package Template::Tiny;

# Load overhead: 40k

use 5.00503;
use strict;

$Template::Tiny::VERSION = '1.12';

# Evaluatable expression
my $EXPR = qr/ [a-z_][\w.]* /xs;

# Opening [% tag including whitespace chomping rules
my $LEFT = qr/
	(?:
		(?: (?:^|\n) [ \t]* )? \[\%\-
		|
		\[\% \+?
	) \s*
/xs;

# Closing %] tag including whitespace chomping rules
my $RIGHT  = qr/
	\s* (?:
		\+? \%\]
		|
		\-\%\] (?: [ \t]* \n )?
	)
/xs;

# Preparsing run for nesting tags
my $PREPARSE = qr/
	$LEFT ( IF | UNLESS | FOREACH ) \s+
		(
			(?: \S+ \s+ IN \s+ )?
		\S+ )
	$RIGHT
	(?!
		.*?
		$LEFT (?: IF | UNLESS | FOREACH ) \b
	)
	( .*? )
	(?:
		$LEFT ELSE $RIGHT
		(?!
			.*?
			$LEFT (?: IF | UNLESS | FOREACH ) \b
		)
		( .+? )
	)?
	$LEFT END $RIGHT
/xs;

# Condition set
my $CONDITION = qr/
	\[\%\s
		( ([IUF])\d+ ) \s+
		(?:
			([a-z]\w*) \s+ IN \s+
		)?
		( $EXPR )
	\s\%\]
	( .*? )
	(?:
		\[\%\s \1 \s\%\]
		( .+? )
	)?
	\[\%\s \1 \s\%\]
/xs;

sub new {
	bless { @_[1..$#_] }, $_[0];
}

# Copy and modify
sub preprocess {
	my $self = shift;
	my $text = shift;
	$self->_preprocess(\$text);
	return $text;
}

sub process {
	my $self  = shift;
	my $copy  = ${shift()};
	my $stash = shift || {};

	local $@  = '';
	local $^W = 0;

	# Preprocess to establish unique matching tag sets
	$self->_preprocess( \$copy );

	# Process down the nested tree of conditions
	my $result = $self->_process( $stash, $copy );
	if ( @_ ) {
		${$_[0]} = $result;
	} elsif ( defined wantarray ) {
		require Carp;
		Carp::carp('Returning of template results is deprecated in Template::Tiny 0.11');
		return $result;
	} else {
		print $result;
	}
}





######################################################################
# Support Methods

# The only reason this is a standalone is so we can
# do more in-depth testing.
sub _preprocess {
	my $self = shift;
	my $copy = shift;

	# Preprocess to establish unique matching tag sets
	my $id = 0;
	1 while $$copy =~ s/
		$PREPARSE
	/
		my $tag = substr($1, 0, 1) . ++$id;
		"\[\% $tag $2 \%\]$3\[\% $tag \%\]"
		. (defined($4) ? "$4\[\% $tag \%\]" : '');
	/sex;
}

sub _process {
	my ($self, $stash, $text) = @_;

	$text =~ s/
		$CONDITION
	/
		($2 eq 'F')
			? $self->_foreach($stash, $3, $4, $5)
			: eval {
				$2 eq 'U'
				xor
				!! # Force boolification
				$self->_expression($stash, $4)
			}
				? $self->_process($stash, $5)
				: $self->_process($stash, $6)
	/gsex;

	# Resolve expressions
	$text =~ s/
		$LEFT ( $EXPR ) $RIGHT
	/
		eval {
			$self->_expression($stash, $1)
			. '' # Force stringification
		}
	/gsex;

	# Trim the document
	$text =~ s/^\s*(.+?)\s*\z/$1/s if $self->{TRIM};

	return $text;
}

# Special handling for foreach
sub _foreach {
	my ($self, $stash, $term, $expr, $text) = @_;

	# Resolve the expression
	my $list = $self->_expression($stash, $expr);
	unless ( ref $list eq 'ARRAY' ) {
		return '';
	}

	# Iterate
	return join '', map {
		$self->_process( { %$stash, $term => $_ }, $text )
	} @$list;
}

# Evaluates a stash expression
sub _expression {
	my $cursor = $_[1];
	my @path   = split /\./, $_[2];
	foreach ( @path ) {
		# Support for private keys
		return undef if substr($_, 0, 1) eq '_';

