::',
                                          '*charstar::',
                                          '*Exporter::',
                                          '*DynaLoader::']);
              $comp->share_from('version', ['&qv']);
              $comp->permit(":base_math"); # atan2 (Acme-Pi)
              # $comp->permit("require"); # no strict!
              $comp->deny(qw/enteriter iter unstack goto/); # minimum protection against Acme::BadExample
  
              version->import('qv') if $self->{UNSAFE} || $UNSAFE;
              {
                  no strict;
                  $v = ($self->{UNSAFE} || $UNSAFE) ? eval $eval : $comp->reval($eval);
              }
              if ($@){ # still in the child process, out of Safe::reval
                  my $err = $@;
                  # warn ">>>>>>>err[$err]<<<<<<<<";
                  if (ref $err) {
                      if ($err->{line} =~ /([\$*])([\w\:\']*)\bVERSION\b.*?\=(.*)/) {
                          local($^W) = 0;
                          my ($sigil, $vstr) = ($1, $3);
                          $self->_restore_overloaded_stuff(1) if $err->{line} =~ /use\s+version\b|version\->|qv\(/;
                          $v = ($self->{UNSAFE} || $UNSAFE) ? eval $vstr : $comp->reval($vstr);
                          $v = $$v if $sigil eq '*' && ref $v;
                      }
                      if ($@ or !$v) {
                          $self->_verbose(1, sprintf("reval failed: err[%s] for eval[%s]",
                                        JSON::PP::encode_json($err),
                                        $eval,
                                      ));
                          $v = JSON::PP::encode_json($err);
                      }
                  } else {
                      $v = JSON::PP::encode_json({ openerr => $err });
                  }
              }
              if (defined $v) {
                  $v = $v->numify if ref($v) =~ /^version(::vpp)?$/;
              } else {
                  $v = "";
              }
              if ($self->{FORK} || $FORK) {
                  open my $fh, '>:utf8', $tmpfile;
                  print $fh $v;
                  exit 0;
              } else {
                  utf8::encode($v);
                  # undefine empty $v as if read from the tmpfile
                  $v = undef if defined $v && !length $v;
                  $comp->erase;
                  $self->_restore_overloaded_stuff;
              }
          }
      }
      unlink $tmpfile if ($self->{FORK} || $FORK) && -e $tmpfile;
  
      return $self->_normalize_version($v);
  }
  
  sub _restore_overloaded_stuff {
      my ($self, $used_version_in_safe) = @_;
      return if $self->{UNSAFE} || $UNSAFE;
  
      no strict 'refs';
      no warnings 'redefine';
  
      # version XS in CPAN
      my $restored;
      if ($INC{'version/vxs.pm'}) {
          *{'version::(""'} = \&version::vxs::stringify;
          *{'version::(0+'} = \&version::vxs::numify;
          *{'version::(cmp'} = \&version::vxs::VCMP;
          *{'version::(<=>'} = \&version::vxs::VCMP;
          *{'version::(bool'} = \&version::vxs::boolean;
          $restored = 1;
      }
      # version PP in CPAN
      if ($INC{'version/vpp.pm'}) {
          {
              package # hide from PAUSE
                  charstar;
              overload->import;
          }
          if (!$used_version_in_safe) {
              package # hide from PAUSE
                  version::vpp;
              overload->import;
          }
          unless ($restored) {
              *{'version::(""'} = \&version::vpp::stringify;
              *{'version::(0+'} = \&version::vpp::numify;
              *{'version::(cmp'} = \&version::vpp::vcmp;
              *{'version::(<=>'} = \&version::vpp::vcmp;
              *{'version::(bool'} = \&version::vpp::vbool;
          }
          *{'version::vpp::(""'} = \&version::vpp::stringify;
          *{'version::vpp::(0+'} = \&version::vpp::numify;
          *{'version::vpp::(cmp'} = \&version::vpp::vcmp;
          *{'version::vpp::(<=>'} = \&version::vpp::vcmp;
          *{'version::vpp::(bool'} = \&version::vpp::vbool;
          *{'charstar::(""'} = \&charstar::thischar;
          *{'charstar::(0+'} = \&charstar::thischar;
          *{'charstar::(++'} = \&charstar::increment;
          *{'charstar::(--'} = \&charstar::decrement;
          *{'charstar::(+'} = \&charstar::plus;
          *{'charstar::(-'} = \&charstar::minus;
          *{'charstar::(*'} = \&charstar::multiply;
          *{'charstar::(cmp'} = \&charstar::cmp;
          *{'charstar::(<=>'} = \&charstar::spaceship;
          *{'charstar::(bool'} = \&charstar::thischar;
          *{'charstar::(='} = \&charstar::clone;
          $restored = 1;
      }
      # version in core
      if (!$restored) {
          *{'version::(""'} = \&version::stringify;
          *{'version::(0+'} = \&version::numify;
          *{'version::(cmp'} = \&version::vcmp;
          *{'version::(<=>'} = \&version::vcmp;
          *{'version::(bool'} = \&version::boolean;
      }
  }
  
  # from PAUSE::pmfile;
  sub _packages_per_pmfile {
      my $self = shift;
  
      my $ppp = {};
      my $pmfile = $self->{PMFILE};
      my $filemtime = $self->{MTIME};
      my $version = $self->{VERSION};
  
      open my $fh, "<", "$pmfile" or return $ppp;
  
      local $/ = "\n";
      my $inpod = 0;
  
    PLINE: while (<$fh>) {
          chomp;
          my($pline) = $_;
          $inpod = $pline =~ /^=(?!cut)/ ? 1 :
              $pline =~ /^=cut/ ? 0 : $inpod;
          next if $inpod;
          next if substr($pline,0,4) eq "=cut";
  
          $pline =~ s/\#.*//;
          next if $pline =~ /^\s*$/;
          if ($pline =~ /^__(?:END|DATA)__\b/
              and $pmfile !~ /\.PL$/   # PL files may well have code after __DATA__
              ){
              last PLINE;
          }
  
          my $pkg;
          my $strict_version;
  
          if (
              $pline =~ m{
                        # (.*) # takes too much time if $pline is long
                        (?<![*\$\\@%&]) # no sigils
                        \bpackage\s+
                        ([\w\:\']+)
                        \s*
                        (?: $ | [\}\;] | \{ | \s+($version::STRICT) )
                      }x) {
              $pkg = $1;
              $strict_version = $2;
              if ($pkg eq "DB"){
                  # XXX if pumpkin and perl make him comaintainer! I
                  # think I always made the pumpkins comaint on DB
                  # without further ado (?)
                  next PLINE;
              }
          }
  
          if ($pkg) {
              # Found something
  
              # from package
              $pkg =~ s/\'/::/;
              next PLINE unless $pkg =~ /^[A-Za-z]/;
              next PLINE unless $pkg =~ /\w$/;
              next PLINE if $pkg eq "main";
              # Perl::Critic::Policy::TestingAndDebugging::ProhibitShebangWarningsArg
              # database for modid in mods, package in packages, package in perms
              # alter table mods modify modid varchar(128) binary NOT NULL default '';
              # alter table packages modify package varchar(128) binary NOT NULL default '';
              next PLINE if length($pkg) > 128;
              #restriction
              $ppp->{$pkg}{parsed}++;
              $ppp->{$pkg}{infile} = $pmfile;
              if ($self->_simile($pmfile,$pkg)) {
                  $ppp->{$pkg}{simile} = $pmfile;
                  if ($self->_version_from_meta_ok) {
                      my $provides = $self->{META_CONTENT}{provides};
                      if (exists $provides->{$pkg}) {
                          if (defined $provides->{$pkg}{version}) {
                              my $v = $provides->{$pkg}{version};
                              if ($v =~ /[_\s]/ && !$self->{ALLOW_DEV_VERSION} && !$ALLOW_DEV_VERSION){   # ignore developer releases and "You suck!"
                                  next PLINE;
                              }
  
                              unless (eval { $version = $self->_normalize_version($v); 1 }) {
                                $self->_verbose(1, "error with version in $pmfile: $@");
                                next;
  
                              }
                              $ppp->{$pkg}{version} = $version;
                          } else {
                              $ppp->{$pkg}{version} = "undef";
                          }
                      }
                  } else {
                      if (defined $strict_version){
                          $ppp->{$pkg}{version} = $strict_version ;
                      } else {
                          $ppp->{$pkg}{version} = defined $version ? $version : "";
                      }
                      no warnings;
                      if ($version eq 'undef') {
                          $ppp->{$pkg}{version} = $version unless defined $ppp->{$pkg}{version};
                      } else {
                          $ppp->{$pkg}{version} =
                              $version
                                  if $version
                                      > $ppp->{$pkg}{version} ||
                                          $version
                                              gt $ppp->{$pkg}{version};
                      }
                  }
              } else {        # not simile
                  #### it comes later, it would be nonsense
                  #### to set to "undef". MM_Unix gives us
                  #### the best we can reasonably consider
                  $ppp->{$pkg}{version} =
                      $version
                          unless defined $ppp->{$pkg}{version} &&
                              length($ppp->{$pkg}{version});
              }
              $ppp->{$pkg}{filemtime} = $filemtime;
          } else {
              # $self->_verbose(2,"no pkg found");
          }
      }
  
      close $fh;
      $ppp;
  }
  
  # from PAUSE::pmfile;
  {
      no strict;
      sub _parse_version_safely {
          my($parsefile) = @_;
          my $result;
          local *FH;
          local $/ = "\n";
          open(FH,$parsefile) or die "Could not open '$parsefile': $!";
          my $inpod = 0;
          while (<FH>) {
              $inpod = /^=(?!cut)/ ? 1 : /^=cut/ ? 0 : $inpod;
              next if $inpod || /^\s*#/;
              last if /^__(?:END|DATA)__\b/; # fails on quoted __END__ but this is rare -> __END__ in the middle of a line is rarer
              chop;
  
              if (my ($ver) = /package \s+ \S+ \s+ (\S+) \s* [;{]/x) {
                # XXX: should handle this better if version is bogus -- rjbs,
                # 2014-03-16
                return $ver if version::is_lax($ver);
              }
  
              # next unless /\$(([\w\:\']*)\bVERSION)\b.*\=/;
              next unless /(?<!\\)([\$*])(([\w\:\']*)\bVERSION)\b.*(?<![!><=])\=(?![=>])/;
              my $current_parsed_line = $_;
              my $eval = qq{
                  package #
                      ExtUtils::MakeMaker::_version;
  
                  local $1$2;
                  \$$2=undef; do {
                      $_
                  }; \$$2
              };
              local $^W = 0;
              local $SIG{__WARN__} = sub {};
              $result = __clean_eval($eval);
              # warn "current_parsed_line[$current_parsed_line]\$\@[$@]";
              if ($@ or !defined $result){
                  die +{
                        eval => $eval,
                        line => $current_parsed_line,
                        file => $parsefile,
                        err => $@,
                        };
              }
              last;
          } #;
          close FH;
  
          $result = "undef" unless defined $result;
          if ((ref $result) =~ /^version(?:::vpp)?\b/) {
              $result = $result->numify;
          }
          return $result;
      }
  }
  
  # from PAUSE::pmfile;
  sub _filter_ppps {
      my($self,@ppps) = @_;
      my @res;
  
      # very similar code is in PAUSE::dist::filter_pms
    MANI: for my $ppp ( @ppps ) {
          if ($self->{META_CONTENT}){
              my $no_index = $self->{META_CONTENT}{no_index}
                              || $self->{META_CONTENT}{private}; # backward compat
              if (ref($no_index) eq 'HASH') {
                  my %map = (
                              package => qr{\z},
                              namespace => qr{::},
                            );
                  for my $k (qw(package namespace)) {
                      next unless my $v = $no_index->{$k};
                      my $rest = $map{$k};
                      if (ref $v eq "ARRAY") {
                          for my $ve (@$v) {
                              $ve =~ s|::$||;
                              if ($ppp =~ /^$ve$rest/){
                                  $self->_verbose(1,"Skipping ppp[$ppp] due to ve[$ve]");
                                  next MANI;
                              } else {
                                  $self->_verbose(1,"NOT skipping ppp[$ppp] due to ve[$ve]");
                              }
                          }
                      } else {
                          $v =~ s|::$||;
                          if ($ppp =~ /^$v$rest/){
                              $self->_verbose(1,"Skipping ppp[$ppp] due to v[$v]");
                              next MANI;
                          } else {
                              $self->_verbose(1,"NOT skipping ppp[$ppp] due to v[$v]");
                          }
                      }
                  }
              } else {
                  $self->_verbose(1,"No keyword 'no_index' or 'private' in META_CONTENT");
              }
          } else {
              # $self->_verbose(1,"no META_CONTENT"); # too noisy
          }
          push @res, $ppp;
      }
      $self->_verbose(1,"Result of filter_ppps: res[@res]");
      @res;
  }
  
  # from PAUSE::pmfile;
  sub _simile {
      my($self,$file,$package) = @_;
      # MakeMaker gives them the chance to have the file Simple.pm in
      # this directory but have the package HTML::Simple in it.
      # Afaik, they wouldn't be able to do so with deeper nested packages
      $file =~ s|.*/||;
      $file =~ s|\.pm(?:\.PL)?||;
      my $ret = $package =~ m/\b\Q$file\E$/;
      $ret ||= 0;
      unless ($ret) {
          # Apache::mod_perl_guide stuffs it into Version.pm
          $ret = 1 if lc $file eq 'version';
      }
      $self->_verbose(1,"Result of simile(): file[$file] package[$package] ret[$ret]\n");
      $ret;
  }
  
  # from PAUSE::pmfile
  sub _normalize_version {
      my($self,$v) = @_;
      $v = "undef" unless defined $v;
      my $dv = Dumpvalue->new;
      my $sdv = $dv->stringify($v,1); # second argument prevents ticks
      $self->_verbose(1,"Result of normalize_version: sdv[$sdv]\n");
  
      return $v if $v eq "undef";
      return $v if $v =~ /^\{.*\}$/; # JSON object
      $v =~ s/^\s+//;
      $v =~ s/\s+\z//;
      if ($v =~ /_/) {
          # XXX should pass something like EDEVELOPERRELEASE up e.g.
          # SIXTEASE/XML-Entities-0.0306.tar.gz had nothing but one
          # such modules and the mesage was not helpful that "nothing
          # was found".
          return $v ;
      }
      if (!version::is_lax($v)) {
          return JSON::PP::encode_json({ x_normalize => 'version::is_lax failed', version => $v });
      }
      # may warn "Integer overflow"
      my $vv = eval { no warnings; version->new($v)->numify };
      if ($@) {
          # warn "$v: $@";
          return JSON::PP::encode_json({ x_normalize => $@, version => $v });
          # return "undef";
      }
      if ($vv eq $v) {
          # the boring 3.14
      } else {
          my $forced = $self->_force_numeric($v);
          if ($forced eq $vv) {
          } elsif ($forced =~ /^v(.+)/) {
              # rare case where a v1.0.23 slipped in (JANL/w3mir-1.0.10.tar.gz)
              $vv = version->new($1)->numify;
          } else {
              # warn "Unequal forced[$forced] and vv[$vv]";
              if ($forced == $vv) {
                  # the trailing zeroes would cause unnecessary havoc
                  $vv = $forced;
              }
          }
      }
      return $vv;
  }
  
  # from PAUSE::pmfile;
  sub _force_numeric {
      my($self,$v) = @_;
      $v = $self->_readable($v);
  
      if (
          $v =~
          /^(\+?)(\d*)(\.(\d*))?/ &&
          # "$2$4" ne ''
          (
            defined $2 && length $2
            ||
            defined $4 && length $4
          )
          ) {
          my $two = defined $2 ? $2 : "";
          my $three = defined $3 ? $3 : "";
          $v = "$two$three";
      }
      # no else branch! We simply say, everything else is a string.
      $v;
  }
  
  # from PAUSE::dist
  sub _version_from_meta_ok {
    my($self) = @_;
    return $self->{VERSION_FROM_META_OK} if exists $self->{VERSION_FROM_META_OK};
    my $c = $self->{META_CONTENT};
  
    # If there's no provides hash, we can't get our module versions from the
    # provides hash! -- rjbs, 2012-03-31
    return($self->{VERSION_FROM_META_OK} = 0) unless $c->{provides};
  
    # Some versions of Module::Build geneated an empty provides hash.  If we're
    # *not* looking at a Module::Build-generated metafile, then it's okay.
    my ($mb_v) = (defined $c->{generated_by} ? $c->{generated_by} : '') =~ /Module::Build version ([\d\.]+)/;
    return($self->{VERSION_FROM_META_OK} = 1) unless $mb_v;
  
    # ??? I don't know why this is here.
    return($self->{VERSION_FROM_META_OK} = 1) if $mb_v eq '0.250.0';
  
    if ($mb_v >= 0.19 && $mb_v < 0.26 && ! keys %{$c->{provides}}) {
        # RSAVAGE/Javascript-SHA1-1.01.tgz had an empty provides hash. Ron
        # did not find the reason why this happened, but let's not go
        # overboard, 0.26 seems a good threshold from the statistics: there
        # are not many empty provides hashes from 0.26 up.
        return($self->{VERSION_FROM_META_OK} = 0);
    }
  
    # We're not in the suspect range of M::B versions.  It's good to go.
    return($self->{VERSION_FROM_META_OK} = 1);
  }
  
  sub _verbose {
      my($self,$level,@what) = @_;
      warn @what if $level <= ((ref $self && $self->{VERBOSE}) || $VERBOSE);
  }
  
  # all of the following methods are stripped from CPAN::Version
  # (as of version 5.5001, bundled in CPAN 2.03), and slightly
  # modified (ie. made private, as well as CPAN->debug(...) are
  # replaced with $self->_verbose(9, ...).)
  
