=encoding utf8

=head1 NAME

Geo::Proj4 - PROJ.4 cartographic projections library

=head1 INHERITANCE

 Geo::Proj4
   is a DynaLoader

=head1 SYNOPSIS

  use Geo::Proj4;

  my $proj = Geo::Proj4->new(proj => "merc",
     ellps => "clrk66", lon_0 => -96)
       or die "parameter error: ".Geo::Proj4->error. "\n";

  my $proj = Geo::Proj4->new("+proj=merc +ellps=clrk66 +lon_0=-96")
       or die "parameter error: ".Geo::Proj4->error. "\n";

  my $proj = Geo::Proj4->new(init => "epsg:28992");

  my ($x, $y) = $proj->forward($lat, $lon);

  if($proj->hasInverse)
  {   my ($lat, $lon) = $proj->inverse($x, $y);
      ...
  }

  my $proj = Geo::Proj4->new(init => "epsg:26985") or die;
  my ($lat, $lon) = $proj->inverse(401717.80, 130013.88);

  my $point = [ 123.12, -5.4 ];
  my $projected_point = $from->transform($to, $point);
  my $projected_multi = $from->transform($to, \@points);

=head1 DESCRIPTION

The Open Source PROJ.4 library converts between geographic coordinate
systems.  It is able to convert between geodetic latitude and longitude
(LL, most commonly the WGS84 projection), into an enormous variety of
other cartographic projections (XY, usually UTM).

WARNING: It is not always clear what the source projection is when
L<forward()|Geo::Proj4/"Converters"> or L<inverse()|Geo::Proj4/"Converters"> are used, i.e. in what projection system the
source data is expected to be in.  Therefore, you can better be specific
on both source and destination projection and use L<transform()|Geo::Proj4/"Converters">.

=head1 METHODS

=head2 Instantiation

=over 4

=item Geo::Proj4-E<gt>B<new>($string|%options)

The object defines the target projection, but that's easier said than
done: projections have different parameter needs.  The parameters which
can (or need to) be used are listed with C<cs2cs -lP>.  The manual
page of C<cs2cs> explains how the configuration works.

Two ways are provided to define the projection.  Either, use a list
of %options, which are pairs of parameters, or pass one string which
contains all parameters at once.  You must supply a C<proj> parameter.

In case of an OPTION list: WARNING: Specify boolean parameters (e.g. the
south parameter to the UTM projection) with a matching value of undef.

example: 

 my $proj = Geo::Proj4->new(proj => "merc",
    ellps => "clrk66", lon_0 => -96 )
       or die Geo::Proj4->error;

 my $proj = Geo::Proj4->new("+proj=merc +ellps=clrk66 +lon_0=096")
    or die Geo::Proj4->error;

 my $proj = Geo::Proj4->new(init => "epsg:$epsg");

=back

=head2 Accessors

=over 4

=item $obj-E<gt>B<datum>()

Tries to return a datum name for this projection.

=item $obj-E<gt>B<dump>()

Write the definition in extended form to stdout.  This output cannot be
caught, because it is done on stdio level, below the reach of PerlIO.

=item Geo::Proj4-E<gt>B<error>()

Returns a dualvar (see Scalar::Util) containing the
error number and error string of the last reported error.

example: 

 my $proj = Geo::Proj4->new(...);
 unless(defined $proj)
 {   my $error = Geo::Proj4->error;
     warn "error-code: ".$error+0;
     warn "error-string: $error\n";
 }

=item $obj-E<gt>B<hasInverse>()

Returns whether the reverse function for the projection exists.  Some
projections are one-way.

=item $obj-E<gt>B<isGeocentric>()

Returns true when the source projection is using a geocentric coordinate
system; i.e. uses x-y coordinates.

=item $obj-E<gt>B<isGeodesic>()

Returns true when the source projection is using a geodetic coordinate
system; i.e. uses lat long coordinates.  Same as L<isLatlong()|Geo::Proj4/"Accessors">

=item $obj-E<gt>B<isLatlong>()

Returns true when the source projection is using a geodetic coordinate
system; i.e. uses lat long coordinates.  Same as L<isGeodesic()|Geo::Proj4/"Accessors">.

