=encoding utf8

=head1 NAME

SVG::Sparkline::Manual - Documentation for the SVG::Sparkline module

=head1 VERSION

This document describes SVG::Sparkline version 1.12

=head1 SYNOPSIS

    use SVG::Sparkline;

    my $sl1 = SVG::Sparkline->new( Whisker => { values=>\@values, color=>'#eee', height=>12 } );
    print $sl1->to_string();

    my $sl2 = SVG::Sparkline->new( Line => { values=>\@values, color=>'blue', height=>12 } );
    print $sl2->to_string();

    my $sl3 = SVG::Sparkline->new( Area => { values=>\@values, color=>'green', height=>10 } );
    print $sl3->to_string();

    my $sl4 = SVG::Sparkline->new( Bar => { values=>\@values, color=>'#66f', height=>10 } );
    print $sl4->to_string();
  
    my $sl5 = SVG::Sparkline->new( RangeBar => { values=>\@value_pairs, color=>'#66f', height=>10 } );
    print $sl5->to_string();
  
=head1 DESCRIPTION

In the book I<Beautiful Evidence>, Edward Tufte describes sparklines as
I<small, high-resolution, graphics embedded in a context of words, numbers, images>. 

This module provides a relatively easy interface for creating different
kinds of sparklines. This class is not intended to be used to build large,
complex graphs (there are other modules much more suited to that job). The
focus here is on the kinds of data well-suited to the sparklines concept.

Although the basics are there, this module is not yet feature complete.

=head1 LIBRARY INTERFACE 

=head2 SVG::Sparkline->new( $type, $args_hr )

Create a new L<SVG::Sparkline> object of the specified type, using the
parameters in the C<$args_hr> hash reference. There are two groups of
parameters. Parameters that start with a B<-> character control the
L<SVG::Sparkline> object. Parameters that do not start with B<-> are used
in attributes in the sparkline itself.

=head3 Configuration Parameters

Configuration parameters are independent of the type of sparkline being
generated. The parameters are generally discussed below, but see the section
L</SPARKLINE TYPES> for a full description of the parameters as they apply to
each type.

=over 4

=item -allns

The value of this parameter is a boolean that specifies whether to supply
all potential namespace attributes relating to SVG.

If the value of the parameter is 0 or the parameter is not supplied, only
the default SVG namespace is included in the sparkline.

If the value of the parameter is 1, a namespace is supplied for the prefix
I<svg> and the prefix I<xlink>.

=item -sized

The value of this parameter is a boolean that specifies whether the generated
sparkline should contain C<width> and C<height> attributes on the root element.

A value of 1 causes them to be added, while 0 leaves them off. The default
value of this parameter is 1. (Although that may change in future versions.
Add the parameter if you want to be future-proof.)

=item bgcolor

The value of this parameter is an SVG-supported color string which specifies
a color for the background of the sparkline. In general, this parameter should
not be supplied or should be very subtle to avoid taking attention away from
the actual data displayed.

=item padx

The value of this parameter is the number of pixels of padding inside the
sparkline, but to the left of the first data point and right of the last
data point. 

=item pady

The value of this parameter is the number of pixels of padding inside the
sparkline, but above the highest data point and below the lowest data point.

=back

=head3 Attribute Parameters

The attribute parameters passed in C<$args_hr> depend somewhat on the
C<$type>. However, some are common.

=over 4

=item height

This optional parameter specifies the height of the Sparkline in pixels.
The data for the sparkline is scaled to fit this height. If not specified,
the default height is 10 pixels.

=item width

This parameter specifies the width of the Sparkline in pixels. All data is
scaled to fit this width. The default value of the I<width> parameter depends
on the sparkline type.

=item values

This parameter specifies the data to be displayed by the sparkline. The actual
form of this data is determined by the sparkline type.

=item color

This optional parameter specifies the color for the displayed data as an
SVG supported color string. Each sparkline type uses this color slightly
differently.

=item mark

There are times when certain points on the sparkline need to be highlighted
in some way. For instance, you might want to highlight the lowest and highest
value of a data set. The C<mark> attribute supports this functionality.

The appearance of the mark is mostly determined by the sparkline type. However,
you may select different colors for each mark.

The value of the C<mark> attribute is a reference to an array of pairs, where
each pair consists of an index and a color. The index is either an integer
specifying which point in the C<values> is to be marked or a string that
describes a particular point. The supported index strings are

=over 4

=item first

This index string represents the first data point. It is synonymous with a
numeric index of 0.

=item last

This index string represents the last data point. It is equal to one less than
the number of C<values>.

=item high

This index string repesents the highest value in the data set. If there is more
than one point with the highest value, the first index with this value is
selected.

=item low

This index string repesents the lowest value in the data set. If there is more
than one point with the lowest value, the first index with this value is
selected.

=back

The following would be examples of marks:

=over 4

=item Single Indexed Mark

   mark => [ 3 => 'blue' ]

=item High and Low Marks

  mark => [ low => 'red', high => 'green' ]

=back

=back

=head1 SPARKLINE TYPES

The supported graph types are: B<Area>, B<Bar>, B<Line>, B<RangeArea>,
B<RangeBar>, and B<Whisker>. Each type is described below with any
parameters specific to that type.