  # CPAN::Version::vcmp courtesy Jost Krieger
  sub _vcmp {
      my($self,$l,$r) = @_;
      local($^W) = 0;
      $self->_verbose(9, "l[$l] r[$r]");
  
      return 0 if $l eq $r; # short circuit for quicker success
  
      for ($l,$r) {
          s/_//g;
      }
      $self->_verbose(9, "l[$l] r[$r]");
      for ($l,$r) {
          next unless tr/.// > 1 || /^v/;
          s/^v?/v/;
          1 while s/\.0+(\d)/.$1/; # remove leading zeroes per group
      }
      $self->_verbose(9, "l[$l] r[$r]");
      if ($l=~/^v/ <=> $r=~/^v/) {
          for ($l,$r) {
              next if /^v/;
              $_ = $self->_float2vv($_);
          }
      }
      $self->_verbose(9, "l[$l] r[$r]");
      my $lvstring = "v0";
      my $rvstring = "v0";
      if ($] >= 5.006
       && $l =~ /^v/
       && $r =~ /^v/) {
          $lvstring = $self->_vstring($l);
          $rvstring = $self->_vstring($r);
          $self->_verbose(9, sprintf "lv[%vd] rv[%vd]", $lvstring, $rvstring);
      }
  
      return (
              ($l ne "undef") <=> ($r ne "undef")
              ||
              $lvstring cmp $rvstring
              ||
              $l <=> $r
              ||
              $l cmp $r
      );
  }
  
  sub _vgt {
      my($self,$l,$r) = @_;
      $self->_vcmp($l,$r) > 0;
  }
  
  sub _vlt {
      my($self,$l,$r) = @_;
      $self->_vcmp($l,$r) < 0;
  }
  
  sub _vge {
      my($self,$l,$r) = @_;
      $self->_vcmp($l,$r) >= 0;
  }
  
  sub _vle {
      my($self,$l,$r) = @_;
      $self->_vcmp($l,$r) <= 0;
  }
  
  sub _vstring {
      my($self,$n) = @_;
      $n =~ s/^v// or die "Parse::PMFile::_vstring() called with invalid arg [$n]";
      pack "U*", split /\./, $n;
  }
  
  # vv => visible vstring
  sub _float2vv {
      my($self,$n) = @_;
      my($rev) = int($n);
      $rev ||= 0;
      my($mantissa) = $n =~ /\.(\d{1,12})/; # limit to 12 digits to limit
                                            # architecture influence
      $mantissa ||= 0;
      $mantissa .= "0" while length($mantissa)%3;
      my $ret = "v" . $rev;
      while ($mantissa) {
          $mantissa =~ s/(\d{1,3})// or
              die "Panic: length>0 but not a digit? mantissa[$mantissa]";
          $ret .= ".".int($1);
      }
      # warn "n[$n]ret[$ret]";
      $ret =~ s/(\.0)+/.0/; # v1.0.0 => v1.0
      $ret;
  }
  
  sub _readable {
      my($self,$n) = @_;
      $n =~ /^([\w\-\+\.]+)/;
  
      return $1 if defined $1 && length($1)>0;
      # if the first user reaches version v43, he will be treated as "+".
      # We'll have to decide about a new rule here then, depending on what
      # will be the prevailing versioning behavior then.
  
      if ($] < 5.006) { # or whenever v-strings were introduced
          # we get them wrong anyway, whatever we do, because 5.005 will
          # have already interpreted 0.2.4 to be "0.24". So even if he
          # indexer sends us something like "v0.2.4" we compare wrongly.
  
          # And if they say v1.2, then the old perl takes it as "v12"
  
          $self->_verbose(9, "Suspicious version string seen [$n]\n");
          return $n;
      }
      my $better = sprintf "v%vd", $n;
      $self->_verbose(9, "n[$n] better[$better]");
      return $better;
  }
  
  1;
  
  __END__
  
  =head1 NAME
  
  Parse::PMFile - parses .pm file as PAUSE does
  
  =head1 SYNOPSIS
  
      use Parse::PMFile;
  
      my $parser = Parse::PMFile->new($metadata, {VERBOSE => 1});
      my $packages_info = $parser->parse($pmfile);
  
      # if you need info about invalid versions
      my ($packages_info, $errors) = $parser->parse($pmfile);
  
      # to check permissions
      my $parser = Parse::PMFile->new($metadata, {
          USERID => 'ISHIGAKI',
          PERMISSIONS => PAUSE::Permissions->new,
      });
  
  =head1 DESCRIPTION
  
  The most of the code of this module is taken from the PAUSE code as of April 2013 almost verbatim. Thus, the heart of this module should be quite stable. However, I made it not to use pipe ("-|") as well as I stripped database-related code. If you encounter any issue, that's most probably because of my modification.
  
  This module doesn't provide features to extract a distribution or parse meta files intentionally.
  
  =head1 METHODS
  
  =head2 new
  
  creates an object. You can also pass a hashref taken from META.yml etc, and an optional hashref. Options are:
  
  =over 4
  
  =item ALLOW_DEV_VERSION
  
  Parse::PMFile usually ignores a version with an underscore as PAUSE does (because it's for a developer release, and should not be indexed). Set this option to true if you happen to need to keep such a version for better analysis.
  
  =item VERBOSE
  
  Set this to true if you need to know some details.
  
  =item FORK
  
  As of version 0.17, Parse::PMFile stops forking while parsing a version for better performance. Parse::PMFile should return the same result no matter how this option is set, but if you do care, set this to true to fork as PAUSE does.
  
  =item USERID, PERMISSIONS
  
  As of version 0.21, Parse::PMFile checks permissions of a package if both USERID and PERMISSIONS (which should be an instance of L<PAUSE::Permissions>) are provided. Unauthorized packages are removed.
  
  =item UNSAFE
  
  Parse::PMFile usually parses a module version in a Safe compartment. However, this approach doesn't work smoothly under older perls (prior to 5.10) plus some combinations of recent versions of Safe.pm (2.24 and above) and version.pm (0.9905 and above) for various reasons. As of version 0.27, Parse::PMFile simply uses C<eval> to parse a version under older perls. If you want it to use always C<eval> (even under recent perls), set this to true.
  
  =back
  
  =head2 parse
  
  takes a path to a .pm file, and returns a hash reference that holds information for package(s) found in the file.
  
  =head1 SEE ALSO
  
  L<Parse::LocalDistribution>, L<PAUSE::Permissions>
  
  Most part of this module is derived from PAUSE and CPAN::Version.
  
  L<https://github.com/andk/pause>
  
  L<https://github.com/andk/cpanpm>
  
  =head1 AUTHOR
  
  Andreas Koenig E<lt>andreas.koenig@anima.deE<gt>
  
  Kenichi Ishigaki, E<lt>ishigaki@cpan.orgE<gt>
  
  =head1 COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE
  
  Copyright 1995 - 2013 by Andreas Koenig E<lt>andk@cpan.orgE<gt> for most of the code.
  
  Copyright 2013 by Kenichi Ishigaki for some.
  
  This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
  modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.
  
  =cut
PARSE_PMFILE

$fatpacked{"String/ShellQuote.pm"} = '#line '.(1+__LINE__).' "'.__FILE__."\"\n".<<'STRING_SHELLQUOTE';
  # $Id: ShellQuote.pm,v 1.11 2010-06-11 20:08:57 roderick Exp $
  #
  # Copyright (c) 1997 Roderick Schertler.  All rights reserved.  This
  # program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
  # under the same terms as Perl itself.
  
  =head1 NAME
  
  String::ShellQuote - quote strings for passing through the shell
  
  =head1 SYNOPSIS
  
      $string = shell_quote @list;
      $string = shell_quote_best_effort @list;
      $string = shell_comment_quote $string;
  
  =head1 DESCRIPTION
  
  This module contains some functions which are useful for quoting strings
  which are going to pass through the shell or a shell-like object.
  
  =over
  
  =cut
  
  package String::ShellQuote;
  
  use strict;
  use vars qw($VERSION @ISA @EXPORT);
  
  require Exporter;
  
  $VERSION	= '1.04';
  @ISA		= qw(Exporter);
  @EXPORT		= qw(shell_quote shell_quote_best_effort shell_comment_quote);
  
  sub croak {
      require Carp;
      goto &Carp::croak;
  }
  
  sub _shell_quote_backend {
      my @in = @_;
      my @err = ();
  
      if (0) {
  	require RS::Handy;
  	print RS::Handy::data_dump(\@in);
      }
  
      return \@err, '' unless @in;
  
      my $ret = '';
      my $saw_non_equal = 0;
      foreach (@in) {
  	if (!defined $_ or $_ eq '') {
  	    $_ = "''";
  	    next;
  	}
  
  	if (s/\x00//g) {
  	    push @err, "No way to quote string containing null (\\000) bytes";
  	}
  
      	my $escape = 0;
  
  	# = needs quoting when it's the first element (or part of a
  	# series of such elements), as in command position it's a
  	# program-local environment setting
  
  	if (/=/) {
  	    if (!$saw_non_equal) {
  	    	$escape = 1;
  	    }
  	}
  	else {
  	    $saw_non_equal = 1;
  	}
  
  	if (m|[^\w!%+,\-./:=@^]|) {
  	    $escape = 1;
  	}
  
  	if ($escape
  		|| (!$saw_non_equal && /=/)) {
  
  	    # ' -> '\''
      	    s/'/'\\''/g;
  
  	    # make multiple ' in a row look simpler
  	    # '\'''\'''\'' -> '"'''"'
      	    s|((?:'\\''){2,})|q{'"} . (q{'} x (length($1) / 4)) . q{"'}|ge;
  
  	    $_ = "'$_'";
  	    s/^''//;
  	    s/''$//;
  	}
      }
      continue {
  	$ret .= "$_ ";
      }
  
      chop $ret;
      return \@err, $ret;
  }
  
  =item B<shell_quote> [I<string>]...
  
  B<shell_quote> quotes strings so they can be passed through the shell.
  Each I<string> is quoted so that the shell will pass it along as a
  single argument and without further interpretation.  If no I<string>s
  are given an empty string is returned.
  
  If any I<string> can't be safely quoted B<shell_quote> will B<croak>.
  
  =cut
  
  sub shell_quote {
      my ($rerr, $s) = _shell_quote_backend @_;
  
      if (@$rerr) {
      	my %seen;
      	@$rerr = grep { !$seen{$_}++ } @$rerr;
  	my $s = join '', map { "shell_quote(): $_\n" } @$rerr;
  	chomp $s;
  	croak $s;
      }
      return $s;
  }
  
  =item B<shell_quote_best_effort> [I<string>]...
  
  This is like B<shell_quote>, excpet if the string can't be safely quoted
  it does the best it can and returns the result, instead of dying.
  
  =cut
  
  sub shell_quote_best_effort {
      my ($rerr, $s) = _shell_quote_backend @_;
  
      return $s;
  }
  
  =item B<shell_comment_quote> [I<string>]
  
  B<shell_comment_quote> quotes the I<string> so that it can safely be
  included in a shell-style comment (the current algorithm is that a sharp
  character is placed after any newlines in the string).
  
  This routine might be changed to accept multiple I<string> arguments
  in the future.  I haven't done this yet because I'm not sure if the
  I<string>s should be joined with blanks ($") or nothing ($,).  Cast
  your vote today!  Be sure to justify your answer.
  
  =cut
  
  sub shell_comment_quote {
      return '' unless @_;
      unless (@_ == 1) {
  	croak "Too many arguments to shell_comment_quote "
  	    	    . "(got " . @_ . " expected 1)";
      }
      local $_ = shift;
      s/\n/\n#/g;
      return $_;
  }
  
  1;
  
  __END__
  
  =back
  
  =head1 EXAMPLES
  
      $cmd = 'fuser 2>/dev/null ' . shell_quote @files;
      @pids = split ' ', `$cmd`;
  
      print CFG "# Configured by: ",
  		shell_comment_quote($ENV{LOGNAME}), "\n";
  
  =head1 BUGS
  
  Only Bourne shell quoting is supported.  I'd like to add other shells
  (particularly cmd.exe), but I'm not familiar with them.  It would be a
  big help if somebody supplied the details.
  
  =head1 AUTHOR
  
  Roderick Schertler <F<roderick@argon.org>>
  
  =head1 SEE ALSO
  
  perl(1).
  
  =cut
STRING_SHELLQUOTE

$fatpacked{"lib/core/only.pm"} = '#line '.(1+__LINE__).' "'.__FILE__."\"\n".<<'LIB_CORE_ONLY';
  package lib::core::only;
  
  use strict;
  use warnings FATAL => 'all';
  use Config;
  
  sub import {
    @INC = @Config{qw(privlibexp archlibexp)};
    return
  }
  
  =head1 NAME
  
  lib::core::only - Remove all non-core paths from @INC to avoid site/vendor dirs
  
  =head1 SYNOPSIS
  
    use lib::core::only; # now @INC contains only the two core directories
  
  To get only the core directories plus the ones for the local::lib in scope:
  
    $ perl -mlocal::lib -Mlib::core::only -Mlocal::lib=~/perl5 myscript.pl
  
  To attempt to do a self-contained build (but note this will not reliably
  propagate into subprocesses, see the CAVEATS below):
  
    $ PERL5OPT='-mlocal::lib -Mlib::core::only -Mlocal::lib=~/perl5' cpan
  
  Please note that it is necessary to use C<local::lib> twice for this to work.
  First so that C<lib::core::only> doesn't prevent C<local::lib> from loading
  (it's not currently in core) and then again after C<lib::core::only> so that
  the local paths are not removed.
  
  =head1 DESCRIPTION
  
  lib::core::only is simply a shortcut to say "please reduce my @INC to only
  the core lib and archlib (architecture-specific lib) directories of this perl".
  
  You might want to do this to ensure a local::lib contains only the code you
  need, or to test an L<App::FatPacker|App::FatPacker> tree, or to avoid known
  bad vendor packages.
  
  You might want to use this to try and install a self-contained tree of perl
  modules. Be warned that that probably won't work (see L</CAVEATS>).
  
  This module was extracted from L<local::lib|local::lib>'s --self-contained
  feature, and contains the only part that ever worked. I apologise to anybody
  who thought anything else did.
  
  =head1 CAVEATS
  
  This does B<not> propagate properly across perl invocations like local::lib's
  stuff does. It can't. It's only a module import, so it B<only affects the
  specific perl VM instance in which you load and import() it>.
  
  If you want to cascade it across invocations, you can set the PERL5OPT
  environment variable to '-Mlib::core::only' and it'll sort of work. But be
  aware that taint mode ignores this, so some modules' build and test code
  probably will as well.
  
  You also need to be aware that perl's command line options are not processed
  in order - -I options take effect before -M options, so
  
    perl -Mlib::core::only -Ilib
  
  is unlike to do what you want - it's exactly equivalent to:
  
    perl -Mlib::core::only
  
  If you want to combine a core-only @INC with additional paths, you need to
  add the additional paths using -M options and the L<lib|lib> module:
  
    perl -Mlib::core::only -Mlib=lib
  
    # or if you're trying to test compiled code:
  
    perl -Mlib::core::only -Mblib
  
  For more information on the impossibility of sanely propagating this across
  module builds without help from the build program, see
  L<http://www.shadowcat.co.uk/blog/matt-s-trout/tainted-love> - and for ways
  to achieve the old --self-contained feature's results, look at
  L<App::FatPacker|App::FatPacker>'s tree function, and at
  L<App::cpanminus|cpanm>'s --local-lib-contained feature.
  
  =head1 AUTHOR
  
  Matt S. Trout <mst@shadowcat.co.uk>
  
  =head1 LICENSE
  
  This library is free software under the same terms as perl itself.
  
  =head1 COPYRIGHT
  
  (c) 2010 the lib::core::only L</AUTHOR> as specified above.
  
