package main;

use Perl::Tidy;

my $arg_string = undef;

# give Macs a chance to provide command line parameters
if ( $^O =~ /Mac/ ) {
    $arg_string = MacPerl::Ask(
        'Please enter @ARGV (-h for help)',
        defined $ARGV[0] ? "\"$ARGV[0]\"" : ""

# Exit codes returned by perltidy:
#    0 = no errors
#    1 = perltidy could not run to completion due to errors
#    2 = perltidy ran to completion with error messages
exit Perl::Tidy::perltidy( argv => $arg_string );


=head1 NAME

perltidy - a perl script indenter and reformatter


    perltidy [ options ] file1 file2 file3 ...
            (output goes to file1.tdy, file2.tdy, file3.tdy, ...)
    perltidy [ options ] file1 -o outfile
    perltidy [ options ] file1 -st >outfile
    perltidy [ options ] <infile >outfile


Perltidy reads a perl script and writes an indented, reformatted script.

Many users will find enough information in L<"EXAMPLES"> to get 
started.  New users may benefit from the short tutorial 
which can be found at

A convenient aid to systematically defining a set of style parameters
can be found at

Perltidy can produce output on either of two modes, depending on the
existence of an B<-html> flag.  Without this flag, the output is passed
through a formatter.  The default formatting tries to follow the
recommendations in perlstyle(1), but it can be controlled in detail with
numerous input parameters, which are described in L<"FORMATTING

When the B<-html> flag is given, the output is passed through an HTML
formatter which is described in L<"HTML OPTIONS">.  


  perltidy somefile.pl

This will produce a file F<somefile.pl.tdy> containing the script reformatted
using the default options, which approximate the style suggested in 
perlstyle(1).  The source file F<somefile.pl> is unchanged.

  perltidy *.pl

Execute perltidy on all F<.pl> files in the current directory with the
default options.  The output will be in files with an appended F<.tdy>
extension.  For any file with an error, there will be a file with extension

  perltidy -b file1.pl file2.pl

Modify F<file1.pl> and F<file2.pl> in place, and backup the originals to
F<file1.pl.bak> and F<file2.pl.bak>.  If F<file1.pl.bak> and/or F<file2.pl.bak>
already exist, they will be overwritten.

  perltidy -b -bext='/' file1.pl file2.pl

Same as the previous example except that the backup files F<file1.pl.bak> and F<file2.pl.bak> will be deleted if there are no errors.

  perltidy -gnu somefile.pl

Execute perltidy on file F<somefile.pl> with a style which approximates the
GNU Coding Standards for C programs.  The output will be F<somefile.pl.tdy>.

  perltidy -i=3 somefile.pl

Execute perltidy on file F<somefile.pl>, with 3 columns for each level of
indentation (B<-i=3>) instead of the default 4 columns.  There will not be any
tabs in the reformatted script, except for any which already exist in comments,
pod documents, quotes, and here documents.  Output will be F<somefile.pl.tdy>. 

  perltidy -i=3 -et=8 somefile.pl

Same as the previous example, except that leading whitespace will
be entabbed with one tab character per 8 spaces.

  perltidy -ce -l=72 somefile.pl

Execute perltidy on file F<somefile.pl> with all defaults except use "cuddled
elses" (B<-ce>) and a maximum line length of 72 columns (B<-l=72>) instead of
the default 80 columns.  

  perltidy -g somefile.pl

Execute perltidy on file F<somefile.pl> and save a log file F<somefile.pl.LOG>
which shows the nesting of braces, parentheses, and square brackets at
the start of every line.

  perltidy -html somefile.pl

This will produce a file F<somefile.pl.html> containing the script with
html markup.  The output file will contain an embedded style sheet in
the <HEAD> section which may be edited to change the appearance.

  perltidy -html -css=mystyle.css somefile.pl

This will produce a file F<somefile.pl.html> containing the script with
html markup.  This output file will contain a link to a separate style
sheet file F<mystyle.css>.  If the file F<mystyle.css> does not exist,
it will be created.  If it exists, it will not be overwritten.

  perltidy -html -pre somefile.pl

Write an html snippet with only the PRE section to F<somefile.pl.html>.
This is useful when code snippets are being formatted for inclusion in a
larger web page.  No style sheet will be written in this case.  

  perltidy -html -ss >mystyle.css

Write a style sheet to F<mystyle.css> and exit.

  perltidy -html -frm mymodule.pm

Write html with a frame holding a table of contents and the source code.  The
output files will be F<mymodule.pm.html> (the frame), F<mymodule.pm.toc.html>
(the table of contents), and F<mymodule.pm.src.html> (the source code).


The entire command line is scanned for options, and they are processed
before any files are processed.  As a result, it does not matter
whether flags are before or after any filenames.  However, the relative
order of parameters is important, with later parameters overriding the
values of earlier parameters.  

For each parameter, there is a long name and a short name.  The short
names are convenient for keyboard input, while the long names are
self-documenting and therefore useful in scripts.  It is customary to
use two leading dashes for long names, but one may be used.

Most parameters which serve as on/off flags can be negated with a
leading "n" (for the short name) or a leading "no" or "no-" (for the
long name).  For example, the flag to outdent long quotes is B<-olq>
or B<--outdent-long-quotes>.  The flag to skip this is B<-nolq>
or B<--nooutdent-long-quotes> or B<--no-outdent-long-quotes>.

Options may not be bundled together.  In other words, options B<-q> and
B<-g> may NOT be entered as B<-qg>.

Option names may be terminated early as long as they are uniquely identified.
For example, instead of B<--dump-token-types>, it would be sufficient to enter
B<--dump-tok>, or even B<--dump-t>, to uniquely identify this command.

=head2 I/O control

The following parameters concern the files which are read and written.

=over 4

=item B<-h>,    B<--help> 

Show summary of usage and exit.

=item	B<-o>=filename,    B<--outfile>=filename  

Name of the output file (only if a single input file is being
processed).  If no output file is specified, and output is not
redirected to the standard output (see B<-st>), the output will go to
F<filename.tdy>. [Note: - does not redirect to standard output. Use
B<-st> instead.]

=item	B<-st>,    B<--standard-output>

Perltidy must be able to operate on an arbitrarily large number of files
in a single run, with each output being directed to a different output
file.  Obviously this would conflict with outputting to the single
standard output device, so a special flag, B<-st>, is required to
request outputting to the standard output.  For example,

  perltidy somefile.pl -st >somefile.new.pl

This option may only be used if there is just a single input file.  
The default is B<-nst> or B<--nostandard-output>.

=item	B<-se>,    B<--standard-error-output>

If perltidy detects an error when processing file F<somefile.pl>, its
default behavior is to write error messages to file F<somefile.pl.ERR>.
Use B<-se> to cause all error messages to be sent to the standard error
output stream instead.  This directive may be negated with B<-nse>.
Thus, you may place B<-se> in a F<.perltidyrc> and override it when
desired with B<-nse> on the command line.

=item	B<-oext>=ext,    B<--output-file-extension>=ext  

Change the extension of the output file to be F<ext> instead of the
default F<tdy> (or F<html> in case the -B<-html> option is used).
See L<Specifying File Extensions>.

=item	B<-opath>=path,    B<--output-path>=path  

When perltidy creates a filename for an output file, by default it merely
appends an extension to the path and basename of the input file.  This
parameter causes the path to be changed to F<path> instead.

The path should end in a valid path separator character, but perltidy will try
to add one if it is missing.

For example
 perltidy somefile.pl -opath=/tmp/

will produce F</tmp/somefile.pl.tdy>.  Otherwise, F<somefile.pl.tdy> will
appear in whatever directory contains F<somefile.pl>.

If the path contains spaces, it should be placed in quotes.

This parameter will be ignored if output is being directed to standard output,
or if it is being specified explicitly with the B<-o=s> parameter.

=item	B<-b>,    B<--backup-and-modify-in-place>

Modify the input file or files in-place and save the original with the
extension F<.bak>.  Any existing F<.bak> file will be deleted.  See next
item for changing the default backup extension, and for eliminating the
backup file altogether.  

A B<-b> flag will be ignored if input is from standard input or goes to
standard output, or if the B<-html> flag is set.  

In particular, if you want to use both the B<-b> flag and the B<-pbp>
(--perl-best-practices) flag, then you must put a B<-nst> flag after the
B<-pbp> flag because it contains a B<-st> flag as one of its components,
which means that output will go to the standard output stream.

=item	B<-bext>=ext,    B<--backup-file-extension>=ext  

This parameter serves two purposes: (1) to change the extension of the backup
file to be something other than the default F<.bak>, and (2) to indicate
that no backup file should be saved.

To change the default extension to something other than F<.bak> see
L<Specifying File Extensions>.

A backup file of the source is always written, but you can request that it
be deleted at the end of processing if there were no errors.  This is risky
unless the source code is being maintained with a source code control

To indicate that the backup should be deleted include one forward slash,
B</>, in the extension.  If any text remains after the slash is removed
it will be used to define the backup file extension (which is always
created and only deleted if there were no errors).

Here are some examples:

  Parameter           Extension          Backup File Treatment
  <-bext=bak>         F<.bak>            Keep (same as the default behavior)
  <-bext='/'>         F<.bak>            Delete if no errors
  <-bext='/backup'>   F<.backup>         Delete if no errors
  <-bext='original/'> F<.original>       Delete if no errors

=item B<-w>,    B<--warning-output>             

Setting B<-w> causes any non-critical warning
messages to be reported as errors.  These include messages
about possible pod problems, possibly bad starting indentation level,
and cautions about indirect object usage.  The default, B<-nw> or
B<--nowarning-output>, is not to include these warnings.

=item B<-q>,    B<--quiet>             

Deactivate error messages and syntax checking (for running under
an editor). 

For example, if you use a vi-style editor, such as vim, you may execute
perltidy as a filter from within the editor using something like

 :n1,n2!perltidy -q

where C<n1,n2> represents the selected text.  Without the B<-q> flag,
any error message may mess up your screen, so be prepared to use your
"undo" key.

=item B<-log>,    B<--logfile>           

Save the F<.LOG> file, which has many useful diagnostics.  Perltidy always
creates a F<.LOG> file, but by default it is deleted unless a program bug is
suspected.  Setting the B<-log> flag forces the log file to be saved.

=item B<-g=n>, B<--logfile-gap=n>

Set maximum interval between input code lines in the logfile.  This purpose of
this flag is to assist in debugging nesting errors.  The value of C<n> is
optional.  If you set the flag B<-g> without the value of C<n>, it will be
taken to be 1, meaning that every line will be written to the log file.  This
can be helpful if you are looking for a brace, paren, or bracket nesting error. 

Setting B<-g> also causes the logfile to be saved, so it is not necessary to
also include B<-log>. 

If no B<-g> flag is given, a value of 50 will be used, meaning that at least
every 50th line will be recorded in the logfile.  This helps prevent
excessively long log files.  

Setting a negative value of C<n> is the same as not setting B<-g> at all.

=item B<-npro>  B<--noprofile>    

Ignore any F<.perltidyrc> command file.  Normally, perltidy looks first in
your current directory for a F<.perltidyrc> file of parameters.  (The format
is described below).  If it finds one, it applies those options to the
initial default values, and then it applies any that have been defined
on the command line.  If no F<.perltidyrc> file is found, it looks for one
in your home directory.

If you set the B<-npro> flag, perltidy will not look for this file.

=item B<-pro=filename> or  B<--profile=filename>    

To simplify testing and switching .perltidyrc files, this command may be
used to specify a configuration file which will override the default
name of .perltidyrc.  There must not be a space on either side of the
'=' sign.  For example, the line

   perltidy -pro=testcfg

would cause file F<testcfg> to be used instead of the 
default F<.perltidyrc>.

A pathname begins with three dots, e.g. ".../.perltidyrc", indicates that
the file should be searched for starting in the current directory and
working upwards. This makes it easier to have multiple projects each with
their own .perltidyrc in their root directories.

=item B<-opt>,   B<--show-options>      

Write a list of all options used to the F<.LOG> file.  
Please see B<--dump-options> for a simpler way to do this.

=item B<-f>,   B<--force-read-binary>      

Force perltidy to process binary files.  To avoid producing excessive
error messages, perltidy skips files identified by the system as non-text.
However, valid perl scripts containing binary data may sometimes be identified
as non-text, and this flag forces perltidy to process them.

=item B<-ast>,   B<--assert-tidy>      

This flag asserts that the input and output code streams are identical, or in
other words that the input code is already 'tidy' according to the formatting
parameters.  If this is not the case, an error message noting this is produced.
This error message will cause the process to return a non-zero exit code.
The test for this is made by comparing an MD5 hash value for the input and
output code streams. This flag has no other effect on the functioning of
perltidy.  This might be useful for certain code maintenance operations.

=item B<-asu>,   B<--assert-untidy>      

This flag asserts that the input and output code streams are different, or in
other words that the input code is 'untidy' according to the formatting
parameters.  If this is not the case, an error message noting this is produced.
This flag has no other effect on the functioning of perltidy.

=item B<-sal=s>,   B<--sub-alias-list=s>      

This flag causes one or more words to be treated the same as if they were the keyword 'sub'.  The string B<s> contains one or more alias words, separated by spaces or commas.

For example,

        perltidy -sal='method fun _sub M4' 

will cause the perltidy to treate the words 'method', 'fun', '_sub' and 'M4' to be treated the same as if they were 'sub'.  Note that if the alias words are separated by spaces then the string of words should be placed in quotes.

Note that several other parameters accept a list of keywords, including 'sub' (see L<Specifying Block Types>).
You do not need to include any sub aliases in these lists. Just include keyword 'sub' if you wish, and all aliases are automatically included.



=head2 Basic Options

=over 4

=item B<--notidy>

This flag disables all formatting and causes the input to be copied unchanged
to the output except for possible changes in line ending characters and any
pre- and post-filters.  This can be useful in conjunction with a hierarchical
set of F<.perltidyrc> files to avoid unwanted code tidying.  See also
L<Skipping Selected Sections of Code> for a way to avoid tidying specific
sections of code.

=item B<-i=n>,  B<--indent-columns=n>  

Use n columns per indentation level (default n=4).

=item B<-l=n>, B<--maximum-line-length=n>

The default maximum line length is n=80 characters.  Perltidy will try
to find line break points to keep lines below this length. However, long
quotes and side comments may cause lines to exceed this length. 
Setting B<-l=0> is equivalent to setting B<-l=(a large number)>. 

=item B<-vmll>, B<--variable-maximum-line-length>

A problem arises using a fixed maximum line length with very deeply nested code
and data structures because eventually the amount of leading whitespace used
for indicating indentation takes up most or all of the available line width,
leaving little or no space for the actual code or data.  One solution is to use
a vary long line length.  Another solution is to use the B<-vmll> flag, which
basically tells perltidy to ignore leading whitespace when measuring the line

To be precise, when the B<-vmll> parameter is set, the maximum line length of a
line of code will be M+L*I, where

      M is the value of --maximum-line-length=M (-l=M), default 80,
      I is the value of --indent-columns=I (-i=I), default 4,
      L is the indentation level of the line of code

When this flag is set, the choice of breakpoints for a block of code should be
essentially independent of its nesting depth.  However, the absolute line
lengths, including leading whitespace, can still be arbitrarily large.  This
problem can be avoided by including the next parameter.  

The default is not to do this (B<-nvmll>).

=item B<-wc=n>, B<--whitespace-cycle=n>

This flag also addresses problems with very deeply nested code and data
structures.  When the nesting depth exceeds the value B<n> the leading
whitespace will be reduced and start at a depth of 1 again.  The result is that
blocks of code will shift back to the left rather than moving arbitrarily far
to the right.  This occurs cyclically to any depth.  

For example if one level of indentation equals 4 spaces (B<-i=4>, the default),
and one uses B<-wc=15>, then if the leading whitespace on a line exceeds about
4*15=60 spaces it will be reduced back to 4*1=4 spaces and continue increasing
from there.  If the whitespace never exceeds this limit the formatting remains

The combination of B<-vmll> and B<-wc=n> provides a solution to the problem of
displaying arbitrarily deep data structures and code in a finite window,
although B<-wc=n> may of course be used without B<-vmll>.

The default is not to use this, which can also be indicated using B<-wc=0>.

=item tabs

Using tab characters will almost certainly lead to future portability
and maintenance problems, so the default and recommendation is not to
use them.  For those who prefer tabs, however, there are two different

Except for possibly introducing tab indentation characters, as outlined
below, perltidy does not introduce any tab characters into your file,
and it removes any tabs from the code (unless requested not to do so
with B<-fws>).  If you have any tabs in your comments, quotes, or
here-documents, they will remain.

=over 4

=item B<-et=n>,   B<--entab-leading-whitespace>

This flag causes each B<n> initial space characters to be replaced by
one tab character.  Note that the integer B<n> is completely independent
of the integer specified for indentation parameter, B<-i=n>.

=item B<-t>,   B<--tabs>

This flag causes one leading tab character to be inserted for each level
of indentation.  Certain other features are incompatible with this
option, and if these options are also given, then a warning message will
be issued and this flag will be unset.  One example is the B<-lp>

=item B<-dt=n>,   B<--default-tabsize=n>

If the first line of code passed to perltidy contains leading tabs but no
tab scheme is specified for the output stream then perltidy must guess how many
spaces correspond to each leading tab.  This number of spaces B<n>
corresponding to each leading tab of the input stream may be specified with
B<-dt=n>.  The default is B<n=8>.  

This flag has no effect if a tab scheme is specified for the output stream,
because then the input stream is assumed to use the same tab scheme and
indentation spaces as for the output stream (any other assumption would lead to
unstable editing).