=item $obj-E<gt>B<normalized>()

Returns a string which is produced by the library based on the data
extracted from the initiation parameters.  This string may be more
explicit than the passed values, and could be used for debugging.

=item $obj-E<gt>B<projection>()

Returns the projection type.

=back

=head2 Converters

=over 4

=item $obj-E<gt>B<forward>($latitude, $longitude)

Perform a forward projection from $latitude and $longitude (LL) to the
cartographic projection (XY) represented by the Geo::Proj4 instance.

WARNING: for historic reasons, latitude and longitude are assumed to be in 
(floating point) degrees, although the library expects rads.  See
L<forwardRad()|Geo::Proj4/"Converters">. A latitude south of the Equator and longitude west of
the Prime Meridian given with negative values.

Returned are two values, usually X and Y in meters, or whatever units are
relevant to the given projection.  When the destination projection also
than the order of parameters will be returned as LONG,LAT (not lat,long!)

On error, C<forward> will return undef for both values.

example: 

 my ($x, $y) = $proj->forward($lat, $lon);
 my ($long2, $lat2) = $proj->forward($lat, $lon);

=item $obj-E<gt>B<forwardRad>($latitude, $longitude)

Perform a forward projection from $latitude and $longitude (LL) to the
cartographic projection (XY) represented by the Geo::Proj4 instance.
This function reflects to library function C<forward()>, expecting
radians, not degrees.

=item $obj-E<gt>B<inverse>(($x,$y) | ($lat,$long))

Perform an inverse projection from the (cartographic) projection represented
by this Geo::Proj4 object, back into latitude and longitude values.

WARNING: for historic reasons, latitude and longitude are assumed to be in 
(floating point) degrees, although the library expects rads.  See
L<inverseRad()|Geo::Proj4/"Converters">.

On error, C<inverse> will return undef for both values.

example: 

  if($proj->hasInverse)
  {  my ($lat, $lon) = $proj->inverse($x, $y);
     ...
  }

=item $obj-E<gt>B<inverseRad>(($x,$y) | ($lat|$long))

Perform an inverse projection from the (cartographic) projection
represented by this Geo::Proj4 object, back into latitude and longitude
values.  Latitude and longitude are assumed to be in radians. See
L<inverse()|Geo::Proj4/"Converters">.

=item $obj-E<gt>B<transform>($to, $point|ARRAY-of-$points)

Translate the $points into the projecten of $to.  Each point is specified
as two or three values in an ARRAY.  In case of latlong source or
destination projections, coordinates are translated into radians and/or
back.  Both input and output values are always in X-Y/LongLat order.
See L<transformRad()|Geo::Proj4/"Converters">

example: 

 my $from  = Geo::Proj4->new("+proj=latlong +datum=NAD83");
 my $to    = Geo::Proj4->new("+proj=utm +zone=10 +datum=WGS84");

 my $point = [ 1.12, 3.25 ];  # See Geo::Point
 my $pr_point = $from->transform($to, $point);

 my $pr    = $from->transform($to, [ $point1, $point2 ]);
 my $pr_point1 = $pr->[0];
 my $pr_point2 = $pr->[1];

=item $obj-E<gt>B<transformRad>($to, $point|ARRAY-of-$points)

Translate the $points into the projecten of $to.  Each point is specified
as two or three values in an ARRAY.  In case of latlong source or
destination projections, coordinates are expected to be in radians.
Both input and output values are always in X-Y/LongLat order.
See L<transform()|Geo::Proj4/"Converters">

=back

=head2 Library introspection

=over 4

=item Geo::Proj4-E<gt>B<datumInfo>($label)

Returns a hash with information about the specified datum.  With
L<listDatums()|Geo::Proj4/"Library introspection">, all defined LABELS can be found.

=item Geo::Proj4-E<gt>B<ellipsoidInfo>($label)

Returns a hash with information about the specified ellipsis.  With
L<listEllipsoids()|Geo::Proj4/"Library introspection">, all defined LABELS can be found.