  =cut
  
  1;
LIB_CORE_ONLY

$fatpacked{"local/lib.pm"} = '#line '.(1+__LINE__).' "'.__FILE__."\"\n".<<'LOCAL_LIB';
  package local::lib;
  use 5.006;
  use strict;
  use warnings;
  use Config;
  
  our $VERSION = '2.000015';
  $VERSION = eval $VERSION;
  
  BEGIN {
    *_WIN32 = ($^O eq 'MSWin32' || $^O eq 'NetWare' || $^O eq 'symbian')
      ? sub(){1} : sub(){0};
    # punt on these systems
    *_USE_FSPEC = ($^O eq 'MacOS' || $^O eq 'VMS' || $INC{'File/Spec.pm'})
      ? sub(){1} : sub(){0};
  }
  our $_DIR_JOIN = _WIN32 ? '\\' : '/';
  our $_DIR_SPLIT = (_WIN32 || $^O eq 'cygwin') ? qr{[\\/]}
                                                : qr{/};
  our $_ROOT = _WIN32 ? do {
    my $UNC = qr{[\\/]{2}[^\\/]+[\\/][^\\/]+};
    qr{^(?:$UNC|[A-Za-z]:|)$_DIR_SPLIT};
  } : qr{^/};
  our $_PERL;
  
  sub _cwd {
    my $drive = shift;
    if (!$_PERL) {
      ($_PERL) = $^X =~ /(.+)/; # $^X is internal how could it be tainted?!
      if (_is_abs($_PERL)) {
      }
      elsif (-x $Config{perlpath}) {
        $_PERL = $Config{perlpath};
      }
      else {
        ($_PERL) =
          map { /(.*)/ }
          grep { -x $_ }
          map { join($_DIR_JOIN, $_, $_PERL) }
          split /\Q$Config{path_sep}\E/, $ENV{PATH};
      }
    }
    local @ENV{qw(PATH IFS CDPATH ENV BASH_ENV)};
    my $cmd = $drive ? "eval { Cwd::getdcwd(q($drive)) }"
                     : 'getcwd';
    my $cwd = `"$_PERL" -MCwd -le "print $cmd"`;
    chomp $cwd;
    if (!length $cwd && $drive) {
      $cwd = $drive;
    }
    $cwd =~ s/$_DIR_SPLIT?$/$_DIR_JOIN/;
    $cwd;
  }
  
  sub _catdir {
    if (_USE_FSPEC) {
      require File::Spec;
      File::Spec->catdir(@_);
    }
    else {
      my $dir = join($_DIR_JOIN, @_);
      $dir =~ s{($_DIR_SPLIT)(?:\.?$_DIR_SPLIT)+}{$1}g;
      $dir;
    }
  }
  
  sub _is_abs {
    if (_USE_FSPEC) {
      require File::Spec;
      File::Spec->file_name_is_absolute($_[0]);
    }
    else {
      $_[0] =~ $_ROOT;
    }
  }
  
  sub _rel2abs {
    my ($dir, $base) = @_;
    return $dir
      if _is_abs($dir);
  
    $base = _WIN32 && $dir =~ s/^([A-Za-z]:)// ? _cwd("$1")
          : $base                              ? $base
                                               : _cwd;
    return _catdir($base, $dir);
  }
  
  sub import {
    my ($class, @args) = @_;
    push @args, @ARGV
      if $0 eq '-';
  
    my @steps;
    my %opts;
    my $shelltype;
  
    while (@args) {
      my $arg = shift @args;
      # check for lethal dash first to stop processing before causing problems
      # the fancy dash is U+2212 or \xE2\x88\x92
      if ($arg =~ /\xE2\x88\x92/ or $arg =~ /−/) {
        die <<'DEATH';
  WHOA THERE! It looks like you've got some fancy dashes in your commandline!
  These are *not* the traditional -- dashes that software recognizes. You
  probably got these by copy-pasting from the perldoc for this module as
  rendered by a UTF8-capable formatter. This most typically happens on an OS X
  terminal, but can happen elsewhere too. Please try again after replacing the
  dashes with normal minus signs.
  DEATH
      }
      elsif ($arg eq '--self-contained') {
        die <<'DEATH';
  FATAL: The local::lib --self-contained flag has never worked reliably and the
  original author, Mark Stosberg, was unable or unwilling to maintain it. As
  such, this flag has been removed from the local::lib codebase in order to
  prevent misunderstandings and potentially broken builds. The local::lib authors
  recommend that you look at the lib::core::only module shipped with this
  distribution in order to create a more robust environment that is equivalent to
  what --self-contained provided (although quite possibly not what you originally
  thought it provided due to the poor quality of the documentation, for which we
  apologise).
  DEATH
      }
      elsif( $arg =~ /^--deactivate(?:=(.*))?$/ ) {
        my $path = defined $1 ? $1 : shift @args;
        push @steps, ['deactivate', $path];
      }
      elsif ( $arg eq '--deactivate-all' ) {
        push @steps, ['deactivate_all'];
      }
      elsif ( $arg =~ /^--shelltype(?:=(.*))?$/ ) {
        $shelltype = defined $1 ? $1 : shift @args;
      }
      elsif ( $arg eq '--no-create' ) {
        $opts{no_create} = 1;
      }
      elsif ( $arg =~ /^--/ ) {
        die "Unknown import argument: $arg";
      }
      else {
        push @steps, ['activate', $arg];
      }
    }
    if (!@steps) {
      push @steps, ['activate', undef];
    }
  
    my $self = $class->new(%opts);
  
    for (@steps) {
      my ($method, @args) = @$_;
      $self = $self->$method(@args);
    }
  
    if ($0 eq '-') {
      print $self->environment_vars_string($shelltype);
      exit 0;
    }
    else {
      $self->setup_local_lib;
    }
  }
  
  sub new {
    my $class = shift;
    bless {@_}, $class;
  }
  
  sub clone {
    my $self = shift;
    bless {%$self, @_}, ref $self;
  }
  
  sub inc { $_[0]->{inc}     ||= \@INC }
  sub libs { $_[0]->{libs}   ||= [ \'PERL5LIB' ] }
  sub bins { $_[0]->{bins}   ||= [ \'PATH' ] }
  sub roots { $_[0]->{roots} ||= [ \'PERL_LOCAL_LIB_ROOT' ] }
  sub extra { $_[0]->{extra} ||= {} }
  sub no_create { $_[0]->{no_create} }
  
  my $_archname = $Config{archname};
  my $_version  = $Config{version};
  my @_inc_version_list = reverse split / /, $Config{inc_version_list};
  my $_path_sep = $Config{path_sep};
  
  sub _as_list {
    my $list = shift;
    grep length, map {
      !(ref $_ && ref $_ eq 'SCALAR') ? $_ : (
        defined $ENV{$$_} ? split(/\Q$_path_sep/, $ENV{$$_})
                          : ()
      )
    } ref $list ? @$list : $list;
  }
  sub _remove_from {
    my ($list, @remove) = @_;
    return @$list
      if !@remove;
    my %remove = map { $_ => 1 } @remove;
    grep !$remove{$_}, _as_list($list);
  }
  
  my @_lib_subdirs = (
    [$_version, $_archname],
    [$_version],
    [$_archname],
    (@_inc_version_list ? \@_inc_version_list : ()),
    [],
  );
  
  sub install_base_bin_path {
    my ($class, $path) = @_;
    return _catdir($path, 'bin');
  }
  sub install_base_perl_path {
    my ($class, $path) = @_;
    return _catdir($path, 'lib', 'perl5');
  }
  sub install_base_arch_path {
    my ($class, $path) = @_;
    _catdir($class->install_base_perl_path($path), $_archname);
  }
  
  sub lib_paths_for {
    my ($class, $path) = @_;
    my $base = $class->install_base_perl_path($path);
    return map { _catdir($base, @$_) } @_lib_subdirs;
  }
  
  sub _mm_escape_path {
    my $path = shift;
    $path =~ s/\\/\\\\/g;
    if ($path =~ s/ /\\ /g) {
      $path = qq{"$path"};
    }
    return $path;
  }
  
  sub _mb_escape_path {
    my $path = shift;
    $path =~ s/\\/\\\\/g;
    return qq{"$path"};
  }
  
  sub installer_options_for {
    my ($class, $path) = @_;
    return (
      PERL_MM_OPT =>
        defined $path ? "INSTALL_BASE="._mm_escape_path($path) : undef,
      PERL_MB_OPT =>
        defined $path ? "--install_base "._mb_escape_path($path) : undef,
    );
  }
  
  sub active_paths {
    my ($self) = @_;
    $self = ref $self ? $self : $self->new;
  
    return grep {
      # screen out entries that aren't actually reflected in @INC
      my $active_ll = $self->install_base_perl_path($_);
      grep { $_ eq $active_ll } @{$self->inc};
    } _as_list($self->roots);
  }
  
  
  sub deactivate {
    my ($self, $path) = @_;
    $self = $self->new unless ref $self;
    $path = $self->resolve_path($path);
    $path = $self->normalize_path($path);
  
    my @active_lls = $self->active_paths;
  
    if (!grep { $_ eq $path } @active_lls) {
      warn "Tried to deactivate inactive local::lib '$path'\n";
      return $self;
    }
  
    my %args = (
      bins  => [ _remove_from($self->bins,
        $self->install_base_bin_path($path)) ],
      libs  => [ _remove_from($self->libs,
        $self->install_base_perl_path($path)) ],
      inc   => [ _remove_from($self->inc,
        $self->lib_paths_for($path)) ],
      roots => [ _remove_from($self->roots, $path) ],
    );
  
    $args{extra} = { $self->installer_options_for($args{roots}[0]) };
  
    $self->clone(%args);
  }
  
  sub deactivate_all {
    my ($self) = @_;
    $self = $self->new unless ref $self;
  
    my @active_lls = $self->active_paths;
  
    my %args;
    if (@active_lls) {
      %args = (
        bins => [ _remove_from($self->bins,
          map $self->install_base_bin_path($_), @active_lls) ],
        libs => [ _remove_from($self->libs,
          map $self->install_base_perl_path($_), @active_lls) ],
        inc => [ _remove_from($self->inc,
          map $self->lib_paths_for($_), @active_lls) ],
        roots => [ _remove_from($self->roots, @active_lls) ],
      );
    }
  
    $args{extra} = { $self->installer_options_for(undef) };
  
    $self->clone(%args);
  }
  
  sub activate {
    my ($self, $path) = @_;
    $self = $self->new unless ref $self;
    $path = $self->resolve_path($path);
    $self->ensure_dir_structure_for($path)
      unless $self->no_create;
  
    $path = $self->normalize_path($path);
  
    my @active_lls = $self->active_paths;
  
    if (grep { $_ eq $path } @active_lls[1 .. $#active_lls]) {
      $self = $self->deactivate($path);
    }
  
    my %args;
    if (!@active_lls || $active_lls[0] ne $path) {
      %args = (
        bins  => [ $self->install_base_bin_path($path), @{$self->bins} ],
        libs  => [ $self->install_base_perl_path($path), @{$self->libs} ],
        inc   => [ $self->lib_paths_for($path), @{$self->inc} ],
        roots => [ $path, @{$self->roots} ],
      );
    }
  
    $args{extra} = { $self->installer_options_for($path) };
  
    $self->clone(%args);
  }
  
  sub normalize_path {
    my ($self, $path) = @_;
    $path = ( Win32::GetShortPathName($path) || $path )
      if $^O eq 'MSWin32';
    return $path;
  }
  
  sub build_environment_vars_for {
    my $self = $_[0]->new->activate($_[1]);
    $self->build_environment_vars;
  }
  sub build_activate_environment_vars_for {
    my $self = $_[0]->new->activate($_[1]);
    $self->build_environment_vars;
  }
  sub build_deactivate_environment_vars_for {
    my $self = $_[0]->new->deactivate($_[1]);
    $self->build_environment_vars;
  }
  sub build_deact_all_environment_vars_for {
    my $self = $_[0]->new->deactivate_all;
    $self->build_environment_vars;
  }
  sub build_environment_vars {
    my $self = shift;
    (
      PATH                => join($_path_sep, _as_list($self->bins)),
      PERL5LIB            => join($_path_sep, _as_list($self->libs)),
      PERL_LOCAL_LIB_ROOT => join($_path_sep, _as_list($self->roots)),
      %{$self->extra},
    );
  }
  
  sub setup_local_lib_for {
    my $self = $_[0]->new->activate($_[1]);
    $self->setup_local_lib;
  }
  
  sub setup_local_lib {
    my $self = shift;
  
    # if Carp is already loaded, ensure Carp::Heavy is also loaded, to avoid
    # $VERSION mismatch errors (Carp::Heavy loads Carp, so we do not need to
    # check in the other direction)
    require Carp::Heavy if $INC{'Carp.pm'};
  
    $self->setup_env_hash;
    @INC = @{$self->inc};
  }
  
  sub setup_env_hash_for {
    my $self = $_[0]->new->activate($_[1]);
    $self->setup_env_hash;
  }
  sub setup_env_hash {
    my $self = shift;
    my %env = $self->build_environment_vars;
    for my $key (keys %env) {
      if (defined $env{$key}) {
        $ENV{$key} = $env{$key};
      }
      else {
        delete $ENV{$key};
      }
    }
  }
  
  sub print_environment_vars_for {
    print $_[0]->environment_vars_string_for(@_[1..$#_]);
  }
  
  sub environment_vars_string_for {
    my $self = $_[0]->new->activate($_[1]);
    $self->environment_vars_string;
  }
  sub environment_vars_string {
    my ($self, $shelltype) = @_;
  
    $shelltype ||= $self->guess_shelltype;
  
    my $extra = $self->extra;
    my @envs = (
      PATH                => $self->bins,
      PERL5LIB            => $self->libs,
      PERL_LOCAL_LIB_ROOT => $self->roots,
      map { $_ => $extra->{$_} } sort keys %$extra,
    );
    $self->_build_env_string($shelltype, \@envs);
  }
  
  sub _build_env_string {
    my ($self, $shelltype, $envs) = @_;
    my @envs = @$envs;
  
    my $build_method = "build_${shelltype}_env_declaration";
  
    my $out = '';
    while (@envs) {
      my ($name, $value) = (shift(@envs), shift(@envs));
      if (
          ref $value
          && @$value == 1
          && ref $value->[0]
          && ref $value->[0] eq 'SCALAR'
          && ${$value->[0]} eq $name) {
        next;
      }
      $out .= $self->$build_method($name, $value);
    }
    my $wrap_method = "wrap_${shelltype}_output";
    if ($self->can($wrap_method)) {
      return $self->$wrap_method($out);
    }
    return $out;
  }
  
  sub build_bourne_env_declaration {
    my ($class, $name, $args) = @_;
    my $value = $class->_interpolate($args, '${%s}', qr/["\\\$!`]/, '\\%s');
  
    if (!defined $value) {
      return qq{unset $name;\n};
    }
  
    $value =~ s/(^|\G|$_path_sep)\$\{$name\}$_path_sep/$1\${$name}\${$name+$_path_sep}/g;
    $value =~ s/$_path_sep\$\{$name\}$/\${$name+$_path_sep}\${$name}/;
  
    qq{${name}="$value"; export ${name};\n}
  }
  
  sub build_csh_env_declaration {
    my ($class, $name, $args) = @_;
    my ($value, @vars) = $class->_interpolate($args, '${%s}', '"', '"\\%s"');
    if (!defined $value) {
      return qq{unsetenv $name;\n};
    }
  
    my $out = '';
    for my $var (@vars) {
      $out .= qq{if ! \$?$name setenv $name '';\n};
    }
  
    my $value_without = $value;
    if ($value_without =~ s/(?:^|$_path_sep)\$\{$name\}(?:$_path_sep|$)//g) {
      $out .= qq{if "\${$name}" != '' setenv $name "$value";\n};
      $out .= qq{if "\${$name}" == '' };
    }
    $out .= qq{setenv $name "$value_without";\n};
    return $out;
  }
  
  sub build_cmd_env_declaration {
    my ($class, $name, $args) = @_;
    my $value = $class->_interpolate($args, '%%%s%%', qr(%), '%s');
    if (!$value) {
      return qq{\@set $name=\n};
    }
  
    my $out = '';
    my $value_without = $value;
    if ($value_without =~ s/(?:^|$_path_sep)%$name%(?:$_path_sep|$)//g) {
      $out .= qq{\@if not "%$name%"=="" set "$name=$value"\n};
      $out .= qq{\@if "%$name%"=="" };
    }
    $out .= qq{\@set "$name=$value_without"\n};
    return $out;
  }
  
  sub build_powershell_env_declaration {
    my ($class, $name, $args) = @_;
    my $value = $class->_interpolate($args, '$env:%s', '"', '`%s');
  
    if (!$value) {
      return qq{Remove-Item -ErrorAction 0 Env:\\$name;\n};
    }
  
    my $maybe_path_sep = qq{\$(if("\$env:$name"-eq""){""}else{"$_path_sep"})};
    $value =~ s/(^|\G|$_path_sep)\$env:$name$_path_sep/$1\$env:$name"+$maybe_path_sep+"/g;
    $value =~ s/$_path_sep\$env:$name$/"+$maybe_path_sep+\$env:$name+"/;
  
    qq{\$env:$name = \$("$value");\n};
  }
  sub wrap_powershell_output {
    my ($class, $out) = @_;
    return $out || " \n";
  }
  
  sub build_fish_env_declaration {
    my ($class, $name, $args) = @_;
    my $value = $class->_interpolate($args, '$%s', qr/[\\"' ]/, '\\%s');
    if (!defined $value) {
      return qq{set -e $name;\n};
    }
    $value =~ s/$_path_sep/ /g;
    qq{set -x $name $value;\n};
  }
  
  sub _interpolate {
    my ($class, $args, $var_pat, $escape, $escape_pat) = @_;
    return
      unless defined $args;
    my @args = ref $args ? @$args : $args;
    return
      unless @args;
    my @vars = map { $$_ } grep { ref $_ eq 'SCALAR' } @args;
    my $string = join $_path_sep, map {
      ref $_ eq 'SCALAR' ? sprintf($var_pat, $$_) : do {
        s/($escape)/sprintf($escape_pat, $1)/ge; $_;
      };
    } @args;
    return wantarray ? ($string, \@vars) : $string;
  }
  
  sub pipeline;
  
  sub pipeline {
    my @methods = @_;
    my $last = pop(@methods);
    if (@methods) {
      \sub {
        my ($obj, @args) = @_;
        $obj->${pipeline @methods}(
          $obj->$last(@args)
        );
      };
    } else {
      \sub {
        shift->$last(@_);
      };
    }
  }
  
  sub resolve_path {
    my ($class, $path) = @_;
  