=item B<-syn>,   B<--check-syntax>      

This flag is now ignored for safety, but the following documentation
has been retained for reference.

This flag causes perltidy to run C<perl -c -T> to check syntax of input
and output.  (To change the flags passed to perl, see the next
item, B<-pscf>).  The results are written to the F<.LOG> file, which
will be saved if an error is detected in the output script.  The output
script is not checked if the input script has a syntax error.  Perltidy
does its own checking, but this option employs perl to get a "second

If perl reports errors in the input file, they will not be reported in
the error output unless the B<--warning-output> flag is given. 

The default is B<NOT> to do this type of syntax checking (although
perltidy will still do as much self-checking as possible).  The reason
is that it causes all code in BEGIN blocks to be executed, for all
modules being used, and this opens the door to security issues and
infinite loops when running perltidy.

=item B<-pscf=s>, B<-perl-syntax-check-flags=s>

When perl is invoked to check syntax, the normal flags are C<-c -T>.  In
addition, if the B<-x> flag is given to perltidy, then perl will also be
passed a B<-x> flag.  It should not normally be necessary to change
these flags, but it can be done with the B<-pscf=s> flag.  For example,
if the taint flag, C<-T>, is not wanted, the flag could be set to be just

Perltidy will pass your string to perl with the exception that it will
add a B<-c> and B<-x> if appropriate.  The F<.LOG> file will show
exactly what flags were passed to perl.

=item B<-xs>,   B<--extended-syntax>      

A problem with formatting Perl code is that some modules can introduce new
syntax.  This flag allows perltidy to handle certain common extensions
to the standard syntax without complaint.  

For example, without this flag a structure such as the following would generate
a syntax error and the braces would not be balanced:

    method deposit( Num $amount) {
        $self->balance( $self->balance + $amount );

For one of the extensions, module Switch::Plain, colons are marked as labels.
If you use this module, you may want to also use the B<--nooutdent-labels> flag
to prevent lines such as 'default:' from being outdented.

This flag is enabled by default but it can be deactivated with B<-nxs>.
Probably the only reason to deactivate this flag is to generate more diagnostic
messages when debugging a script.

=item B<-io>,   B<--indent-only>       

This flag is used to deactivate all whitespace and line break changes
within non-blank lines of code.
When it is in effect, the only change to the script will be
to the indentation and to the number of blank lines.
And any flags controlling whitespace and newlines will be ignored.  You
might want to use this if you are perfectly happy with your whitespace
and line breaks, and merely want perltidy to handle the indentation.
(This also speeds up perltidy by well over a factor of two, so it might be
useful when perltidy is merely being used to help find a brace error in
a large script).

Setting this flag is equivalent to setting B<--freeze-newlines> and

If you also want to keep your existing blank lines exactly
as they are, you can add B<--freeze-blank-lines>. 

With this option perltidy is still free to modify the indenting (and
outdenting) of code and comments as it normally would.  If you also want to
prevent long comment lines from being outdented, you can add either B<-noll> or

Setting this flag will prevent perltidy from doing any special operations on
closing side comments.  You may still delete all side comments however when
this flag is in effect.

=item B<-enc=s>,  B<--character-encoding=s>

This flag indicates the character encoding, if any, of the input data stream.
Perltidy does not look for the encoding directives in the soure stream, such
as B<use utf8>, and instead relies on this flag to determine the encoding.
(Note that perltidy often works on snippets of code rather than complete files
so it cannot rely on B<use utf8> directives).

The possible values for B<s> are (1) the name of an encoding recognized by the
Encode.pm module, (2) B<none> if no encoding is used, or (3) <guess> if
perltidy should guess.  

For example, the value B<utf8> causes the stream to be read and written as
UTF-8.  If the input stream cannot be decoded with a specified encoding then
processing is not done.  

The value B<none> causes the stream to be processed without special encoding
assumptions.  This is appropriate for files which are written in single-byte
character encodings such as latin-1.  

The value B<guess> tells perltidy to guess between either utf8 encoding or no
encoding (meaning one character per byte).  The guess uses the Encode::Guess
module and this restricted range of guesses covers the most common cases.
Testing showed that considering any greater number of encodings as guess
suspects is too risky.

The current default is B<guess>.  

The abbreviations B<-utf8> or B<-UTF8> are equivalent to B<-enc=utf8>, and the
abbreviation B<-guess> is equivalent to <-enc=guess>.  So to process a file
named B<file.pl> which is encoded in UTF-8 you can use:

   perltidy -utf8 file.pl

   perltidy -guess file.pl

To process a file in B<euc-jp> you could use
   perltidy -enc=euc-jp file.pl

A perltidy output file is unencoded if the input file is unencoded, and
otherwise it is encoded as B<utf8>, even if the input encoding was not

=item B<-gcs>,  B<--use-unicode-gcstring>

This flag controls whether or not perltidy may use module Unicode::GCString to
obtain accurate display widths of wide characters.  The default 
is B<--nouse-unicode-gcstring>.

If this flag is set, and text is encoded, perltidy will look for the module
Unicode::GCString and, if found, will use it to obtain character display
widths.  This can improve displayed vertical alignment for files with wide
characters.  It is a nice feature but it is off by default to avoid conflicting
formatting when there are multiple developers.  Perltidy installation does not
require Unicode::GCString, so users wanting to use this feature need set this
flag and also to install Unicode::GCString separately.

If this flag is set and perltidy does not find module Unicode::GCString,
a warning message will be produced and processing will continue but without
the potential benefit provided by the module.

Also note that actual vertical alignment depends upon the fonts used by the
text display software, so vertical alignment may not be optimal even when
Unicode::GCString is used.

=item B<-ole=s>,  B<--output-line-ending=s>

where s=C<win>, C<dos>, C<unix>, or C<mac>.  This flag tells perltidy
to output line endings for a specific system.  Normally,
perltidy writes files with the line separator character of the host
system.  The C<win> and C<dos> flags have an identical result.

=item B<-ple>,  B<--preserve-line-endings>

This flag tells perltidy to write its output files with the same line
endings as the input file, if possible.  It should work for
B<dos>, B<unix>, and B<mac> line endings.  It will only work if perltidy
input comes from a filename (rather than stdin, for example).  If
perltidy has trouble determining the input file line ending, it will
revert to the default behavior of using the line ending of the host system.

=item B<-it=n>,   B<--iterations=n>

This flag causes perltidy to do B<n> complete iterations.  The reason for this
flag is that code beautification is an iterative process and in some
cases the output from perltidy can be different if it is applied a second time.
For most purposes the default of B<n=1> should be satisfactory.  However B<n=2>
can be useful when a major style change is being made, or when code is being
beautified on check-in to a source code control system.  It has been found to
be extremely rare for the output to change after 2 iterations.  If a value
B<n> is greater than 2 is input then a convergence test will be used to stop
the iterations as soon as possible, almost always after 2 iterations.  See
the next item for a simplified iteration control.

This flag has no effect when perltidy is used to generate html.

=item B<-conv>,   B<--converge>

This flag is equivalent to B<-it=4> and is included to simplify iteration
control.  For all practical purposes one either does or does not want to be
sure that the output is converged, and there is no penalty to using a large
iteration limit since perltidy will check for convergence and stop iterating as
soon as possible.  The default is B<-nconv> (no convergence check).  Using
B<-conv> will approximately double run time since normally one extra iteration
is required to verify convergence.


=head2 Code Indentation Control

=over 4

=item B<-ci=n>, B<--continuation-indentation=n>

Continuation indentation is extra indentation spaces applied when
a long line is broken.  The default is n=2, illustrated here:

 my $level =   # -ci=2      
   ( $max_index_to_go >= 0 ) ? $levels_to_go[0] : $last_output_level;

The same example, with n=0, is a little harder to read:

 my $level =   # -ci=0    
 ( $max_index_to_go >= 0 ) ? $levels_to_go[0] : $last_output_level;

The value given to B<-ci> is also used by some commands when a small
space is required.  Examples are commands for outdenting labels,
B<-ola>, and control keywords, B<-okw>.  

When default values are not used, it is highly recommended that the value B<n>
given with B<-ci=n> be no more than about one-half of the number of spaces
assigned to a full indentation level on the B<-i=n> command.  The reason is
that discontinuities in the definition and control of continuation indentation
arise in complex code, and this rule helps to smooth out these discontinuities.

=item B<-sil=n> B<--starting-indentation-level=n>   

By default, perltidy examines the input file and tries to determine the
starting indentation level.  While it is often zero, it may not be
zero for a code snippet being sent from an editing session.  

To guess the starting indentation level perltidy simply assumes that
indentation scheme used to create the code snippet is the same as is being used
for the current perltidy process.  This is the only sensible guess that can be
made.  It should be correct if this is true, but otherwise it probably won't.
For example, if the input script was written with -i=2 and the current peltidy
flags have -i=4, the wrong initial indentation will be guessed for a code
snippet which has non-zero initial indentation. Likewise, if an entabbing
scheme is used in the input script and not in the current process then the
guessed indentation will be wrong.

If the default method does not work correctly, or you want to change the
starting level, use B<-sil=n>, to force the starting level to be n.

=item List indentation using B<-lp>, B<--line-up-parentheses>

By default, perltidy indents lists with 4 spaces, or whatever value
is specified with B<-i=n>.  Here is a small list formatted in this way:

    # perltidy (default)
    @month_of_year = (
        'Jan', 'Feb', 'Mar', 'Apr', 'May', 'Jun',
        'Jul', 'Aug', 'Sep', 'Oct', 'Nov', 'Dec'

Use the B<-lp> flag to add extra indentation to cause the data to begin
past the opening parentheses of a sub call or list, or opening square
bracket of an anonymous array, or opening curly brace of an anonymous
hash.  With this option, the above list would become:

    # perltidy -lp
    @month_of_year = (
                       'Jan', 'Feb', 'Mar', 'Apr', 'May', 'Jun',
                       'Jul', 'Aug', 'Sep', 'Oct', 'Nov', 'Dec'

If the available line length (see B<-l=n> ) does not permit this much 
space, perltidy will use less.   For alternate placement of the
closing paren, see the next section.

This option has no effect on code BLOCKS, such as if/then/else blocks,
which always use whatever is specified with B<-i=n>.  Also, the
existence of line breaks and/or block comments between the opening and
closing parens may cause perltidy to temporarily revert to its default

Note: The B<-lp> option may not be used together with the B<-t> tabs option.
It may, however, be used with the B<-et=n> tab method.

In addition, any parameter which significantly restricts the ability of
perltidy to choose newlines will conflict with B<-lp> and will cause
B<-lp> to be deactivated.  These include B<-io>, B<-fnl>, B<-nanl>, and
B<-ndnl>.  The reason is that the B<-lp> indentation style can require
the careful coordination of an arbitrary number of break points in
hierarchical lists, and these flags may prevent that.

=item B<-cti=n>, B<--closing-token-indentation>

The B<-cti=n> flag controls the indentation of a line beginning with 
a C<)>, C<]>, or a non-block C<}>.  Such a line receives:

 -cti = 0 no extra indentation (default)
 -cti = 1 extra indentation such that the closing token
        aligns with its opening token.
 -cti = 2 one extra indentation level if the line looks like:
        );  or  ];  or  };
 -cti = 3 one extra indentation level always

The flags B<-cti=1> and B<-cti=2> work well with the B<-lp> flag (previous
    # perltidy -lp -cti=1
    @month_of_year = (
                       'Jan', 'Feb', 'Mar', 'Apr', 'May', 'Jun',
                       'Jul', 'Aug', 'Sep', 'Oct', 'Nov', 'Dec'

    # perltidy -lp -cti=2
    @month_of_year = (
                       'Jan', 'Feb', 'Mar', 'Apr', 'May', 'Jun',
                       'Jul', 'Aug', 'Sep', 'Oct', 'Nov', 'Dec'

These flags are merely hints to the formatter and they may not always be
followed.  In particular, if -lp is not being used, the indentation for
B<cti=1> is constrained to be no more than one indentation level.

If desired, this control can be applied independently to each of the
closing container token types.  In fact, B<-cti=n> is merely an
abbreviation for B<-cpi=n -csbi=n -cbi=n>, where:  
B<-cpi> or B<--closing-paren-indentation> controls B<)>'s,
B<-csbi> or B<--closing-square-bracket-indentation> controls B<]>'s, 
B<-cbi> or B<--closing-brace-indentation> controls non-block B<}>'s. 

=item B<-icp>, B<--indent-closing-paren>

The B<-icp> flag is equivalent to
B<-cti=2>, described in the previous section.  The B<-nicp> flag is
equivalent B<-cti=0>.  They are included for backwards compatibility.

=item B<-icb>, B<--indent-closing-brace>

The B<-icb> option gives one extra level of indentation to a brace which
terminates a code block .  For example,

        if ($task) {
            }    # -icb
        else {

The default is not to do this, indicated by B<-nicb>.

=item B<-nib>, B<--non-indenting-braces>

Normally, lines of code contained within a pair of block braces receive one
additional level of indentation.  This flag, which is enabled by default, 
causes perltidy to look for
opening block braces which are followed by a special side comment. This special
side comment is B<#<<<> by default.  If found, the code between this opening brace and its
corresponding closing brace will not be given the normal extra indentation
level.  For example:

            { #<<<   a closure to contain lexical vars

            my $var;  # this line does not get one level of indentation


            # this line does not 'see' $var;

This can be useful, for example, when combining code from different files.
Different sections of code can be placed within braces to keep their lexical
variables from being visible to the end of the file.  To keep the new braces
from causing all of their contained code to be indented if you run perltidy,
and possibly introducing new line breaks in long lines, you can mark the
opening braces with this special side comment.

Only the opening brace needs to be marked, since perltidy knows where the
closing brace is.  Braces contained within marked braces may also be marked
as non-indenting.

If your code happens to have some opening braces followed by '#<<<', and you
don't want this behavior, you can use B<-nnib> to deactivate it.  To make it
easy to remember, the default string is the same as the string for starting a
B<format-skipping> section. There is no confusion because in that case it is
for a block comment rather than a side-comment. 

The special side comment can be changed with the next parameter.

=item B<-nibp=s>, B<--non-indenting-brace-prefix=s>

The B<-nibp=string> parameter may be used to change the marker for
non-indenting braces.  The default is equivalent to -nibp='#<<<'.  The string
that you enter must begin with a # and should be in quotes as necessary to get
past the command shell of your system.  This string is the leading text of a
regex pattern that is constructed by appending pre-pending a '^' and appending
a'\s', so you must also include backslashes for characters to be taken
literally rather than as patterns.

For example, to match the side comment '#++', the parameter would be

=item B<-olq>, B<--outdent-long-quotes>

When B<-olq> is set, lines which is a quoted string longer than the
value B<maximum-line-length> will have their indentation removed to make
them more readable.  This is the default.  To prevent such out-denting,
use B<-nolq> or B<--nooutdent-long-lines>.

=item B<-oll>, B<--outdent-long-lines>

This command is equivalent to B<--outdent-long-quotes> and
B<--outdent-long-comments>, and it is included for compatibility with previous
versions of perltidy.  The negation of this also works, B<-noll> or
B<--nooutdent-long-lines>, and is equivalent to setting B<-nolq> and B<-nolc>.

=item Outdenting Labels: B<-ola>,  B<--outdent-labels>

This command will cause labels to be outdented by 2 spaces (or whatever B<-ci>
has been set to), if possible.  This is the default.  For example:

        my $i;
      LOOP: while ( $i = <FOTOS> ) {
            next unless $i;

Use B<-nola> to not outdent labels. 

=item Outdenting Keywords

=over 4

=item B<-okw>,  B<--outdent-keywords>

The command B<-okw> will cause certain leading control keywords to
be outdented by 2 spaces (or whatever B<-ci> has been set to), if
possible.  By default, these keywords are C<redo>, C<next>, C<last>,
C<goto>, and C<return>.  The intention is to make these control keywords
easier to see.  To change this list of keywords being outdented, see
the next section.

For example, using C<perltidy -okw> on the previous example gives:

        my $i;
      LOOP: while ( $i = <FOTOS> ) {
          next unless $i;

The default is not to do this.  

=item Specifying Outdented Keywords: B<-okwl=string>,  B<--outdent-keyword-list=string>

This command can be used to change the keywords which are outdented with
the B<-okw> command.  The parameter B<string> is a required list of perl
keywords, which should be placed in quotes if there are more than one.
By itself, it does not cause any outdenting to occur, so the B<-okw>
command is still required.

For example, the commands C<-okwl="next last redo goto" -okw> will cause
those four keywords to be outdented.  It is probably simplest to place
any B<-okwl> command in a F<.perltidyrc> file.



=head2 Whitespace Control

Whitespace refers to the blank space between variables, operators,
and other code tokens.

=over 4

=item B<-fws>,  B<--freeze-whitespace>

This flag causes your original whitespace to remain unchanged, and
causes the rest of the whitespace commands in this section, the
Code Indentation section, and
the Comment Control section to be ignored.

=item Tightness of curly braces, parentheses, and square brackets.

Here the term "tightness" will mean the closeness with which
pairs of enclosing tokens, such as parentheses, contain the quantities
within.  A numerical value of 0, 1, or 2 defines the tightness, with
0 being least tight and 2 being most tight.  Spaces within containers
are always symmetric, so if there is a space after a C<(> then there
will be a space before the corresponding C<)>.

