=encoding UTF-8 =head1 Name sqitch-authentication - Guide to using database authentication credentials with Sqitch =head1 Description For database engines that require authentication, Sqitch supports a number of credential-specification options, and searches for them in a specific sequence. These searches are performed in two parts: a search for a username and a search for a password. =head1 Usernames Sqitch searches for usernames sequentially, using the first value it finds. Any of these approaches may be used to specify a username, in this order: =over =item 1. In the C<$SQITCH_USERNAME> environment variable =item 2. Via the C<--db-username> option =item 3. In the deploy target URI; this is the preferred option =item 4. In an engine-specific environment variable or configuration =back Naturally, this last option varies by database engine. The details are as follows: =over =item PostgreSQL The Postgres engine uses the C<PGUSER> environment variable, if set. Otherwise, it uses the system username. =item MySQL For MySQL, if the L<MySQL::Config> module is installed, usernames and passwords can be specified in the L<F</etc/my.cnf> and F<~/.my.cnf> files|https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.7/en/password-security-user.html>. These files must limit access only to the current user (C<0600>). Sqitch will look for a username and password under the C<[client]> and C<[mysql]> sections, in that order. =item Oracle Oracle provides no default to search for a username. =item Vertica The Vertica engine uses the C<VSQL_USER> environment variable, if set. Otherwise, it uses the system username. =item Firebird The Firebird engine uses the C<ISC_USER> environment variable, if set. =item Exasol Exasol provides no default to search for a username. =item Snowflake The Snowflake engine uses the C<SNOWSQL_USER> environment variable, if set. Next, it looks in the L<F<~/.snowsql/config> file|https://docs.snowflake.net/manuals/user-guide/snowsql-start.html#snowsql-config-file> and use the default C<connections.username> value. Otherwise, it uses the system username. =back =head1 Passwords You may have noticed that Sqitch has no C<--password> option. This is intentional. It's generally not a great idea to specify a password on the command-line: from there, it gets logged to your command history and is easy to extract by anyone with access to your system. So you might wonder how to specify passwords so that Sqitch an successfully deploy to databases that require passwords. There are four approaches, in order from most- to least-recommended: =over =item 1. Avoid using a password at all =item 2. Use a database engine-specific password file =item 3. Use the C<$SQITCH_PASSWORD> environment variable =item 4. Include the password in the deploy target URI =back Each is covered in detail in the sections below. =head2 Don't use Passwords Of course, the best way to protect your passwords is not to use them at all. If your database engine is able to do passwordless authentication, it's worth taking the time to make it work, especially on your production database systems. Some examples: =over =item PostgreSQL PostgreSQL supports a number of L<authentication methods|https://www.postgresql.org/docs/current/static/auth-methods.html>, including the passwordless L<SSL certificate|https://www.postgresql.org/docs/current/static/auth-methods.html#AUTH-CERT>, L<GSSAPI|https://www.postgresql.org/docs/current/static/auth-methods.html#GSSAPI-AUTH>, and, for local connections, L<peer authentication|https://www.postgresql.org/docs/current/static/auth-methods.html#AUTH-PEER>. =item MySQL MySQL supports a number of L<authentication methods|https://dev.mysql.com/doc/internals/en/authentication-method.html>, plus L<SSL authentication|https://dev.mysql.com/doc/internals/en/ssl.html>. =item Oracle Oracle supports a number of L<authentication methods|https://docs.oracle.com/cd/B19306_01/network.102/b14266/authmeth.htm#BABCGGEB>, including L<SSL authentication|https://docs.oracle.com/cd/B19306_01/network.102/b14266/authmeth.htm#i1009722>, L<third-party authentication|https://docs.oracle.com/cd/B19306_01/network.102/b14266/authmeth.htm#i1009853>, and, for local connections, L<OS authentication|https://docs.oracle.com/cd/B19306_01/network.102/b14266/authmeth.htm#i1007520>. =item Vertica Vertica supports a number of L<authentication methods|https://my.vertica.com/docs/7.1.x/HTML/index.htm#Authoring/AdministratorsGuide/Security/ClientAuth/SupportedClientAuthenticationMethods.htm> including the passwordless L<TLS authentication|https://my.vertica.com/docs/7.1.x/HTML/index.htm#Authoring/AdministratorsGuide/Security/ClientAuth/ConfiguringTLSAuthentication.htm>, L<GSS authentication|https://my.vertica.com/docs/7.1.x/HTML/index.htm#Authoring/AdministratorsGuide/Security/ClientAuth/Kerberos/ImplementingKerberosAuthentication.htm>, and, for local connections, L<ident authentication|https://my.vertica.com/docs/7.1.x/HTML/index.htm#Authoring/AdministratorsGuide/Security/ClientAuth/ConfiguringIdentAuthentication.htm>. =item Firebird Firebird supports passwordless authentication only via L<trusted authentication|https://www.firebirdsql.org/manual/qsg2-config.html> for local connections. =item Exasol Exasol doesn't seem to support password-less authentication at this time; for other options, see the L<documentation|https://www.exasol.com/portal/display/DOC/Database+User+Manual>. =item Snowflake Snowflake does not support password-less authentication, but does support key-pair authentication. Follow L<the instructions|https://docs.snowflake.net/manuals/user-guide/snowsql-start.html#using-key-pair-authentication> to create a key pair, then set the following variables in the F<~/.snowsql/config> file: authenticator = SNOWFLAKE_JWT private_key_path = "path/to/privatekey.p8" To connect, set the C<$SNOWSQL_PRIVATE_KEY_PASSPHRASE> environment variable to the passphrase for the private key, and add these parameters to the query part of your connection URI: =over =item * C<authenticator=SNOWFLAKE_JWT> =item * C<uid=$username> =item * C<priv_key_file=path/to/privatekey.p8> =item * C<priv_key_file_pwd=$private_key_password> =back For example: db:snowflake://email@example.com/flipr?Driver=Snowflake;warehouse=sqitch;authenticator=SNOWFLAKE_JWT;uid=movera;priv_key_file=path/to/privatekey.p8;priv_key_file_pwd=s0up3rs3cre7 =back =head2 Use a Password File If you must use password authentication with your database server, you may be able to use a protected password file. This is file with access limited only to the current user that the server client library can read in. As such, the format is specified by the database vendor, and not all database servers offer the feature. Here's how the database engines supported by Sqitch shake out: =over =item PostgreSQL PostgreSQL will use a L<F<.pgpass> file|https://www.postgresql.org/docs/current/static/libpq-pgpass.html> in the user's home directory to or referenced by the C<$PGPASSFILE> environment variable. This file must limit access only to the current user (C<0600>) and contains lines specify authentication rules as follows: hostname:port:database:username:password =item MySQL For MySQL, if the L<MySQL::Config> module is installed, usernames and passwords can be specified in the L<F</etc/my.cnf> and F<~/.my.cnf> files|https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.7/en/password-security-user.html>. These files must limit access only to the current user (C<0600>). Sqitch will look for a username and password under the C<[client]> and C<[mysql]> sections, in that order. =item Oracle Oracle supports L<password file|https://docs.oracle.com/cd/B28359_01/server.111/b28310/dba007.htm#ADMIN10241> created with the C<ORAPWD> utility to authenticate C<SYSDBA> and C<SYSOPER> users, but B<Sqitch is unable to take advantage of this functionality.> Neither can one L<embed a username and password|https://stackoverflow.com/q/7183513/79202> into a L<F<tnsnames.ora>|https://docs.oracle.com/cd/B28359_01/network.111/b28317/tnsnames.htm#NETRF007> file. =item Vertica Vertica does not currently support a password file. =item Firebird Firebird does not currently support a password file. =item Exasol Exasol allows configuring connection profiles for the 'exaplus' client: > exaplus -u sys -p exasol -c localhost:8563 -wp flipr_test EXAplus 6.0.4 (c) EXASOL AG Profile flipr_test is saved. > exaplus -profile flipr_test -q -sql "select current_timestamp;" CURRENT_TIMESTAMP -------------------------- 2017-11-02 13:35:48.360000 These profiles are stored in F<~/.exasol/profiles.xml>, readable only to the user by default. See the L<documentation|https://www.exasol.com/portal/display/DOC/Database+User+Manual> for more information on connection profiles, specifically the EXAplus section in the chapter on "Clients and interfaces". For ODBC connections from Sqitch, we can use connection settings in F<~/.odbc.ini>: [flipr_test] DRIVER = Exasol EXAHOST = localhost:8563 EXAUID = sys EXAPWD = exasol When combining the above, Sqitch doesn't need to know any credentials; they are stored somewhat safely in F<~/.exasol/profiles.xml> and F<~/.odbc.ini>: > sqitch status db:exasol:flipr_test # On database db:exasol:flipr_test # Project: flipr # ... # Nothing to deploy (up-to-date) > sqitch rebase --onto '@HEAD^' -y db:exasol:flipr_test Reverting changes to hashtags @v1.0.0-dev2 from db:exasol:flipr_test - userflips .. ok Deploying changes to db:exasol:flipr_test + userflips .. ok =item Snowflake For Snowflake, Sqitch will read the L<F<~/.snowsql/config> file|https://docs.snowflake.net/manuals/user-guide/snowsql-start.html#snowsql-config-file> and use the default connections settings; named connections are not supported. An example: [connections] accountname = myaccount region = us-east-1 warehousename = compute username = frank password = fistula postmark bag rolename = ACCOUNTADMIN dbname = reporting The variables that Sqitch currently reads are: =over =item C<connections.accountname> =item C<connections.username> =item C<connections.password> =item C<connections.rolename> =item C<connections.region> =item C<connections.warehousename> =item C<connections.dbname> =back =back =head2 Use C<$SQITCH_PASSWORD> The C<$SQITCH_PASSWORD> environment variable can be used to specify the password for any supported database engine. However use of this environment variable is not recommended for security reasons, as some operating systems allow non-root users to see process environment variables via C<ps>. The behavior of C<$SQITCH_PASSWORD> is consistent across all supported engines, as is the complementary C<$SQITCH_USERNAME> environment variable. Some database engines support their own password environment variables, which you may wish to use instead. However, their behaviors may not be consistent: =over =item PostgreSQL C<$PGPASSWORD> =item MySQL C<$MYSQL_PWD> =item Vertica C<$VSQL_PASSWORD> =item Firebird C<$ISC_PASSWORD> =item Snowflake C<$SNOWSQL_PWD> =back =head2 Use Target URIs Passwords may also be specified in L<target URIs|sqitch-target/Description>. This is not generally recommended, since such URIs are either specified via the command-line (and therefore visible in C<ps> and your shell history) or stored in the L<configuration|sqitch-configuration>, the project instance of which is generally pushed to your source code repository. But it's provided here as an absolute last resort (and because web URLs support it, though it's heavily frowned upon there, too). Such URIs can either be specified on the command-line: sqitch deploy db:pg://fred:firstname.lastname@example.org/widgets Or stored as named targets in the project configuration file: sqitch target add wigets db:pg://fred:email@example.com/widgets After which the target is available by its name: sqitch deploy widgets See L<sqitch-targets> and C<sqitch-configuration> for details on target configuration. =head1 See Also =over =item * L<sqitch-environment> =item * L<sqitch-configuration> =item * L<sqitch-target> =back =head1 Sqitch Part of the L<sqitch> suite.