    $path = $class->${pipeline qw(
      resolve_relative_path
      resolve_home_path
      resolve_empty_path
    )}($path);
  
    $path;
  }
  
  sub resolve_empty_path {
    my ($class, $path) = @_;
    if (defined $path) {
      $path;
    } else {
      '~/perl5';
    }
  }
  
  sub resolve_home_path {
    my ($class, $path) = @_;
    $path =~ /^~([^\/]*)/ or return $path;
    my $user = $1;
    my $homedir = do {
      if (! length($user) && defined $ENV{HOME}) {
        $ENV{HOME};
      }
      else {
        require File::Glob;
        File::Glob::bsd_glob("~$user", File::Glob::GLOB_TILDE());
      }
    };
    unless (defined $homedir) {
      require Carp; require Carp::Heavy;
      Carp::croak(
        "Couldn't resolve homedir for "
        .(defined $user ? $user : 'current user')
      );
    }
    $path =~ s/^~[^\/]*/$homedir/;
    $path;
  }
  
  sub resolve_relative_path {
    my ($class, $path) = @_;
    _rel2abs($path);
  }
  
  sub ensure_dir_structure_for {
    my ($class, $path) = @_;
    unless (-d $path) {
      warn "Attempting to create directory ${path}\n";
    }
    require File::Basename;
    my @dirs;
    while(!-d $path) {
      push @dirs, $path;
      $path = File::Basename::dirname($path);
    }
    mkdir $_ for reverse @dirs;
    return;
  }
  
  sub guess_shelltype {
    my $shellbin
      = defined $ENV{SHELL}
        ? ($ENV{SHELL} =~ /([\w.]+)$/)[-1]
      : ( $^O eq 'MSWin32' && exists $ENV{'!EXITCODE'} )
        ? 'bash'
      : ( $^O eq 'MSWin32' && $ENV{PROMPT} && $ENV{COMSPEC} )
        ? ($ENV{COMSPEC} =~ /([\w.]+)$/)[-1]
      : ( $^O eq 'MSWin32' && !$ENV{PROMPT} )
        ? 'powershell.exe'
      : 'sh';
  
    for ($shellbin) {
      return
          /csh$/                   ? 'csh'
        : /fish/                   ? 'fish'
        : /command(?:\.com)?$/i    ? 'cmd'
        : /cmd(?:\.exe)?$/i        ? 'cmd'
        : /4nt(?:\.exe)?$/i        ? 'cmd'
        : /powershell(?:\.exe)?$/i ? 'powershell'
                                   : 'bourne';
    }
  }
  
  1;
  __END__
  
  =encoding utf8
  
  =head1 NAME
  
  local::lib - create and use a local lib/ for perl modules with PERL5LIB
  
  =head1 SYNOPSIS
  
  In code -
  
    use local::lib; # sets up a local lib at ~/perl5
  
    use local::lib '~/foo'; # same, but ~/foo
  
    # Or...
    use FindBin;
    use local::lib "$FindBin::Bin/../support";  # app-local support library
  
  From the shell -
  
    # Install LWP and its missing dependencies to the '~/perl5' directory
    perl -MCPAN -Mlocal::lib -e 'CPAN::install(LWP)'
  
    # Just print out useful shell commands
    $ perl -Mlocal::lib
    PERL_MB_OPT='--install_base /home/username/perl5'; export PERL_MB_OPT;
    PERL_MM_OPT='INSTALL_BASE=/home/username/perl5'; export PERL_MM_OPT;
    PERL5LIB="/home/username/perl5/lib/perl5"; export PERL5LIB;
    PATH="/home/username/perl5/bin:$PATH"; export PATH;
    PERL_LOCAL_LIB_ROOT="/home/usename/perl5:$PERL_LOCAL_LIB_ROOT"; export PERL_LOCAL_LIB_ROOT;
  
  From a .bashrc file -
  
    [ $SHLVL -eq 1 ] && eval "$(perl -I$HOME/perl5/lib/perl5 -Mlocal::lib)"
  
  =head2 The bootstrapping technique
  
  A typical way to install local::lib is using what is known as the
  "bootstrapping" technique.  You would do this if your system administrator
  hasn't already installed local::lib.  In this case, you'll need to install
  local::lib in your home directory.
  
  Even if you do have administrative privileges, you will still want to set up your
  environment variables, as discussed in step 4. Without this, you would still
  install the modules into the system CPAN installation and also your Perl scripts
  will not use the lib/ path you bootstrapped with local::lib.
  
  By default local::lib installs itself and the CPAN modules into ~/perl5.
  
  Windows users must also see L</Differences when using this module under Win32>.
  
  =over 4
  
  =item 1.
  
  Download and unpack the local::lib tarball from CPAN (search for "Download"
  on the CPAN page about local::lib).  Do this as an ordinary user, not as root
  or administrator.  Unpack the file in your home directory or in any other
  convenient location.
  
  =item 2.
  
  Run this:
  
    perl Makefile.PL --bootstrap
  
  If the system asks you whether it should automatically configure as much
  as possible, you would typically answer yes.
  
  In order to install local::lib into a directory other than the default, you need
  to specify the name of the directory when you call bootstrap, as follows:
  
    perl Makefile.PL --bootstrap=~/foo
  
  =item 3.
  
  Run this: (local::lib assumes you have make installed on your system)
  
    make test && make install
  
  =item 4.
  
  Now we need to setup the appropriate environment variables, so that Perl
  starts using our newly generated lib/ directory. If you are using bash or
  any other Bourne shells, you can add this to your shell startup script this
  way:
  
    echo '[ $SHLVL -eq 1 ] && eval "$(perl -I$HOME/perl5/lib/perl5 -Mlocal::lib)"' >>~/.bashrc
  
  If you are using C shell, you can do this as follows:
  
    /bin/csh
    echo $SHELL
    /bin/csh
    echo 'eval `perl -I$HOME/perl5/lib/perl5 -Mlocal::lib`' >> ~/.cshrc
  
  If you passed to bootstrap a directory other than default, you also need to
  give that as import parameter to the call of the local::lib module like this
  way:
  
    echo '[ $SHLVL -eq 1 ] && eval "$(perl -I$HOME/foo/lib/perl5 -Mlocal::lib=$HOME/foo)"' >>~/.bashrc
  
  After writing your shell configuration file, be sure to re-read it to get the
  changed settings into your current shell's environment. Bourne shells use
  C<. ~/.bashrc> for this, whereas C shells use C<source ~/.cshrc>.
  
  =back
  
  If you're on a slower machine, or are operating under draconian disk space
  limitations, you can disable the automatic generation of manpages from POD when
  installing modules by using the C<--no-manpages> argument when bootstrapping:
  
    perl Makefile.PL --bootstrap --no-manpages
  
  To avoid doing several bootstrap for several Perl module environments on the
  same account, for example if you use it for several different deployed
  applications independently, you can use one bootstrapped local::lib
  installation to install modules in different directories directly this way:
  
    cd ~/mydir1
    perl -Mlocal::lib=./
    eval $(perl -Mlocal::lib=./)  ### To set the environment for this shell alone
    printenv                      ### You will see that ~/mydir1 is in the PERL5LIB
    perl -MCPAN -e install ...    ### whatever modules you want
    cd ../mydir2
    ... REPEAT ...
  
  When used in a C<.bashrc> file, it is recommended that you protect against
  re-activating a directory in a sub-shell.  This can be done by checking the
  C<$SHLVL> variable as shown in synopsis.  Without this, sub-shells created by
  the user or other programs will override changes made to the parent shell's
  environment.
  
  If you are working with several C<local::lib> environments, you may want to
  remove some of them from the current environment without disturbing the others.
  You can deactivate one environment like this (using bourne sh):
  
    eval $(perl -Mlocal::lib=--deactivate,~/path)
  
  which will generate and run the commands needed to remove C<~/path> from your
  various search paths. Whichever environment was B<activated most recently> will
  remain the target for module installations. That is, if you activate
  C<~/path_A> and then you activate C<~/path_B>, new modules you install will go
  in C<~/path_B>. If you deactivate C<~/path_B> then modules will be installed
  into C<~/pathA> -- but if you deactivate C<~/path_A> then they will still be
  installed in C<~/pathB> because pathB was activated later.
  
  You can also ask C<local::lib> to clean itself completely out of the current
  shell's environment with the C<--deactivate-all> option.
  For multiple environments for multiple apps you may need to include a modified
  version of the C<< use FindBin >> instructions in the "In code" sample above.
  If you did something like the above, you have a set of Perl modules at C<<
  ~/mydir1/lib >>. If you have a script at C<< ~/mydir1/scripts/myscript.pl >>,
  you need to tell it where to find the modules you installed for it at C<<
  ~/mydir1/lib >>.
  
  In C<< ~/mydir1/scripts/myscript.pl >>:
  
    use strict;
    use warnings;
    use local::lib "$FindBin::Bin/..";  ### points to ~/mydir1 and local::lib finds lib
    use lib "$FindBin::Bin/../lib";     ### points to ~/mydir1/lib
  
  Put this before any BEGIN { ... } blocks that require the modules you installed.
  
  =head2 Differences when using this module under Win32
  
  To set up the proper environment variables for your current session of
  C<CMD.exe>, you can use this:
  
    C:\>perl -Mlocal::lib
    set PERL_MB_OPT=--install_base C:\DOCUME~1\ADMINI~1\perl5
    set PERL_MM_OPT=INSTALL_BASE=C:\DOCUME~1\ADMINI~1\perl5
    set PERL5LIB=C:\DOCUME~1\ADMINI~1\perl5\lib\perl5
    set PATH=C:\DOCUME~1\ADMINI~1\perl5\bin;%PATH%
  
    ### To set the environment for this shell alone
    C:\>perl -Mlocal::lib > %TEMP%\tmp.bat && %TEMP%\tmp.bat && del %TEMP%\tmp.bat
    ### instead of $(perl -Mlocal::lib=./)
  
  If you want the environment entries to persist, you'll need to add them to the
  Control Panel's System applet yourself or use L<App::local::lib::Win32Helper>.
  
  The "~" is translated to the user's profile directory (the directory named for
  the user under "Documents and Settings" (Windows XP or earlier) or "Users"
  (Windows Vista or later)) unless $ENV{HOME} exists. After that, the home
  directory is translated to a short name (which means the directory must exist)
  and the subdirectories are created.
  
  =head3 PowerShell
  
  local::lib also supports PowerShell, and can be used with the
  C<Invoke-Expression> cmdlet.
  
    Invoke-Expression "$(perl -Mlocal::lib)"
  
  =head1 RATIONALE
  
  The version of a Perl package on your machine is not always the version you
  need.  Obviously, the best thing to do would be to update to the version you
  need.  However, you might be in a situation where you're prevented from doing
  this.  Perhaps you don't have system administrator privileges; or perhaps you
  are using a package management system such as Debian, and nobody has yet gotten
  around to packaging up the version you need.
  
  local::lib solves this problem by allowing you to create your own directory of
  Perl packages downloaded from CPAN (in a multi-user system, this would typically
  be within your own home directory).  The existing system Perl installation is
  not affected; you simply invoke Perl with special options so that Perl uses the
  packages in your own local package directory rather than the system packages.
  local::lib arranges things so that your locally installed version of the Perl
  packages takes precedence over the system installation.
  
  If you are using a package management system (such as Debian), you don't need to
  worry about Debian and CPAN stepping on each other's toes.  Your local version
  of the packages will be written to an entirely separate directory from those
  installed by Debian.
  
  =head1 DESCRIPTION
  
  This module provides a quick, convenient way of bootstrapping a user-local Perl
  module library located within the user's home directory. It also constructs and
  prints out for the user the list of environment variables using the syntax
  appropriate for the user's current shell (as specified by the C<SHELL>
  environment variable), suitable for directly adding to one's shell
  configuration file.
  
  More generally, local::lib allows for the bootstrapping and usage of a
  directory containing Perl modules outside of Perl's C<@INC>. This makes it
  easier to ship an application with an app-specific copy of a Perl module, or
  collection of modules. Useful in cases like when an upstream maintainer hasn't
  applied a patch to a module of theirs that you need for your application.
  
  On import, local::lib sets the following environment variables to appropriate
  values:
  
  =over 4
  
  =item PERL_MB_OPT
  
  =item PERL_MM_OPT
  
  =item PERL5LIB
  
  =item PATH
  
  =item PERL_LOCAL_LIB_ROOT
  
  =back
  
  When possible, these will be appended to instead of overwritten entirely.
  
  These values are then available for reference by any code after import.
  
  =head1 CREATING A SELF-CONTAINED SET OF MODULES
  
  See L<lib::core::only> for one way to do this - but note that
  there are a number of caveats, and the best approach is always to perform a
  build against a clean perl (i.e. site and vendor as close to empty as possible).
  
  =head1 IMPORT OPTIONS
  
  Options are values that can be passed to the C<local::lib> import besides the
  directory to use. They are specified as C<use local::lib '--option'[, path];>
  or C<perl -Mlocal::lib=--option[,path]>.
  
  =head2 --deactivate
  
  Remove the chosen path (or the default path) from the module search paths if it
  was added by C<local::lib>, instead of adding it.
  
  =head2 --deactivate-all
  
  Remove all directories that were added to search paths by C<local::lib> from the
  search paths.
  
  =head2 --shelltype
  
  Specify the shell type to use for output.  By default, the shell will be
  detected based on the environment.  Should be one of: C<bourne>, C<csh>,
  C<cmd>, or C<powershell>.
  
  =head2 --no-create
  
  Prevents C<local::lib> from creating directories when activating dirs.  This is
  likely to cause issues on Win32 systems.
  
  =head1 CLASS METHODS
  
  =head2 ensure_dir_structure_for
  
  =over 4
  
  =item Arguments: $path
  
  =item Return value: None
  
  =back
  
  Attempts to create the given path, and all required parent directories. Throws
  an exception on failure.
  
  =head2 print_environment_vars_for
  
  =over 4
  
  =item Arguments: $path
  
  =item Return value: None
  
  =back
  
  Prints to standard output the variables listed above, properly set to use the
  given path as the base directory.
  
  =head2 build_environment_vars_for
  
  =over 4
  
  =item Arguments: $path
  
  =item Return value: %environment_vars
  
  =back
  
  Returns a hash with the variables listed above, properly set to use the
  given path as the base directory.
  
  =head2 setup_env_hash_for
  
  =over 4
  
  =item Arguments: $path
  
  =item Return value: None
  
  =back
  
  Constructs the C<%ENV> keys for the given path, by calling
  L</build_environment_vars_for>.
  
  =head2 active_paths
  
  =over 4
  
  =item Arguments: None
  
  =item Return value: @paths
  
  =back
  
  Returns a list of active C<local::lib> paths, according to the
  C<PERL_LOCAL_LIB_ROOT> environment variable and verified against
  what is really in C<@INC>.
  
  =head2 install_base_perl_path
  
  =over 4
  
  =item Arguments: $path
  
  =item Return value: $install_base_perl_path
  
  =back
  
  Returns a path describing where to install the Perl modules for this local
  library installation. Appends the directories C<lib> and C<perl5> to the given
  path.
  
  =head2 lib_paths_for
  
  =over 4
  
  =item Arguments: $path
  
  =item Return value: @lib_paths
  
  =back
  
  Returns the list of paths perl will search for libraries, given a base path.
  This includes the base path itself, the architecture specific subdirectory, and
  perl version specific subdirectories.  These paths may not all exist.
  
  =head2 install_base_bin_path
  
  =over 4
  
  =item Arguments: $path
  
  =item Return value: $install_base_bin_path
  
  =back
  
  Returns a path describing where to install the executable programs for this
  local library installation. Appends the directory C<bin> to the given path.
  
  =head2 installer_options_for
  
  =over 4
  
  =item Arguments: $path
  
  =item Return value: %installer_env_vars
  
  =back
  
  Returns a hash of environment variables that should be set to cause
  installation into the given path.
  
  =head2 resolve_empty_path
  
  =over 4
  
  =item Arguments: $path
  
  =item Return value: $base_path
  
  =back
  
  Builds and returns the base path into which to set up the local module
  installation. Defaults to C<~/perl5>.
  
  =head2 resolve_home_path
  
  =over 4
  
  =item Arguments: $path
  
  =item Return value: $home_path
  
  =back
  
  Attempts to find the user's home directory. If installed, uses C<File::HomeDir>
  for this purpose. If no definite answer is available, throws an exception.
  
  =head2 resolve_relative_path
  
  =over 4
  
  =item Arguments: $path
  
  =item Return value: $absolute_path
  
  =back
  
  Translates the given path into an absolute path.
  
  =head2 resolve_path
  
  =over 4
  
  =item Arguments: $path
  
  =item Return value: $absolute_path
  
  =back
  
  Calls the following in a pipeline, passing the result from the previous to the
  next, in an attempt to find where to configure the environment for a local
  library installation: L</resolve_empty_path>, L</resolve_home_path>,
  L</resolve_relative_path>. Passes the given path argument to
  L</resolve_empty_path> which then returns a result that is passed to
  L</resolve_home_path>, which then has its result passed to
  L</resolve_relative_path>. The result of this final call is returned from
  L</resolve_path>.
  