The B<-pt=n> or B<--paren-tightness=n> parameter controls the space within
parens.  The example below shows the effect of the three possible
values, 0, 1, and 2:

 if ( ( my $len_tab = length( $tabstr ) ) > 0 ) {  # -pt=0
 if ( ( my $len_tab = length($tabstr) ) > 0 ) {    # -pt=1 (default)
 if ((my $len_tab = length($tabstr)) > 0) {        # -pt=2

When n is 0, there is always a space to the right of a '(' and to the left
of a ')'.  For n=2 there is never a space.  For n=1, the default, there
is a space unless the quantity within the parens is a single token, such
as an identifier or quoted string.  

Likewise, the parameter B<-sbt=n> or B<--square-bracket-tightness=n>
controls the space within square brackets, as illustrated below.

 $width = $col[ $j + $k ] - $col[ $j ];  # -sbt=0
 $width = $col[ $j + $k ] - $col[$j];    # -sbt=1 (default)
 $width = $col[$j + $k] - $col[$j];      # -sbt=2 

Curly braces which do not contain code blocks are controlled by
the parameter B<-bt=n> or B<--brace-tightness=n>. 

 $obj->{ $parsed_sql->{ 'table' }[0] };    # -bt=0
 $obj->{ $parsed_sql->{'table'}[0] };      # -bt=1 (default)
 $obj->{$parsed_sql->{'table'}[0]};        # -bt=2

And finally, curly braces which contain blocks of code are controlled by the
parameter B<-bbt=n> or B<--block-brace-tightness=n> as illustrated in the
example below.   

 %bf = map { $_ => -M $_ } grep { /\.deb$/ } dirents '.'; # -bbt=0 (default)
 %bf = map { $_ => -M $_ } grep {/\.deb$/} dirents '.';   # -bbt=1
 %bf = map {$_ => -M $_} grep {/\.deb$/} dirents '.';     # -bbt=2

To simplify input in the case that all of the tightness flags have the same
value <n>, the parameter <-act=n> or B<--all-containers-tightness=n> is an
abbreviation for the combination <-pt=n -sbt=n -bt=n -bbt=n>.

=item B<-tso>,   B<--tight-secret-operators>

The flag B<-tso> causes certain perl token sequences (secret operators)
which might be considered to be a single operator to be formatted "tightly"
(without spaces).  The operators currently modified by this flag are: 

     0+  +0  ()x!! ~~<>  ,=>   =( )=  

For example the sequence B<0 +>,  which converts a string to a number,
would be formatted without a space: B<0+> when the B<-tso> flag is set.  This
flag is off by default.

=item B<-sts>,   B<--space-terminal-semicolon>

Some programmers prefer a space before all terminal semicolons.  The
default is for no such space, and is indicated with B<-nsts> or

	$i = 1 ;     #  -sts
	$i = 1;      #  -nsts   (default)

=item B<-sfs>,   B<--space-for-semicolon>

Semicolons within B<for> loops may sometimes be hard to see,
particularly when commas are also present.  This option places spaces on
both sides of these special semicolons, and is the default.  Use
B<-nsfs> or B<--nospace-for-semicolon> to deactivate it.

 for ( @a = @$ap, $u = shift @a ; @a ; $u = $v ) {  # -sfs (default)
 for ( @a = @$ap, $u = shift @a; @a; $u = $v ) {    # -nsfs

=item B<-asc>,  B<--add-semicolons>

Setting B<-asc> allows perltidy to add any missing optional semicolon at the end 
of a line which is followed by a closing curly brace on the next line.  This
is the default, and may be deactivated with B<-nasc> or B<--noadd-semicolons>.

=item B<-dsm>,  B<--delete-semicolons>

Setting B<-dsm> allows perltidy to delete extra semicolons which are
simply empty statements.  This is the default, and may be deactivated
with B<-ndsm> or B<--nodelete-semicolons>.  (Such semicolons are not
deleted, however, if they would promote a side comment to a block

=item B<-aws>,  B<--add-whitespace>

Setting this option allows perltidy to add certain whitespace improve
code readability.  This is the default. If you do not want any
whitespace added, but are willing to have some whitespace deleted, use
B<-naws>.  (Use B<-fws> to leave whitespace completely unchanged).

=item B<-dws>,  B<--delete-old-whitespace>

Setting this option allows perltidy to remove some old whitespace
between characters, if necessary.  This is the default.  If you
do not want any old whitespace removed, use B<-ndws> or

=item Detailed whitespace controls around tokens

For those who want more detailed control over the whitespace around
tokens, there are four parameters which can directly modify the default
whitespace rules built into perltidy for any token.  They are:

B<-wls=s> or B<--want-left-space=s>,

B<-nwls=s> or B<--nowant-left-space=s>,

B<-wrs=s> or B<--want-right-space=s>,

B<-nwrs=s> or B<--nowant-right-space=s>.

These parameters are each followed by a quoted string, B<s>, containing a
list of token types.  No more than one of each of these parameters
should be specified, because repeating a command-line parameter
always overwrites the previous one before perltidy ever sees it.

To illustrate how these are used, suppose it is desired that there be no
space on either side of the token types B<= + - / *>.  The following two
parameters would specify this desire:

  -nwls="= + - / *"    -nwrs="= + - / *"

(Note that the token types are in quotes, and that they are separated by
spaces).  With these modified whitespace rules, the following line of math:

  $root = -$b + sqrt( $b * $b - 4. * $a * $c ) / ( 2. * $a );

becomes this:

  $root=-$b+sqrt( $b*$b-4.*$a*$c )/( 2.*$a );

These parameters should be considered to be hints to perltidy rather
than fixed rules, because perltidy must try to resolve conflicts that
arise between them and all of the other rules that it uses.  One
conflict that can arise is if, between two tokens, the left token wants
a space and the right one doesn't.  In this case, the token not wanting
a space takes priority.  

It is necessary to have a list of all token types in order to create
this type of input.  Such a list can be obtained by the command
B<--dump-token-types>.  Also try the B<-D> flag on a short snippet of code
and look at the .DEBUG file to see the tokenization. 

B<WARNING> Be sure to put these tokens in quotes to avoid having them
misinterpreted by your command shell.

=item Note: Perltidy does always follow whitespace controls 

The various parameters controlling whitespace within a program are requests which perltidy follows as well as possible, but there are a number of situations where changing whitespace could change program behavior and is not done.  Some of these are obvious; for example, we should not remove the space between the two plus symbols in '$x+ +$y' to avoid creating a '++' operator. Some are more subtle and involve the whitespace around bareword symbols and locations of possible filehandles.  For example, consider the problem of formatting the following subroutine:

   sub print_div {
      my ($x,$y)=@_;
      print $x/$y;

Suppose the user requests that / signs have a space to the left but not to the right. Perltidy will refuse to do this, but if this were done the result would be
   sub print_div {
       my ($x,$y)=@_;
       print $x /$y;

If formatted in this way, the program will not run (at least with recent versions of perl) because the $x is taken to be a filehandle and / is assumed to start a quote. In a complex program, there might happen to be a / which terminates the multiline quote without a syntax error, allowing the program to run, but not as intended.

Related issues arise with other binary operator symbols, such as + and -, and in older versions of perl there could be problems with ternary operators.  So to avoid changing program behavior, perltidy has the simple rule that whitespace around possible filehandles is left unchanged.  Likewise, whitespace around barewords is left unchanged.  The reason is that if the barewords are defined in other modules, or in code that has not even been written yet, perltidy will not have seen their prototypes and must treat them cautiously.

=item Space between specific keywords and opening paren

When an opening paren follows a Perl keyword, no space is introduced after the
keyword, unless it is (by default) one of these:

   my local our and or xor eq ne if else elsif until unless 
   while for foreach return switch case given when

These defaults can be modified with two commands:

B<-sak=s>  or B<--space-after-keyword=s>  adds keywords.

B<-nsak=s>  or B<--nospace-after-keyword=s>  removes keywords.

where B<s> is a list of keywords (in quotes if necessary).  For example, 

  my ( $a, $b, $c ) = @_;    # default
  my( $a, $b, $c ) = @_;     # -nsak="my local our"

The abbreviation B<-nsak='*'> is equivalent to including all of the
keywords in the above list.

When both B<-nsak=s> and B<-sak=s> commands are included, the B<-nsak=s>
command is executed first.  For example, to have space after only the
keywords (my, local, our) you could use B<-nsak="*" -sak="my local our">.

To put a space after all keywords, see the next item.

=item Space between all keywords and opening parens

When an opening paren follows a function or keyword, no space is introduced
after the keyword except for the keywords noted in the previous item.  To
always put a space between a function or keyword and its opening paren,
use the command:

B<-skp>  or B<--space-keyword-paren>

You will probably also want to use the flag B<-sfp> (next item) too.

=item Space between all function names and opening parens

When an opening paren follows a function the default is not to introduce
a space.  To cause a space to be introduced use:

B<-sfp>  or B<--space-function-paren>

  myfunc( $a, $b, $c );    # default 
  myfunc ( $a, $b, $c );   # -sfp

You will probably also want to use the flag B<-skp> (previous item) too.

=item B<-spp=n>  or B<--space-prototype-paren=n>

This flag can be used to control whether a function prototype is preceded by a space.  For example, the following prototype does not have a space.

      sub usage();

This integer B<n> may have the value 0, 1, or 2 as follows:

    -spp=0 means no space before the paren
    -spp=1 means follow the example of the source code [DEFAULT]
    -spp=2 means always put a space before the paren

The default is B<-spp=1>, meaning that a space will be used if and only if there is one in the source code.  Given the above line of code, the result of
applying the different options would be:

        sub usage();    # n=0 [no space]
        sub usage();    # n=1 [default; follows input]
        sub usage ();   # n=2 [space]

=item B<-kpit=n> or B<--keyword-paren-inner-tightness=n>

The space inside of an opening paren, which itself follows a certain keyword,
can be controlled by this parameter.  The space on the inside of the
corresponding closing paren will be treated in the same (balanced) manner.
This parameter has precedence over any other paren spacing rules.  The values
of B<n> are as follows:

   -kpit=0 means always put a space (not tight)
   -kpit=1 means ignore this parameter [default]
   -kpit=2 means never put a space (tight)

To illustrate, the following snippet is shown formatted in three ways:

    if ( seek( DATA, 0, 0 ) ) { ... }    # perltidy (default)
    if (seek(DATA, 0, 0)) { ... }        # perltidy -pt=2
    if ( seek(DATA, 0, 0) ) { ... }      # perltidy -pt=2 -kpit=0

In the second case the -pt=2 parameter makes all of the parens tight. In the
third case the -kpit=0 flag causes the space within the 'if' parens to have a
space, since 'if' is one of the keywords to which the -kpit flag applies by
default.  The remaining parens are still tight because of the -pt=2 parameter.

The set of keywords to which this parameter applies are by default are:

   if elsif unless while until for foreach

These can be changed with the parameter B<-kpitl=s> described in the next section. 

=item B<-kpitl=string> or B<--keyword-paren-inner-tightness=string>

This command can be used to change the keywords to which the the B<-kpit=n>
command applies.  The parameter B<string> is a required list either keywords or
functions, which should be placed in quotes if there are more than one.  By
itself, this parameter does not cause any change in spacing, so the B<-kpit=n>
command is still required.

For example, the commands C<-kpitl="if else while" -kpit=2> will cause the just
the spaces inside parens following  'if', 'else', and 'while' keywords to
follow the tightness value indicated by the B<-kpit=2> flag.

=item B<-lop>  or B<--logical-padding>

In the following example some extra space has been inserted on the second
line between the two open parens. This extra space is called "logical padding"
and is intended to help align similar things vertically in some logical
or ternary expressions.  

    # perltidy [default formatting] 
    $same =
      (      ( $aP eq $bP )
          && ( $aS eq $bS )
          && ( $aT eq $bT )
          && ( $a->{'title'} eq $b->{'title'} )
          && ( $a->{'href'} eq $b->{'href'} ) );

Note that this is considered to be a different operation from "vertical
alignment" because space at just one line is being adjusted, whereas in
"vertical alignment" the spaces at all lines are being adjusted. So it sort of
a local version of vertical alignment.

Here is an example involving a ternary operator:

    # perltidy [default formatting] 
    $bits =
        $top > 0xffff ? 32
      : $top > 0xff   ? 16
      : $top > 1      ? 8
      :                 1;

This behavior is controlled with the flag B<--logical-padding>, which is set
'on' by default.  If it is not desired it can be turned off using
B<--nological-padding> or B<-nlop>.  The above two examples become, with

    # perltidy -nlop
    $same =
      ( ( $aP eq $bP )
          && ( $aS eq $bS )
          && ( $aT eq $bT )
          && ( $a->{'title'} eq $b->{'title'} )
          && ( $a->{'href'} eq $b->{'href'} ) );

    # perltidy -nlop
    $bits =
      $top > 0xffff ? 32
      : $top > 0xff ? 16
      : $top > 1    ? 8
      :               1;

=item Trimming whitespace around C<qw> quotes

B<-tqw> or B<--trim-qw> provide the default behavior of trimming
spaces around multi-line C<qw> quotes and indenting them appropriately.

B<-ntqw> or B<--notrim-qw> cause leading and trailing whitespace around
multi-line C<qw> quotes to be left unchanged.  This option will not
normally be necessary, but was added for testing purposes, because in
some versions of perl, trimming C<qw> quotes changes the syntax tree.

=item b<-sbq=n>  or b<--space-backslash-quote=n>

lines like


can confuse syntax highlighters unless a space is included between the backslash and the single or double quotation mark.

this can be controlled with the value of b<n> as follows:

    -sbq=0 means no space between the backslash and quote
    -sbq=1 means follow the example of the source code
    -sbq=2 means always put a space between the backslash and quote

The default is B<-sbq=1>, meaning that a space will be used if there is one in the source code.

=item Trimming trailing whitespace from lines of POD

B<-trp> or B<--trim-pod> will remove trailing whitespace from lines of POD.
The default is not to do this.


=head2 Comment Controls

Perltidy has a number of ways to control the appearance of both block comments
and side comments.  The term B<block comment> here refers to a full-line
comment, whereas B<side comment> will refer to a comment which appears on a
line to the right of some code.

=over 4

=item B<-ibc>,  B<--indent-block-comments>

Block comments normally look best when they are indented to the same
level as the code which follows them.  This is the default behavior, but
you may use B<-nibc> to keep block comments left-justified.  Here is an

             # this comment is indented      (-ibc, default)
	     if ($task) { yyy(); }

The alternative is B<-nibc>:

 # this comment is not indented              (-nibc)
	     if ($task) { yyy(); }

See also the next item, B<-isbc>, as well as B<-sbc>, for other ways to
have some indented and some outdented block comments.

=item B<-isbc>,  B<--indent-spaced-block-comments>

If there is no leading space on the line, then the comment will not be
indented, and otherwise it may be.

If both B<-ibc> and B<-isbc> are set, then B<-isbc> takes priority.

=item B<-olc>, B<--outdent-long-comments>

When B<-olc> is set, lines which are full-line (block) comments longer
than the value B<maximum-line-length> will have their indentation
removed.  This is the default; use B<-nolc> to prevent outdenting.

=item B<-msc=n>,  B<--minimum-space-to-comment=n>

Side comments look best when lined up several spaces to the right of
code.  Perltidy will try to keep comments at least n spaces to the
right.  The default is n=4 spaces.

=item B<-fpsc=n>,  B<--fixed-position-side-comment=n>

This parameter tells perltidy to line up side comments in column number B<n>
whenever possible.  The default, n=0, will not do this.

=item B<-iscl>,  B<--ignore-side-comment-lengths>

This parameter causes perltidy to ignore the length of side comments when
setting line breaks.  The default, B<-niscl>, is to include the length of 
side comments when breaking lines to stay within the length prescribed
by the B<-l=n> maximum line length parameter.  For example, the following
long single line would remain intact with -l=80 and -iscl:

     perltidy -l=80 -iscl
        $vmsfile =~ s/;[\d\-]*$//; # Clip off version number; we can use a newer version as well

whereas without the -iscl flag the line will be broken:

     perltidy -l=80
        $vmsfile =~ s/;[\d\-]*$//
          ;    # Clip off version number; we can use a newer version as well

=item B<-hsc>, B<--hanging-side-comments>

By default, perltidy tries to identify and align "hanging side
comments", which are something like this:

        my $IGNORE = 0;    # This is a side comment
                           # This is a hanging side comment
                           # And so is this

A comment is considered to be a hanging side comment if (1) it immediately
follows a line with a side comment, or another hanging side comment, and
(2) there is some leading whitespace on the line.
To deactivate this feature, use B<-nhsc> or B<--nohanging-side-comments>.  
If block comments are preceded by a blank line, or have no leading
whitespace, they will not be mistaken as hanging side comments.

=item Closing Side Comments

A closing side comment is a special comment which perltidy can
automatically create and place after the closing brace of a code block.
They can be useful for code maintenance and debugging.  The command
B<-csc> (or B<--closing-side-comments>) adds or updates closing side
comments.  For example, here is a small code snippet

        sub message {
            if ( !defined( $_[0] ) ) {
                print("Hello, World\n");
            else {
                print( $_[0], "\n" );

And here is the result of processing with C<perltidy -csc>:

        sub message {
            if ( !defined( $_[0] ) ) {
                print("Hello, World\n");
            else {
                print( $_[0], "\n" );
        } ## end sub message

A closing side comment was added for C<sub message> in this case, but not
for the C<if> and C<else> blocks, because they were below the 6 line
cutoff limit for adding closing side comments.  This limit may be
changed with the B<-csci> command, described below.

The command B<-dcsc> (or B<--delete-closing-side-comments>) reverses this 
process and removes these comments.