=head2 Area

An C<Area> sparkline is a basic line graph shaded between the line and
the x axis. The supplied I<color> attribute determines the shading. Area
graphs do particularly well for continuous data. If you would prefer to just
have the line without filling the area, see the I<Line> type.

=over 4

=item values

The value of this parameter is a reference to an array. This array is either
an array of numeric values representing the y-values of the data to be plotted,
or an array of anonymous arrays, each containing an x-value and a y-value.

=item width

This parameter is optional for the I<Area> sparkline type. The value is the width
of the sparkline in pixels. The default value for this parameter is the number of
items in the I<values> parameter.

=item color

This optional parameter specifies the color of the filled area between the
data line and the x-axis as a SVG supported color string. The default value
for this parameter is I<#000> (black).

=item mark

The mark for an Area is a vertical line of the specified color. The line moves
from a value of zero up to the value.

=item xscale

This parameter determines the distance between data points. The C<width>
parameter overrides the C<xscale> parameter. If no C<width> or C<xscale>
are supplied, the default value is 2.

=back

=head2 Bar

The I<Bar> sparkline type is a simple bar graph. This sparkline type does not
require any I<x> values. Bar graphs see to be particularly useful for
non-continuous data.

=over 4

=item values

The I<values> parameter is required for the I<Bar> sparkline type. The
value must be a reference to an array of numeric values, specifying the
height of the corresponding bar.

=item thick

This optional parameter specifies the thickness of the individual bars on the
bar graph. This parameter is ignored if the I<width> parameter is specified.
If neither I<width> or I<thick> are specified, the default value of I<thick>
is 3.

=item gap

This optional parameter specifies a gap to appear between individual bars on
the bar graph. If the I<gap> is not specified, the default value is 0.

=item width

This optional parameter specifies the width of the sparkline in pixels. If
the I<width> is not specified, the width of the sparkline is the value of
I<thick> C<+> I<gap> times the number of I<values>.

=item color

This optional parameter specifies the color of the filled area between the
data line and the x-axis as a SVG supported color string. The default value
for this parameter is I<#000> (black).

=item mark

The mark for Bar replaces the bar in question with one of the specified color.

=back

=head2 Line

The I<Line> sparkline type is a simple line graph. Both I<x> and I<y> values
are required for I<Line> sparklines. Area graphs do particularly well for
continuous data. If you would prefer to have the area under the line filled,
see the I<Area> type.

=over 4

=item values

The value of this parameter is a reference to an array. This array is either
an array of numeric values representing the y-values of the data to be plotted,
or an array of anonymous arrays, each containing an x-value and a y-value.

=item width

This parameter is optional for the I<Area> sparkline type. The value is the width
of the sparkline in pixels. The default value for this parameter is the number of
items in the I<values> parameter.

=item thick

This optional parameter specifies the thickness of the data line in pixels.
If not specified, the default value is 1 pixel.

=item color

This optional parameter specifies the color of the data line as a SVG supported
color string. The default value for this parameter is I<#000> (black).

=item mark

The mark for Line is a dot of the specified color at the chosen location. The
radius of the dot is the same as the width of the line, specified by the
C<thick> parameter.

=item xscale

This parameter determines the distance between data points. The C<width>
parameter overrides the C<xscale> parameter. If no C<width> or C<xscale>
are supplied, the default value is 2.

=back

=head2 RangeArea

An C<RangeArea> sparkline type shows high/low continuous values by displaying
shading the area between two lines of continuous data. The supplied I<color>
attribute determines the shading. Area graphs do particularly well for
continuous data.

If you would prefer to just have a single line shaded to the x-axis, see the
I<Area> type. If you would prefer a single continuous line with no shading see
the I<Line> type.

=over 4

=item values

The value of this parameter is a reference to an array. This array is either
an array of numeric values representing the y-values of the data to be plotted,
or an array of anonymous arrays, each containing an x-value and a y-value.

=item width

This parameter is optional for the I<RangeArea> sparkline type. The value is
the width of the sparkline in pixels. The default value for this parameter is
the number of items in the I<values> parameter.

=item color

This optional parameter specifies the color of the filled area between the
data line and the x-axis as a SVG supported color string. The default value
for this parameter is I<#000> (black).

=item mark

The mark for a I<RangeArea> is a vertical line of the specified color. The line moves
from the low value to the high value at the specified position.

There is one difference between the mark index values for I<RangeArea> and for other
sparkline types. Since there are two values for each index, the I<high> and I<low>
indexes need further explanation.

The index I<high> chooses the highest of the high values. The index I<low> chooses
the lowest of the low values.

=item xscale

This parameter determines the distance between data points. The C<width>
parameter overrides the C<xscale> parameter. If no C<width> or C<xscale>
are supplied, the default value is 2.

=back

=head2 RangeBar

The I<RangeBar> sparkline type shows high/low pairs of related values that define
a range at each of the supplied data points. Each data point is displayed as a
bar (like the bar graph) that ranges from the low value to the high value.