  =head1 OBJECT INTERFACE
  
  =head2 new
  
  =over 4
  
  =item Arguments: %attributes
  
  =item Return value: $local_lib
  
  =back
  
  Constructs a new C<local::lib> object, representing the current state of
  C<@INC> and the relevant environment variables.
  
  =head1 ATTRIBUTES
  
  =head2 roots
  
  An arrayref representing active C<local::lib> directories.
  
  =head2 inc
  
  An arrayref representing C<@INC>.
  
  =head2 libs
  
  An arrayref representing the PERL5LIB environment variable.
  
  =head2 bins
  
  An arrayref representing the PATH environment variable.
  
  =head2 extra
  
  A hashref of extra environment variables (e.g. C<PERL_MM_OPT> and
  C<PERL_MB_OPT>)
  
  =head2 no_create
  
  If set, C<local::lib> will not try to create directories when activating them.
  
  =head1 OBJECT METHODS
  
  =head2 clone
  
  =over 4
  
  =item Arguments: %attributes
  
  =item Return value: $local_lib
  
  =back
  
  Constructs a new C<local::lib> object based on the existing one, overriding the
  specified attributes.
  
  =head2 activate
  
  =over 4
  
  =item Arguments: $path
  
  =item Return value: $new_local_lib
  
  =back
  
  Constructs a new instance with the specified path active.
  
  =head2 deactivate
  
  =over 4
  
  =item Arguments: $path
  
  =item Return value: $new_local_lib
  
  =back
  
  Constructs a new instance with the specified path deactivated.
  
  =head2 deactivate_all
  
  =over 4
  
  =item Arguments: None
  
  =item Return value: $new_local_lib
  
  =back
  
  Constructs a new instance with all C<local::lib> directories deactivated.
  
  =head2 environment_vars_string
  
  =over 4
  
  =item Arguments: [ $shelltype ]
  
  =item Return value: $shell_env_string
  
  =back
  
  Returns a string to set up the C<local::lib>, meant to be run by a shell.
  
  =head2 build_environment_vars
  
  =over 4
  
  =item Arguments: None
  
  =item Return value: %environment_vars
  
  =back
  
  Returns a hash with the variables listed above, properly set to use the
  given path as the base directory.
  
  =head2 setup_env_hash
  
  =over 4
  
  =item Arguments: None
  
  =item Return value: None
  
  =back
  
  Constructs the C<%ENV> keys for the given path, by calling
  L</build_environment_vars>.
  
  =head2 setup_local_lib
  
  Constructs the C<%ENV> hash using L</setup_env_hash>, and set up C<@INC>.
  
  =head1 A WARNING ABOUT UNINST=1
  
  Be careful about using local::lib in combination with "make install UNINST=1".
  The idea of this feature is that will uninstall an old version of a module
  before installing a new one. However it lacks a safety check that the old
  version and the new version will go in the same directory. Used in combination
  with local::lib, you can potentially delete a globally accessible version of a
  module while installing the new version in a local place. Only combine "make
  install UNINST=1" and local::lib if you understand these possible consequences.
  
  =head1 LIMITATIONS
  
  =over 4
  
  =item * Directory names with spaces in them are not well supported by the perl
  toolchain and the programs it uses.  Pure-perl distributions should support
  spaces, but problems are more likely with dists that require compilation. A
  workaround you can do is moving your local::lib to a directory with spaces
  B<after> you installed all modules inside your local::lib bootstrap. But be
  aware that you can't update or install CPAN modules after the move.
  
  =item * Rather basic shell detection. Right now anything with csh in its name is
  assumed to be a C shell or something compatible, and everything else is assumed
  to be Bourne, except on Win32 systems. If the C<SHELL> environment variable is
  not set, a Bourne-compatible shell is assumed.
  
  =item * Kills any existing PERL_MM_OPT or PERL_MB_OPT.
  
  =item * Should probably auto-fixup CPAN config if not already done.
  
  =item * On VMS and MacOS Classic (pre-OS X), local::lib loads L<File::Spec>.
  This means any L<File::Spec> version installed in the local::lib will be
  ignored by scripts using local::lib.  A workaround for this is using
  C<use lib "$local_lib/lib/perl5";> instead of using C<local::lib> directly.
  
  =item * Conflicts with L<ExtUtils::MakeMaker>'s C<PREFIX> option.
  C<local::lib> uses the C<INSTALL_BASE> option, as it has more predictable and
  sane behavior.  If something attempts to use the C<PREFIX> option when running
  a F<Makefile.PL>, L<ExtUtils::MakeMaker> will refuse to run, as the two
  options conflict.  This can be worked around by temporarily unsetting the
  C<PERL_MM_OPT> environment variable.
  
  =item * Conflicts with L<Module::Build>'s C<--prefix> option.  Similar to the
  previous limitation, but any C<--prefix> option specified will be ignored.
  This can be worked around by temporarily unsetting the C<PERL_MB_OPT>
  environment variable.
  
  =back
  
  Patches very much welcome for any of the above.
  
  =over 4
  
  =item * On Win32 systems, does not have a way to write the created environment
  variables to the registry, so that they can persist through a reboot.
  
  =back
  
  =head1 TROUBLESHOOTING
  
  If you've configured local::lib to install CPAN modules somewhere in to your
  home directory, and at some point later you try to install a module with C<cpan
  -i Foo::Bar>, but it fails with an error like: C<Warning: You do not have
  permissions to install into /usr/lib64/perl5/site_perl/5.8.8/x86_64-linux at
  /usr/lib64/perl5/5.8.8/Foo/Bar.pm> and buried within the install log is an
  error saying C<'INSTALL_BASE' is not a known MakeMaker parameter name>, then
  you've somehow lost your updated ExtUtils::MakeMaker module.
  
  To remedy this situation, rerun the bootstrapping procedure documented above.
  
  Then, run C<rm -r ~/.cpan/build/Foo-Bar*>
  
  Finally, re-run C<cpan -i Foo::Bar> and it should install without problems.
  
  =head1 ENVIRONMENT
  
  =over 4
  
  =item SHELL
  
  =item COMSPEC
  
  local::lib looks at the user's C<SHELL> environment variable when printing out
  commands to add to the shell configuration file.
  
  On Win32 systems, C<COMSPEC> is also examined.
  
  =back
  
  =head1 SEE ALSO
  
  =over 4
  
  =item * L<Perl Advent article, 2011|http://perladvent.org/2011/2011-12-01.html>
  
  =back
  
  =head1 SUPPORT
  
  IRC:
  
      Join #local-lib on irc.perl.org.
  
  =head1 AUTHOR
  
  Matt S Trout <mst@shadowcat.co.uk> http://www.shadowcat.co.uk/
  
  auto_install fixes kindly sponsored by http://www.takkle.com/
  
  =head1 CONTRIBUTORS
  
  Patches to correctly output commands for csh style shells, as well as some
  documentation additions, contributed by Christopher Nehren <apeiron@cpan.org>.
  
  Doc patches for a custom local::lib directory, more cleanups in the english
  documentation and a L<german documentation|POD2::DE::local::lib> contributed by
  Torsten Raudssus <torsten@raudssus.de>.
  
  Hans Dieter Pearcey <hdp@cpan.org> sent in some additional tests for ensuring
  things will install properly, submitted a fix for the bug causing problems with
  writing Makefiles during bootstrapping, contributed an example program, and
  submitted yet another fix to ensure that local::lib can install and bootstrap
  properly. Many, many thanks!
  
  pattern of Freenode IRC contributed the beginnings of the Troubleshooting
  section. Many thanks!
  
  Patch to add Win32 support contributed by Curtis Jewell <csjewell@cpan.org>.
  
  Warnings for missing PATH/PERL5LIB (as when not running interactively) silenced
  by a patch from Marco Emilio Poleggi.
  
  Mark Stosberg <mark@summersault.com> provided the code for the now deleted
  '--self-contained' option.
  
  Documentation patches to make win32 usage clearer by
  David Mertens <dcmertens.perl@gmail.com> (run4flat).
  
  Brazilian L<portuguese translation|POD2::PT_BR::local::lib> and minor doc
  patches contributed by Breno G. de Oliveira <garu@cpan.org>.
  
  Improvements to stacking multiple local::lib dirs and removing them from the
  environment later on contributed by Andrew Rodland <arodland@cpan.org>.
  
  Patch for Carp version mismatch contributed by Hakim Cassimally
  <osfameron@cpan.org>.
  
  Rewrite of internals and numerous bug fixes and added features contributed by
  Graham Knop <haarg@haarg.org>.
  
  =head1 COPYRIGHT
  
  Copyright (c) 2007 - 2013 the local::lib L</AUTHOR> and L</CONTRIBUTORS> as
  listed above.
  
  =head1 LICENSE
  
  This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
  the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.
  
  =cut
LOCAL_LIB

$fatpacked{"parent.pm"} = '#line '.(1+__LINE__).' "'.__FILE__."\"\n".<<'PARENT';
  package parent;
  use strict;
  use vars qw($VERSION);
  $VERSION = '0.228';
  
  sub import {
      my $class = shift;
  
      my $inheritor = caller(0);
  
      if ( @_ and $_[0] eq '-norequire' ) {
          shift @_;
      } else {
          for ( my @filename = @_ ) {
              if ( $_ eq $inheritor ) {
                  warn "Class '$inheritor' tried to inherit from itself\n";
              };
  
              s{::|'}{/}g;
              require "$_.pm"; # dies if the file is not found
          }
      }
  
      {
          no strict 'refs';
          push @{"$inheritor\::ISA"}, @_;
      };
  };
  
  "All your base are belong to us"
  
  __END__
  
  =encoding utf8
  
  =head1 NAME
  
  parent - Establish an ISA relationship with base classes at compile time
  
  =head1 SYNOPSIS
  
      package Baz;
      use parent qw(Foo Bar);
  
  =head1 DESCRIPTION
  
  Allows you to both load one or more modules, while setting up inheritance from
  those modules at the same time.  Mostly similar in effect to
  
      package Baz;
      BEGIN {
          require Foo;
          require Bar;
          push @ISA, qw(Foo Bar);
      }
  
  By default, every base class needs to live in a file of its own.
  If you want to have a subclass and its parent class in the same file, you
  can tell C<parent> not to load any modules by using the C<-norequire> switch:
  
    package Foo;
    sub exclaim { "I CAN HAS PERL" }
  
    package DoesNotLoadFooBar;
    use parent -norequire, 'Foo', 'Bar';
    # will not go looking for Foo.pm or Bar.pm
  
  This is equivalent to the following code:
  
    package Foo;
    sub exclaim { "I CAN HAS PERL" }
  
    package DoesNotLoadFooBar;
    push @DoesNotLoadFooBar::ISA, 'Foo', 'Bar';
  
  This is also helpful for the case where a package lives within
  a differently named file:
  
    package MyHash;
    use Tie::Hash;
    use parent -norequire, 'Tie::StdHash';
  
  This is equivalent to the following code:
  
    package MyHash;
    require Tie::Hash;
    push @ISA, 'Tie::StdHash';
  
  If you want to load a subclass from a file that C<require> would
  not consider an eligible filename (that is, it does not end in
  either C<.pm> or C<.pmc>), use the following code:
  
    package MySecondPlugin;
    require './plugins/custom.plugin'; # contains Plugin::Custom
    use parent -norequire, 'Plugin::Custom';
  
  =head1 DIAGNOSTICS
  
  =over 4
  
  =item Class 'Foo' tried to inherit from itself
  
  Attempting to inherit from yourself generates a warning.
  
      package Foo;
      use parent 'Foo';
  
  =back
  
  =head1 HISTORY
  
  This module was forked from L<base> to remove the cruft
  that had accumulated in it.
  
  =head1 CAVEATS
  
  =head1 SEE ALSO
  
  L<base>
  
  =head1 AUTHORS AND CONTRIBUTORS
  
  Rafaël Garcia-Suarez, Bart Lateur, Max Maischein, Anno Siegel, Michael Schwern
  
  =head1 MAINTAINER
  
  Max Maischein C< corion@cpan.org >
  
  Copyright (c) 2007-10 Max Maischein C<< <corion@cpan.org> >>
  Based on the idea of C<base.pm>, which was introduced with Perl 5.004_04.
  
  =head1 LICENSE
  
  This module is released under the same terms as Perl itself.
  
  =cut
PARENT

$fatpacked{"version.pm"} = '#line '.(1+__LINE__).' "'.__FILE__."\"\n".<<'VERSION';
  #!perl -w
  package version;
  
  use 5.006002;
  use strict;
  use warnings::register;
  if ($] >= 5.015) {
      warnings::register_categories(qw/version/);
  }
  
  use vars qw(@ISA $VERSION $CLASS $STRICT $LAX *declare *qv);
  
  $VERSION = 0.9912;
  $CLASS = 'version';
  
  # !!!!Delete this next block completely when adding to Perl core!!!!
  {
      local $SIG{'__DIE__'};
      if (1) { # always pretend there's no XS
  	eval "use version::vpp $VERSION"; # don't tempt fate
  	die "$@" if ( $@ );
  	push @ISA, "version::vpp";
  	local $^W;
  	*version::qv = \&version::vpp::qv;
  	*version::declare = \&version::vpp::declare;
  	*version::_VERSION = \&version::vpp::_VERSION;
  	*version::vcmp = \&version::vpp::vcmp;
  	*version::new = \&version::vpp::new;
  	*version::numify = \&version::vpp::numify;
  	*version::normal = \&version::vpp::normal;
  	if ($] >= 5.009000) {
  	    no strict 'refs';
  	    *version::stringify = \&version::vpp::stringify;
  	    *{'version::(""'} = \&version::vpp::stringify;
  	    *{'version::(<=>'} = \&version::vpp::vcmp;
  	    *version::parse = \&version::vpp::parse;
  	}
      }
      else { # use XS module
  	push @ISA, "version::vxs";
  	local $^W;
  	*version::declare = \&version::vxs::declare;
  	*version::qv = \&version::vxs::qv;
  	*version::_VERSION = \&version::vxs::_VERSION;
  	*version::vcmp = \&version::vxs::VCMP;
  	*version::new = \&version::vxs::new;
  	*version::numify = \&version::vxs::numify;
  	*version::normal = \&version::vxs::normal;
  	if ($] >= 5.009000) {
  	    no strict 'refs';
  	    *version::stringify = \&version::vxs::stringify;
  	    *{'version::(""'} = \&version::vxs::stringify;
  	    *{'version::(<=>'} = \&version::vxs::VCMP;
  	    *version::parse = \&version::vxs::parse;
  	}
      }
  }
  
  # avoid using Exporter
  require version::regex;
  *version::is_lax = \&version::regex::is_lax;
  *version::is_strict = \&version::regex::is_strict;
  *LAX = \$version::regex::LAX;
  *STRICT = \$version::regex::STRICT;
  
  sub import {
      no strict 'refs';
      my ($class) = shift;
  
      # Set up any derived class
      unless ($class eq $CLASS) {
  	local $^W;
  	*{$class.'::declare'} =  \&{$CLASS.'::declare'};
  	*{$class.'::qv'} = \&{$CLASS.'::qv'};
      }
  
      my %args;
      if (@_) { # any remaining terms are arguments
  	map { $args{$_} = 1 } @_
      }
      else { # no parameters at all on use line
  	%args =
  	(
  	    qv => 1,
  	    'UNIVERSAL::VERSION' => 1,
  	);
      }
  
      my $callpkg = caller();
  
      if (exists($args{declare})) {
  	*{$callpkg.'::declare'} =
  	    sub {return $class->declare(shift) }
  	  unless defined(&{$callpkg.'::declare'});
      }
  
      if (exists($args{qv})) {
  	*{$callpkg.'::qv'} =
  	    sub {return $class->qv(shift) }
  	  unless defined(&{$callpkg.'::qv'});
      }
  
      if (exists($args{'UNIVERSAL::VERSION'})) {
  	local $^W;
  	*UNIVERSAL::VERSION
  		= \&{$CLASS.'::_VERSION'};
      }
  
      if (exists($args{'VERSION'})) {
  	*{$callpkg.'::VERSION'} = \&{$CLASS.'::_VERSION'};
      }
  
      if (exists($args{'is_strict'})) {
  	*{$callpkg.'::is_strict'} = \&{$CLASS.'::is_strict'}
  	  unless defined(&{$callpkg.'::is_strict'});
      }
  
      if (exists($args{'is_lax'})) {
  	*{$callpkg.'::is_lax'} = \&{$CLASS.'::is_lax'}
  	  unless defined(&{$callpkg.'::is_lax'});
      }
  }
  
  
  1;
VERSION

$fatpacked{"version/regex.pm"} = '#line '.(1+__LINE__).' "'.__FILE__."\"\n".<<'VERSION_REGEX';
  package version::regex;
  
  use strict;
  
  use vars qw($VERSION $CLASS $STRICT $LAX);
  
  $VERSION = 0.9912;
  
  #--------------------------------------------------------------------------#
  # Version regexp components
  #--------------------------------------------------------------------------#
  
  # Fraction part of a decimal version number.  This is a common part of
  # both strict and lax decimal versions
  
  my $FRACTION_PART = qr/\.[0-9]+/;
  
  # First part of either decimal or dotted-decimal strict version number.
  # Unsigned integer with no leading zeroes (except for zero itself) to
  # avoid confusion with octal.
  