Several commands are available to modify the behavior of these two basic
commands, B<-csc> and B<-dcsc>:

=over 4

=item B<-csci=n>, or B<--closing-side-comment-interval=n> 

where C<n> is the minimum number of lines that a block must have in
order for a closing side comment to be added.  The default value is
C<n=6>.  To illustrate:

        # perltidy -csci=2 -csc
        sub message {
            if ( !defined( $_[0] ) ) {
                print("Hello, World\n");
            } ## end if ( !defined( $_[0] ))
            else {
                print( $_[0], "\n" );
            } ## end else [ if ( !defined( $_[0] ))
        } ## end sub message

Now the C<if> and C<else> blocks are commented.  However, now this has
become very cluttered.

=item B<-cscp=string>, or B<--closing-side-comment-prefix=string> 

where string is the prefix used before the name of the block type.  The
default prefix, shown above, is C<## end>.  This string will be added to
closing side comments, and it will also be used to recognize them in
order to update, delete, and format them.  Any comment identified as a
closing side comment will be placed just a single space to the right of
its closing brace.

=item B<-cscl=string>, or B<--closing-side-comment-list> 

where C<string> is a list of block types to be tagged with closing side
comments.  By default, all code block types preceded by a keyword or
label (such as C<if>, C<sub>, and so on) will be tagged.  The B<-cscl>
command changes the default list to be any selected block types; see
L<Specifying Block Types>.
For example, the following command
requests that only C<sub>'s, labels, C<BEGIN>, and C<END> blocks be
affected by any B<-csc> or B<-dcsc> operation:

   -cscl="sub : BEGIN END"

=item B<-csct=n>, or B<--closing-side-comment-maximum-text=n> 

The text appended to certain block types, such as an C<if> block, is
whatever lies between the keyword introducing the block, such as C<if>,
and the opening brace.  Since this might be too much text for a side
comment, there needs to be a limit, and that is the purpose of this
parameter.  The default value is C<n=20>, meaning that no additional
tokens will be appended to this text after its length reaches 20
characters.  Omitted text is indicated with C<...>.  (Tokens, including
sub names, are never truncated, however, so actual lengths may exceed
this).  To illustrate, in the above example, the appended text of the
first block is C< ( !defined( $_[0] )...>.  The existing limit of
C<n=20> caused this text to be truncated, as indicated by the C<...>.  See
the next flag for additional control of the abbreviated text.

=item B<-cscb>, or B<--closing-side-comments-balanced> 

As discussed in the previous item, when the
closing-side-comment-maximum-text limit is exceeded the comment text must
be truncated.  Older versions of perltidy terminated with three dots, and this
can still be achieved with -ncscb:

  perltidy -csc -ncscb
  } ## end foreach my $foo (sort { $b cmp $a ...

However this causes a problem with editors which cannot recognize
comments or are not configured to do so because they cannot "bounce" around in
the text correctly.  The B<-cscb> flag has been added to
help them by appending appropriate balancing structure:

  perltidy -csc -cscb
  } ## end foreach my $foo (sort { $b cmp $a ... })

The default is B<-cscb>.

=item B<-csce=n>, or B<--closing-side-comment-else-flag=n> 

The default, B<n=0>, places the text of the opening C<if> statement after any
terminal C<else>.

If B<n=2> is used, then each C<elsif> is also given the text of the opening
C<if> statement.  Also, an C<else> will include the text of a preceding
C<elsif> statement.  Note that this may result some long closing
side comments.

If B<n=1> is used, the results will be the same as B<n=2> whenever the
resulting line length is less than the maximum allowed.

=item B<-cscb>, or B<--closing-side-comments-balanced> 

When using closing-side-comments, and the closing-side-comment-maximum-text
limit is exceeded, then the comment text must be abbreviated.  
It is terminated with three dots if the B<-cscb> flag is negated:

  perltidy -csc -ncscb
  } ## end foreach my $foo (sort { $b cmp $a ...

This causes a problem with older editors which do not recognize comments
because they cannot "bounce" around in the text correctly.  The B<-cscb>
flag tries to help them by appending appropriate terminal balancing structures:

  perltidy -csc -cscb
  } ## end foreach my $foo (sort { $b cmp $a ... })

The default is B<-cscb>.  

=item B<-cscw>, or B<--closing-side-comment-warnings> 

This parameter is intended to help make the initial transition to the use of
closing side comments.  
It causes two
things to happen if a closing side comment replaces an existing, different
closing side comment:  first, an error message will be issued, and second, the
original side comment will be placed alone on a new specially marked comment
line for later attention. 

The intent is to avoid clobbering existing hand-written side comments
which happen to match the pattern of closing side comments. This flag
should only be needed on the first run with B<-csc>.


B<Important Notes on Closing Side Comments:> 

=over 4

=item *

Closing side comments are only placed on lines terminated with a closing
brace.  Certain closing styles, such as the use of cuddled elses
(B<-ce>), preclude the generation of some closing side comments.

=item *

Please note that adding or deleting of closing side comments takes
place only through the commands B<-csc> or B<-dcsc>.  The other commands,
if used, merely modify the behavior of these two commands.  

=item *

It is recommended that the B<-cscw> flag be used along with B<-csc> on
the first use of perltidy on a given file.  This will prevent loss of
any existing side comment data which happens to have the csc prefix.

=item *

Once you use B<-csc>, you should continue to use it so that any
closing side comments remain correct as code changes.  Otherwise, these
comments will become incorrect as the code is updated.

=item *

If you edit the closing side comments generated by perltidy, you must also
change the prefix to be different from the closing side comment prefix.
Otherwise, your edits will be lost when you rerun perltidy with B<-csc>.   For
example, you could simply change C<## end> to be C<## End>, since the test is
case sensitive.  You may also want to use the B<-ssc> flag to keep these
modified closing side comments spaced the same as actual closing side comments.

=item *

Temporarily generating closing side comments is a useful technique for
exploring and/or debugging a perl script, especially one written by someone
else.  You can always remove them with B<-dcsc>.


=item Static Block Comments

Static block comments are block comments with a special leading pattern,
C<##> by default, which will be treated slightly differently from other
block comments.  They effectively behave as if they had glue along their
left and top edges, because they stick to the left edge and previous line
when there is no blank spaces in those places.  This option is
particularly useful for controlling how commented code is displayed.

=over 4

=item B<-sbc>, B<--static-block-comments>

When B<-sbc> is used, a block comment with a special leading pattern, C<##> by
default, will be treated specially. 

Comments so identified  are treated as follows: 

=over 4

=item *

If there is no leading space on the line, then the comment will not
be indented, and otherwise it may be,

=item *

no new blank line will be
inserted before such a comment, and 

=item *

such a comment will never become
a hanging side comment.  


For example, assuming C<@month_of_year> is

    @month_of_year = (    # -sbc (default)
        'Jan', 'Feb', 'Mar', 'Apr', 'May', 'Jun', 'Jul', 'Aug', 'Sep', 'Oct',
    ##  'Dec', 'Nov'
        'Nov', 'Dec');

Without this convention, the above code would become

    @month_of_year = (   # -nsbc
        'Jan', 'Feb', 'Mar', 'Apr', 'May', 'Jun', 'Jul', 'Aug', 'Sep', 'Oct',
        ##  'Dec', 'Nov'
        'Nov', 'Dec'

which is not as clear.
The default is to use B<-sbc>.  This may be deactivated with B<-nsbc>.

=item B<-sbcp=string>, B<--static-block-comment-prefix=string>

This parameter defines the prefix used to identify static block comments
when the B<-sbc> parameter is set.  The default prefix is C<##>,
corresponding to C<-sbcp=##>.  The prefix is actually part of a perl 
pattern used to match lines and it must either begin with C<#> or C<^#>.  
In the first case a prefix ^\s* will be added to match any leading
whitespace, while in the second case the pattern will match only
comments with no leading whitespace.  For example, to
identify all comments as static block comments, one would use C<-sbcp=#>.
To identify all left-adjusted comments as static block comments, use C<-sbcp='^#'>.

Please note that B<-sbcp> merely defines the pattern used to identify static
block comments; it will not be used unless the switch B<-sbc> is set.  Also,
please be aware that since this string is used in a perl regular expression
which identifies these comments, it must enable a valid regular expression to
be formed.

A pattern which can be useful is:


This pattern requires a static block comment to have at least one character
which is neither a # nor a space.  It allows a line containing only '#'
characters to be rejected as a static block comment.  Such lines are often used
at the start and end of header information in subroutines and should not be
separated from the intervening comments, which typically begin with just a
single '#'.

=item B<-osbc>, B<--outdent-static-block-comments>

The command B<-osbc> will cause static block comments to be outdented by 2
spaces (or whatever B<-ci=n> has been set to), if possible.


=item Static Side Comments

Static side comments are side comments with a special leading pattern.
This option can be useful for controlling how commented code is displayed
when it is a side comment.

=over 4

=item B<-ssc>, B<--static-side-comments>

When B<-ssc> is used, a side comment with a static leading pattern, which is
C<##> by default, will be spaced only a single space from previous
character, and it will not be vertically aligned with other side comments.

The default is B<-nssc>.

=item B<-sscp=string>, B<--static-side-comment-prefix=string>

This parameter defines the prefix used to identify static side comments
when the B<-ssc> parameter is set.  The default prefix is C<##>,
corresponding to C<-sscp=##>.  

Please note that B<-sscp> merely defines the pattern used to identify
static side comments; it will not be used unless the switch B<-ssc> is
set.  Also, note that this string is used in a perl regular expression
which identifies these comments, so it must enable a valid regular
expression to be formed.



=head2 Skipping Selected Sections of Code

Selected lines of code may be passed verbatim to the output without any
formatting.  This feature is enabled by default but can be disabled with
the B<--noformat-skipping> or B<-nfs> flag.  It should be used sparingly to
avoid littering code with markers, but it might be helpful for working
around occasional problems.  For example it might be useful for keeping
the indentation of old commented code unchanged, keeping indentation of
long blocks of aligned comments unchanged, keeping certain list
formatting unchanged, or working around a glitch in perltidy.

=over 4

=item B<-fs>,  B<--format-skipping>

This flag, which is enabled by default, causes any code between
special beginning and ending comment markers to be passed to the
output without formatting.  The default beginning marker is #<<<
and the default ending marker is #>>> but they
may be changed (see next items below).  Additional text may appear on
these special comment lines provided that it is separated from the
marker by at least one space.  For example

 #<<<  do not let perltidy touch this
    my @list = (1,
                1, 1,
                1, 2, 1,
                1, 3, 3, 1,
                1, 4, 6, 4, 1,);

Format skipping begins when a format skipping comment is seen and continues
until either a format-skipping end pattern is found or until the end of file. 

The comment markers may be placed at any location that a block comment may
appear.  If they do not appear to be working, use the -log flag and examine the
F<.LOG> file.  Use B<-nfs> to disable this feature.  

This method works for any code. For the specific case of a comma-separated list
of values, as in this example, another possibility is to insert a blank or
comment somewhere between the opening and closing parens.  See the section
L<Controlling List Formatting>.

=item B<-fsb=string>,  B<--format-skipping-begin=string>

The B<-fsb=string> parameter may be used to change the beginning marker for
format skipping.  The default is equivalent to -fsb='#<<<'.  The string that
you enter must begin with a # and should be in quotes as necessary to get past
the command shell of your system.  It is actually the leading text of a pattern
that is constructed by appending a '\s', so you must also include backslashes
for characters to be taken literally rather than as patterns.  

Some examples show how example strings become patterns:

 -fsb='#\{\{\{' becomes /^#\{\{\{\s/  which matches  #{{{ but not #{{{{
 -fsb='#\*\*'   becomes /^#\*\*\s/    which matches  #** but not #***
 -fsb='#\*{2,}' becomes /^#\*{2,}\s/  which matches  #** and #***** 

=item B<-fse=string>,  B<--format-skipping-end=string>

The B<-fsb=string> is the corresponding parameter used to change the
ending marker for format skipping.  The default is equivalent to

The beginning and ending strings may be the same, but it is preferable
to make them different for clarity.


=head2 Line Break Control

The parameters in this section control breaks after
non-blank lines of code.  Blank lines are controlled
separately by parameters in the section L<Blank Line

=over 4

=item B<-fnl>,  B<--freeze-newlines>

If you do not want any changes to the line breaks within
lines of code in your script, set
B<-fnl>, and they will remain fixed, and the rest of the commands in
this section and sections 
L<Controlling List Formatting>,
L<Retaining or Ignoring Existing Line Breaks>. 
You may want to use B<-noll> with this.

Note: If you also want to keep your blank lines exactly
as they are, you can use the B<-fbl> flag which is described
in the section L<Blank Line Control>.

=item B<-ce>,   B<--cuddled-else>

Enable the "cuddled else" style, in which C<else> and C<elsif> are
follow immediately after the curly brace closing the previous block.
The default is not to use cuddled elses, and is indicated with the flag
B<-nce> or B<--nocuddled-else>.  Here is a comparison of the

  # -ce
  if ($task) {
  } else {    

  # -nce (default)
  if ($task) {
  else {    

In this example the keyword B<else> is placed on the same line which begins with
the preceding closing block brace and is followed by its own opening block brace
on the same line.  Other keywords and function names which are formatted with
this "cuddled" style are B<elsif>, B<continue>, B<catch>, B<finally>.

Other block types can be formatted by specifying their names on a 
separate parameter B<-cbl>, described in a later section.  

Cuddling between a pair of code blocks requires that the closing brace of the
first block start a new line.  If this block is entirely on one line in the
input file, it is necessary to decide if it should be broken to allow cuddling.
This decision is controlled by the flag B<-cbo=n> discussed below.  The default
and recommended value of B<-cbo=1> bases this decision on the first block in
the chain.  If it spans multiple lines then cuddling is made and continues
along the chain, regardless of the sizes of subsequent blocks. Otherwise, short
lines remain intact.

So for example, the B<-ce> flag would not have any effect if the above snippet
is rewritten as

  if ($task) { yyy() }
  else {    zzz() }

If the first block spans multiple lines, then cuddling can be done and will
continue for the subsequent blocks in the chain, as illustrated in the previous

If there are blank lines between cuddled blocks they will be eliminated.  If
there are comments after the closing brace where cuddling would occur then
cuddling will be prevented.  If this occurs, cuddling will restart later in the
chain if possible.  

=item B<-cb>,   B<--cuddled-blocks>

This flag is equivalent to B<-ce>. 

=item B<-cbl>,    B<--cuddled-block-list>     

The built-in default cuddled block types are B<else, elsif, continue, catch, finally>.

Additional block types to which the B<-cuddled-blocks> style applies can be defined by
this parameter.  This parameter is a character string, giving a list of
block types separated by commas or spaces.  For example, to cuddle code blocks
of type sort, map and grep, in addition to the default types, the string could
be set to
  -cbl="sort map grep"

or equivalently


Note however that these particular block types are typically short so there might not be much
opportunity for the cuddled format style.

Using commas avoids the need to protect spaces with quotes.

As a diagnostic check, the flag B<--dump-cuddled-block-list> or B<-dcbl> can be
used to view the hash of values that are generated by this flag. 

Finally, note that the B<-cbl> flag by itself merely specifies which blocks are formatted
with the cuddled format. It has no effect unless this formatting style is activated with

=item B<-cblx>,    B<--cuddled-block-list-exclusive>     

When cuddled else formatting is selected with B<-ce>, setting this flag causes
perltidy to ignore its built-in defaults and rely exclusively on the block types
specified on the B<-cbl> flag described in the previous section.  For example,
to avoid using cuddled B<catch> and B<finally>, which among in the defaults, the
following set of parameters could be used:

  perltidy -ce -cbl='else elsif continue' -cblx

=item B<-cbo=n>,   B<--cuddled-break-option=n>

Cuddled formatting is only possible between a pair of code blocks if the
closing brace of the first block starts a new line. If a block is encountered
which is entirely on a single line, and cuddled formatting is selected, it is
necessary to make a decision as to whether or not to "break" the block, meaning
to cause it to span multiple lines.  This parameter controls that decision. The
options are:

   cbo=0  Never force a short block to break.
   cbo=1  If the first of a pair of blocks is broken in the input file, 
          then break the second [DEFAULT].
   cbo=2  Break open all blocks for maximal cuddled formatting.

The default and recommended value is B<cbo=1>.  With this value, if the starting
block of a chain spans multiple lines, then a cascade of breaks will occur for
remaining blocks causing the entire chain to be cuddled.

The option B<cbo=0> can produce erratic cuddling if there are numerous one-line

The option B<cbo=2> produces maximal cuddling but will not allow any short blocks.

=item B<-bl>,    B<--opening-brace-on-new-line>     

Use the flag B<-bl> to place the opening brace on a new line:

  if ( $input_file eq '-' )    # -bl 

This flag applies to all structural blocks, including named sub's (unless
the B<-sbl> flag is set -- see next item).

The default style, B<-nbl>, places an opening brace on the same line as
the keyword introducing it.  For example,

  if ( $input_file eq '-' ) {   # -nbl (default)

=item B<-sbl>,    B<--opening-sub-brace-on-new-line>     

The flag B<-sbl> can be used to override the value of B<-bl> for
the opening braces of named sub's.  For example, 

 perltidy -sbl

produces this result:

 sub message
    if (!defined($_[0])) {
        print("Hello, World\n");
    else {
        print($_[0], "\n");

This flag is negated with B<-nsbl>.  If B<-sbl> is not specified,
the value of B<-bl> is used.