		# Split by data type
		my $type = ref $cursor;
		if ( $type eq 'ARRAY' ) {
			return '' unless /^(?:0|[0-9]\d*)\z/;
			$cursor = $cursor->[$_];
		} elsif ( $type eq 'HASH' ) {
			$cursor = $cursor->{$_};
		} elsif ( $type ) {
			$cursor = $cursor->$_();
		} else {
			return '';
		}
	}
	return $cursor;
}

1;

__END__

=pod

=head1 NAME

Template::Tiny - Template Toolkit reimplemented in as little code as possible

=head1 SYNOPSIS

  my $template = Template::Tiny->new(
      TRIM => 1,
  );
  
  # Print the template results to STDOUT
  $template->process( <<'END_TEMPLATE', { foo => 'World' } );
  Hello [% foo %]!
  END_TEMPLATE

=head1 DESCRIPTION

B<Template::Tiny> is a reimplementation of a subset of the functionality from
L<Template> Toolkit in as few lines of code as possible.

It is intended for use in light-usage, low-memory, or low-cpu templating
situations, where you may need to upgrade to the full feature set in the
future, or if you want the retain the familiarity of TT-style templates.

For the subset of functionality it implements, it has fully-compatible template
and stash API. All templates used with B<Template::Tiny> should be able to be
transparently upgraded to full Template Toolkit.

Unlike Template Toolkit, B<Template::Tiny> will process templates without a
compile phase (but despite this is still quicker, owing to heavy use of
the Perl regular expression engine.

=head2 SUPPORTED USAGE

Only the default C<[% %]> tag style is supported.

Both the C<[%+ +%]> style explicit whitespace and the C<[%- -%]> style
explicit chomp B<are> support, although the C<[%+ +%]> version is unneeded
in practice as B<Template::Tiny> does not support default-enabled C<PRE_CHOMP>
or C<POST_CHOMP>.

Variable expressions in the form C<[% foo.bar.baz %]> B<are> supported.

Appropriate simple behaviours for C<ARRAY> references, C<HASH> references and
objects are supported. "VMethods" such as [% array.length %] are B<not>
supported at this time.

C<IF>, C<ELSE> and C<UNLESS> conditional blocks B<are> supported, but only with
simple C<[% foo.bar.baz %]> conditions.

Support for looping (or rather iteration) is available in simple
C<[% FOREACH item IN list %]> form B<is> supported. Other loop structures are
B<not> supported. Because support for arbitrary or infinite looping is not
available, B<Template::Tiny> templates are not turing complete. This is
intentional.

All of the four supported control structures C<IF>/C<ELSE>/C<UNLESS>/C<FOREACH>
can be nested to arbitrary depth.

The treatment of C<_private> hash and method keys is compatible with
L<Template> Toolkit, returning null or false rather than the actual content
of the hash key or method.

Anything beyond the above is currently out of scope.

=head1 METHODS

=head2 new

  my $template = Template::Tiny->new(
      TRIM => 1,
  );

The C<new> constructor is provided for compatibility with Template Toolkit.

The only parameter it currently supports is C<TRIM> (which removes leading
and trailing whitespace from processed templates).

Additional parameters can be provided without error, but will be ignored.

=head2 process

  # DEPRECATED: Return template results (emits a warning)
  my $text = $template->process( \$input, $vars );
  
  # Print template results to STDOUT
  $template->process( \$input, $vars );
  
  # Generate template results into a variable
  my $output = '';
  $template->process( \$input, $vars, \$output );

The C<process> method is called to process a template.

The first parameter is a reference to a text string containing the template
text. A reference to a hash may be passed as the second parameter containing
definitions of template variables.

If a third parameter is provided, it must be a scalar reference to be
populated with the output of the template.

For a limited amount of time, the old deprecated interface will continue to
be supported. If C<process> is called without a third parameter, and in
scalar or list contest, the template results will be returned to the caller.

If C<process> is called without a third parameter, and in void context, the
template results will be C<print()>ed to the currently selected file handle
(probably C<STDOUT>) for compatibility with L<Template>.

=head1 SUPPORT

Bugs should be reported via the CPAN bug tracker at

L<http://rt.cpan.org/NoAuth/ReportBug.html?Queue=Template-Tiny>

For other issues, or commercial enhancement or support, contact the author.

=head1 AUTHOR

Adam Kennedy E<lt>adamk@cpan.orgE<gt>

=head1 SEE ALSO

L<Config::Tiny>, L<CSS::Tiny>, L<YAML::Tiny>

=head1 COPYRIGHT

Copyright 2009 - 2011 Adam Kennedy.

This program is free software; you can redistribute
it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.

The full text of the license can be found in the
LICENSE file included with this module.

=cut