  my $STRICT_INTEGER_PART = qr/0|[1-9][0-9]*/;
  
  # First part of either decimal or dotted-decimal lax version number.
  # Unsigned integer, but allowing leading zeros.  Always interpreted
  # as decimal.  However, some forms of the resulting syntax give odd
  # results if used as ordinary Perl expressions, due to how perl treats
  # octals.  E.g.
  #   version->new("010" ) == 10
  #   version->new( 010  ) == 8
  #   version->new( 010.2) == 82  # "8" . "2"
  
  my $LAX_INTEGER_PART = qr/[0-9]+/;
  
  # Second and subsequent part of a strict dotted-decimal version number.
  # Leading zeroes are permitted, and the number is always decimal.
  # Limited to three digits to avoid overflow when converting to decimal
  # form and also avoid problematic style with excessive leading zeroes.
  
  my $STRICT_DOTTED_DECIMAL_PART = qr/\.[0-9]{1,3}/;
  
  # Second and subsequent part of a lax dotted-decimal version number.
  # Leading zeroes are permitted, and the number is always decimal.  No
  # limit on the numerical value or number of digits, so there is the
  # possibility of overflow when converting to decimal form.
  
  my $LAX_DOTTED_DECIMAL_PART = qr/\.[0-9]+/;
  
  # Alpha suffix part of lax version number syntax.  Acts like a
  # dotted-decimal part.
  
  my $LAX_ALPHA_PART = qr/_[0-9]+/;
  
  #--------------------------------------------------------------------------#
  # Strict version regexp definitions
  #--------------------------------------------------------------------------#
  
  # Strict decimal version number.
  
  my $STRICT_DECIMAL_VERSION =
      qr/ $STRICT_INTEGER_PART $FRACTION_PART? /x;
  
  # Strict dotted-decimal version number.  Must have both leading "v" and
  # at least three parts, to avoid confusion with decimal syntax.
  
  my $STRICT_DOTTED_DECIMAL_VERSION =
      qr/ v $STRICT_INTEGER_PART $STRICT_DOTTED_DECIMAL_PART{2,} /x;
  
  # Complete strict version number syntax -- should generally be used
  # anchored: qr/ \A $STRICT \z /x
  
  $STRICT =
      qr/ $STRICT_DECIMAL_VERSION | $STRICT_DOTTED_DECIMAL_VERSION /x;
  
  #--------------------------------------------------------------------------#
  # Lax version regexp definitions
  #--------------------------------------------------------------------------#
  
  # Lax decimal version number.  Just like the strict one except for
  # allowing an alpha suffix or allowing a leading or trailing
  # decimal-point
  
  my $LAX_DECIMAL_VERSION =
      qr/ $LAX_INTEGER_PART (?: \. | $FRACTION_PART $LAX_ALPHA_PART? )?
  	|
  	$FRACTION_PART $LAX_ALPHA_PART?
      /x;
  
  # Lax dotted-decimal version number.  Distinguished by having either
  # leading "v" or at least three non-alpha parts.  Alpha part is only
  # permitted if there are at least two non-alpha parts. Strangely
  # enough, without the leading "v", Perl takes .1.2 to mean v0.1.2,
  # so when there is no "v", the leading part is optional
  
  my $LAX_DOTTED_DECIMAL_VERSION =
      qr/
  	v $LAX_INTEGER_PART (?: $LAX_DOTTED_DECIMAL_PART+ $LAX_ALPHA_PART? )?
  	|
  	$LAX_INTEGER_PART? $LAX_DOTTED_DECIMAL_PART{2,} $LAX_ALPHA_PART?
      /x;
  
  # Complete lax version number syntax -- should generally be used
  # anchored: qr/ \A $LAX \z /x
  #
  # The string 'undef' is a special case to make for easier handling
  # of return values from ExtUtils::MM->parse_version
  
  $LAX =
      qr/ undef | $LAX_DECIMAL_VERSION | $LAX_DOTTED_DECIMAL_VERSION /x;
  
  #--------------------------------------------------------------------------#
  
  # Preloaded methods go here.
  sub is_strict	{ defined $_[0] && $_[0] =~ qr/ \A $STRICT \z /x }
  sub is_lax	{ defined $_[0] && $_[0] =~ qr/ \A $LAX \z /x }
  
  1;
VERSION_REGEX

$fatpacked{"version/vpp.pm"} = '#line '.(1+__LINE__).' "'.__FILE__."\"\n".<<'VERSION_VPP';
  package charstar;
  # a little helper class to emulate C char* semantics in Perl
  # so that prescan_version can use the same code as in C
  
  use overload (
      '""'	=> \&thischar,
      '0+'	=> \&thischar,
      '++'	=> \&increment,
      '--'	=> \&decrement,
      '+'		=> \&plus,
      '-'		=> \&minus,
      '*'		=> \&multiply,
      'cmp'	=> \&cmp,
      '<=>'	=> \&spaceship,
      'bool'	=> \&thischar,
      '='		=> \&clone,
  );
  
  sub new {
      my ($self, $string) = @_;
      my $class = ref($self) || $self;
  
      my $obj = {
  	string  => [split(//,$string)],
  	current => 0,
      };
      return bless $obj, $class;
  }
  
  sub thischar {
      my ($self) = @_;
      my $last = $#{$self->{string}};
      my $curr = $self->{current};
      if ($curr >= 0 && $curr <= $last) {
  	return $self->{string}->[$curr];
      }
      else {
  	return '';
      }
  }
  
  sub increment {
      my ($self) = @_;
      $self->{current}++;
  }
  
  sub decrement {
      my ($self) = @_;
      $self->{current}--;
  }
  
  sub plus {
      my ($self, $offset) = @_;
      my $rself = $self->clone;
      $rself->{current} += $offset;
      return $rself;
  }
  
  sub minus {
      my ($self, $offset) = @_;
      my $rself = $self->clone;
      $rself->{current} -= $offset;
      return $rself;
  }
  
  sub multiply {
      my ($left, $right, $swapped) = @_;
      my $char = $left->thischar();
      return $char * $right;
  }
  
  sub spaceship {
      my ($left, $right, $swapped) = @_;
      unless (ref($right)) { # not an object already
  	$right = $left->new($right);
      }
      return $left->{current} <=> $right->{current};
  }
  
  sub cmp {
      my ($left, $right, $swapped) = @_;
      unless (ref($right)) { # not an object already
  	if (length($right) == 1) { # comparing single character only
  	    return $left->thischar cmp $right;
  	}
  	$right = $left->new($right);
      }
      return $left->currstr cmp $right->currstr;
  }
  
  sub bool {
      my ($self) = @_;
      my $char = $self->thischar;
      return ($char ne '');
  }
  
  sub clone {
      my ($left, $right, $swapped) = @_;
      $right = {
  	string  => [@{$left->{string}}],
  	current => $left->{current},
      };
      return bless $right, ref($left);
  }
  
  sub currstr {
      my ($self, $s) = @_;
      my $curr = $self->{current};
      my $last = $#{$self->{string}};
      if (defined($s) && $s->{current} < $last) {
  	$last = $s->{current};
      }
  
      my $string = join('', @{$self->{string}}[$curr..$last]);
      return $string;
  }
  
  package version::vpp;
  
  use 5.006002;
  use strict;
  use warnings::register;
  
  use Config;
  use vars qw($VERSION $CLASS @ISA $LAX $STRICT $WARN_CATEGORY);
  $VERSION = 0.9912;
  $CLASS = 'version::vpp';
  if ($] > 5.015) {
      warnings::register_categories(qw/version/);
      $WARN_CATEGORY = 'version';
  } else {
      $WARN_CATEGORY = 'numeric';
  }
  
  require version::regex;
  *version::vpp::is_strict = \&version::regex::is_strict;
  *version::vpp::is_lax = \&version::regex::is_lax;
  *LAX = \$version::regex::LAX;
  *STRICT = \$version::regex::STRICT;
  
  use overload (
      '""'       => \&stringify,
      '0+'       => \&numify,
      'cmp'      => \&vcmp,
      '<=>'      => \&vcmp,
      'bool'     => \&vbool,
      '+'        => \&vnoop,
      '-'        => \&vnoop,
      '*'        => \&vnoop,
      '/'        => \&vnoop,
      '+='        => \&vnoop,
      '-='        => \&vnoop,
      '*='        => \&vnoop,
      '/='        => \&vnoop,
      'abs'      => \&vnoop,
  );
  
  sub import {
      no strict 'refs';
      my ($class) = shift;
  
      # Set up any derived class
      unless ($class eq $CLASS) {
  	local $^W;
  	*{$class.'::declare'} =  \&{$CLASS.'::declare'};
  	*{$class.'::qv'} = \&{$CLASS.'::qv'};
      }
  
      my %args;
      if (@_) { # any remaining terms are arguments
  	map { $args{$_} = 1 } @_
      }
      else { # no parameters at all on use line
  	%args =
  	(
  	    qv => 1,
  	    'UNIVERSAL::VERSION' => 1,
  	);
      }
  
      my $callpkg = caller();
  
      if (exists($args{declare})) {
  	*{$callpkg.'::declare'} =
  	    sub {return $class->declare(shift) }
  	  unless defined(&{$callpkg.'::declare'});
      }
  
      if (exists($args{qv})) {
  	*{$callpkg.'::qv'} =
  	    sub {return $class->qv(shift) }
  	  unless defined(&{$callpkg.'::qv'});
      }
  
      if (exists($args{'UNIVERSAL::VERSION'})) {
  	no warnings qw/redefine/;
  	*UNIVERSAL::VERSION
  		= \&{$CLASS.'::_VERSION'};
      }
  
      if (exists($args{'VERSION'})) {
  	*{$callpkg.'::VERSION'} = \&{$CLASS.'::_VERSION'};
      }
  
      if (exists($args{'is_strict'})) {
  	*{$callpkg.'::is_strict'} = \&{$CLASS.'::is_strict'}
  	  unless defined(&{$callpkg.'::is_strict'});
      }
  
      if (exists($args{'is_lax'})) {
  	*{$callpkg.'::is_lax'} = \&{$CLASS.'::is_lax'}
  	  unless defined(&{$callpkg.'::is_lax'});
      }
  }
  
  my $VERSION_MAX = 0x7FFFFFFF;
  
  # implement prescan_version as closely to the C version as possible
  use constant TRUE  => 1;
  use constant FALSE => 0;
  
  sub isDIGIT {
      my ($char) = shift->thischar();
      return ($char =~ /\d/);
  }
  
  sub isALPHA {
      my ($char) = shift->thischar();
      return ($char =~ /[a-zA-Z]/);
  }
  
  sub isSPACE {
      my ($char) = shift->thischar();
      return ($char =~ /\s/);
  }
  
  sub BADVERSION {
      my ($s, $errstr, $error) = @_;
      if ($errstr) {
  	$$errstr = $error;
      }
      return $s;
  }
  
  sub prescan_version {
      my ($s, $strict, $errstr, $sqv, $ssaw_decimal, $swidth, $salpha) = @_;
      my $qv          = defined $sqv          ? $$sqv          : FALSE;
      my $saw_decimal = defined $ssaw_decimal ? $$ssaw_decimal : 0;
      my $width       = defined $swidth       ? $$swidth       : 3;
      my $alpha       = defined $salpha       ? $$salpha       : FALSE;
  
      my $d = $s;
  
      if ($qv && isDIGIT($d)) {
  	goto dotted_decimal_version;
      }
  
      if ($d eq 'v') { # explicit v-string
  	$d++;
  	if (isDIGIT($d)) {
  	    $qv = TRUE;
  	}
  	else { # degenerate v-string
  	    # requires v1.2.3
  	    return BADVERSION($s,$errstr,"Invalid version format (dotted-decimal versions require at least three parts)");
  	}
  
  dotted_decimal_version:
  	if ($strict && $d eq '0' && isDIGIT($d+1)) {
  	    # no leading zeros allowed
  	    return BADVERSION($s,$errstr,"Invalid version format (no leading zeros)");
  	}
  
  	while (isDIGIT($d)) { 	# integer part
  	    $d++;
  	}
  
  	if ($d eq '.')
  	{
  	    $saw_decimal++;
  	    $d++; 		# decimal point
  	}
  	else
  	{
  	    if ($strict) {
  		# require v1.2.3
  		return BADVERSION($s,$errstr,"Invalid version format (dotted-decimal versions require at least three parts)");
  	    }
  	    else {
  		goto version_prescan_finish;
  	    }
  	}
  
  	{
  	    my $i = 0;
  	    my $j = 0;
  	    while (isDIGIT($d)) {	# just keep reading
  		$i++;
  		while (isDIGIT($d)) {
  		    $d++; $j++;
  		    # maximum 3 digits between decimal
  		    if ($strict && $j > 3) {
  			return BADVERSION($s,$errstr,"Invalid version format (maximum 3 digits between decimals)");
  		    }
  		}
  		if ($d eq '_') {
  		    if ($strict) {
  			return BADVERSION($s,$errstr,"Invalid version format (no underscores)");
  		    }
  		    if ( $alpha ) {
  			return BADVERSION($s,$errstr,"Invalid version format (multiple underscores)");
  		    }
  		    $d++;
  		    $alpha = TRUE;
  		}
  		elsif ($d eq '.') {
  		    if ($alpha) {
  			return BADVERSION($s,$errstr,"Invalid version format (underscores before decimal)");
  		    }
  		    $saw_decimal++;
  		    $d++;
  		}
  		elsif (!isDIGIT($d)) {
  		    last;
  		}
  		$j = 0;
  	    }
  
  	    if ($strict && $i < 2) {
  		# requires v1.2.3
  		return BADVERSION($s,$errstr,"Invalid version format (dotted-decimal versions require at least three parts)");
  	    }
  	}
      } 					# end if dotted-decimal
      else
      {					# decimal versions
  	my $j = 0;
  	# special $strict case for leading '.' or '0'
  	if ($strict) {
  	    if ($d eq '.') {
  		return BADVERSION($s,$errstr,"Invalid version format (0 before decimal required)");
  	    }
  	    if ($d eq '0' && isDIGIT($d+1)) {
  		return BADVERSION($s,$errstr,"Invalid version format (no leading zeros)");
  	    }
  	}
  
  	# and we never support negative version numbers
  	if ($d eq '-') {
  	    return BADVERSION($s,$errstr,"Invalid version format (negative version number)");
  	}
  
  	# consume all of the integer part
  	while (isDIGIT($d)) {
  	    $d++;
  	}
  
  	# look for a fractional part
  	if ($d eq '.') {
  	    # we found it, so consume it
  	    $saw_decimal++;
  	    $d++;
  	}
  	elsif (!$d || $d eq ';' || isSPACE($d) || $d eq '}') {
  	    if ( $d == $s ) {
  		# found nothing
  		return BADVERSION($s,$errstr,"Invalid version format (version required)");
  	    }
  	    # found just an integer
  	    goto version_prescan_finish;
  	}
  	elsif ( $d == $s ) {
  	    # didn't find either integer or period
  	    return BADVERSION($s,$errstr,"Invalid version format (non-numeric data)");
  	}
  	elsif ($d eq '_') {
  	    # underscore can't come after integer part
  	    if ($strict) {
  		return BADVERSION($s,$errstr,"Invalid version format (no underscores)");
  	    }
  	    elsif (isDIGIT($d+1)) {
  		return BADVERSION($s,$errstr,"Invalid version format (alpha without decimal)");
  	    }
  	    else {
  		return BADVERSION($s,$errstr,"Invalid version format (misplaced underscore)");
  	    }
  	}
  	elsif ($d) {
  	    # anything else after integer part is just invalid data
  	    return BADVERSION($s,$errstr,"Invalid version format (non-numeric data)");
  	}
  
  	# scan the fractional part after the decimal point
  	if ($d && !isDIGIT($d) && ($strict || ! ($d eq ';' || isSPACE($d) || $d eq '}') )) {
  		# $strict or lax-but-not-the-end
  		return BADVERSION($s,$errstr,"Invalid version format (fractional part required)");
  	}
  
  	while (isDIGIT($d)) {
  	    $d++; $j++;
  	    if ($d eq '.' && isDIGIT($d-1)) {
  		if ($alpha) {
  		    return BADVERSION($s,$errstr,"Invalid version format (underscores before decimal)");
  		}
  		if ($strict) {
  		    return BADVERSION($s,$errstr,"Invalid version format (dotted-decimal versions must begin with 'v')");
  		}
  		$d = $s; # start all over again
  		$qv = TRUE;
  		goto dotted_decimal_version;
  	    }
  	    if ($d eq '_') {
  		if ($strict) {
  		    return BADVERSION($s,$errstr,"Invalid version format (no underscores)");
  		}
  		if ( $alpha ) {
  		    return BADVERSION($s,$errstr,"Invalid version format (multiple underscores)");
  		}
  		if ( ! isDIGIT($d+1) ) {
  		    return BADVERSION($s,$errstr,"Invalid version format (misplaced underscore)");
  		}
  		$width = $j;
  		$d++;
  		$alpha = TRUE;
  	    }
  	}
      }
  
  version_prescan_finish:
      while (isSPACE($d)) {
  	$d++;
      }
  
      if ($d && !isDIGIT($d) && (! ($d eq ';' || $d eq '}') )) {
  	# trailing non-numeric data
  	return BADVERSION($s,$errstr,"Invalid version format (non-numeric data)");
      }
      if ($saw_decimal > 1 && ($d-1) eq '.') {
  	# no trailing period allowed
  	return BADVERSION($s,$errstr,"Invalid version format (trailing decimal)");
      }
  
      if (defined $sqv) {
  	$$sqv = $qv;
      }
      if (defined $swidth) {
  	$$swidth = $width;
      }
      if (defined $ssaw_decimal) {
  	$$ssaw_decimal = $saw_decimal;
      }
      if (defined $salpha) {
  	$$salpha = $alpha;
      }
      return $d;
  }
  
  sub scan_version {
      my ($s, $rv, $qv) = @_;
      my $start;
      my $pos;
      my $last;
      my $errstr;
      my $saw_decimal = 0;
      my $width = 3;
      my $alpha = FALSE;
      my $vinf = FALSE;
      my @av;
  