=item B<-asbl>,    B<--opening-anonymous-sub-brace-on-new-line>     

The flag B<-asbl> is like the B<-sbl> flag except that it applies
to anonymous sub's instead of named subs. For example

 perltidy -asbl

produces this result:

 $a = sub
     if ( !defined( $_[0] ) ) {
         print("Hello, World\n");
     else {
         print( $_[0], "\n" );

This flag is negated with B<-nasbl>, and the default is B<-nasbl>.

=item B<-bli>,    B<--brace-left-and-indent>     

The flag B<-bli> is the same as B<-bl> but in addition it causes one 
unit of continuation indentation ( see B<-ci> ) to be placed before 
an opening and closing block braces.

For example,

        if ( $input_file eq '-' )    # -bli

By default, this extra indentation occurs for blocks of type:
B<if>, B<elsif>, B<else>, B<unless>, B<for>, B<foreach>, B<sub>, 
B<while>, B<until>, and also with a preceding label.  The next item
shows how to change this.

=item B<-blil=s>,    B<--brace-left-and-indent-list=s>     

Use this parameter to change the types of block braces for which the
B<-bli> flag applies; see L<Specifying Block Types>.  For example,
B<-blil='if elsif else'> would apply it to only C<if/elsif/else> blocks.

=item B<-bar>,    B<--opening-brace-always-on-right>     

The default style, B<-nbl> places the opening code block brace on a new
line if it does not fit on the same line as the opening keyword, like

        if ( $bigwasteofspace1 && $bigwasteofspace2
          || $bigwasteofspace3 && $bigwasteofspace4 )

To force the opening brace to always be on the right, use the B<-bar>
flag.  In this case, the above example becomes

        if ( $bigwasteofspace1 && $bigwasteofspace2
          || $bigwasteofspace3 && $bigwasteofspace4 ) {

A conflict occurs if both B<-bl> and B<-bar> are specified.

=item B<-otr>,  B<--opening-token-right> and related flags

The B<-otr> flag is a hint that perltidy should not place a break between a
comma and an opening token.  For example:

    # default formatting
    push @{ $self->{$module}{$key} },
        accno       => $ref->{accno},
        description => $ref->{description}

    # perltidy -otr
    push @{ $self->{$module}{$key} }, {
        accno       => $ref->{accno},
        description => $ref->{description}

The flag B<-otr> is actually an abbreviation for three other flags
which can be used to control parens, hash braces, and square brackets
separately if desired:

  -opr  or --opening-paren-right
  -ohbr or --opening-hash-brace-right
  -osbr or --opening-square-bracket-right

=item B<-wn>,  B<--weld-nested-containers> 

The B<-wn> flag causes closely nested pairs of opening and closing container
symbols (curly braces, brackets, or parens) to be "welded" together, meaning
that they are treated as if combined into a single unit, with the indentation
of the innermost code reduced to be as if there were just a single container

For example:

	# default formatting
        do {
                next if $x == $y;    
        } until $x++ > $z;

	# perltidy -wn
        do { {
            next if $x == $y;
        } } until $x++ > $z;

When this flag is set perltidy makes a preliminary pass through the file and
identifies all nested pairs of containers.  To qualify as a nested pair, the
closing container symbols must be immediately adjacent. The opening symbols
must either be adjacent, or, if the outer opening symbol is an opening
paren, they may be separated by any single non-container symbol or something
that looks like a function evaluation.  

Any container symbol may serve as both the inner container of one pair and as
the outer container of an adjacent pair. Consequently, any number of adjacent
opening or closing symbols may join together in weld.  For example, here are
three levels of wrapped function calls:

	# default formatting
        my (@date_time) = Localtime(
                    $year, $month,  $day, $hour, $minute, $second,
                    '0',   $offset, '0',  '0'

        # perltidy -wn
        my (@date_time) = Localtime( Date_to_Time( Add_Delta_DHMS(
            $year, $month,  $day, $hour, $minute, $second,
            '0',   $offset, '0',  '0'
        ) ) );

Notice how the indentation of the inner lines are reduced by two levels in this
case.  This example also shows the typical result of this formatting, namely it
is a sandwich consisting of an initial opening layer, a central section of any
complexity forming the "meat" of the sandwich, and a final closing layer.  This
predictable structure helps keep the compacted structure readable.

The inner sandwich layer is required to be at least one line thick.  If this
cannot be achieved, welding does not occur.  This constraint can cause
formatting to take a couple of iterations to stabilize when it is first applied
to a script. The B<-conv> flag can be used to insure that the final format is
achieved in a single run.

Here is an example illustrating a welded container within a welded containers:

	# default formatting
                        $sx * int( $xr->numify() ) & $sy * int( $yr->numify() )

	# perltidy -wn
        $x->badd( bmul(
            $class->new( abs(
                $sx * int( $xr->numify() ) & $sy * int( $yr->numify() )
            ) ),
        ) );

This format option is quite general but there are some limitations.  

One limitation is that any line length limit still applies and can cause long
welded sections to be broken into multiple lines.  

Another limitation is that an opening symbol which delimits quoted text cannot
be included in a welded pair.  This is because quote delimiters are treated
specially in perltidy.  

Finally, the stacking of containers defined by this flag have priority over
any other container stacking flags.  This is because any welding is done first.

=item B<Vertical tightness> of non-block curly braces, parentheses, and square brackets.

These parameters control what shall be called vertical tightness.  Here are the
main points:

=over 4

=item *

Opening tokens (except for block braces) are controlled by B<-vt=n>, or
B<--vertical-tightness=n>, where

 -vt=0 always break a line after opening token (default). 
 -vt=1 do not break unless this would produce more than one 
         step in indentation in a line.
 -vt=2 never break a line after opening token

=item *

You must also use the B<-lp> flag when you use the B<-vt> flag; the
reason is explained below.

=item *

Closing tokens (except for block braces) are controlled by B<-vtc=n>, or
B<--vertical-tightness-closing=n>, where

 -vtc=0 always break a line before a closing token (default), 
 -vtc=1 do not break before a closing token which is followed 
        by a semicolon or another closing token, and is not in 
        a list environment.
 -vtc=2 never break before a closing token.

The rules for B<-vtc=1> are designed to maintain a reasonable balance
between tightness and readability in complex lists.

=item *

Different controls may be applied to different token types,
and it is also possible to control block braces; see below.

=item *

Finally, please note that these vertical tightness flags are merely
hints to the formatter, and it cannot always follow them.  Things which
make it difficult or impossible include comments, blank lines, blocks of
code within a list, and possibly the lack of the B<-lp> parameter.
Also, these flags may be ignored for very small lists (2 or 3 lines in


Here are some examples: 

    # perltidy -lp -vt=0 -vtc=0
    %romanNumerals = (
                       one   => 'I',
                       two   => 'II',
                       three => 'III',
                       four  => 'IV',

    # perltidy -lp -vt=1 -vtc=0
    %romanNumerals = ( one   => 'I',
                       two   => 'II',
                       three => 'III',
                       four  => 'IV',

    # perltidy -lp -vt=1 -vtc=1
    %romanNumerals = ( one   => 'I',
                       two   => 'II',
                       three => 'III',
                       four  => 'IV', );

The difference between B<-vt=1> and B<-vt=2> is shown here:

    # perltidy -lp -vt=1 
                mysprintf( "(void)find_threadsv(%s);",
                           cstring( $threadsv_names[ $op->targ ] )

    # perltidy -lp -vt=2 
    $init->add( mysprintf( "(void)find_threadsv(%s);",
                           cstring( $threadsv_names[ $op->targ ] )

With B<-vt=1>, the line ending in C<add(> does not combine with the next
line because the next line is not balanced.  This can help with
readability, but B<-vt=2> can be used to ignore this rule.

The tightest, and least readable, code is produced with both C<-vt=2> and

    # perltidy -lp -vt=2 -vtc=2
    $init->add( mysprintf( "(void)find_threadsv(%s);",
                           cstring( $threadsv_names[ $op->targ ] ) ) );

Notice how the code in all of these examples collapses vertically as
B<-vt> increases, but the indentation remains unchanged.  This is
because perltidy implements the B<-vt> parameter by first formatting as
if B<-vt=0>, and then simply overwriting one output line on top of the
next, if possible, to achieve the desired vertical tightness.  The
B<-lp> indentation style has been designed to allow this vertical
collapse to occur, which is why it is required for the B<-vt> parameter.

The B<-vt=n> and B<-vtc=n> parameters apply to each type of container
token.  If desired, vertical tightness controls can be applied
independently to each of the closing container token types.

The parameters for controlling parentheses are B<-pvt=n> or
B<--paren-vertical-tightness=n>, and B<-pcvt=n> or

Likewise, the parameters for square brackets are B<-sbvt=n> or
B<--square-bracket-vertical-tightness=n>, and B<-sbcvt=n> or

Finally, the parameters for controlling non-code block braces are
B<-bvt=n> or B<--brace-vertical-tightness=n>, and B<-bcvt=n> or

In fact, the parameter B<-vt=n> is actually just an abbreviation for
B<-pvt=n -bvt=n sbvt=n>, and likewise B<-vtc=n> is an abbreviation
for B<-pvtc=n -bvtc=n sbvtc=n>.

=item B<-bbvt=n> or B<--block-brace-vertical-tightness=n>

The B<-bbvt=n> flag is just like the B<-vt=n> flag but applies
to opening code block braces.

 -bbvt=0 break after opening block brace (default). 
 -bbvt=1 do not break unless this would produce more than one 
         step in indentation in a line.
 -bbvt=2 do not break after opening block brace.

It is necessary to also use either B<-bl> or B<-bli> for this to work,
because, as with other vertical tightness controls, it is implemented by
simply overwriting a line ending with an opening block brace with the
subsequent line.  For example:

    # perltidy -bli -bbvt=0
    if ( open( FILE, "< $File" ) )
        while ( $File = <FILE> )
            $In .= $File;

    # perltidy -bli -bbvt=1
    if ( open( FILE, "< $File" ) )
      { while ( $File = <FILE> )
          { $In .= $File;

By default this applies to blocks associated with keywords B<if>,
B<elsif>, B<else>, B<unless>, B<for>, B<foreach>, B<sub>, B<while>,
B<until>, and also with a preceding label.  This can be changed with
the parameter B<-bbvtl=string>, or
B<--block-brace-vertical-tightness-list=string>, where B<string> is a
space-separated list of block types.  For more information on the
possible values of this string, see L<Specifying Block Types>

For example, if we want to just apply this style to C<if>,
C<elsif>, and C<else> blocks, we could use 
C<perltidy -bli -bbvt=1 -bbvtl='if elsif else'>.

There is no vertical tightness control for closing block braces; with
one exception they will be placed on separate lines.
The exception is that a cascade of closing block braces may
be stacked on a single line.  See B<-scbb>.

=item B<-sot>,  B<--stack-opening-tokens> and related flags

The B<-sot> flag tells perltidy to "stack" opening tokens
when possible to avoid lines with isolated opening tokens.

For example:

    # default
    $opt_c = Text::CSV_XS->new(
            binary       => 1,
            sep_char     => $opt_c,
            always_quote => 1,

    # -sot
    $opt_c = Text::CSV_XS->new( {
            binary       => 1,
            sep_char     => $opt_c,
            always_quote => 1,

For detailed control of individual closing tokens the following
controls can be used:

  -sop  or --stack-opening-paren
  -sohb or --stack-opening-hash-brace
  -sosb or --stack-opening-square-bracket
  -sobb or --stack-opening-block-brace

The flag B<-sot> is an abbreviation for B<-sop -sohb -sosb>.

The flag B<-sobb> is an abbreviation for B<-bbvt=2 -bbvtl='*'>.  This
will case a cascade of opening block braces to appear on a single line,
although this an uncommon occurrence except in test scripts. 

=item B<-sct>,  B<--stack-closing-tokens> and related flags

The B<-sct> flag tells perltidy to "stack" closing tokens
when possible to avoid lines with isolated closing tokens.

For example:

    # default
    $opt_c = Text::CSV_XS->new(
            binary       => 1,
            sep_char     => $opt_c,
            always_quote => 1,

    # -sct
    $opt_c = Text::CSV_XS->new(
            binary       => 1,
            sep_char     => $opt_c,
            always_quote => 1,
        } );

The B<-sct> flag is somewhat similar to the B<-vtc> flags, and in some
cases it can give a similar result.  The difference is that the B<-vtc>
flags try to avoid lines with leading opening tokens by "hiding" them at
the end of a previous line, whereas the B<-sct> flag merely tries to
reduce the number of lines with isolated closing tokens by stacking them
but does not try to hide them.  For example:

    # -vtc=2
    $opt_c = Text::CSV_XS->new(
            binary       => 1,
            sep_char     => $opt_c,
            always_quote => 1, } );

For detailed control of the stacking of individual closing tokens the
following controls can be used:

  -scp  or --stack-closing-paren
  -schb or --stack-closing-hash-brace
  -scsb or --stack-closing-square-bracket
  -scbb or --stack-closing-block-brace

The flag B<-sct> is an abbreviation for stacking the non-block closing
tokens, B<-scp -schb -scsb>. 

Stacking of closing block braces, B<-scbb>, causes a cascade of isolated
closing block braces to be combined into a single line as in the following

    # -scbb:
    for $w1 (@w1) {
        for $w2 (@w2) {
            for $w3 (@w3) {
                for $w4 (@w4) {
                    push( @lines, "$w1 $w2 $w3 $w4\n" );
                } } } }

To simplify input even further for the case in which both opening and closing
non-block containers are stacked, the flag B<-sac> or B<--stack-all-containers>
is an abbreviation for B<-sot -sot>.

=item B<-dnl>,  B<--delete-old-newlines>

By default, perltidy first deletes all old line break locations, and then it
looks for good break points to match the desired line length.  Use B<-ndnl>
or  B<--nodelete-old-newlines> to force perltidy to retain all old line break

=item B<-anl>,  B<--add-newlines>

By default, perltidy will add line breaks when necessary to create
continuations of long lines and to improve the script appearance.  Use
B<-nanl> or B<--noadd-newlines> to prevent any new line breaks.  

This flag does not prevent perltidy from eliminating existing line
breaks; see B<--freeze-newlines> to completely prevent changes to line
break points.

=item Controlling whether perltidy breaks before or after operators

Four command line parameters provide some control over whether
a line break should be before or after specific token types.
Two parameters give detailed control:

B<-wba=s> or B<--want-break-after=s>, and

B<-wbb=s> or B<--want-break-before=s>.

These parameters are each followed by a quoted string, B<s>, containing
a list of token types (separated only by spaces).  No more than one of each
of these parameters should be specified, because repeating a
command-line parameter always overwrites the previous one before
perltidy ever sees it.

By default, perltidy breaks B<after> these token types:
  % + - * / x != == >= <= =~ !~ < >  | & 
  = **= += *= &= <<= &&= -= /= |= >>= ||= //= .= %= ^= x=

And perltidy breaks B<before> these token types by default:
  . << >> -> && || //

To illustrate, to cause a break after a concatenation operator, C<'.'>,
rather than before it, the command line would be


As another example, the following command would cause a break before 
math operators C<'+'>, C<'-'>, C<'/'>, and C<'*'>:

  -wbb="+ - / *"

These commands should work well for most of the token types that perltidy uses
(use B<--dump-token-types> for a list).  Also try the B<-D> flag on a short
snippet of code and look at the .DEBUG file to see the tokenization.  However,
for a few token types there may be conflicts with hardwired logic which cause
unexpected results.  One example is curly braces, which should be controlled
with the parameter B<bl> provided for that purpose.

B<WARNING> Be sure to put these tokens in quotes to avoid having them
misinterpreted by your command shell.

Two additional parameters are available which, though they provide no further
capability, can simplify input are:

B<-baao> or B<--break-after-all-operators>,

B<-bbao> or B<--break-before-all-operators>.

The -baao sets the default to be to break after all of the following operators:

    % + - * / x != == >= <= =~ !~ < > | & 
    = **= += *= &= <<= &&= -= /= |= >>= ||= //= .= %= ^= x=
    . : ? && || and or err xor

and the B<-bbao> flag sets the default to break before all of these operators.
These can be used to define an initial break preference which can be fine-tuned
with the B<-wba> and B<-wbb> flags.  For example, to break before all operators
except an B<=> one could use --bbao -wba='=' rather than listing every
single perl operator except B<=> on a -wbb flag.


=head2 Controlling List Formatting

Perltidy attempts to format lists of comma-separated values in tables which
look good.  Its default algorithms usually work well, but sometimes they don't.
In this case, there are several methods available to control list formatting.

A very simple way to prevent perltidy from changing the line breaks
within a comma-separated list of values is to insert a blank line,
comment, or side-comment anywhere between the opening and closing
parens (or braces or brackets).   This causes perltidy to skip
over its list formatting logic.  (The reason is that any of
these items put a constraint on line breaks, and perltidy
needs complete control over line breaks within a container to
adjust a list layout).  For example, let us consider

    my @list = (1,
                1, 1,
                1, 2, 1,
                1, 3, 3, 1,
                1, 4, 6, 4, 1,);

The default formatting, which allows a maximum line length of 80,
will flatten this down to one line:

    # perltidy (default)
    my @list = ( 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1, 3, 3, 1, 1, 4, 6, 4, 1, );

This formatting loses important information.  If we place a side comment on one
of the lines, for example, we get the following result with with default formatting 

    my @list = (
        1,    # a side comment, comment, or blank keeps list intact
        1, 1,
        1, 2, 1,
        1, 3, 3, 1,
        1, 4, 6, 4, 1,

We could achieve the same result with a blank line or full comment
anywhere between the opening and closing parens.