=item $obj-E<gt>B<libVersion>()

=item Geo::Proj4-E<gt>B<libVersion>()

Returns the version of the proj4 library

=item Geo::Proj4-E<gt>B<listDatums>()

Returns a list with all defined datum labels.

example: 

 foreach my $id (Geo::Proj4->listDatums)
 {   my $def = Geo::Proj4->datum($id);
     print "$id = $def->{ellips_id}\n";
 }

=item Geo::Proj4-E<gt>B<listEllipsoids>()

Returns a list with all defined ellips labels.

example: 

 foreach my $id (Geo::Proj4->listEllipsoids)
 {   my $def = Geo::Proj4->ellipsoid($id);
     print "$id = $def->{name}\n";
 }

=item Geo::Proj4-E<gt>B<listTypes>()

Returns a list with all defined projection types.

example: 

 foreach my $id (Geo::Proj4->listTypes)
 {   my $def = Geo::Proj4->type($id);
     print "$id = $def->{description}\n";
 }

=item Geo::Proj4-E<gt>B<listUnits>()

Returns a list with all defined unit labels.

example: 

 foreach my $id (Geo::Proj4->listUnits)
 {   my $def = Geo::Proj4->unit($id);
     print "$id = $def->{name}\n";
 }

=item Geo::Proj4-E<gt>B<typeInfo>($label)

Returns a hash with information about the specified projection type.  With
L<listTypes()|Geo::Proj4/"Library introspection">, all defined LABELS can be found.

=item Geo::Proj4-E<gt>B<unitInfo>($label)

Returns a hash with information about the specified unit.  With
L<listUnits()|Geo::Proj4/"Library introspection">, all defined LABELS can be found.

=back

=head1 DETAILS

=head2 Install

Geo::Proj4 uses XS to wrap the PROJ.4 cartographic projections library. You
will need to have the PROJ.4 library installed in order to build and use
this module. You can get source code and binaries for the PROJ.4 library
from its home page at L<http://www.remotesensing.org/proj/>.

=head2 Projections

Covering all the possible projections and their arguments in PROJ.4
is well beyond the scope of this document. However, the C<cs2cs(1)>
utility that ships with PROJ.4 will list the projections it knows about
by running B<cs2cs -lp>, the ellipsoid models it knows with the B<-le>
parameter, the units it knows about with B<-lu>, and the geodetic datums
it knows with B<-ld>. Read L<cs2cs(1)> for more details.

Alternately, you can read the PROJ.4 documentation, which can be found
on the project's homepage. There are links to PDFs, text documentation,
a FAQ, and more.

=head2 Bugs

One common source of errors is that latitude and longitude are
swapped: some projection systems use lat-long, other use x-y
which is a swapped order.  Especially the L<forward()|Geo::Proj4/"Converters"> and L<inverse()|Geo::Proj4/"Converters">
cause this problem, always flipping the coordinate order.  The
L<transform()|Geo::Proj4/"Converters"> method is much easier: input and output in x-y/long-lat
order.

Also be warned  that the values must have the right sign. Make sure you
give negative values for south latitude and west longitude.  For
calculating projections, this is more important than on maps.

=head1 DIAGNOSTICS

=over 4

=item Error: transform() expects array of points

=item Error: transformRad() expects array of points

=back

=head1 REFERENCES

See the Geo::Point website at L<http://perl.overmeer.net/geo/> for
an html version of this and related modules;

Effusive thanks to Frank Warmerdam (maintainer of PROJ.4) and Gerald
Evenden (main contributor of PROJ.4). Their PROJ.4 library home page:
L<http://www.remotesensing.org/proj/>

proj(1), cs2cs(1), pj_init(3).

=head1 COPYRIGHTS

Developed and maintained by Mark Overmeer E<lt>markov@cpan.orgE<gt>.
Copyright (c) 2004-2018 by the authors. All rights reserved.

Originally Written by Schuyler Erle E<lt>schuyler@nocat.netE<gt> and
Rich Gibson E<lt>rich@nocat.netE<gt>.  Their site: Mapping Hacks home
page: L<http://www.mappinghacks.com>

=head1 LICENSE

This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the same terms as Perl itself.