      $s = new charstar $s;
  
      while (isSPACE($s)) { # leading whitespace is OK
  	$s++;
      }
  
      $last = prescan_version($s, FALSE, \$errstr, \$qv, \$saw_decimal,
  	\$width, \$alpha);
  
      if ($errstr) {
  	# 'undef' is a special case and not an error
  	if ( $s ne 'undef') {
  	    require Carp;
  	    Carp::croak($errstr);
  	}
      }
  
      $start = $s;
      if ($s eq 'v') {
  	$s++;
      }
      $pos = $s;
  
      if ( $qv ) {
  	$$rv->{qv} = $qv;
      }
      if ( $alpha ) {
  	$$rv->{alpha} = $alpha;
      }
      if ( !$qv && $width < 3 ) {
  	$$rv->{width} = $width;
      }
  
      while (isDIGIT($pos)) {
  	$pos++;
      }
      if (!isALPHA($pos)) {
  	my $rev;
  
  	for (;;) {
  	    $rev = 0;
  	    {
    		# this is atoi() that delimits on underscores
    		my $end = $pos;
    		my $mult = 1;
  		my $orev;
  
  		#  the following if() will only be true after the decimal
  		#  point of a version originally created with a bare
  		#  floating point number, i.e. not quoted in any way
  		#
   		if ( !$qv && $s > $start && $saw_decimal == 1 ) {
  		    $mult *= 100;
   		    while ( $s < $end ) {
  			$orev = $rev;
   			$rev += $s * $mult;
   			$mult /= 10;
  			if (   (abs($orev) > abs($rev))
  			    || (abs($rev) > $VERSION_MAX )) {
  			    warn("Integer overflow in version %d",
  					   $VERSION_MAX);
  			    $s = $end - 1;
  			    $rev = $VERSION_MAX;
  			    $vinf = 1;
  			}
   			$s++;
  			if ( $s eq '_' ) {
  			    $s++;
  			}
   		    }
    		}
   		else {
   		    while (--$end >= $s) {
  			$orev = $rev;
   			$rev += $end * $mult;
   			$mult *= 10;
  			if (   (abs($orev) > abs($rev))
  			    || (abs($rev) > $VERSION_MAX )) {
  			    warn("Integer overflow in version");
  			    $end = $s - 1;
  			    $rev = $VERSION_MAX;
  			    $vinf = 1;
  			}
   		    }
   		}
    	    }
  
    	    # Append revision
  	    push @av, $rev;
  	    if ( $vinf ) {
  		$s = $last;
  		last;
  	    }
  	    elsif ( $pos eq '.' ) {
  		$pos++;
  		if ($qv) {
  		    # skip leading zeros
  		    while ($pos eq '0') {
  			$pos++;
  		    }
  		}
  		$s = $pos;
  	    }
  	    elsif ( $pos eq '_' && isDIGIT($pos+1) ) {
  		$s = ++$pos;
  	    }
  	    elsif ( $pos eq ',' && isDIGIT($pos+1) ) {
  		$s = ++$pos;
  	    }
  	    elsif ( isDIGIT($pos) ) {
  		$s = $pos;
  	    }
  	    else {
  		$s = $pos;
  		last;
  	    }
  	    if ( $qv ) {
  		while ( isDIGIT($pos) ) {
  		    $pos++;
  		}
  	    }
  	    else {
  		my $digits = 0;
  		while ( ( isDIGIT($pos) || $pos eq '_' ) && $digits < 3 ) {
  		    if ( $pos ne '_' ) {
  			$digits++;
  		    }
  		    $pos++;
  		}
  	    }
  	}
      }
      if ( $qv ) { # quoted versions always get at least three terms
  	my $len = $#av;
  	#  This for loop appears to trigger a compiler bug on OS X, as it
  	#  loops infinitely. Yes, len is negative. No, it makes no sense.
  	#  Compiler in question is:
  	#  gcc version 3.3 20030304 (Apple Computer, Inc. build 1640)
  	#  for ( len = 2 - len; len > 0; len-- )
  	#  av_push(MUTABLE_AV(sv), newSViv(0));
  	#
  	$len = 2 - $len;
  	while ($len-- > 0) {
  	    push @av, 0;
  	}
      }
  
      # need to save off the current version string for later
      if ( $vinf ) {
  	$$rv->{original} = "v.Inf";
  	$$rv->{vinf} = 1;
      }
      elsif ( $s > $start ) {
  	$$rv->{original} = $start->currstr($s);
  	if ( $qv && $saw_decimal == 1 && $start ne 'v' ) {
  	    # need to insert a v to be consistent
  	    $$rv->{original} = 'v' . $$rv->{original};
  	}
      }
      else {
  	$$rv->{original} = '0';
  	push(@av, 0);
      }
  
      # And finally, store the AV in the hash
      $$rv->{version} = \@av;
  
      # fix RT#19517 - special case 'undef' as string
      if ($s eq 'undef') {
  	$s += 5;
      }
  
      return $s;
  }
  
  sub new {
      my $class = shift;
      unless (defined $class or $#_ > 1) {
  	require Carp;
  	Carp::croak('Usage: version::new(class, version)');
      }
  
      my $self = bless ({}, ref ($class) || $class);
      my $qv = FALSE;
  
      if ( $#_ == 1 ) { # must be CVS-style
  	$qv = TRUE;
      }
      my $value = pop; # always going to be the last element
  
      if ( ref($value) && eval('$value->isa("version")') ) {
  	# Can copy the elements directly
  	$self->{version} = [ @{$value->{version} } ];
  	$self->{qv} = 1 if $value->{qv};
  	$self->{alpha} = 1 if $value->{alpha};
  	$self->{original} = ''.$value->{original};
  	return $self;
      }
  
      if ( not defined $value or $value =~ /^undef$/ ) {
  	# RT #19517 - special case for undef comparison
  	# or someone forgot to pass a value
  	push @{$self->{version}}, 0;
  	$self->{original} = "0";
  	return ($self);
      }
  
  
      if (ref($value) =~ m/ARRAY|HASH/) {
  	require Carp;
  	Carp::croak("Invalid version format (non-numeric data)");
      }
  
      $value = _un_vstring($value);
  
      if ($Config{d_setlocale}) {
  	use POSIX qw/locale_h/;
  	use if $Config{d_setlocale}, 'locale';
  	my $currlocale = setlocale(LC_ALL);
  
  	# if the current locale uses commas for decimal points, we
  	# just replace commas with decimal places, rather than changing
  	# locales
  	if ( localeconv()->{decimal_point} eq ',' ) {
  	    $value =~ tr/,/./;
  	}
      }
  
      # exponential notation
      if ( $value =~ /\d+.?\d*e[-+]?\d+/ ) {
  	$value = sprintf("%.9f",$value);
  	$value =~ s/(0+)$//; # trim trailing zeros
      }
  
      my $s = scan_version($value, \$self, $qv);
  
      if ($s) { # must be something left over
  	warn("Version string '%s' contains invalid data; "
  		   ."ignoring: '%s'", $value, $s);
      }
  
      return ($self);
  }
  
  *parse = \&new;
  
  sub numify {
      my ($self) = @_;
      unless (_verify($self)) {
  	require Carp;
  	Carp::croak("Invalid version object");
      }
      my $width = $self->{width} || 3;
      my $alpha = $self->{alpha} || "";
      my $len = $#{$self->{version}};
      my $digit = $self->{version}[0];
      my $string = sprintf("%d.", $digit );
  
      if ($alpha and warnings::enabled()) {
  	warnings::warn($WARN_CATEGORY, 'alpha->numify() is lossy');
      }
  
      for ( my $i = 1 ; $i < $len ; $i++ ) {
  	$digit = $self->{version}[$i];
  	if ( $width < 3 ) {
  	    my $denom = 10**(3-$width);
  	    my $quot = int($digit/$denom);
  	    my $rem = $digit - ($quot * $denom);
  	    $string .= sprintf("%0".$width."d_%d", $quot, $rem);
  	}
  	else {
  	    $string .= sprintf("%03d", $digit);
  	}
      }
  
      if ( $len > 0 ) {
  	$digit = $self->{version}[$len];
  	if ( $alpha && $width == 3 ) {
  	    $string .= "_";
  	}
  	$string .= sprintf("%0".$width."d", $digit);
      }
      else # $len = 0
      {
  	$string .= sprintf("000");
      }
  
      return $string;
  }
  
  sub normal {
      my ($self) = @_;
      unless (_verify($self)) {
  	require Carp;
  	Carp::croak("Invalid version object");
      }
      my $alpha = $self->{alpha} || "";
      my $qv = $self->{qv} || "";
  
      my $len = $#{$self->{version}};
      my $digit = $self->{version}[0];
      my $string = sprintf("v%d", $digit );
  
      for ( my $i = 1 ; $i < $len ; $i++ ) {
  	$digit = $self->{version}[$i];
  	$string .= sprintf(".%d", $digit);
      }
  
      if ( $len > 0 ) {
  	$digit = $self->{version}[$len];
  	if ( $alpha ) {
  	    $string .= sprintf("_%0d", $digit);
  	}
  	else {
  	    $string .= sprintf(".%0d", $digit);
  	}
      }
  
      if ( $len <= 2 ) {
  	for ( $len = 2 - $len; $len != 0; $len-- ) {
  	    $string .= sprintf(".%0d", 0);
  	}
      }
  
      return $string;
  }
  
  sub stringify {
      my ($self) = @_;
      unless (_verify($self)) {
  	require Carp;
  	Carp::croak("Invalid version object");
      }
      return exists $self->{original}
      	? $self->{original}
  	: exists $self->{qv}
  	    ? $self->normal
  	    : $self->numify;
  }
  
  sub vcmp {
      require UNIVERSAL;
      my ($left,$right,$swap) = @_;
      my $class = ref($left);
      unless ( UNIVERSAL::isa($right, $class) ) {
  	$right = $class->new($right);
      }
  
      if ( $swap ) {
  	($left, $right) = ($right, $left);
      }
      unless (_verify($left)) {
  	require Carp;
  	Carp::croak("Invalid version object");
      }
      unless (_verify($right)) {
  	require Carp;
  	Carp::croak("Invalid version format");
      }
      my $l = $#{$left->{version}};
      my $r = $#{$right->{version}};
      my $m = $l < $r ? $l : $r;
      my $lalpha = $left->is_alpha;
      my $ralpha = $right->is_alpha;
      my $retval = 0;
      my $i = 0;
      while ( $i <= $m && $retval == 0 ) {
  	$retval = $left->{version}[$i] <=> $right->{version}[$i];
  	$i++;
      }
  
      # tiebreaker for alpha with identical terms
      if ( $retval == 0
  	&& $l == $r
  	&& $left->{version}[$m] == $right->{version}[$m]
  	&& ( $lalpha || $ralpha ) ) {
  
  	if ( $lalpha && !$ralpha ) {
  	    $retval = -1;
  	}
  	elsif ( $ralpha && !$lalpha) {
  	    $retval = +1;
  	}
      }
  
      # possible match except for trailing 0's
      if ( $retval == 0 && $l != $r ) {
  	if ( $l < $r ) {
  	    while ( $i <= $r && $retval == 0 ) {
  		if ( $right->{version}[$i] != 0 ) {
  		    $retval = -1; # not a match after all
  		}
  		$i++;
  	    }
  	}
  	else {
  	    while ( $i <= $l && $retval == 0 ) {
  		if ( $left->{version}[$i] != 0 ) {
  		    $retval = +1; # not a match after all
  		}
  		$i++;
  	    }
  	}
      }
  
      return $retval;
  }
  
  sub vbool {
      my ($self) = @_;
      return vcmp($self,$self->new("0"),1);
  }
  
  sub vnoop {
      require Carp;
      Carp::croak("operation not supported with version object");
  }
  
  sub is_alpha {
      my ($self) = @_;
      return (exists $self->{alpha});
  }
  
  sub qv {
      my $value = shift;
      my $class = $CLASS;
      if (@_) {
  	$class = ref($value) || $value;
  	$value = shift;
      }
  
      $value = _un_vstring($value);
      $value = 'v'.$value unless $value =~ /(^v|\d+\.\d+\.\d)/;
      my $obj = $CLASS->new($value);
      return bless $obj, $class;
  }
  
  *declare = \&qv;
  
  sub is_qv {
      my ($self) = @_;
      return (exists $self->{qv});
  }
  
  
  sub _verify {
      my ($self) = @_;
      if ( ref($self)
  	&& eval { exists $self->{version} }
  	&& ref($self->{version}) eq 'ARRAY'
  	) {
  	return 1;
      }
      else {
  	return 0;
      }
  }
  
  sub _is_non_alphanumeric {
      my $s = shift;
      $s = new charstar $s;
      while ($s) {
  	return 0 if isSPACE($s); # early out
  	return 1 unless (isALPHA($s) || isDIGIT($s) || $s =~ /[.-]/);
  	$s++;
      }
      return 0;
  }
  
  sub _un_vstring {
      my $value = shift;
      # may be a v-string
      if ( length($value) >= 1 && $value !~ /[,._]/
  	&& _is_non_alphanumeric($value)) {
  	my $tvalue;
  	if ( $] >= 5.008_001 ) {
  	    $tvalue = _find_magic_vstring($value);
  	    $value = $tvalue if length $tvalue;
  	}
  	elsif ( $] >= 5.006_000 ) {
  	    $tvalue = sprintf("v%vd",$value);
  	    if ( $tvalue =~ /^v\d+(\.\d+)*$/ ) {
  		# must be a v-string
  		$value = $tvalue;
  	    }
  	}
      }
      return $value;
  }
  
  sub _find_magic_vstring {
      my $value = shift;
      my $tvalue = '';
      require B;
      my $sv = B::svref_2object(\$value);
      my $magic = ref($sv) eq 'B::PVMG' ? $sv->MAGIC : undef;
      while ( $magic ) {
  	if ( $magic->TYPE eq 'V' ) {
  	    $tvalue = $magic->PTR;
  	    $tvalue =~ s/^v?(.+)$/v$1/;
  	    last;
  	}
  	else {
  	    $magic = $magic->MOREMAGIC;
  	}
      }
      return $tvalue;
  }
  
  sub _VERSION {
      my ($obj, $req) = @_;
      my $class = ref($obj) || $obj;
  
      no strict 'refs';
      if ( exists $INC{"$class.pm"} and not %{"$class\::"} and $] >= 5.008) {
  	 # file but no package
  	require Carp;
  	Carp::croak( "$class defines neither package nor VERSION"
  	    ."--version check failed");
      }
  
      my $version = eval "\$$class\::VERSION";
      if ( defined $version ) {
  	local $^W if $] <= 5.008;
  	$version = version::vpp->new($version);
      }
  
      if ( defined $req ) {
  	unless ( defined $version ) {
  	    require Carp;
  	    my $msg =  $] < 5.006
  	    ? "$class version $req required--this is only version "
  	    : "$class does not define \$$class\::VERSION"
  	      ."--version check failed";
  
  	    if ( $ENV{VERSION_DEBUG} ) {
  		Carp::confess($msg);
  	    }
  	    else {
  		Carp::croak($msg);
  	    }
  	}
  
  	$req = version::vpp->new($req);
  
  	if ( $req > $version ) {
  	    require Carp;
  	    if ( $req->is_qv ) {
  		Carp::croak(
  		    sprintf ("%s version %s required--".
  			"this is only version %s", $class,
  			$req->normal, $version->normal)
  		);
  	    }
  	    else {
  		Carp::croak(
  		    sprintf ("%s version %s required--".
  			"this is only version %s", $class,
  			$req->stringify, $version->stringify)
  		);
  	    }
  	}
      }
  
      return defined $version ? $version->stringify : undef;
  }
  
  1; #this line is important and will help the module return a true value
VERSION_VPP

s/^  //mg for values %fatpacked;

my $class = 'FatPacked::'.(0+\%fatpacked);
no strict 'refs';
*{"${class}::files"} = sub { keys %{$_[0]} };

if ($] < 5.008) {
  *{"${class}::INC"} = sub {
    if (my $fat = $_[0]{$_[1]}) {
      my $pos = 0;
      my $last = length $fat;
      return (sub {
        return 0 if $pos == $last;
        my $next = (1 + index $fat, "\n", $pos) || $last;
        $_ .= substr $fat, $pos, $next - $pos;
        $pos = $next;
        return 1;
      });
    }
  };
}

else {
  *{"${class}::INC"} = sub {
    if (my $fat = $_[0]{$_[1]}) {
      open my $fh, '<', \$fat
        or die "FatPacker error loading $_[1] (could be a perl installation issue?)";
      return $fh;
    }
    return;
  };
}

unshift @INC, bless \%fatpacked, $class;
  } # END OF FATPACK CODE



use strict;
use App::cpanminus::script;


unless (caller) {
    my $app = App::cpanminus::script->new;
    $app->parse_options(@ARGV);
    exit $app->doit;
}

__END__

=head1 NAME

cpanm - get, unpack build and install modules from CPAN

=head1 SYNOPSIS

  cpanm Test::More                                 # install Test::More
  cpanm MIYAGAWA/Plack-0.99_05.tar.gz              # full distribution path
  cpanm http://example.org/LDS/CGI.pm-3.20.tar.gz  # install from URL
  cpanm ~/dists/MyCompany-Enterprise-1.00.tar.gz   # install from a local file
  cpanm --interactive Task::Kensho                 # Configure interactively
  cpanm .                                          # install from local directory
  cpanm --installdeps .                            # install all the deps for the current directory
  cpanm -L extlib Plack                            # install Plack and all non-core deps into extlib
  cpanm --mirror http://cpan.cpantesters.org/ DBI  # use the fast-syncing mirror
  cpanm --from https://cpan.metacpan.org/ Plack    # use only the HTTPS mirror

=head1 COMMANDS

=over 4

=item (arguments)

Command line arguments can be either a module name, distribution file,
local file path, HTTP URL or git repository URL. Following commands
will all work as you expect.

    cpanm Plack
    cpanm Plack/Request.pm
    cpanm MIYAGAWA/Plack-1.0000.tar.gz
    cpanm /path/to/Plack-1.0000.tar.gz
    cpanm http://cpan.metacpan.org/authors/id/M/MI/MIYAGAWA/Plack-0.9990.tar.gz
    cpanm git://github.com/plack/Plack.git

Additionally, you can use the notation using C<~> and C<@> to specify
version for a given module. C<~> specifies the version requirement in
the L<CPAN::Meta::Spec> format, while C<@> pins the exact version, and
is a shortcut for C<~"== VERSION">.

    cpanm Plack~1.0000                 # 1.0000 or later
    cpanm Plack~">= 1.0000, < 2.0000"  # latest of 1.xxxx
    cpanm Plack@0.9990                 # specific version. same as Plack~"== 0.9990"

The version query including specific version or range will be sent to
L<MetaCPAN> to search for previous releases. The query will search for
BackPAN archives by default, unless you specify C<--dev> option, in
which case, archived versions will be filtered out.