For another possibility see
the -fs flag in L<Skipping Selected Sections of Code>.

=over 4

=item B<-boc>,  B<--break-at-old-comma-breakpoints>

The B<-boc> flag is another way to prevent comma-separated lists from being
reformatted.  Using B<-boc> on the above example, plus additional flags to retain 
the original style, yields

    # perltidy -boc -lp -pt=2 -vt=1 -vtc=1
    my @list = (1,
                1, 1,
                1, 2, 1,
                1, 3, 3, 1,
                1, 4, 6, 4, 1,);

A disadvantage of this flag is that all tables in the file
must already be nicely formatted.  

=item B<-mft=n>,  B<--maximum-fields-per-table=n>

If the computed number of fields for any table exceeds B<n>, then it
will be reduced to B<n>.  The default value for B<n> is a large number,
40.  While this value should probably be left unchanged as a general
rule, it might be used on a small section of code to force a list to
have a particular number of fields per line, and then either the B<-boc>
flag could be used to retain this formatting, or a single comment could
be introduced somewhere to freeze the formatting in future applications
of perltidy.

    # perltidy -mft=2
    @month_of_year = (    
        'Jan', 'Feb',
        'Mar', 'Apr',
        'May', 'Jun',
        'Jul', 'Aug',
        'Sep', 'Oct',
        'Nov', 'Dec'

=item B<-cab=n>,  B<--comma-arrow-breakpoints=n>

A comma which follows a comma arrow, '=>', is given special
consideration.  In a long list, it is common to break at all such
commas.  This parameter can be used to control how perltidy breaks at
these commas.  (However, it will have no effect if old comma breaks are
being forced because B<-boc> is used).  The possible values of B<n> are:

 n=0 break at all commas after =>  
 n=1 stable: break at all commas after => if container is open,
     EXCEPT FOR one-line containers
 n=2 break at all commas after =>, BUT try to form the maximum
     maximum one-line container lengths
 n=3 do not treat commas after => specially at all 
 n=4 break everything: like n=0 but ALSO break a short container with
     a => not followed by a comma when -vt=0 is used
 n=5 stable: like n=1 but ALSO break at open one-line containers when
     -vt=0 is used (default)

For example, given the following single line, perltidy by default will
not add any line breaks because it would break the existing one-line

    bless { B => $B, Root => $Root } => $package;

Using B<-cab=0> will force a break after each comma-arrow item:

    # perltidy -cab=0:
    bless {
        B    => $B,
        Root => $Root
    } => $package;

If perltidy is subsequently run with this container broken, then by
default it will break after each '=>' because the container is now
broken.  To reform a one-line container, the parameter B<-cab=2> could
be used.

The flag B<-cab=3> can be used to prevent these commas from being
treated specially.  In this case, an item such as "01" => 31 is
treated as a single item in a table.  The number of fields in this table
will be determined by the same rules that are used for any other table.
Here is an example.
    # perltidy -cab=3
    my %last_day = (
        "01" => 31, "02" => 29, "03" => 31, "04" => 30,
        "05" => 31, "06" => 30, "07" => 31, "08" => 31,
        "09" => 30, "10" => 31, "11" => 30, "12" => 31


=head2 Retaining or Ignoring Existing Line Breaks

Several additional parameters are available for controlling the extent
to which line breaks in the input script influence the output script.
In most cases, the default parameter values are set so that, if a choice
is possible, the output style follows the input style.  For example, if
a short logical container is broken in the input script, then the
default behavior is for it to remain broken in the output script.

Most of the parameters in this section would only be required for a
one-time conversion of a script from short container lengths to longer
container lengths.  The opposite effect, of converting long container
lengths to shorter lengths, can be obtained by temporarily using a short
maximum line length.

=over 4

=item B<-bol>,  B<--break-at-old-logical-breakpoints>

By default, if a logical expression is broken at a C<&&>, C<||>, C<and>,
or C<or>, then the container will remain broken.  Also, breaks
at internal keywords C<if> and C<unless> will normally be retained.
To prevent this, and thus form longer lines, use B<-nbol>.

=item B<-bom>,  B<--break-at-old-method-breakpoints>

By default, a method call arrow C<-E<gt>> is considered a candidate for
a breakpoint, but method chains will fill to the line width before a break is
considered.  With B<-bom>, breaks before the arrow are preserved, so if you
have preformatted a method chain:

  my $q = $rs
      'track.id' => {-ident => 'none_search.id'},

It will B<keep> these breaks, rather than become this:

  my $q = $rs->related_resultset('CDs')->related_resultset('Tracks')->search({
      'track.id' => {-ident => 'none_search.id'},

This flag will also look for and keep a 'cuddled' style of calls, 
in which lines begin with a closing paren followed by a call arrow, 
as in this example:

  my $q = $rs->related_resultset(
  )->search( {
      'track.id' => { -ident => 'none_search.id' },
  } )->as_query;

You may want to include the B<-weld-nested-containers> flag in this case to keep 
nested braces and parens together, as in the last line.

=item B<-bos>,  B<--break-at-old-semicolon-breakpoints>

Semicolons are normally placed at the end of a statement.  This means that formatted lines do not normally begin with semicolons.  If the input stream has some lines which begin with semicolons, these can be retained by setting this flag.  For example, consider
the following two-line input snippet:

  $z = sqrt($x**2 + $y**2)

The default formatting will be:

  $z = sqrt( $x**2 + $y**2 );

The result using B<perltidy -bos> keeps the isolated semicolon:

  $z = sqrt( $x**2 + $y**2 )

The default is not to do this, B<-nbos>. 

=item B<-bok>,  B<--break-at-old-keyword-breakpoints>

By default, perltidy will retain a breakpoint before keywords which may
return lists, such as C<sort> and <map>.  This allows chains of these
operators to be displayed one per line.  Use B<-nbok> to prevent
retaining these breakpoints.

=item B<-bot>,  B<--break-at-old-ternary-breakpoints>

By default, if a conditional (ternary) operator is broken at a C<:>,
then it will remain broken.  To prevent this, and thereby
form longer lines, use B<-nbot>.

=item B<-boa>,  B<--break-at-old-attribute-breakpoints>

By default, if an attribute list is broken at a C<:> in the source file, then
it will remain broken.  For example, given the following code, the line breaks
at the ':'s will be retained:
                    my @field
                      : field
                      : Default(1)
                      : Get('Name' => 'foo') : Set('Name');

If the attributes are on a single line in the source code then they will remain
on a single line if possible.

To prevent this, and thereby always form longer lines, use B<-nboa>.  

=item B<-iob>,  B<--ignore-old-breakpoints>

Use this flag to tell perltidy to ignore existing line breaks to the
maximum extent possible.  This will tend to produce the longest possible
containers, regardless of type, which do not exceed the line length

=item B<-kis>,  B<--keep-interior-semicolons>

Use the B<-kis> flag to prevent breaking at a semicolon if
there was no break there in the input file.  Normally
perltidy places a newline after each semicolon which
terminates a statement unless several statements are
contained within a one-line brace block.  To illustrate,
consider the following input lines:

    dbmclose(%verb_delim); undef %verb_delim;
    dbmclose(%expanded); undef %expanded;

The default is to break after each statement, giving

    undef %verb_delim;
    undef %expanded;

With B<perltidy -kis> the multiple statements are retained:

    dbmclose(%verb_delim); undef %verb_delim;
    dbmclose(%expanded);   undef %expanded;

The statements are still subject to the specified value
of B<maximum-line-length> and will be broken if this 
maximum is exceeded.


=head2 Blank Line Control

Blank lines can improve the readability of a script if they are carefully
placed.  Perltidy has several commands for controlling the insertion,
retention, and removal of blank lines.  

=over 4

=item B<-fbl>,  B<--freeze-blank-lines>

Set B<-fbl> if you want to the blank lines in your script to
remain exactly as they are.  The rest of the parameters in
this section may then be ignored.  (Note: setting the B<-fbl> flag
is equivalent to setting B<-mbl=0> and B<-kbl=2>).

=item B<-bbc>,  B<--blanks-before-comments>

A blank line will be introduced before a full-line comment.  This is the
default.  Use B<-nbbc> or  B<--noblanks-before-comments> to prevent
such blank lines from being introduced.

=item B<-blbs=n>,  B<--blank-lines-before-subs=n>

The parameter B<-blbs=n> requests that least B<n> blank lines precede a sub
definition which does not follow a comment and which is more than one-line
long.  The default is <-blbs=1>.  B<BEGIN> and B<END> blocks are included.

The requested number of blanks statement will be inserted regardless of the
value of B<--maximum-consecutive-blank-lines=n> (B<-mbl=n>) with the exception
that if B<-mbl=0> then no blanks will be output.

This parameter interacts with the value B<k> of the parameter B<--maximum-consecutive-blank-lines=k> (B<-mbl=k>) as follows:

1. If B<-mbl=0> then no blanks will be output.  This allows all blanks to be suppressed with a single parameter.  Otherwise,

2. If the number of old blank lines in the script is less than B<n> then
additional blanks will be inserted to make the total B<n> regardless of the
value of B<-mbl=k>.  

3. If the number of old blank lines in the script equals or exceeds B<n> then
this parameter has no effect, however the total will not exceed
value specified on the B<-mbl=k> flag.

=item B<-blbp=n>,  B<--blank-lines-before-packages=n>

The parameter B<-blbp=n> requests that least B<n> blank lines precede a package
which does not follow a comment.  The default is B<-blbp=1>.  

This parameter interacts with the value B<k> of the parameter
B<--maximum-consecutive-blank-lines=k> (B<-mbl=k>) in the same way as described
for the previous item B<-blbs=n>.

=item B<-bbs>,  B<--blanks-before-subs>

For compatibility with previous versions, B<-bbs> or B<--blanks-before-subs>
is equivalent to F<-blbp=1> and F<-blbs=1>.  

Likewise, B<-nbbs> or B<--noblanks-before-subs> 
is equivalent to F<-blbp=0> and F<-blbs=0>.  

=item B<-bbb>,  B<--blanks-before-blocks>

A blank line will be introduced before blocks of coding delimited by
B<for>, B<foreach>, B<while>, B<until>, and B<if>, B<unless>, in the following

=over 4

=item *

The block is not preceded by a comment.

=item *

The block is not a one-line block.

=item *

The number of consecutive non-blank lines at the current indentation depth is at least B<-lbl>
(see next section).


This is the default.  The intention of this option is to introduce
some space within dense coding.
This is negated with B<-nbbb> or  B<--noblanks-before-blocks>.

=item B<-lbl=n> B<--long-block-line-count=n>

This controls how often perltidy is allowed to add blank lines before 
certain block types (see previous section).  The default is 8.  Entering
a value of B<0> is equivalent to entering a very large number.

=item B<-blao=i> or B<--blank-lines-after-opening-block=i>

This control places a minimum of B<i> blank lines B<after> a line which B<ends>
with an opening block brace of a specified type.  By default, this only applies
to the block of a named B<sub>, but this can be changed (see B<-blaol> below).
The default is not to do this (B<i=0>).

Please see the note below on using the B<-blao> and B<-blbc> options.

=item B<-blbc=i> or B<--blank-lines-before-closing-block=i>

This control places a minimum of B<i> blank lines B<before> a line which
B<begins> with a closing block brace of a specified type.  By default, this
only applies to the block of a named B<sub>, but this can be changed (see
B<-blbcl> below).  The default is not to do this (B<i=0>).

=item B<-blaol=s> or B<--blank-lines-after-opening-block-list=s>

The parameter B<s> is a list of block type keywords to which the flag B<-blao>
should apply.  The section L<"Specifying Block Types"> explains how to list
block types.

=item B<-blbcl=s> or B<--blank-lines-before-closing-block-list=s>

This parameter is a list of block type keywords to which the flag B<-blbc>
should apply.  The section L<"Specifying Block Types"> explains how to list
block types.

=item Note on using the B<-blao> and B<-blbc> options.

These blank line controls introduce a certain minimum number of blank lines in
the text, but the final number of blank lines may be greater, depending on
values of the other blank line controls and the number of old blank lines.  A
consequence is that introducing blank lines with these and other controls
cannot be exactly undone, so some experimentation with these controls is
recommended before using them.

For example, suppose that for some reason we decide to introduce one blank
space at the beginning and ending of all blocks.  We could do
this using

  perltidy -blao=2 -blbc=2 -blaol='*' -blbcl='*' filename

Now suppose the script continues to be developed, but at some later date we
decide we don't want these spaces after all. we might expect that running with
the flags B<-blao=0> and B<-blbc=0> will undo them.  However, by default
perltidy retains single blank lines, so the blank lines remain.  

We can easily fix this by telling perltidy to ignore old blank lines by
including the added parameter B<-kbl=0> and rerunning. Then the unwanted blank
lines will be gone.  However, this will cause all old blank lines to be
ignored, perhaps even some that were added by hand to improve formatting. So
please be cautious when using these parameters.

=item B<-mbl=n> B<--maximum-consecutive-blank-lines=n>   

This parameter specifies the maximum number of consecutive blank lines which
will be output within code sections of a script.  The default is n=1.  If the
input file has more than n consecutive blank lines, the number will be reduced
to n except as noted above for the B<-blbp> and B<-blbs> parameters.  If B<n=0>
then no blank lines will be output (unless all old blank lines are retained
with the B<-kbl=2> flag of the next section).

This flag obviously does not apply to pod sections,
here-documents, and quotes.  

=item B<-kbl=n>,  B<--keep-old-blank-lines=n>

The B<-kbl=n> flag gives you control over how your existing blank lines are

The possible values of B<n> are:

 n=0 ignore all old blank lines
 n=1 stable: keep old blanks, but limited by the value of the B<-mbl=n> flag
 n=2 keep all old blank lines, regardless of the value of the B<-mbl=n> flag

The default is B<n=1>.  

=item B<-sob>,  B<--swallow-optional-blank-lines>

This is equivalent to B<kbl=0> and is included for compatibility with
previous versions.

=item B<-nsob>,  B<--noswallow-optional-blank-lines>

This is equivalent to B<kbl=1> and is included for compatibility with
previous versions.


B<Controls for blank lines around lines of consecutive keywords>

The parameters in this section provide some control over the placement of blank
lines within and around groups of statements beginning with selected keywords.
These blank lines are called here B<keyword group blanks>, and all of the
parameters begin with B<--keyword-group-blanks*>, or B<-kgb*> for short.  The
default settings do not employ these controls but they can be enabled with the
following parameters:

B<-kgbl=s> or B<--keyword-group-blanks-list=s>; B<s> is a quoted string of keywords

B<-kgbs=s> or B<--keyword-group-blanks-size=s>; B<s> gives the number of keywords required to form a group.  

B<-kgbb=n> or B<--keyword-group-blanks-before=n>; B<n> = (0, 1, or 2) controls a leading blank

B<-kgba=n> or B<--keyword-group-blanks-after=n>; B<n> = (0, 1, or 2) controls a trailing blank

B<-kgbi> or B<--keyword-group-blanks-inside> is a switch for adding blanks between subgroups

B<-kgbd> or B<--keyword-group-blanks-delete> is a switch for removing initial blank lines between keywords

B<-kgbr=n> or B<--keyword-group-blanks-repeat-count=n> can limit the number of times this logic is applied

In addition, the following abbreviations are available to for simplified usage:

B<-kgb> or B<--keyword-group-blanks> is short for B<-kgbb=2 -kgba=2 kgbi>

B<-nkgb> or B<--nokeyword-group-blanks>, is short for B<-kgbb=1 -kgba=1 nkgbi>

Before describing the meaning of the parameters in detail let us look at an
example which is formatted with default parameter settings.

        print "Entering test 2\n";
        use Test;
        use Encode qw(from_to encode decode
          encode_utf8 decode_utf8
          find_encoding is_utf8);
        use charnames qw(greek);
        my @encodings     = grep( /iso-?8859/, Encode::encodings() );
        my @character_set = ( '0' .. '9', 'A' .. 'Z', 'a' .. 'z' );
        my @source        = qw(ascii iso8859-1 cp1250);
        my @destiny       = qw(cp1047 cp37 posix-bc);
        my @ebcdic_sets   = qw(cp1047 cp37 posix-bc);
        my $str           = join( '', map( chr($_), 0x20 .. 0x7E ) );
        return unless ($str);

using B<perltidy -kgb> gives:

        print "Entering test 2\n";
                                      <----------this blank controlled by -kgbb
        use Test;
        use Encode qw(from_to encode decode
          encode_utf8 decode_utf8
          find_encoding is_utf8);
        use charnames qw(greek);
                                      <---------this blank controlled by -kgbi
        my @encodings     = grep( /iso-?8859/, Encode::encodings() );
        my @character_set = ( '0' .. '9', 'A' .. 'Z', 'a' .. 'z' );
        my @source        = qw(ascii iso8859-1 cp1250);
        my @destiny       = qw(cp1047 cp37 posix-bc);
        my @ebcdic_sets   = qw(cp1047 cp37 posix-bc);
        my $str           = join( '', map( chr($_), 0x20 .. 0x7E ) );
                                      <----------this blank controlled by -kgba
        return unless ($str);

Blank lines have been introduced around the B<my> and B<use> sequences.  What
happened is that the default keyword list includes B<my> and B<use> but not
B<print> and B<return>.  So a continuous sequence of nine B<my> and B<use>
statements was located.  This number exceeds the default threshold of five, so
blanks were placed before and after the entire group.  Then, since there was
also a subsequence of six B<my> lines, a blank line was introduced to separate

Finer control over blank placement can be achieved by using the individual
parameters rather than the B<-kgb> flag.  The individual controls are as follows.

