Backends have a trivial API and can communicate upwards to the App::Open core through a series of exceptions and call returns.

The rest of this document will describe the required API and exceptions you can throw that App::Open will recognize.




`$args` can be an array ref or undef as passed to the constructor. It will return a blessed object that has the methods listed below in the namespace the object is bound to.

It is ok to require arguments, but the ideal case is to require as little configuration as possible, leaving the user to expect reasonable defaults without arguments.


Looks up the command string for `$extension`.

The string returned should be usable in the shell as a full command, with one potential exception, explained below. The command will then be processed by the App::Open system and executed if possible.

`%s' in a command string allows the App::Open system to substitute the filename in place of this format variable... f.e.:

"firefox %s -newtab"

%s will correspond to the filename/url that was the source for this lookup after App::Open gets its hands back on it.

In the case that %s is omitted, the filename/url is appended to the end of the command string.

App::Open actually splits up the command string for usage via multiple-argument system() and as such shell quoting issues are rarely an issue, but either you or the user are responsible for these issues, App::Open will make no attempt to fix or add quoting.


`$scheme` is a url protocol scheme, e.g., "https" or "ftp". Other than this detail, it is expected to use the exact same semantics as lookup_file().


For this document, exceptions are triggered by calling die() with a specific argument string. Some exceptions take optional arguments, which are delimited by spaces in the die string.


    die "INVALID_CONFIGURATION"; # exception for invalid configuration
    die "ANOTHER_EXCEPTION that has four arguments"; # an exception with arguments

While there's nothing stopping you from processing exceptions this way in your own backends, these exceptions are mainly for the benefit of the App::Open core. The core uses these exceptions to provide useful output to the user when there's an error running the `openit` command.

Anyways, on to the list of recognized exceptions.


I hope these are self-explanatory.


This is generally thrown by App::Open itself, when no matches for a given extension/scheme are found. However, if your backend depends on a program to perform lookups and can't find it, it would be appropriate to throw this.

NO_BACKEND_FOUND backend_name

Used by App::Open::Config when initializing backends, and one cannot be loaded. It's unlikely you will ever need this.


This is what you will most often use; if you require arguments or merely get garbage arguments, this is what you throw, and the `openit` program will direct the user to your backend documentation. Obviously, this can be used in less obvious cases.


Please look at App::Open::Backend::Dummy for a very basic rundown of the API. This is what's used to test the backend interface functionality, and as such will remain updated along with this document concerning any changes to the API.

If you'd like something with more meat, App:;Open::Backend::YAML is fully functional and relatively simple to understand.


It is the author's desire that backends released be packaged separately from App::Open and available via CPAN.

However, he will gladly consider backends for inclusion in this package that:

Do not add dependencies
Do not make assumptions about the operating system or installed tools
Are fully tested and documented

In other words, you're better off just releasing it yourself.