For a git repository, you can specify a branch, tag, or commit SHA to
build. The default is C<master>

    cpanm git://github.com/plack/Plack.git@1.0000        # tag
    cpanm git://github.com/plack/Plack.git@devel         # branch

=item -i, --install

Installs the modules. This is a default behavior and this is just a
compatibility option to make it work like L<cpan> or L<cpanp>.

=item --self-upgrade

Upgrades itself. It's just an alias for:

  cpanm App::cpanminus

=item --info

Displays the distribution information in
C<AUTHOR/Dist-Name-ver.tar.gz> format in the standard out.

=item --installdeps

Installs the dependencies of the target distribution but won't build
itself. Handy if you want to try the application from a version
controlled repository such as git.

  cpanm --installdeps .

=item --look

Download and unpack the distribution and then open the directory with
your shell. Handy to poke around the source code or do manual
testing.

=item -h, --help

Displays the help message.

=item -V, --version

Displays the version number.

=back

=head1 OPTIONS

You can specify the default options in C<PERL_CPANM_OPT> environment variable.

=over 4

=item -f, --force

Force install modules even when testing failed.

=item -n, --notest

Skip the testing of modules. Use this only when you just want to save
time for installing hundreds of distributions to the same perl and
architecture you've already tested to make sure it builds fine.

Defaults to false, and you can say C<--no-notest> to override when it
is set in the default options in C<PERL_CPANM_OPT>.

=item --test-only

Run the tests only, and do not install the specified module or
distributions. Handy if you want to verify the new (or even old)
releases pass its unit tests without installing the module.

Note that if you specify this option with a module or distribution
that has dependencies, these dependencies will be installed if you
don't currently have them.

=item -S, --sudo

Switch to the root user with C<sudo> when installing modules. Use this
if you want to install modules to the system perl include path.

Defaults to false, and you can say C<--no-sudo> to override when it is
set in the default options in C<PERL_CPANM_OPT>.

=item -v, --verbose

Makes the output verbose. It also enables the interactive
configuration. (See --interactive)

=item -q, --quiet

Makes the output even more quiet than the default. It only shows the
successful/failed dependencies to the output.

=item -l, --local-lib

Sets the L<local::lib> compatible path to install modules to. You
don't need to set this if you already configure the shell environment
variables using L<local::lib>, but this can be used to override that
as well.

=item -L, --local-lib-contained

Same with C<--local-lib> but with L<--self-contained> set.  All
non-core dependencies will be installed even if they're already
installed.

For instance,

  cpanm -L extlib Plack

would install Plack and all of its non-core dependencies into the
directory C<extlib>, which can be loaded from your application with:

  use local::lib '/path/to/extlib';

Note that this option does B<NOT> reliably work with perl installations
supplied by operating system vendors that strips standard modules from perl,
such as RHEL, Fedora and CentOS, B<UNLESS> you also install packages supplying
all the modules that have been stripped.  For these systems you will probably
want to install the C<perl-core> meta-package which does just that.

=item --self-contained

When examining the dependencies, assume no non-core modules are
installed on the system. Handy if you want to bundle application
dependencies in one directory so you can distribute to other machines.

=item --exclude-vendor

Don't include modules installed under the 'vendor' paths when searching for
core modules when the C<--self-contained> flag is in effect.  This restores
the behaviour from before version 1.7023

=item --mirror

Specifies the base URL for the CPAN mirror to use, such as
C<http://cpan.cpantesters.org/> (you can omit the trailing slash). You
can specify multiple mirror URLs by repeating the command line option.

You can use a local directory that has a CPAN mirror structure
(created by tools such as L<OrePAN> or L<Pinto>) by using a special
URL scheme C<file://>. If the given URL begins with `/` (without any
scheme), it is considered as a file scheme as well.

  cpanm --mirror file:///path/to/mirror
  cpanm --mirror ~/minicpan      # Because shell expands ~ to /home/user

Defaults to C<http://www.cpan.org/>.

=item --mirror-only

Download the mirror's 02packages.details.txt.gz index file instead of
querying the CPAN Meta DB. This will also effectively opt out sending
your local perl versions to backend database servers such as CPAN Meta
DB and MetaCPAN.

Select this option if you are using a local mirror of CPAN, such as
minicpan when you're offline, or your own CPAN index (a.k.a darkpan).

=item --from, -M

  cpanm -M https://cpan.metacpan.org/
  cpanm --from https://cpan.metacpan.org/

Use the given mirror URL and its index as the I<only> source to search
and download modules from.

It works similar to C<--mirror> and C<--mirror-only> combined, with a
small difference: unlike C<--mirror> which I<appends> the URL to the
list of mirrors, C<--from> (or C<-M> for short) uses the specified URL
as its I<only> source to download index and modules from. This makes
the option always override the default mirror, which might have been
set via global options such as the one set by C<PERL_CPANM_OPT>
environment variable.

B<Tip:> It might be useful if you name these options with your shell
aliases, like:

  alias minicpanm='cpanm --from ~/minicpan'
  alias darkpan='cpanm --from http://mycompany.example.com/DPAN'

=item --mirror-index

B<EXPERIMENTAL>: Specifies the file path to C<02packages.details.txt>
for module search index.

=item --cpanmetadb

B<EXPERIMENTAL>: Specifies an alternate URI for CPAN MetaDB index lookups.

=item --metacpan

Prefers MetaCPAN API over CPAN MetaDB.

=item --cpanfile

B<EXPERIMENTAL>: Specified an alternate path for cpanfile to search for,
when C<--installdeps> command is in use. Defaults to C<cpanfile>.

=item --prompt

Prompts when a test fails so that you can skip, force install, retry
or look in the shell to see what's going wrong. It also prompts when
one of the dependency failed if you want to proceed the installation.

Defaults to false, and you can say C<--no-prompt> to override if it's
set in the default options in C<PERL_CPANM_OPT>.

=item --dev

B<EXPERIMENTAL>: search for a newer developer release as well. Defaults to false.

=item --reinstall

cpanm, when given a module name in the command line (i.e. C<cpanm
Plack>), checks the locally installed version first and skips if it is
already installed. This option makes it skip the check, so:

  cpanm --reinstall Plack

would reinstall L<Plack> even if your locally installed version is
latest, or even newer (which would happen if you install a developer
release from version control repositories).

Defaults to false.

=item --interactive

Makes the configuration (such as C<Makefile.PL> and C<Build.PL>)
interactive, so you can answer questions in the distribution that
requires custom configuration or Task:: distributions.

Defaults to false, and you can say C<--no-interactive> to override
when it's set in the default options in C<PERL_CPANM_OPT>.

=item --pp, --pureperl

Prefer Pure perl build of modules by setting C<PUREPERL_ONLY=1> for
MakeMaker and C<--pureperl-only> for Build.PL based
distributions. Note that not all of the CPAN modules support this
convention yet.

=item --with-recommends, --with-suggests

B<EXPERIMENTAL>: Installs dependencies declared as C<recommends> and
C<suggests> respectively, per META spec. When these dependencies fail
to install, cpanm continues the installation, since they're just
recommendation/suggestion.

Enabling this could potentially make a circular dependency for a few
modules on CPAN, when C<recommends> adds a module that C<recommends>
back the module in return.

There's also C<--without-recommend> and C<--without-suggests> to
override the default decision made earlier in C<PERL_CPANM_OPT>.

Defaults to false for both.

=item --with-develop

B<EXPERIMENTAL>: Installs develop phase dependencies in META files or
C<cpanfile> when used with C<--installdeps>. Defaults to false.

=item --with-configure

B<EXPERIMENTAL>: Installs configure phase dependencies in C<cpanfile>
when used with C<--installdeps>. Defaults to false.

=item --with-feature, --without-feature, --with-all-features

B<EXPERIMENTAL>: Specifies the feature to enable, if a module supports
optional features per META spec 2.0.

    cpanm --with-feature=opt_csv Spreadsheet::Read

the features can also be interactively chosen when C<--interactive>
option is enabled.

C<--with-all-features> enables all the optional features, and
C<--without-feature> can select a feature to disable.

=item --configure-timeout, --build-timeout, --test-timeout

Specify the timeout length (in seconds) to wait for the configure,
build and test process. Current default values are: 60 for configure,
3600 for build and 1800 for test.

=item --configure-args, --build-args, --test-args, --install-args

B<EXPERIMENTAL>: Pass arguments for configure/build/test/install
commands respectively, for a given module to install.

    cpanm DBD::mysql --configure-args="--cflags=... --libs=..."

The argument is only enabled for the module passed as a command line
argument, not dependencies.

=item --scandeps

B<DEPRECATED>: Scans the depencencies of given modules and output the
tree in a text format. (See C<--format> below for more options)

Because this command doesn't actually install any distributions, it
will be useful that by typing:

  cpanm --scandeps Catalyst::Runtime

you can make sure what modules will be installed.

This command takes into account which modules you already have
installed in your system. If you want to see what modules will be
installed against a vanilla perl installation, you might want to
combine it with C<-L> option.

=item --format

B<DEPRECATED>: Determines what format to display the scanned
dependency tree. Available options are C<tree>, C<json>, C<yaml> and
C<dists>.

=over 8

=item tree

Displays the tree in a plain text format. This is the default value.

=item json, yaml

Outputs the tree in a JSON or YAML format. L<JSON> and L<YAML> modules
need to be installed respectively. The output tree is represented as a
recursive tuple of:

  [ distribution, dependencies ]

and the container is an array containing the root elements. Note that
there may be multiple root nodes, since you can give multiple modules
to the C<--scandeps> command.

=item dists

C<dists> is a special output format, where it prints the distribution
filename in the I<depth first order> after the dependency resolution,
like:

  GAAS/MIME-Base64-3.13.tar.gz
  GAAS/URI-1.58.tar.gz
  PETDANCE/HTML-Tagset-3.20.tar.gz
  GAAS/HTML-Parser-3.68.tar.gz
  GAAS/libwww-perl-5.837.tar.gz

which means you can install these distributions in this order without
extra dependencies. When combined with C<-L> option, it will be useful
to replay installations on other machines.

=back

=item --save-dists

Specifies the optional directory path to copy downloaded tarballs in
the CPAN mirror compatible directory structure
i.e. I<authors/id/A/AU/AUTHORS/Foo-Bar-version.tar.gz>

If the distro tarball did not come from CPAN, for example from a local
file or from GitHub, then it will be saved under
I<vendor/Foo-Bar-version.tar.gz>.

=item --uninst-shadows

Uninstalls the shadow files of the distribution that you're
installing. This eliminates the confusion if you're trying to install
core (dual-life) modules from CPAN against perl 5.10 or older, or
modules that used to be XS-based but switched to pure perl at some
version.

If you run cpanm as root and use C<INSTALL_BASE> or equivalent to
specify custom installation path, you SHOULD disable this option so
you won't accidentally uninstall dual-life modules from the core
include path.

Defaults to true if your perl version is smaller than 5.12, and you
can disable that with C<--no-uninst-shadows>.

B<NOTE>: Since version 1.3000 this flag is turned off by default for
perl newer than 5.12, since with 5.12 @INC contains site_perl directory
I<before> the perl core library path, and uninstalling shadows is not
necessary anymore and does more harm by deleting files from the core
library path.

=item --uninstall, -U

Uninstalls a module from the library path. It finds a packlist for
given modules, and removes all the files included in the same
distribution.

If you enable local::lib, it only removes files from the local::lib
directory.

If you try to uninstall a module in C<perl> directory (i.e. core
module), an error will be thrown.

A dialog will be prompted to confirm the files to be deleted. If you pass
C<-f> option as well, the dialog will be skipped and uninstallation
will be forced.

=item --cascade-search

B<EXPERIMENTAL>: Specifies whether to cascade search when you specify
multiple mirrors and a mirror doesn't have a module or has a lower
version of the module than requested. Defaults to false.

=item --skip-installed

Specifies whether a module given in the command line is skipped if its latest
version is already installed. Defaults to true.

B<NOTE>: The C<PERL5LIB> environment variable have to be correctly set
for this to work with modules installed using L<local::lib>, unless
you always use the C<-l> option.

=item --skip-satisfied

B<EXPERIMENTAL>: Specifies whether a module (and version) given in the
command line is skipped if it's already installed.

If you run:

  cpanm --skip-satisfied CGI DBI~1.2

cpanm won't install them if you already have CGI (for whatever
versions) or have DBI with version higher than 1.2. It is similar to
C<--skip-installed> but while C<--skip-installed> checks if the
I<latest> version of CPAN is installed, C<--skip-satisfied> checks if
a requested version (or not, which means any version) is installed.

Defaults to false.

=item --verify

Verify the integrity of distribution files retrieved from CPAN using CHECKSUMS
file, and SIGNATURES file (if found in the distribution). Defaults to false.

Using this option does not verify the integrity of the CHECKSUMS file, and it's
unsafe to rely on this option if you're using a CPAN mirror that you do not trust.

=item --report-perl-version

Whether it reports the locally installed perl version to the various
web server as part of User-Agent. Defaults to true unless CI related
environment variables such as C<TRAVIS>, C<CI> or C<AUTOMATED_TESTING>
is enabled. You can disable it by using C<--no-report-perl-version>.

=item --auto-cleanup

Specifies the number of days in which cpanm's work directories
expire. Defaults to 7, which means old work directories will be
cleaned up in one week.

You can set the value to C<0> to make cpan never cleanup those
directories.

=item --man-pages

Generates man pages for executables (man1) and libraries (man3).

Defaults to true (man pages generated) unless C<-L|--local-lib-contained>
option is supplied in which case it's set to false. You can disable
it with C<--no-man-pages>.

=item --lwp

Uses L<LWP> module to download stuff over HTTP. Defaults to true, and
you can say C<--no-lwp> to disable using LWP, when you want to upgrade
LWP from CPAN on some broken perl systems.

=item --wget

Uses GNU Wget (if available) to download stuff. Defaults to true, and
you can say C<--no-wget> to disable using Wget (versions of Wget older
than 1.9 don't support the C<--retry-connrefused> option used by cpanm).

=item --curl

Uses cURL (if available) to download stuff. Defaults to true, and
you can say C<--no-curl> to disable using cURL.

Normally with C<--lwp>, C<--wget> and C<--curl> options set to true
(which is the default) cpanm tries L<LWP>, Wget, cURL and L<HTTP::Tiny>
(in that order) and uses the first one available.

=back

=head1 ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

=over 4

=item PERL_CPANM_HOME

The directory cpanm should use to store downloads and build and test
modules. Defaults to the C<.cpanm> directory in your user's home
directory.

=item PERL_CPANM_OPT

If set, adds a set of default options to every cpanm command. These
options come first, and so are overridden by command-line options.

=back

=head1 SEE ALSO

L<App::cpanminus>

=head1 COPYRIGHT

Copyright 2010- Tatsuhiko Miyagawa.

=head1 AUTHOR

Tatsuhiko Miyagawa

=cut