B<-kgbl=s> or B<--keyword-group-blanks-list=s>, where B<s> is a quoted string,
defines the set of keywords which will be formed into groups.  The string is a
space separated list of keywords.  The default set is B<s="use require local
our my">, but any list of keywords may be used. Comment lines may also be included in a keyword group, even though they are not keywords.  To include ordinary block comments, include the symbol B<BC>. To include static block comments (which normally begin with '##'), include the symbol B<SBC>.

B<-kgbs=s> or B<--keyword-group-blanks-size=s>, where B<s> is a string
describing the number of consecutive keyword statements forming a group.  If
B<s> is an integer then it is the minimum number required for a group.  A
maximum value may also be given with the format B<s=min.max>, where B<min> is
the minimum number and B<max> is the maximum number, and the min and max values
are separated by one or more dots.  No groups will be found if the maximum is
less than the minimum.  The maximum is unlimited if not given.  The default is
B<s=5>.  Some examples:

    s      min   max         number for group
    3      3     unlimited   3 or more
    1.1    1     1           1
    1..3   1     3           1 to 3
    1.0    1     0           (no match)

B<-kgbb=n> or B<--keyword-group-blanks-before=n> specifies whether
a blank should appear before the first line of the group, as follows:

   n=0 => (delete) an existing blank line will be removed
   n=1 => (stable) no change to the input file is made  [DEFAULT]
   n=2 => (insert) a blank line is introduced if possible

B<-kgba=n> or B<--keyword-group-blanks-after=n> likewise specifies
whether a blank should appear after the last line of the group, using the same
scheme (0=delete, 1=stable, 2=insert).

B<-kgbi> or B<--keyword-group-blanks-inside> controls
the insertion of blank lines between the first and last statement of the entire
group.  If there is a continuous run of a single statement type with more than
the minimum threshold number (as specified with B<-kgbs=s>) then this
switch causes a blank line be inserted between this
subgroup and the others. In the example above this happened between the
B<use> and B<my> statements.

B<-kgbd> or B<--keyword-group-blanks-delete> controls the deletion of any
blank lines that exist in the the group when it is first scanned.  When
statements are initially scanned, any existing blank lines are included in the
collection.  Any such orignial blank lines will be deleted before any other
insertions are made when the parameter B<-kgbd> is set.  The default is not to
do this, B<-nkgbd>.  

B<-kgbr=n> or B<--keyword-group-blanks-repeat-count=n> specifies B<n>, the
maximum number of times this logic will be applied to any file.  The special
value B<n=0> is the same as n=infinity which means it will be applied to an
entire script [Default].  A value B<n=1> could be used to make it apply just
one time for example.  This might be useful for adjusting just the B<use>
statements in the top part of a module for example.

B<-kgb> or B<--keyword-group-blanks> is an abbreviation equivalent to setting
B<-kgbb=1 -kgba=1 -kgbi>.  This turns on keyword group formatting with a set of
default values.  

B<-nkgb> or B<--nokeyword-group-blanks> is equivalent to B<-kgbb=0 -kgba
nkgbi>.  This flag turns off keyword group blank lines and is the default

Here are a few notes about the functioning of this technique.  

=over 4

=item *

These parameters are probably more useful as part of a major code reformatting
operation rather than as a routine formatting operation.

In particular, note that deleting old blank lines with B<-kgbd> is an
irreversible operation so it should be applied with care.  Existing blank lines
may be serving an important role in controlling vertical alignment.

=item *

Conflicts which arise among these B<kgb*> parameters and other blank line
controls are generally resolved by producing the maximum number of blank lines
implied by any parameter.

For example, if the flags B<--freeze-blank-lines>, or
B<--keep-old-blank-lines=2>, are set, then they have priority over any blank
line deletion implied by the B<-kgb> flags of this section, so no blank lines
will be deleted.

For another example, if a keyword group ends at a B<sub> and the flag B<kgba=0> requests no blank line there, but we also have B<--blank-lines-before-subs=2>, then two blank lines will still be introduced before the sub.

=item *

The introduction of blank lines does not occur if it would conflict with other
input controls or code validity. For example, a blank line will not be placed
within a here-doc or within a section of code marked with format skipping
comments.  And in general, a blank line will only be introduced at the end of a
group if the next statement is a line of code. 

=item *

The count which is used to determine the group size is not the number of lines
but rather the total number of keywords which are found.  Individual statements
with a certain leading keyword may continue on multiple lines, but if any of
these lines is nested more than one level deep then that group will be ended.

=item *

The search for groups of lines with similar leading keywords is based on the
input source, not the final formatted source.  Consequently, if the source code
is badly formatted, it would be best to make a first formatting pass without
these options.


=head2 Styles

A style refers to a convenient collection of existing parameters.

=over 4

=item B<-gnu>, B<--gnu-style>

B<-gnu> gives an approximation to the GNU Coding Standards (which do
not apply to perl) as they are sometimes implemented.  At present, this
style overrides the default style with the following parameters:

    -lp -bl -noll -pt=2 -bt=2 -sbt=2 -icp

=item B<-pbp>, B<--perl-best-practices>

B<-pbp> is an abbreviation for the parameters in the book B<Perl Best Practices>
by Damian Conway:

    -l=78 -i=4 -ci=4 -st -se -vt=2 -cti=0 -pt=1 -bt=1 -sbt=1 -bbt=1 -nsfs -nolq
    -wbb="% + - * / x != == >= <= =~ !~ < > | & = 
          **= += *= &= <<= &&= -= /= |= >>= ||= //= .= %= ^= x="

Please note that this parameter set includes -st and -se flags, which make
perltidy act as a filter on one file only.  These can be overridden by placing
B<-nst> and/or B<-nse> after the -pbp parameter. 

Also note that the value of continuation indentation, -ci=4, is equal to the
value of the full indentation, -i=4.  In some complex statements perltidy will
produce nicer results with -ci=2. This can be implemented by including -ci=2
after the -pbp parameter.  For example, 

    # perltidy -pbp
    $self->{_text} = (
         !$section        ? ''
        : $type eq 'item' ? "the $section entry"
        :                   "the section on $section"
        . (
        ? ( $section ? ' in ' : '' ) . "the $page$page_ext manpage"
        : ' elsewhere in this document'

    # perltidy -pbp -ci=2
    $self->{_text} = (
         !$section        ? ''
        : $type eq 'item' ? "the $section entry"
        :                   "the section on $section"
      . (
        ? ( $section ? ' in ' : '' ) . "the $page$page_ext manpage"
        : ' elsewhere in this document'

=item  One-line blocks 

There are a few points to note regarding one-line blocks.  A one-line
block is something like this,

	if ($x > 0) { $y = 1 / $x }  

where the contents within the curly braces is short enough to fit
on a single line.

With few exceptions, perltidy retains existing one-line blocks, if it
is possible within the line-length constraint, but it does not attempt
to form new ones.  In other words, perltidy will try to follow the
one-line block style of the input file.

If an existing one-line block is longer than the maximum line length,
however, it will be broken into multiple lines.  When this happens, perltidy
checks for and adds any optional terminating semicolon (unless the B<-nasc>
option is used) if the block is a code block.  

The main exception is that perltidy will attempt to form new one-line
blocks following the keywords C<map>, C<eval>, and C<sort>, because
these code blocks are often small and most clearly displayed in a single

One-line block rules can conflict with the cuddled-else option.  When
the cuddled-else option is used, perltidy retains existing one-line
blocks, even if they do not obey cuddled-else formatting.

Occasionally, when one-line blocks get broken because they exceed the
available line length, the formatting will violate the requested brace style.
If this happens, reformatting the script a second time should correct
the problem.

Sometimes it might be desirable to convert a script to have one-line blocks
whenever possible.  Although there is currently no flag for this, a simple
workaround is to execute perltidy twice, once with the flag B<-noadd-newlines>
and then once again with normal parameters, like this:  

     cat infile | perltidy -nanl | perltidy >outfile

When executed on this snippet

    if ( $? == -1 ) {
        die "failed to execute: $!\n";
    if ( $? == -1 ) {
        print "Had enough.\n";
        die "failed to execute: $!\n";

the result is

    if ( $? == -1 ) { die "failed to execute: $!\n"; }
    if ( $? == -1 ) {
        print "Had enough.\n";
        die "failed to execute: $!\n";

This shows that blocks with a single statement become one-line blocks.

=item B<-olbs=n>, B<--one-line-block-semicolons=n>

This flag controls the placement of semicolons at the end of one-line blocks.
Semicolons are optional before a closing block brace, and frequently they are
omitted at the end of a one-line block containing just a single statement.
By default, perltidy follows the input file regarding these semicolons, 
but this behavior can be controlled by this flag.  The values of n are:

  n=0 remove terminal semicolons in one-line blocks having a single statement
  n=1 stable; keep input file placement of terminal semicolons [DEFAULT ]
  n=2 add terminal semicolons in all one-line blocks

Note that the B<n=2> option has no effect if adding semicolons is prohibited
with the B<-nasc> flag.  Also not that while B<n=2> adds missing semicolons to
all one-line blocks, regardless of complexity, the B<n=0> option only removes
ending semicolons which terminate one-line blocks containing just one
semicolon.  So these two options are not exact inverses.

=item B<-olbn=n>, B<--one-line-block-nesting=n>

Nested one-line blocks are lines with code blocks which themselves contain code
blocks.  For example, the following line is a nested one-line block.

         foreach (@list) { if ($_ eq $asked_for) { last } ++$found }

The default behavior is to break such lines into multiple lines, but this
behavior can be controlled with this flag.  The values of n are:

  n=0 break nested one-line blocks into multiple lines [DEFAULT]
  n=1 stable: keep existing nested-one line blocks intact

For the above example, the default formatting (B<-olbn=0>) is

    foreach (@list) {
        if ( $_ eq $asked_for ) { last }

If the parameter B<-olbn=1> is given, then the line will be left intact if it
is a single line in the source, or it will be broken into multiple lines if it 
is broken in multiple lines in the source.


=head2 Controlling Vertical Alignment

Vertical alignment refers to lining up certain symbols in a list of consecutive
similar lines to improve readability.  For example, the "fat commas" are
aligned in the following statement:

        $data = $pkg->new(
            PeerAddr => join( ".", @port[ 0 .. 3 ] ),   
            PeerPort => $port[4] * 256 + $port[5],
            Proto    => 'tcp'

The only explicit control on vertical alignment is to turn it off using
B<-novalign>, a flag mainly intended for debugging.  However, vertical
alignment can be forced to stop and restart by selectively introducing blank
lines.  For example, a blank has been inserted in the following code
to keep somewhat similar things aligned.

    %option_range = (
        'format'             => [ 'tidy', 'html', 'user' ],
        'output-line-ending' => [ 'dos',  'win',  'mac', 'unix' ],
        'character-encoding' => [ 'none', 'utf8' ],

        'block-brace-tightness'    => [ 0, 2 ],
        'brace-tightness'          => [ 0, 2 ],
        'paren-tightness'          => [ 0, 2 ],
        'square-bracket-tightness' => [ 0, 2 ],

=head2 Other Controls

=over 4

=item Deleting selected text 

Perltidy can selectively delete comments and/or pod documentation.  The
command B<-dac> or  B<--delete-all-comments> will delete all comments
B<and> all pod documentation, leaving just code and any leading system
control lines.

The command B<-dp> or B<--delete-pod> will remove all pod documentation
(but not comments).

Two commands which remove comments (but not pod) are: B<-dbc> or
B<--delete-block-comments> and B<-dsc> or  B<--delete-side-comments>.
(Hanging side comments will be deleted with side comments here.)

The negatives of these commands also work, and are the defaults.  When
block comments are deleted, any leading 'hash-bang' will be retained.
Also, if the B<-x> flag is used, any system commands before a leading
hash-bang will be retained (even if they are in the form of comments).

=item Writing selected text to a file

When perltidy writes a formatted text file, it has the ability to also
send selected text to a file with a F<.TEE> extension.  This text can
include comments and pod documentation.  

The command B<-tac> or  B<--tee-all-comments> will write all comments
B<and> all pod documentation.

The command B<-tp> or B<--tee-pod> will write all pod documentation (but
not comments).

The commands which write comments (but not pod) are: B<-tbc> or
B<--tee-block-comments> and B<-tsc> or  B<--tee-side-comments>.
(Hanging side comments will be written with side comments here.)

The negatives of these commands also work, and are the defaults.  

=item Using a F<.perltidyrc> command file

If you use perltidy frequently, you probably won't be happy until you
create a F<.perltidyrc> file to avoid typing commonly-used parameters.
Perltidy will first look in your current directory for a command file
named F<.perltidyrc>.  If it does not find one, it will continue looking
for one in other standard locations.  

These other locations are system-dependent, and may be displayed with
the command C<perltidy -dpro>.  Under Unix systems, it will first look
for an environment variable B<PERLTIDY>.  Then it will look for a
F<.perltidyrc> file in the home directory, and then for a system-wide
file F</usr/local/etc/perltidyrc>, and then it will look for
F</etc/perltidyrc>.  Note that these last two system-wide files do not
have a leading dot.  Further system-dependent information will be found
in the INSTALL file distributed with perltidy.

Under Windows, perltidy will also search for a configuration file named perltidy.ini since Windows does not allow files with a leading period (.).
Use C<perltidy -dpro> to see the possible locations for your system.
An example might be F<C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\perltidy.ini>.

Another option is the use of the PERLTIDY environment variable.
The method for setting environment variables depends upon the version of
Windows that you are using.  Instructions for Windows 95 and later versions can
be found here:


Under Windows NT / 2000 / XP the PERLTIDY environment variable can be placed in
either the user section or the system section.  The later makes the
configuration file common to all users on the machine.  Be sure to enter the
full path of the configuration file in the value of the environment variable.
Ex.  PERLTIDY=C:\Documents and Settings\perltidy.ini

The configuration file is free format, and simply a list of parameters, just as
they would be entered on a command line.  Any number of lines may be used, with
any number of parameters per line, although it may be easiest to read with one
parameter per line.  Comment text begins with a #, and there must
also be a space before the # for side comments.  It is a good idea to
put complex parameters in either single or double quotes.

Here is an example of a F<.perltidyrc> file:

  # This is a simple of a .perltidyrc configuration file
  # This implements a highly spaced style
  -se    # errors to standard error output
  -w     # show all warnings
  -bl	 # braces on new lines
  -pt=0  # parens not tight at all
  -bt=0  # braces not tight
  -sbt=0 # square brackets not tight

The parameters in the F<.perltidyrc> file are installed first, so any
parameters given on the command line will have priority over them.  

To avoid confusion, perltidy ignores any command in the .perltidyrc
file which would cause some kind of dump and an exit.  These are:

 -h -v -ddf -dln -dop -dsn -dtt -dwls -dwrs -ss

There are several options may be helpful in debugging a F<.perltidyrc>

=over 4

=item *

A very helpful command is B<--dump-profile> or B<-dpro>.  It writes a
list of all configuration filenames tested to standard output, and 
if a file is found, it dumps the content to standard output before
exiting.  So, to find out where perltidy looks for its configuration
files, and which one if any it selects, just enter 

  perltidy -dpro

=item *

It may be simplest to develop and test configuration files with
alternative names, and invoke them with B<-pro=filename> on the command
line.  Then rename the desired file to F<.perltidyrc> when finished.

=item *

The parameters in the F<.perltidyrc> file can be switched off with 
the B<-npro> option.

=item *

The commands B<--dump-options>, B<--dump-defaults>, B<--dump-long-names>,
and B<--dump-short-names>, all described below, may all be helpful.


=item Creating a new abbreviation

A special notation is available for use in a F<.perltidyrc> file
for creating an abbreviation for a group
of options.  This can be used to create a
shorthand for one or more styles which are frequently, but not always,
used.  The notation is to group the options within curly braces which
are preceded by the name of the alias (without leading dashes), like this:

	newword {

where B<newword> is the abbreviation, and B<opt1>, etc, are existing parameters
I<or other abbreviations>.  The main syntax requirement is that the new
abbreviation along with its opening curly brace must begin on a new line.
Space before and after the curly braces is optional.
For a
specific example, the following line

	airy {-bl -pt=0 -bt=0 -sbt=0}

could be placed in a F<.perltidyrc> file, and then invoked at will with

	perltidy -airy somefile.pl

(Either C<-airy> or C<--airy> may be used).

=item Skipping leading non-perl commands with B<-x> or B<--look-for-hash-bang>

If your script has leading lines of system commands or other text which
are not valid perl code, and which are separated from the start of the
perl code by a "hash-bang" line, ( a line of the form C<#!...perl> ),
you must use the B<-x> flag to tell perltidy not to parse and format any
lines before the "hash-bang" line.  This option also invokes perl with a
-x flag when checking the syntax.  This option was originally added to
allow perltidy to parse interactive VMS scripts, but it should be used
for any script which is normally invoked with C<perl -x>.

=item  Making a file unreadable

The goal of perltidy is to improve the readability of files, but there
are two commands which have the opposite effect, B<--mangle> and
B<--extrude>.  They are actually
merely aliases for combinations of other parameters.  Both of these
strip all possible whitespace, but leave comments and pod documents,
so that they are essentially reversible.  The
difference between these is that B<--mangle> puts the fewest possible
line breaks in a script while B<--extrude> puts the maximum possible.
Note that these options do not provided any meaningful obfuscation, because
perltidy can be used to reformat the files.  They were originally
developed to help test the tokenization logic of perltidy, but they
have other uses.
One use for B<--mangle> is the following:

  perltidy --mangle myfile.pl -st | perltidy -o myfile.pl.new

This will form the maximum possible number of one-line blocks (see next
section), and can sometimes help clean up a badly formatted script.