The I<RangeBar> type is very good for displaying two related values of a discrete
data set. For example, high and low values of some data aggregated each month.

=over 4

=item values

This parameter is slightly more complicated than the other sparkline types. Its value
is a reference to an array of array references. Each of these internal array references
contains two numbers: a low value followed by a high value. These numbers are used to
calculate the height of the bar and its placement veritcally on the sparkline.

=item thick

This optional parameter specifies the thickness of the individual bars on the
bar graph. This parameter is ignored if the I<width> parameter is specified.
If neither I<width> or I<thick> are specified, the default value of I<thick>
is 3.

=item gap

This optional parameter specifies a gap to appear between individual bars on
the bar graph. If the I<gap> is not specified, the default value is 0.

=item width

This optional parameter specifies the width of the sparkline in pixels. If
the I<width> is not specified, the width of the sparkline is the value of
I<thick> C<+> I<gap> times the number of I<values>.

=item color

This optional parameter specifies the color of the filled area between the
data line and the x-axis as a SVG supported color string. The default value
for this parameter is I<#000> (black).

=item mark

The mark for RangeBar replaces the bar in question with one of the specified color.

There is one difference between the mark index values for RangeBar and for other
sparkline types. Since there are two values for each index, the I<high> and I<low>
indexes need further explanation.

The index I<high> chooses the highest of the high values. The index I<low> chooses
the lowest of the low values.

=back

=head2 Whisker

The I<Whisker> sparkline type shows a sequence of events that can have one
of two outcomes (e.g. win/loss). A short line upwards is one of the outcomes
and a short line downward is the other outcome. There is also a third possible
where no tick is displayed.

=over 4

=item values

The I<values> parameter is required for the I<Whisker> sparkline type.
The value can be one of three things:

=over 4

=item string of '+', '-', or '0'

Where '+' means an uptick, '-' is a down tick, and 0 is no tick.

=item string of '1' or '0'.

Where '1' means an uptick, and '0' means a downtick.

=item reference to an array of numbers

Where any positive number is an uptick, any negative number is a downtick,
and zero is no tick.

=back

=item width

This optional parameter specifies the width of the sparkline in pixels. If
the I<width> is not specified, the width of the sparkline is the value of
I<thick> times 3 times the number of I<values>.

=item thick

This optional parameter specifies the thickness of the individual whiskers
on the whisker chart. The gaps between the whiskers is twice the value of
I<thick>. This parameter is ignored if the I<width> parameter is specified.
If neither I<width> or I<thick> are specified, the default value of I<thick>
is 1.

=item gap

This optional parameter specifies a gap to appear between individual whiskers
on the whisker chart. If the I<gap> is not specified, the default value is
twice the I<thick> value for the whiskers.

=item color

This optional parameter specifies the color of the individual whiskers as a
SVG supported color string. The default value for this parameter is I<#000>
(black).

=item mark

The mark for Whisker replaces the whisker in question with one of the
specified color.

=back

=head1 PUBLIC METHODS

The following public methods are provided on the C<SVG::Sparkline> object.

=head2 get_height

Returns in height in pixels of the completed sparkline.

=head2 get_width

Returns in width in pixels of the completed sparkline.

=head2 to_string

Convert the L<SVG::Sparkline> object to an XML string. This is the method that
is used by the stringification overload.

=head1 PROGRAMS

The library also supplies two programs that simplies the creation of sparklines
without programming. The command-line tool C<sparkline.pl> is documented in
the program itself. The documentation is displayed when executing the program
with the C<--help> parameter.

The CGI script is documented in L<SVG::Sparkline::Manual::CGI>.

=head1 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This module has been greatly improved by suggestions and corrections supplied
but Robert Boone, Debbie Campbell, and Joshua Keroes.

Thanks to Helder Magalhães for the suggestion to remove the I<height> and
I<width> attributes from the root I<svg> element. This lead to the definition
of the I<-sized> parameter.

Thanks to Jeff Schiller for the idea of the sparklines.cgi script. Honestly,
I would not have thought to provide it (since it's not hard to build).

=head1 AUTHOR

G. Wade Johnson  C<< <gwadej@cpan.org> >>

=head1 LICENCE AND COPYRIGHT

Copyright (c) 2015, G. Wade Johnson C<< <gwadej@cpan.org> >>. All rights reserved.

This module is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
modify it under the same terms as Perl 5.8.0. See L<perlartistic>.

=head1 DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY

BECAUSE THIS SOFTWARE IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY
FOR THE SOFTWARE, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN
OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES
PROVIDE THE SOFTWARE "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER
EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE
ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE SOFTWARE IS WITH
YOU. SHOULD THE SOFTWARE PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL
NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR, OR CORRECTION.

IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING
WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR
REDISTRIBUTE THE SOFTWARE AS PERMITTED BY THE ABOVE LICENCE, BE
LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL,
OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE
THE SOFTWARE (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING
RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A
FAILURE OF THE SOFTWARE TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER SOFTWARE), EVEN IF
SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
SUCH DAMAGES.