A similar technique can be used with B<--extrude> instead of B<--mangle>
to make the minimum number of one-line blocks.

Another use for B<--mangle> is to combine it with B<-dac> to reduce
the file size of a perl script.

=item  Debugging 

The following flags are available for debugging:

B<--dump-cuddled-block-list> or B<-dcbl> will dump to standard output the
internal hash of cuddled block types created by a B<-cuddled-block-list> input

B<--dump-defaults> or B<-ddf> will write the default option set to standard output and quit

B<--dump-profile> or B<-dpro>  will write the name of the current 
configuration file and its contents to standard output and quit.

B<--dump-options> or B<-dop>  will write current option set to standard
output and quit.  

B<--dump-long-names> or B<-dln>  will write all command line long names (passed 
to Get_options) to standard output and quit.

B<--dump-short-names>  or B<-dsn> will write all command line short names 
to standard output and quit.

B<--dump-token-types> or B<-dtt>  will write a list of all token types 
to standard output and quit.

B<--dump-want-left-space> or B<-dwls>  will write the hash %want_left_space
to standard output and quit.  See the section on controlling whitespace
around tokens.

B<--dump-want-right-space> or B<-dwrs>  will write the hash %want_right_space
to standard output and quit.  See the section on controlling whitespace
around tokens.

B<--no-memoize> or B<-nmem>  will turn of memoizing.
Memoization can reduce run time when running perltidy repeatedly in a 
single process.  It is on by default but can be deactivated for
testing with B<-nmem>.

B<--no-timestamp> or B<-nts> will eliminate any time stamps in output files to prevent
differences in dates from causing test installation scripts to fail. There are just
a couple of places where timestamps normally occur. One is in the headers of
html files, and another is when the B<-cscw> option is selected. The default is
to allow timestamps (B<--timestamp> or B<-ts>).

B<--file-size-order> or B<-fso> will cause files to be processed in order of
increasing size, when multiple files are being processed.  This is useful
during program development, when large numbers of files with varying sizes are
processed, because it can reduce virtual memory usage. 

B<-DEBUG>  will write a file with extension F<.DEBUG> for each input file 
showing the tokenization of all lines of code.

=item Working with MakeMaker, AutoLoader and SelfLoader

The first $VERSION line of a file which might be eval'd by MakeMaker
is passed through unchanged except for indentation.  
Use B<--nopass-version-line>, or B<-npvl>, to deactivate this feature.

If the AutoLoader module is used, perltidy will continue formatting
code after seeing an __END__ line.
Use B<--nolook-for-autoloader>, or B<-nlal>, to deactivate this feature.

Likewise, if the SelfLoader module is used, perltidy will continue formatting
code after seeing a __DATA__ line.
Use B<--nolook-for-selfloader>, or B<-nlsl>, to deactivate this feature.

=item Working around problems with older version of Perl 

Perltidy contains a number of rules which help avoid known subtleties
and problems with older versions of perl, and these rules always
take priority over whatever formatting flags have been set.  For example,
perltidy will usually avoid starting a new line with a bareword, because
this might cause problems if C<use strict> is active.

There is no way to override these rules.



=over 4

=item  The B<-html> master switch

The flag B<-html> causes perltidy to write an html file with extension
F<.html>.  So, for example, the following command

	perltidy -html somefile.pl

will produce a syntax-colored html file named F<somefile.pl.html>
which may be viewed with a browser.

B<Please Note>: In this case, perltidy does not do any formatting to the
input file, and it does not write a formatted file with extension
F<.tdy>.  This means that two perltidy runs are required to create a
fully reformatted, html copy of a script.  

=item  The B<-pre> flag for code snippets

When the B<-pre> flag is given, only the pre-formatted section, within
the <PRE> and </PRE> tags, will be output.  This simplifies inclusion
of the output in other files.  The default is to output a complete
web page.

=item  The B<-nnn> flag for line numbering

When the B<-nnn> flag is given, the output lines will be numbered.

=item  The B<-toc>, or B<--html-table-of-contents> flag

By default, a table of contents to packages and subroutines will be
written at the start of html output.  Use B<-ntoc> to prevent this.
This might be useful, for example, for a pod document which contains a
number of unrelated code snippets.  This flag only influences the code
table of contents; it has no effect on any table of contents produced by
pod2html (see next item).

=item  The B<-pod>, or B<--pod2html> flag

There are two options for formatting pod documentation.  The default is
to pass the pod through the Pod::Html module (which forms the basis of
the pod2html utility).  Any code sections are formatted by perltidy, and
the results then merged.  Note: perltidy creates a temporary file when
Pod::Html is used; see L<"FILES">.  Also, Pod::Html creates temporary
files for its cache.

NOTE: Perltidy counts the number of C<=cut> lines, and either moves the
pod text to the top of the html file if there is one C<=cut>, or leaves
the pod text in its original order (interleaved with code) otherwise.

Most of the flags accepted by pod2html may be included in the perltidy
command line, and they will be passed to pod2html.  In some cases,
the flags have a prefix C<pod> to emphasize that they are for the
pod2html, and this prefix will be removed before they are passed to
pod2html.  The flags which have the additional C<pod> prefix are:

   --[no]podheader --[no]podindex --[no]podrecurse --[no]podquiet 
   --[no]podverbose --podflush

The flags which are unchanged from their use in pod2html are:

   --backlink=s --cachedir=s --htmlroot=s --libpods=s --title=s
   --podpath=s --podroot=s 

where 's' is an appropriate character string.  Not all of these flags are
available in older versions of Pod::Html.  See your Pod::Html documentation for
more information.

The alternative, indicated with B<-npod>, is not to use Pod::Html, but
rather to format pod text in italics (or whatever the stylesheet
indicates), without special html markup.  This is useful, for example,
if pod is being used as an alternative way to write comments.

=item  The B<-frm>, or B<--frames> flag

By default, a single html output file is produced.  This can be changed
with the B<-frm> option, which creates a frame holding a table of
contents in the left panel and the source code in the right side. This
simplifies code browsing.  Assume, for example, that the input file is
F<MyModule.pm>.  Then, for default file extension choices, these three
files will be created:

 MyModule.pm.html      - the frame
 MyModule.pm.toc.html  - the table of contents
 MyModule.pm.src.html  - the formatted source code

Obviously this file naming scheme requires that output be directed to a real
file (as opposed to, say, standard output).  If this is not the
case, or if the file extension is unknown, the B<-frm> option will be

=item  The B<-text=s>, or B<--html-toc-extension> flag

Use this flag to specify the extra file extension of the table of contents file
when html frames are used.  The default is "toc".
See L<Specifying File Extensions>.

=item  The B<-sext=s>, or B<--html-src-extension> flag

Use this flag to specify the extra file extension of the content file when html
frames are used.  The default is "src".
See L<Specifying File Extensions>.

=item  The B<-hent>, or B<--html-entities> flag

This flag controls the use of Html::Entities for html formatting.  By
default, the module Html::Entities is used to encode special symbols.
This may not be the right thing for some browser/language
combinations.  Use --nohtml-entities or -nhent to prevent this.

=item  Style Sheets

Style sheets make it very convenient to control and adjust the
appearance of html pages.  The default behavior is to write a page of
html with an embedded style sheet.

An alternative to an embedded style sheet is to create a page with a
link to an external style sheet.  This is indicated with the
B<-css=filename>,  where the external style sheet is F<filename>.  The
external style sheet F<filename> will be created if and only if it does
not exist.  This option is useful for controlling multiple pages from a
single style sheet.

To cause perltidy to write a style sheet to standard output and exit,
use the B<-ss>, or B<--stylesheet>, flag.  This is useful if the style
sheet could not be written for some reason, such as if the B<-pre> flag
was used.  Thus, for example,
  perltidy -html -ss >mystyle.css

will write a style sheet with the default properties to file

The use of style sheets is encouraged, but a web page without a style
sheets can be created with the flag B<-nss>.  Use this option if you
must to be sure that older browsers (roughly speaking, versions prior to
4.0 of Netscape Navigator and Internet Explorer) can display the
syntax-coloring of the html files.

=item  Controlling HTML properties

Note: It is usually more convenient to accept the default properties
and then edit the stylesheet which is produced.  However, this section
shows how to control the properties with flags to perltidy.

Syntax colors may be changed from their default values by flags of the either
the long form, B<-html-color-xxxxxx=n>, or more conveniently the short form,
B<-hcx=n>, where B<xxxxxx> is one of the following words, and B<x> is the
corresponding abbreviation:

      Token Type             xxxxxx           x 
      ----------             --------         --
      comment                comment          c
      number                 numeric          n
      identifier             identifier       i
      bareword, function     bareword         w
      keyword                keyword          k
      quite, pattern         quote            q
      here doc text          here-doc-text    h
      here doc target        here-doc-target  hh
      punctuation            punctuation      pu
      parentheses            paren            p
      structural braces      structure        s
      semicolon              semicolon        sc
      colon                  colon            co
      comma                  comma            cm
      label                  label            j
      sub definition name    subroutine       m
      pod text               pod-text         pd

A default set of colors has been defined, but they may be changed by providing
values to any of the following parameters, where B<n> is either a 6 digit 
hex RGB color value or an ascii name for a color, such as 'red'.

To illustrate, the following command will produce an html 
file F<somefile.pl.html> with "aqua" keywords:

	perltidy -html -hck=00ffff somefile.pl

and this should be equivalent for most browsers:

	perltidy -html -hck=aqua somefile.pl

Perltidy merely writes any non-hex names that it sees in the html file.
The following 16 color names are defined in the HTML 3.2 standard:

	black   => 000000,
	silver  => c0c0c0,
	gray    => 808080,
	white   => ffffff,
	maroon  => 800000,
	red     => ff0000,
	purple  => 800080,
	fuchsia => ff00ff,
	green   => 008000,
	lime    => 00ff00,
	olive   => 808000,
	yellow  => ffff00
	navy    => 000080,
	blue    => 0000ff,
	teal    => 008080,
	aqua    => 00ffff,

Many more names are supported in specific browsers, but it is safest
to use the hex codes for other colors.  Helpful color tables can be
located with an internet search for "HTML color tables". 

Besides color, two other character attributes may be set: bold, and italics.
To set a token type to use bold, use the flag
B<--html-bold-xxxxxx> or B<-hbx>, where B<xxxxxx> or B<x> are the long
or short names from the above table.  Conversely, to set a token type to 
NOT use bold, use B<--nohtml-bold-xxxxxx> or B<-nhbx>.

Likewise, to set a token type to use an italic font, use the flag
B<--html-italic-xxxxxx> or B<-hix>, where again B<xxxxxx> or B<x> are the
long or short names from the above table.  And to set a token type to
NOT use italics, use B<--nohtml-italic-xxxxxx> or B<-nhix>.

For example, to use bold braces and lime color, non-bold, italics keywords the
following command would be used:

	perltidy -html -hbs -hck=00FF00 -nhbk -hik somefile.pl

The background color can be specified with B<--html-color-background=n>,
or B<-hcbg=n> for short, where n is a 6 character hex RGB value.  The
default color of text is the value given to B<punctuation>, which is
black as a default.

Here are some notes and hints:

1. If you find a preferred set of these parameters, you may want
to create a F<.perltidyrc> file containing them.  See the perltidy man
page for an explanation.

2. Rather than specifying values for these parameters, it is probably
easier to accept the defaults and then edit a style sheet.  The style
sheet contains comments which should make this easy.

3. The syntax-colored html files can be very large, so it may be best to
split large files into smaller pieces to improve download times.



=head2 Specifying Block Types

Several parameters which refer to code block types may be customized by also
specifying an associated list of block types.  The type of a block is the name
of the keyword which introduces that block, such as B<if>, B<else>, or B<sub>.
An exception is a labeled block, which has no keyword, and should be specified
with just a colon.  To specify all blocks use B<'*'>.

The keyword B<sub> indicates a named sub.  For anonymous subs, use the special
keyword B<asub>.

For example, the following parameter specifies C<sub>, labels, C<BEGIN>, and
C<END> blocks:

   -cscl="sub : BEGIN END"

(the meaning of the -cscl parameter is described above.)  Note that
quotes are required around the list of block types because of the
spaces.  For another example, the following list specifies all block types
for vertical tightness:


=head2 Specifying File Extensions

Several parameters allow default file extensions to be overridden.  For
example, a backup file extension may be specified with B<-bext=ext>,
where B<ext> is some new extension.  In order to provides the user some
flexibility, the following convention is used in all cases to decide if
a leading '.' should be used.  If the extension C<ext> begins with
C<A-Z>, C<a-z>, or C<0-9>, then it will be appended to the filename with
an intermediate '.' (or perhaps a '_' on VMS systems).  Otherwise, it
will be appended directly.  

For example, suppose the file is F<somefile.pl>.  For C<-bext=old>, a '.' is
added to give F<somefile.pl.old>.  For C<-bext=.old>, no additional '.' is
added, so again the backup file is F<somefile.pl.old>.  For C<-bext=~>, then no
dot is added, and the backup file will be F<somefile.pl~>  .  


The following list shows all short parameter names which allow a prefix
'n' to produce the negated form:

 D    anl asc  aws  b    bbb bbc bbs  bl   bli  boc bok  bol  bot  ce
 csc  dac dbc  dcsc ddf  dln dnl dop  dp   dpro dsc dsm  dsn  dtt  dwls
 dwrs dws f    fll  frm  fs  hsc html ibc  icb  icp iob  isbc lal  log
 lp   lsl ohbr okw  ola  oll opr opt  osbr otr  ple  pod  pvl  q
 sbc  sbl schb scp  scsb sct se  sfp  sfs  skp  sob sohb sop  sosb sot
 ssc  st  sts  syn  t    tac tbc toc  tp   tqw  tsc w    x    bar  kis

Equivalently, the prefix 'no' or 'no-' on the corresponding long names may be


=over 4

=item  Parsing Limitations

Perltidy should work properly on most perl scripts.  It does a lot of
self-checking, but still, it is possible that an error could be
introduced and go undetected.  Therefore, it is essential to make
careful backups and to test reformatted scripts.

The main current limitation is that perltidy does not scan modules
included with 'use' statements.  This makes it necessary to guess the
context of any bare words introduced by such modules.  Perltidy has good
guessing algorithms, but they are not infallible.  When it must guess,
it leaves a message in the log file.

If you encounter a bug, please report it.

=item  What perltidy does not parse and format

Perltidy indents but does not reformat comments and C<qw> quotes. 
Perltidy does not in any way modify the contents of here documents or
quoted text, even if they contain source code.  (You could, however,
reformat them separately).  Perltidy does not format 'format' sections
in any way.  And, of course, it does not modify pod documents.


=head1 FILES

=over 4

=item Temporary files

Under the -html option with the default --pod2html flag, a temporary file is
required to pass text to Pod::Html.  Unix systems will try to use the POSIX
tmpnam() function.  Otherwise the file F<perltidy.TMP> will be temporarily
created in the current working directory.

=item Special files when standard input is used

When standard input is used, the log file, if saved, is F<perltidy.LOG>,
and any errors are written to F<perltidy.ERR> unless the B<-se> flag is
set.  These are saved in the current working directory.  

=item Files overwritten

The following file extensions are used by perltidy, and files with these
extensions may be overwritten or deleted: F<.ERR>, F<.LOG>, F<.TEE>,
and/or F<.tdy>, F<.html>, and F<.bak>, depending on the run type and

=item  Files extensions limitations

Perltidy does not operate on files for which the run could produce a file with
a duplicated file extension.  These extensions include F<.LOG>, F<.ERR>,
F<.TEE>, and perhaps F<.tdy> and F<.bak>, depending on the run type.  The
purpose of this rule is to prevent generating confusing filenames such as



An exit value of 0, 1, or 2 is returned by perltidy to indicate the status of the result.

A exit value of 0 indicates that perltidy ran to completion with no error messages.

A non-zero exit value indicates some kind of problem was detected. 

An exit value of 1 indicates that perltidy terminated prematurely, usually due
to some kind of errors in the input parameters.  This can happen for example if
a parameter is misspelled or given an invalid value.  Error messages in the
standard error output will indicate the cause of any problem.  If perltidy
terminates prematurely then no output files will be produced.

An exit value of 2 indicates that perltidy was able to run to completion but
there there are (1) warning messages in the standard error output related to
parameter errors or problems and/or (2) warning messages in the perltidy error
file(s) relating to possible syntax errors in one or more of the source
script(s) being tidied.  When multiple files are being processed, an error
detected in any single file will produce this type of exit condition.

=head1 SEE ALSO

perlstyle(1), Perl::Tidy(3)


The perltidy binary uses the Perl::Tidy module and is installed when that module is installed.  The module name is case-sensitive.  For example, the basic command for installing with cpanm is 'cpanm Perl::Tidy'.

=head1 VERSION

This man page documents perltidy version 20200907


A list of current bugs and issues can be found at the CPAN site L<https://rt.cpan.org/Public/Dist/Display.html?Name=Perl-Tidy>

To report a new bug or problem, use the link on this page.  

The source code repository is at L<https://github.com/perltidy/perltidy>.


Copyright (c) 2000-2020 by Steve Hancock

=head1 LICENSE

This package is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
under the terms of the "GNU General Public License".

Please refer to the file "COPYING" for details.


This package is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of

See the "GNU General Public License" for more details.